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Kiran’s

UPSC UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION

CIVIL SERVICES

MAIN EXAM PRACTICE WORK BOOK FULLY SOLVED PART – I ■ Indian Heritage and History and Geography of the World and Society PART– II ■ Governance, Constitution, Policy, Social Justice and International Relations PART– III ■ Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management PART– IV ■ Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

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NEW EDITION The copyright of this book is entirely with the Kiran Institute of Career Excellence Pvt. Ltd. The reproduction of this book or a part of this will be punishable under the Copyright Act. All disputes subject to Delhi jurisdiction. Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at the time of going to press, and the publishers and authors cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions, however caused. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the editor, the publisher or any of the authors.

©Kiran Institute of Career Excellence Pvt. Ltd. (KICX)

Compiled by : Think Tank of PRATIYOGITA KIRAN & KIRAN PRAKASHAN

Assistance :  Team IAS Kiran & KLA IAS Design & Layout by : KIRAN COMPUTER SECTION, New Delhi.

Kiran Prakashan PVT. LTD. Delhi : RU-67, Opposite Power House, Pitampura, Delhi-110034, Ph. : 011-27342249, 47521267, Fax : 011-27345258 www.kiranprakashan.com

CONTENTS MODEL PRACTICE SETS SET-01 PART – I ■ Indian Heritage and History and Geography of the World and Society .................... 7 PART– II ■ Governance, Constitution, Policy, Social Justice and International Relations ..... 19 PART– III ■ Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.......................................................................................... 32

PART– IV ■ Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude .............................................................................. 48

SET-02 PART – I ■ Indian Heritage and History and Geography of the World and Society .................. 63 PART– II ■ Governance, Constitution, Policy, Social Justice and International Relations ...... 74 PART– III ■ Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.......................................................................................... 89

PART– IV ■ Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude ............................................................................ 105

SET-03 PART – I ■ Indian Heritage and History and Geography of the World and Society ................ 117 PART– II ■ Governance, Constitution, Policy, Social Justice and International Relations .... 130 PART– III ■ Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management........................................................................................ 143

PART– IV ■ Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude ............................................................................ 160

SET-04 PART – I ■ Indian Heritage and History and Geography of the World and Society ................ 169 PART– II ■ Governance, Constitution, Policy, Social Justice and International Relations ...... 183 PART– III ■ Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management........................................................................................ 196

PART– IV ■ Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude ............................................................................ 210

SET-05 PART – I ■ Indian Heritage and History and Geography of the World and Society ............... 221 PART– II ■ Governance, Constitution, Policy, Social Justice and International Relations .... 233 PART– III ■ Technology, Economic Development, Bio Diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management........................................................................................ 250

PART– IV ■ Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude ............................................................................ 264

Code 2334

` 125/-

MODEL PRACTICE SET-01 Model Practice Set-01 : QUESTIONS PAPER-I Q.1. The artifacts such as the dancing girl of Mohenjodaro helps us to analyze and reconstruct our past. Discuss the significance of the dancing girl statue. Q. 2. “The First World War was the first modern industrial war.” Elaborate. Q.3. SardarVallabhbhai Patel did valuable work not only for unifying India, but also for developing the ideas and institutions to sustain integrity. Substantiate your answer. Q. 4. The Ancient period temples are different from the medieval period temples. Discuss with suitable examples. Q.5. Discuss the influence of Buddhism and its concepts on the art of Mauryan Empire with suitable examples. Q. 6. It is said that the primary cause of the Great Depression was World War I. World War I along with Depression eventually led World War II. Analyze the connection between the three events. Q. 7. Critically examine the disintegration of the USSR which transformed the entire world political situation, leading to the complete reformation of political, economical and military alliances all over the globe. Q. 8. Highlight the great experience of Satyagraha and its significance in Champaran movement. How Gandhi’s methods remain relevant, even desirable, in today’s fractured times? Discuss Q.9. Discuss the problem of growing rural indebtedness causes, consequences and measures for removal in the light of British colonization.The position of the Indian peasantry remains almost the same during pre-or post independent India. Q. 10. Explain the distinguished architectural features of Buddhist Viharas, Stupas and Chaityas with their suitable examples. Q. 11. Explain the process of the formation of ‘temperate cyclones’? How do they differ from tropical cyclones. Q. 13. What is transpiration? Discuss the factors which affect the rate of transpiration. Do they have any impact over groundwater availability? Q.14. What is time zone and how is it determined? Does India need another time zone? Explain why. (200 Words) Q.15. What do you understand by monsoon? Discuss the mechanism of monsoon in the Indian subcontinent? Q. 16. What is National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)? Discuss its Importance to Indian agriculture. Q.17. Define secularism and discuss how Indian debate on secularism is different from secularism in the West? Q. 18. What do you understand by ’DNA Profiling’? Critically examine various socio-ethical concerns associated with the newly introduced DNA Profiling draft bill, 2017. Q. 19. Globalisation has touched every corner of life. In this context critically examine the impact of globalisation on women. Q. 20. The Supreme Court has recently provided law enforcement agencies with necessary guidelines regarding legal procedures following up a complaint on the basis of section 498A of IPC. In light of above guideline, discuss the need for providing safeguards to gender-sensitive laws.

PAPER-II Q.1. ”Secularism is the bedrock of Indian democracy. ”Examine this statement in the light of the recent Supreme Court judgement on Section 123 of Representation of People Act, 1951. Q. 2. India to airlift its citizens stuck in blockade-hit Qatar. What is Qatar crisis which has led to this situation and discuss its impact on India? Q.3. Passing of non-money matter in money bill is often seen in news(even the Finance Act 2017). Many political scientist claim it as an instrument to bypass the Rajya Sabha and as a bad precedent for Parliamentary democracy. Comment.

