Data Loading...

9789385018428 Flipbook PDF


128 Views
54 Downloads
FLIP PDF 8.24MB

DOWNLOAD FLIP

REPORT DMCA

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xn-cp-∂Xpw

darwin paranjathum darwin ariyathirunnathum k usha first edition december 2014 published chintha publishers, thiruvananthapuram typesetting minerva graphotechs, attukal printed at Repro India Ltd, Mumbai.

cover ambeesh price rupees one hundred only

Rights reserved

hnX-cWw

tZim-`n-am\n _p°v lukv H O Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw-˛695 035 phone: 0471-2303026, 6063026 www.chinthapublishers.com [email protected] {_m©p-Iƒ slÕm-^okv {_m©v Ip∂p-Ipgn ÃmNyp Xncp-h\ - ¥ - ] - pcw sI Fkv B¿ Sn kn _kv tÃj≥ Be-∏p-g sI Fkv B¿ Sn kn _kv tÃj≥ Fd-Wm-Ip-fw Nn‰q¿ tdmUv Fd-Wm-Ipfw a®n-߬ sebv≥ Xriq¿ sF Pn tdmUv tImgn-t°m-Sv amhq¿ tdmUv tImgn-t°mSv F≥ Pn H bqWn-b≥ _n¬UnMv IÆq¿ sk≥{S¬ _kv sS¿an-\¬ tImwπIvkv Xmh-°c IÆq¿

CO - VV - 114 / 2146 / 3602

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xn-cp-∂Xpw

sI Dj

Nn¥ ]ªntjgvkv Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw-˛695 035

hne:

100

sI Dj IÆq¿ Pn√-bnse Ccn´n kztZ-in. Ct