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Q.4. Examine the role of Panchyati Raj Institutions (PRI) in women’s empowerment? Q.5. Elections as free and fair are essential for the functioning of democracy in true spirit and, therefore, electoral reform should be done as per need. Why electoral reforms the needed, especially in India and what has been done ? Q. 6 What is the dispute regarding South China Sea? Explain the relevance of UNCLOS in this context . Examine the implications of the judgement given by PCA on this issue. Also, explain India’s interest in South China Sea. Q. 7. Social sector in India is characterized by deficient of funds. Explain how spending in social sector would help in making India to attain developed nation status. Q. 8. Preamble resembles the minds of the makers of the constitution. What are the various objectives mentioned in Preamble , which are to be achieved ? Also discuss their present status in Indian democracy. Q. 9. Self, Help Group Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women’s empowerment programmes .Elucidate. Q.10. Parliament has passed a Bill decriminalising attempt to suicide, and giving individuals with mental illnesses new rights that include access to health care and insurance. In the light of above, discuss the features of Mental Health Care bill 2016. Q.11. Judiciary is regarded as one of the pillars of Indian democracy. In the light of the above statement, discuss with suitable examples how judiciary through its proactive role, i.e. judicial activism is helping to ensure justice in true spirit to everyone. Q.12. Economic empowerment of women as enshrined in DPSP is much needed objective. In the light of the above statement examine the various provisions of Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act. Q.13. ”Triple Talaq” has been seen in news very often and even the constitutional bench of Supreme Court has reserved the verdict on Triple Talaq. In the light of the above statement make a case on Triple talaq. Q. 14. Sports are national pride and much of progress depends upon sports federations. Discuss why Indian sports federations are lacking global standards. Also, suggest various reforms taken by the Indian government to bring transparency and accountability. Q. 15. For the last two years India has been making continuous effort for NSG membership. Discuss how India will benefit from NSG membership. What are the obstacles in India’s effort for NSG membership? Q.16. Africa has huge potential in terms of development and cooperation and investment by India could become a win-win situation for both. In this regard, explain how Asia-Africa growth corridor(AAGC) could become instrument for development and Asian-African connectivity. Q.17. India has become a member of Shanghai cooperation Organisation (SCO), which has started a new era in regional cooperation between CAR and India. Discuss the various merits and demerits of this membership. Q. 18. Analyse the significance of Indo-Japan civil nuclear deal? Q. 19. What is CPEC project? What are Pakistan’s and China’s interest and India’s perception about this project? Q. 20. As per Transparency International , India has highest bribery rate among 16 Asia Pacific countries. What are the various causes of corruption and suggest remedial measures?

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Model Practice Set-01 PAPER III Q.1. Examine the role and functions of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) Division within the ministry of Home. What is Government’s approach to handle left wing extremism? Q.2. You visit a religious shrine and observe lack of disaster preparedness. One day before in mass media there was a news of stampede in a big temple in the country. In this context suggest disaster management plan for crowd management in religious places. Q.3 Discuss the issue of insurgency in North Eastern region and suggest measures to resolve the problem. Q. 4. While fiscal rules can indeed be useful, the old FRBM Act was flawed and needs to be replaced by something better.In this backdrop discuss how the recommendations of N.K. Singh committee are useful for our new fiscal roadmap? Q. 5. Has demonetization helped in controlling black money ? What are its limitations ? Q. 6. Diversion of forest land to other use was a major problem and it was resulted into the government initiative of “compensatory afforestation” .In this backdrop discuss how the CAMPA bill recently passed by Parliament would help in maintaining the balance.? Q. 7.”What is being done to rejuvenate the Ganga”These line of Supreme Court shows the alarming level of pollution in Ganga.Disucss how the new order of Uttarakhand HC regarding Ganga and Yamuna will help in cleaning the river? Q. 8.Too much dependence on the concept of Smart cities would not solve problems of urbanisation .Crtically examine? Also discuss the concept of “Smart village”? Q. 9. Discuss all major highlights of the new National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) of India. Q. 10. India has been described as hub of software industry owing to huge IT export and manpower. Examine why in recent times industry is seeing slowdown and large layoffs creating problems for employment statistics in India? Q. 11. “Software robotics”, “Robotlwayer” like news shows the increasing use of automation in workplace.Crtically discuss the pros and cons of automation at workplace? Q. 12. Examine the efforts made by the Government to control Black money and money laundering. Q. 13. What factors are responsible for growth of informal sector of economy? Also discuss the government’s efforts to reduce the informalisation of economy? Q. 14.Economic Survey state Universal Basic Income Scheme as an alternative to plethora of state subsidies for poverty alleviation. In this regard make a case for UBI in India? Q. 15. India ranks 130 in World bank’s “Ease of doing Business “ranking .Discuss how implementation of GST would help India to improve its ranking.? Q. 16.Oil splattered Olive Ridely turtles and crabs washed ashore shows the disastrous effects of Chennai oil spills.What was the cause of Chennai oil spill.Discuss the impacts of oil spills and various methods used for cleaning? Q. 17. Why Delhi suffers from more air pollution than any other mega cities in India?Also discuss how “graded action plan” recently notified by government aims to curb pollution? Q.18. How can India enhance the prevention of terrorist attacks in big cities and strategic bases in the light of recent attacks on Indian cities and defence bases? Q. 19. Define the concept of National Security. What are its components? Examine the need of a national security doctrine. Q. 20.What is Kigali Amendment and also mentions India’s commitment towards it? Discuss various challenges involve in freezing of HFCs?

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PAPER-IV Q. 1. (a) Even though women may have equal skills, qualifications and commitment as men, they face much more difficulty in rising up the leadership hierarchy. Discuss the reasons for the same. Also, explain the importance of having gender parity in positions of leadership. Q. 1. (b) All correct decisions are honest and all incorrect decisions are dishonest. Do you agree? How should the correctness and incorrectness of a decision be decided? Q. 2. (a) “If instead of insisting on rights everyone does his duty, there will immediately be the rule of order established among mankind.” - Mahatma Gandhi. Bring out what this statement means to you in the present context. Q. 2. (b) Should circumstances be the sole criterion for judging the morality of human action or the nature of the action and its purpose must also be considered? Justify your stand with examples. 3. (a) Notwithstanding compassion and morality, it is national interest that ultimately determines acountry’s decisions in international relations. Discuss this statement in the context of the current refugee crisis. Q. 3. (b) What are the ethical issues involved in climate change negotiations? Suggest some strategies to address the divergence in ethical positions of different nations. Q. 4. (a) A person cannot do right in civil service whilst attempting to do wrong in personal life. In context of this statement, examine the relationship between personal and professional ethics. Do civil servants have to be ethical in personal life in order to be professionally ethical? Illustrate. Q. 4. (b) What is the importance of whistle-blowing in public and private institutions? What role does individual conscience play in the act of whistle-blowing? (150 words) Q. 5. (a) Should birth control be a voluntary exercise or a government policy in a country? In this regard, examine the ethical dimensions of having a One Child Policy in India. 6. (a) What is social accountability? How can it act as a more effective mechanism than the conventional methods of extracting accountability? What steps can a civil servant take to improve the effectiveness of social accountability in India? 6. (b) “Those who say religion has nothing to do with politics do not know what religion is”. Explain.Further the role of religion in formation of political attitude in the Indian context. 7. (a) ‘Objectivity’ and ‘neutrality’ are among the core civil service values. Discuss with examples. (150 words) Q. 7. (b) The legal framework in modern society has both anomalous and complementary relationship with its ethical framework. Discuss with examples. (150 words) Q. 8. (a) There seems to be a fundamental contradiction between effectiveness and accountability. Comment. Why is accountability a necessary evil for good governance? Discuss. Q. 8. (b) “One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors”. Explain. Suggest some measures that can be taken to increase political participation in our country. Q. 9. In the following questions, carefully study the cases presented and then answer the questions that follow: Q. 10. Case Studies Q.11. Case Studies Q.12 Case Studies Q.13. Case Studies Q.14. Case Studies .

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Model Practice Set-01

S E T

FULLY SOLVED

1 MODEL PRACTICE SET PAPER-I

Indian Heritage Culture and History and Geography of the World and Society

Q.1 : The artifacts such as the dancing girl of Mohenjodaro helps us to analyze and reconstruct our past. Discuss the significance of the dancing girl statue. Structure of the answer: z Describe the statue and briefly write its importance z Significance of the statue from different angles Ans. One of the rarest artifacts the world over, a tiny bronze-cast, the statue of a young lady called ‘Indus dancing girl’, represents a stylistically poised female figure performing a dance. The bronze statue is hardly four inches high yet speaks ample of the superb craftsmanship and of the caster’s skills. Significance : (1) Social Outlook : The forward thrust of the left leg and backwards tilted right, the gesture of the hands, demeanour of the face and uplifted head, all speak of absorption in dance, perhaps one of those early styles that combined drama with dance, and dialogue with body-gestures.It was a well-developed society. Indus people had innovated dance and other performing arts as modes of entertainment. Her elaborately coiled hair, her bangles and necklaces speak of social life of India at that time. (2) Scientific & technical Outlook : But its most interesting aspect is that in casting it the Harappan metallurgists used an advanced technique known as the lost-wax (cireperdue) process.The Indus artists knew metal blending and casting and perhaps other technical aspects of metallurgy. (3) Skill of Art & Handicraft : The figure has been cast as wearing on her breasts a necklace with four ‘phalis’-like shaped pendants. (4) Dress, Hair Styles & Ornaments : Women loved jewellery and wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, and ear-rings. (5) Women’s Status : with hand on hip, and the expression of self-assurance on her face, it represents a respected & confident woman of Harappan society. (6) Non-Shying Society : This small figure confirms that the Harappan people were shy neither of nakedness nor of explicit sensuality. Q. 2. “The First World War was the first modern industrial war.” Elaborate. Structure of the answer: z Introduce by saying how countries started fighting z Industrialization as a conclusion z Lethal technology used

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Ans. World War 1 was the first mass global war of the industrialized age, a demo of the remarkable strength, resilience and massacre power of modern states. It was often called as “The Great War”. The First World War was the result of conditions that developed over time since the advent of Industrial revolution. Industrial revolution created need for natural and human resources which led to the emergence of imperialism and colonialism. The European countries raced to grab these resources in relatively backward areas in Africa and Asia, almost the whole world distributed as colonies among major powers. With this rose conflicts among powers and extreme national chauvinism which culminated in the form of WW-1. Other prime causes of World War 1: z Mutual Defence Alliances z Imperialism z Militarism z Nationalism z Immediate Cause- Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand It was Industrial revolution itself that imparted knowledge regarding new machineries and artilleries. WW-1 used some such weapons for the first time in human history. Britain made and used Tanks, which were used later in almost every war. Germany used submarine U-boats which were of deep impact against the U.S. and the Britain. Machine gun, liquid fire, poison gas were used for the first time in WW-1 the use of aircraft for civilian bombing started with WW-1 and it was this same method that generated worldwide shock waves after the US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in WW-2. Among the harmful technological developments that were used for the first time (or in some cases used for the first time in a major conflict) during the Great War were the machine gun, poisonous gas, flamethrowers, tanks and aircraft. Artillery increased dramatically in size, range and killing power compared to its 19th-century counterparts. In the war at sea, submarines could attack hidden from under the waves, using torpedoes to send the merchant ships to the bottom. It was first such large-scale war that impacted various facets of human life and altered the course of human civilisation. Since it started with rapid industrialization, it can be rightly termed as first modern industrial war.

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Model Practice Set-01 Q.3. SardarVallabhbhai Patel did valuable work not only for unifying India, but also for developing the ideas and institutions to sustain integrity. Substantiate your answer. Structure of the answer: z Works done by him z His belief system – briefly comment Ans : Sardar Patel, a great visionary, stood out for his political strategy, economic vision, bold secular agenda and national integration. His ambition was to make Indian territory as big as possible by uniting distinct provinces and princely states after independence. When the secretary of state, in 1946, conveyed his decision to stop further recruitment to Indian Civil Service, Patel announced the formation of the Indian Administrative service. He convinced the Constituent Assembly in 1949 that the Union of India needed an efficient, disciplined and contended service that is the hallmark of a sound administration. He also emphasized to give constitutional protection to bureaucrats against the legislative interferences. He was supportive of the ideas of the channelization of the unrevealed income of the industrialists even at the cost of keeping their names anonymous, introduction of saving certificate schemes and the policy of decontrol in certain key areas. He wanted the extension of banking services into rural areas to tap resources. He supported the prevention of strike in essential services. He was the chairman of the Fundamental Right subcommittee, he was instrumental in including Right to Religion as one of our Fundamental Rights to protect the religion of all against conversion. Further more, as the Chairman of the Minority sub-committee, he ensured the minorities the right to propogate their religion, preserve their language and run their educational institutions. Sardar Vallabhbhai had little faith in centralized planning as it might result in excessive centralization and bureaucratic socialism. He was instrumental in establishing Anand Dairy Cooperatives for the farmers of Gujarat. He launched the effort of Charkha Sangha in motivating people for using Khadi especially in rural areas. Vallabhbhai was conscious of the multi-religious character of India. He believed in Hindu-Muslim unity and was critical to communal organizations like Hindu Mahasabha. He supported Nehru on Nehru-Liaquat Pact (1950) signed by the Government with Pakistan to protect the minorities in both the countries. Thus, apart from the integration of India, SardarVallabhbhai Patel did valuable contribution in national building by strengthening Indian Administrative service, industrial and liberal policies, decentralized planning, Hindu - Muslim unity and religious freedom. Q. 4. The Ancient period temples are different from the medieval period temples. Discuss with suitable examples. Structure of the answer: z Introduction about temples z Comparative difference z Individual differences

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Ans: Temples reflects a synthesis of arts, beliefs, values and ideals of dharma. Ancient temples differs from medieval in following ways : z Ancient temples were a wooden prototype (use of timber) with stone walls having minimal decoration (Aihole temples in Karnataka) whereas Temples in medieval period had rich sculptural decoration on walls, elegant pillared halls, large roofs and intricate work, ExampleKhajuraho temples z Ancient temples were rock-and cave-cut , built to show true devotion to God whereas Medieval temples were symbolic of ruler and his richness. Brhadisvara temple in Tamil Nadu built by king Rajaraja of Chola Dynasty was built to show his military success. z Ancient temples portrayed Yakshis on walls whereas Medieval temples portrayed Apsaras. Wooden beams were replaced by Iron beams in Medieval period ,Eg: Brahmeshwar temple in Orissa. (now Odisha) z Style of temple architecture in ancient temples was similar in both Northern and southern Part of India, On the other hand, during medieval period, three styles of temple architecture were developed - Nagara, Dravida and Vesara z Ancient temples showed Monolithic structure i.e single rock temple, Kailash temple in Ellora whereas Temples built during medieval period show Multilithic structure like Jagannath temple of Odisha. Some of the other species of the temples were; 1. Ancient temples: more emphasis on Buddhist,Jain temple. (a) Jain temple at Aihoke◆ asana (seat) like structure which became an ornamental feature of later period. ◆ use of smaller stone blocks and short pyramidal structure. (b) Buddhist and Jain temples at pattadal◆ spacing out of surface by pilaster. ◆ square pyramidal sikharas that culminate domes. (c) temple at vadami ◆ verandah, columned hall, small square cell as shrine for image. ◆ plain exterior wall, but interior had minimal sculpture ◆ leography of yakshis on outer wall. 2. Medieval period: more Hindu temple characterised with advanced Nagara and Dravida style and dynasties other unique architecture of many dynasties (a) temples of Brihadeswara by cholas and temples of Khajuraho ◆ major decorative work on exterior walls taking ideas from Nature. ◆ multiple compartments with garbhagriha, prayer hall, sanctum, panchayatan style etc.

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Model Practice Set-01 (b) Hoysala art and kesava temple: ◆ unique hoysala style with maturity pertaining to plan and arrangements. ◆ vestibule to connect central hall with pillared pavilion. ◆ bracket figures (“madanakais”) beneath the overhanging roof of mandapa for exquisite beauty. ◆ leography of apsaras, beautiful ladies on outer walls. (c) Vijaynagar legacy: ◆ elaborately decorated gopurams, figural curving, animal motifs. ◆ dance hall and musical figures. Q.5. Discuss the influence of Buddhism and its concepts on the art of Mauryan Empire with suitable examples. Structure of the answer: z Start with importance of Ashokan art in Mauryan period z Influence of Buddhism and its scope Ans. Mauryan period is an important period because it led foundations for Indian art, which later reached its height during the golden age of the Guptas. But the main material and evidence came from Ashokan period, who patronized Buddhism after victory in Kalinga war. influence of Buddhism and its concepts on the art of Mauryan empire -: 1. The physical appearance of the pillars underscores the Buddhist doctrine. Most of the pillars were topped by the sculptures of animals. 2. Each pillar is also topped by an inverted lotus flower, which is the most pervasive symbol of Buddhism (a lotus flower rises from the muddy water to bloom unblemished on the surface—thus the lotus became an analogy for the Buddhist practitioner as he or she, living with the challenges of everyday life and the endless cycle of birth and rebirth, was able to achieve Enlightenment). 3. This flower, and the animal that surmount it, form the capital, the topmost part of a column. Most pillars are topped with a single lion or a bull in either seated or standing positions. The Buddha was born into the Shakya or lion clan. The lion, in many cultures, also indicates royalty or leadership. The animals are always in the round and carved from a single piece of stone. 4. They were also erected at pilgrimage sites such as at Bodh Gaya, the place of Buddha’s Enlightenment, and Sarnath, the site of his First Sermon and Sanchi, where the Mahastupa, the Great Stupa of Sanchi, is located. Stupa is a burial mound for an esteemed person. When the Buddha died, he was cremated and his ashes were divided and buried in several stupas. These stupas became pilgrimage sites for Buddhist practitioners.

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

5.

Several symbols became popular as stand-ins for the human likeness of the Buddha. The lotus, as noted above, is one. The lion, which is typically seen on the Ashokan pillars, is another. 6. The wheel (chakra) is a symbol of both samsara, the endless circle of birth and rebirth, and the dharma, the Four Noble Truths. Q. 6. It is said that the primary cause of the Great Depression was World War I. World War I along with Depression eventually led World War II. Analyze the connection between the three events. Structure of the answer: z Impacts of WW-I z Reasons for Economic depression z World War-II Depression Ans. The World War I devastated the economic life of Europe, halting economic production in manufacturing hubs like Germany and Britain. Europe’s dependence for debt and essentials commodities on America increased. Economic depression was the natural result of many factors, which trace its root to WW-I which are enumerated below European economies went for external debt during war time to meet the expenses of the costly war. After the war they tried to pay the debt and war reparations (Germany had to pay for reparations to the tune of 6600 million Euros) through printing currency which only increased the pressure on already sluggish economic productions resulted in hyperinflation like Germany. To pay their external debt they resorted to import substitution resulting in a wave of protectionism resulted in reduced global trading activity. Flawed American economic structure in which big companies swallowed small ones during WW-I because of their efficiency in mass production to meet European demand. This led to the accumulation of money in few hands and pauperisation of masses resulted in demand decline in postwar scenario which halted economic activity. Great Depression resulted in mass unemployment and inaccessibility to even basic amenities. Encasing these frustrations and promises of seeking justice to wrongs committed in Versailles in January 1919 totalitarian fascist governments came into power in Germany and Italy. They undermined the credibility of the collective security of League of Nations through their adventurism and set the tone for WWII. The economy of the US rebounded after it had entered into the Second World War. Some economists believe that the active engagement of the US in the World War II increased the industrial and labour production. The war increased the demand for setting up of new industries. The US government also founded the Defence Plant Corporation (DPC) in 1940. According to some estimates, with the setting up of DPC, the government spending accounted for the 67% of the US capital investment. In one stroke, the government made available the necessary manufacturing and infrastructure capacity and led the country out of the depression. The private capital investments once again found

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Model Practice Set-01 a place to be profitably invested. The Aerospace and other important sectors developed during this period continued to boom even after the World War II. However, some economists do not approve of this view and they believe that the depression could have very well ended even in the absence of increased military production. Q. 7. Critically examine the disintegration of the USSR which transformed the entire world political situation, leading to the complete reformation of political, economical and military alliances all over the globe. Structure of the answer: z Relation between USA & USSR before and after disintegration z Impact of the disintegration z Major reasons for disintegration z Consequences of disintegration Ans. The disintegration of Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991 brought an end to the cold war and led to the globalisation of world economic system. Earlier, the ideological war between the USA and Soviet Union led to the polarisation of the world in two group. (Capitalist and socialist states) The fall of Soviet Union resulted in the end of socialism as a state politics. The Soviet Union disintegrated into 12 independent republics. Warsaw Pact denoting the collective defence treaty in the east and central Europe among the communist nations also ended. The bipolar world became multipolar world. Major Events during disintegration Crisis in the Socialist bloc: People in many east European countries started protest against their own governments and the USSR. Without the right intervention from the USSR at the right time, communist governments in the Second World War collapsed one after the other. The fall of Berlin Wall: Germany was divided after the Second World War – among the socialist USSR and the capitalist western regimes. The fall of Berlin led to a series of events including the disintegration of the USSR. Economic and political reforms in USSR : Gorbachev identified the economic and political problems of the USSR, and started a series of reforms, with the intention to revive economy. This was a deviation from the communist policies, and was more closely associated with the market economy. Many communist leaders in the USSR opposed reforms initiated by Gorbachev. They encouraged a coup in 1991. Coup: The coup of 1991. Opposition against the coup : Boris Yeltsin who won popular election in Russian Republic, protested against the coup and central control of the USSR. Freedom for republics became the slogan. Boris Yeltsin and the pluralist movement advocated democratization and rapid economic reforms while the hard-line Communist elite wanted to thwart Gorbachev’s reform agenda. Power shift from Soviet centre to republics: Republics like Russia, Ukraine and Belarus emerged powerful. They declared that the Soviet Union was disbanded.

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The major reasons for the disintegration of the USSR in 1991 were the following1. Too Big to manage : The USSR became too big too manage and their planning for entire region was difficult and, therefore, discontent among different constituents started coming up. 2. Chernobyl Disaster : The disaster happened in Ukraine (USSR) area and suffering and subsequent health crisis led to distrust among the people of Ukraine. 3. Military Centric Approach : Due to massive USA build-up around West Europe the USSR maintained huge military which resulted in the overlooking of the welfare of people. 4. Local nationalism : Due to political blunders, local nationalism developed in Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Estonia. 5. Ethnic Issues : Russian’s big brother attitude towards the other constituents of the USSR was resented and led to distrust with the USSR. 6. Afghanistan Issue : The support for gorilla war by the USA in Afghanistan and subsequent withdrawal by the USSR demoralized them and expedited the dissolution of the USSR. Consequences of the disintegration of the USSR z The fall of Second World War. z The period marked the end of many communist regimes in response to mass protests. z End of cold war : end of arms race, end of ideological confrontations. z Change in power equations : unipolar world, capitalist ideology, IMF, World Bank etc. z Emergence of new countries and new alliances – eg: Baltic countries aligned with NATO. Thus, the disintegration of the USSR enabled the United States to emerge as a superpower. Q. 8. Highlight the great experience of Satyagraha and its significance in Champaran movement. How Gandhi’s methods remain relevant, even desirable, in today’s fractured times? Discuss Structure of the answer: z Give brief introduction about Champaran Satyagraha z Story of Champaran z How Satyagraha helped z How it’s still in use Ans. Gandhi won his first struggle to bring relief to the distressed peasants who were forced to cultivate indigo in 3/20th parts of their lands (teenkathiya system) in Bihar’s Champarandistrict exactly a 100 years ago, but social scientists and researchers feel his methods remain relevant and desirable to the present time. The farmers of Champaran, North Western village in Bihar, were forced to grow indigo by the European planters instead of food crops which were necessary for their sur-

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Model Practice Set-01 vival. The fanners were poorly compensated for their indigo crops and if they refused to plant indigo, they had to face heavy taxation. Indigo plantation was destroying the productivity of the land which was the main reason of the peasant’s protest. Having heard of Gandhi’s campaigns in South Africa, Gandhi was invited by Rajkumar Shukla to look at the plight of the poor peasants. He was accompanied by Babu Rajendra Prasad, Mazhar-ul-Huq, J.B. Kripalani, Narhari Parekh and Mahadev Desai. Gandhi asked peasants not to pay tax. Later looking at the mass-scale protest, the authorities asked the peasants that only those having capability to pay tax had to pay. After the court trial, Gandhi was given the permission to hold an enquiry. The major finding of the Champaran committee, to abolish the teenkathia system was accepted. Finally, the disabilities from which the peasantry was suffering were reduced and Gandhiji had won his first battle of civil disobedience in India. The movement was relevant because it channelized the anger, frustration & latent energy of mob into a constructive political tool and its success laid down foundation for new kind on freedom struggle based on non-violent mass struggle. Satyagraha is polite but firm & non-violent defiance of the authority, basing struggles not simply on emotions and grievances but concrete enquiry and fact-finding. Socialist leaders even today fight for the causes of poor people and many such movements including trade union adopting the methods of Satyagraha, sit on fast-unto-deaths several times, sent to jail many times and most of the times had been successful in getting their demands accepted by the authorities concerned. Q.9. Discuss the problem of growing rural indebtedness causes, consequences and measures for removal in the light of British colonization.The position of the Indian peasantry remains almost the same during pre-or post independent India. Structure of the answer: z Introduction with Richard Stretchy Committee observation z Factors that led to rural indebtedness z Mention about the similarity seen today z Conclude by giving way forward and in a positive note Ans. Under colonial administration the problem of rural indebtedness was full of distress with no hope of recovery from the debt crisis as mentioned by Richard Stretchy Committee, in 1878. The committee was appointed to study the famine conditions in Bombay Presidency. This problem is just not related to one individual but is passed on to the next generations. Taking or incurring debt for the purpose of agricultural production is indeed necessary as it contributes to production. The various factors for the rural indebtedness were under the land revenue policies. In Zamindari system, the ryots were left at the mercy of Zamindars as tenants at will, and

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

under the Ryotwari the land tax was the highest ever collected, i.e. 55%. The heavy rent demand forced the cultivators to go for the commercialization of agriculture. Though it benefitted them in the beginning yet it didn’t prove good in the long run. The peasantry was exposed to the worst form of exploitation as Marwari money lenders charging exorbitant rates of interest ranging from 30% to 300%. Situation turned bad to worse with recurring famines. However, relief measures were also been introduced like Deccan peasant relief act, 1879 which provided security to the peasantry against the exploitation of money lenders. The situation continued to be more or less the same as of today. One of the major causes for rural indebtedness is poverty. The low level of rural incomes, the uncertain and primitive farming of small landholdings makes it impossible to meet the needs required for their living. Often, the rural people take debts to meet these needs. In rural areas people incur debts for non-productive purposes such as to meet the family needs, perform social functions related to marriages, birth and death etc. Since money taken does not contribute to production but instead to consumption, it drags the rural people into prolonged indebtedness. To clear these loans, the rural people incur debts again. In this way, they are stuck in the clutches of indebtedness. For small farmers the agricultural production is so less that they are not able to provide for such unproductive expenditure. Improving the farmer’s income (as proposed by government to make it double by 2022), adopting scientific methods in farming like soil testing and genetic engineering, regulating market demand and supply, providing insurance facility for crop loss, increasing awareness among farmers etc. are some of the key factors to make agriculture a profitable organization. Q. 10. Explain the distinguished architectural features of Buddhist Viharas, Stupas and Chaityas with their suitable examples. Structure of the answer: z Briefly write about history of all three architecture z Give brief discussing about individual art z Give in brief difference between Chaitya and Vihara Ans. Viharas, Chaityas and Stupas were all architectural features which formed part of the Buddhist monastic traditions starting in the 3rd century BC. The following are distinguishing features of each of these features and their significance: Stupas: 1. When the Buddha was cremated his ashes, kept in casket, were distributed amongst tribes and stupas were built over. With time the construction of Stupas increased and especially during Ashoka, thousands were made, like Sanchi Stupa. 2.

A Stupa has a cylindrical drum or a circular and a over which one can see harmika and chattra. The circumambulatory path, pradikshna path, is en-

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Model Practice Set-01

3.

closed by railings called vedika. Devotees are supposed to go clockwise. The entrance has gates called Torans which are upright pillars with crossbars, decorated with various Buddhist symbols in stone and are an imitation of previous woodworks. A Stupa is essentially compared to the Universe.

4.

Famous examples are Sanchi, Bairut, Amravati, Nagarjunkonda, etc.

5.

In stupas, the relics of the Buddha were kept.

Chaityas: 1.

These are Buddhist temples.

2.

Mostly carved out of rock decorated inside with motifs.

3.

Prayers were conducted regularly and assembly of monks and devotees was a common feature. Many Chaityas show stupas at the back. Chaityas were carved either as rectangular halls or apsidal vaultroof or apsidal vault pillarless halls.

4.

Chaitya at Karle is the largest.

Viharas: 1.

These are monks residences, either temporary or permanent.

2.

All of them show commom features like a veranda, a hall, cells allong the pathways and a stupa at the back.

3.

Ajanta caves were monsoon residence of Buddhist monks.

4.

Many developed over time into the big centres of learning. For example, the Nalanda Mahavihaar built by Kumar Gupta became a university of repute.

5.

Viharas were also cut in rocks mostly and with time many got abandoned.

Viharas were for the purpose of living, Chaityas were assemblies for the purpose of discussions. Further more, Chaityas were with Stupas; Viharas did not have stupas. Both early Chaityas and Viharas were made by wood and later stone-cut Chaityas and Viharas were made. Chaitya was a rectangular prayer hall with a stupa placed in the centre, the purpose was prayer. The Chaitya was divided into three parts, and had an apsidal ending, that is, a semicircular rear end, The central part of the hall (also called the nave) was separated from the two aisles by two rows of pillars, The chaityas also had polished interior walls, semi-circular roofs and horse-shoe shaped windows called the Chaitya windows. Viharas were the residences of the monks. Q. 11. Explain the process of the formation of ‘temperate cyclones’? How do they differ from tropical cyclones. z z z

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Structure of the answer: Explain what temperate cyclone is Explain the process of formation of temperate cyclone Give difference between tropical and temperate cyclone

Ans. Temperate Cyclones, also called mid-latitudinal cyclones or extra tropical cyclones, are formed due to the interaction of the air masses of different temperatures. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTRA TROPICAL CYCLONE

Dissipating (45 hrs)

Mature (24 hrs) Developing (00 hrs) Cold Front

Warm Front Surface Wind Flow

EXTRA TROPICAL CYCLONES FORM ALONG THE BOUNDARIES BETWEEN COOL AND WARM AIR MASSES

This condition occurs between sub-polar low and subtropical high pressure belts and along the tropopause. Temperate cyclones arise in the belt of westerly winds and are caused by the mixing of cold air from the polar regions with warm and humid air from tropical region. They consist of the swirling masses of air. They usually bring prolonged rains to coastal regions and often have very windy weather. Process responsible for the formation of temperate cyclones: Towards the polar regions of cold and temperate latitudes- Polar Easterlies and Westerlies (cold and warm air masses respectively) keep blowing parallel to each other but in opposite directions. Air masses, because of differences in temperature and moisture content, do not mix easily. The boundary zone of convergence (sharply defined boundary) separating the two air masses are called fronts (frontal zones). Temperate cyclones develop on these fronts. They have a well-defined life cycle extending from a few hours to a few days. Due to topographic inequalities these fronts are not always parallel to latitudes. They take a wave-like shape and similarly temperate cyclones are sometimes called spiral or wave-like cyclones. Differences between Tropical Cyclone and Extra-tropical Cyclone: Temperate cyclones have completely different characteristics as compared to Tropical cyclones : The differences are: 1. Latitude : A tropical cyclone is confined between 5 to 30 degrees north and south of the equator, whereas temperate cyclone originates between 30 to 60 degrees north and south of the equator. 2. Originating Element : Temperature and Coriolis force play vital role in the origin of a tropical cyclone. In case of a temperate cyclone, it is frontogenesis which plays an important driving force. 3. Types of Cloud Associated : A wide range of clouds is associated with the temperate cyclone. While in the case of the tropical cyclone the cloud composition is mainly dominated by clumonimbus clouds.

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Model Practice Set-01 4. Area Covered : A temperate cyclone covers a large area as compared to a tropical cyclone. 5. Source of Origin : A tropical cyclone generally originates over water surface but the temperate cyclone originates over mid-latitude landmass. 6. Direction of Flow : A temperate cyclone generally flows eastward movement (west -> east) but there is no such fixed movement pattern in case of a tropical cyclone. A tropical cyclone generally takes the path from sea to land. 7. Numbers: A tropical cyclone is of singular characteristic, whereas a temperate cyclone flows in family. 8. EYE OF CYCLONE: Eye is a typical feature in case of tropical cyclone, whereas in a temperate cyclone there is no such concept of ‘EYE’ associated with it. Q. 12. Give reasons in 100 words for each of the following: (a) Sea breezes blow during daytime. (b) Wind change their directions in both hemispheres. Ans. (a) Sea breezes blow during daytime. A sea breeze describes a wind that blows from the ocean towards the land. This breeze occurs most often in the spring and summer months because of the greater temperature differences between the ocean and nearby land, particularly in the afternoon when the land is at maximum heating from the sun.

Rising air helps form clouds

Sea Breeze Warm air rises Land heat up (heat source)

Cooler air sinks

Sinking air spreads along surface Ocean is cooler compared to land (cold source, aka heat sink)

During the day, the sun heats up both the ocean surface and the land. Water is a good absorber of the energy from the sun. The land absorbs much of the sun’s energy as well. However, water heats up much more slowly than the land the and so the air above the land will be warmer compared to the air over the ocean. The warm air over the land will rise throughout the day, causing low pressure at the surface. Over the water, high surface pressure will form because of the colder air. To compensate, the land air will sink over the ocean. The sea wind will blow from the higher pressure over the water to lower pressure over the land causing the sea breeze. The sea breeze strength will vary depending on the temperature difference between the land and the ocean. (b) Winds change their directions in both the hemispheres: Wind is the movement of air from the regions of high atmospheric pressure to the regions of low atmospheric pressure. The wind direction is effected by the following factors:

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Intended path Actual path Equator Actual path Intended path z

Elizabeth Morales

z

Non-linear advection of momentum The pressure gradient force (PGF)

z

The Coriolis force Friction

z

The rotation of the earth about its axis generates a force that affects the movement of wind in both the hemispheres. This force is called the Coriolis force. Due to the earth’s rotation, winds do not cross the isobars at right angles as the pressure gradient force directs, but get deflected from their original path. This deviation is the outcome of Earth’s Coriolis effect or Coriolis force. Due to this effect, winds in the northern hemisphere get deflected to the right of their path and those in the southern hemisphere to their left, following Farrell’s Law (the law that wind is deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere, derived from the application of the Coriolis effect to air masses). This deflection force does not seem to exist until the air is set in motion and increases with wind velocity, air mass and an increase in latitude. The Coriolis force acts perpendicular to the pressure gradient force (pressure gradient force is perpendicular to an isobar). As a result of these two forces operating perpendicular to each other, in the low-pressure areas the wind blows around it (cyclonic conditions). Q. 13. What is transpiration? Discuss the factors which affect the rate of transpiration. Do they have any impact over groundwater availability? z z

Structure of the answer: Explain the process transpiration

Account of factors affecting transpiration z Impact of transpiration on groundwater availability Ans. Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially the evaporation of water from plant leaves. Transpiration also includes a process called guttation, which is the loss of water in liquid form from the uninjured leaf or stem of the plant, principally through water stomata.

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Model Practice Set-01

Nearly 10 per cent of the moisture found in the atmosphere is released by plants through transpiration. The remaining 90 per cent is mainly supplied by evaporation from oceans, seas, and other bodies of water (lakes, rivers, streams). Factors affecting rate of transpiration: The amount of water that plants transpire varies greatly geographically and over time. There are a number of factors that determine transpiration rates: Temperature: Transpiration rates go up as the temperature goes up, especially during the growing season, when the air is warmer due to stronger sunlight and warmer air masses. Higher temperatures cause the plant cells, which control the openings (stomata) where water is released to the atmosphere, to open whereas colder temperatures cause the openings to close. Relative humidity: As the relative humidity of the air surrounding the plant rises, the transpiration rate falls. It is easier for water to evaporate into drier air than into more saturated air. Wind and air movement: Increased movement of the air around a plant will result in a higher transpiration rate. This is somewhat related to the relative humidity of the air, in that as water transpires from a leaf, the water saturates the air surrounding the leaf. If there is no wind, the air around the leaf may not move very much, raising the humidity of the air around the leaf. Wind will move the air around, with the result that the more saturated air close to the leaf is replaced by drier air. Soil-moisture availability: When moisture is lacking, plants can begin to senesce (premature ageing, which can result in leaf loss) and transpire less water. Type of plant: Plants transpire water at different rates. Some plants which grow in arid regions, such as cacti and succulents, conserve precious water by transpiring less water than other plants. Impacts of transpiration over groundwater availability: Plant transpiration is much an invisible process; since the water is evaporating from the leaf surfaces, we cannot see this happening. But that does not negate the scientific

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fact that the rate of evaporation has huge impact over groundwater availability. During a growing season, a leaf will transpire many times more water than its own weight. An acre of corn gives off about 3,000-4,000 gallons (11,40015,100 litres) of water every day, and a large oak tree can transpire 40,000 gallons (151,000 litres) per year. Thus, the greater the rate of transpiration, the greater is the draining of groundwater through transpiration. Q14. What is time zone and how is it determined? Does India need another time zone? Explain why. (200 Words) Structure of the answer: z Explain about time zone z Role of International Meridian conference in determining zones z Demand of new time zone in India z What is problem in accepting the demand Ans. Time Zone is described as any of the 24 divisions of the Earth’s surface used for determining the local time for any given locality. Each zone is roughly 15° of longitude in width, with local variations for economic and political convenience. Local time is one hour ahead for each time zone as one travels east and one hour behind for each time zone as one travels west. The International Meridian Conference in 1884 established the prime meridian as the starting point for the 24 zones. The recent assertion by north-eastern that they would re-set their clocks to introduce a local time zone that would be at least 60 minutes ahead of Indian Standard Time, has rekindled an old debate. Demand of separate time zone for Northeast : India stretches from 97.4 East in Arunachal to 68 East in Gujarat. The time difference between the two extreme points is approximately two hours, the effect of which is that the sun rises and sets much earlier than it does in the rest of the country. In the Northeast, the sun rises as early as four in the morning and in winter it sets by four in the evening. By the time government offices or educational institutions open, many daylight hours are already lost. In winter, this problem gets even more accentuated and the ecological costs are a disaster with much more electricity having to be consumed. The National Institute of Advanced Studies claims that advancing IST by half an hour would result in saving 2.7 billion units of electricity every year. Why their demand is getting rejected Two time zones are not advisable for India as it would cause ‘unimaginable chaos’, given the country’s demographic size. People would have to adjust to multiple time zones & administrative integration would be difficult. Also, India’s lifeline, the railways, is not yet automated enough to handle time shifts mid-journey and this could induce major accidents due to human error. There is also a strong political dimension to granting a separate time zone in the Northeast given the region’s long history of self-determination movements. The unstated assumption is that the grant of a different time zone is only the first temporal step towards conceding spatial autonomy.

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

Model Practice Set-01 Q.15. What do you understand by monsoon? Discuss the mechanism of monsoon in the Indian subcontinent? Structure of the answer : z Define monsoon z Briefly describe the occurrence of monsoon due to differential heating of land and sea z Describe its occurrence due to the shift of ITCZ z Give different models of monsoon model Ans. The word monsoon derived from the Arabic word mausim means seasonal winds. In this system, the direction of the winds reverses seasonally. The first thing we note is that monsoon is typically considered a phenomenon of tropical south Asia, but it is also experienced over the parts of North America and Africa. Mechanism of Monsoon: Traditional View Traditionally, monsoon has been considered a result of the differential heating of land and sea. In summer, southern Asia develops a low pressure while the pressure over the sea is relatively higher. As a result the air starts flowing towards land from the Indian Ocean. The winds coming from the ocean carry moisture and thus cause rainfall in the summer reason. This is known as the southwest monsoon or summer monsoon. In winter, the pressure over land is higher than over the sea and consequently the air starts flowing from land to sea. The air coming from land being dry, these winds do not cause rainfall. The above explanation is known as the thermal theory of monsoon. This theory explains monsoon as a regional phenomenon but fails to explain the total amount of energy / processes involved in the global monsoon circulation. Mechanism of Monsoon: Modern View The modern meteorologists seek explanation for the phenomenon of monsoon on the basis of seasonal shift in the position of the global belts of pressure and winds. This is also known as Dynamic Theory. According to the dynamic theory, monsoons are a result of the shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. Though the average position of the ITCZ is taken as the equator yet it keeps shifting vertical sun towards with the migration of the vertical sun towards the tropics during the summer of the respective hemisphere. During summer in the northern hemisphere in the months of May and June, the sun shines vertically over the tropic of cancer. Due to the northward shift of the zone of maximum heating and low pressure at this time the ITCZ also shifts northwards and approaches the tropic of cancer. The ITCZ being the zone of the lowest pressure in the tropical region is the destination of the trade winds blowing from both the hemispheres. With ITCZ situated close to the tropic of cancer the northeast trade winds are confined to an area extending to its north while the southeast trade winds blowing from the southern hemisphere have to cross the equator to reach this area of low pressure. However as the winds blowing from

UPSC Civil Services Main Exam Practice Work Book

the southern hemisphere cross the equator their direction is altered due to Coriolis effect, i.e. they are direction is their right and thus it give rise to the formation of a belt of equatorial westerlies in the months of many of June northeast and they are called the southwest monsoon. As the ITCZ again moves southwards at the end of the summer of the northern hemisphere, the areas north of the equator which experienced the equatorial westerlies during the summer season come under the influence of the northeast trade winds. These northeasterly winds are called the northeast. The onset of winter season the ITCZ shifts south of the equator and reaches as far south at this time. In this season, the northeast trades blowing towards the ITCZ have to cross the equator towards south and as a result they get deflected giving rise to the equatorial westerlies in the southern hemisphere. These westerlies blow from the northwest to the southwest, replacing the trade winds of the southern hemisphere between the ITCZ and the equator. They form the summer monsoon of the southern hemisphere. We can say that due to the seasonal shift of the wind belts under the influence of the north-south migration of the vertical sun the areas situated in the tropical zone in the both the hemispheres come under the influence of the trade winds during the respective winter and the equatorial westerlies during the respective summer season. The direction of the winds is thus reversed seasonally and it makes up the monsoon system of these regions. Dynamic theory provides a much better explanation of the system of monsoon as a global phenomenon, it does not negate the influence of differential heating of land and sea. Differential heating still plays an important role in making monsoon much stronger in certain of the south-west monsoon factor that explains the extension of the southwest monsoon even to the north of the tropic of cancer in northern India. 16. What is National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)? Discuss its Importance to Indian agriculture. Ans. NMSA is one of the eight Missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It seeks to address issues on ‘SustainableAgriculture’ in the context of risks associated with climate change by devising appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring food security, enhancing livelihood opportunities and contributing to economic stability at National Level. NMSA seeks to transform Indian agriculture into a climate resilient production system through suitable adaptation and mitigation measures in domains of both crops and animal husbandry. These measures would be mainstreamed in research and development activities, absorption of improved technology and best practices, creation of physical and financial infrastructure and institutional frame work, facilitating access to information and promoting capacity building. The main objective of NMSA is to devise strategic plans at the agro-climatic zone level so that action plans are contextualized to regional scales in the areas of research and development (R&D), technology and practices, infrastructure and capacity building. Its main theme is also to enhance agricultural productivity through customized interventions

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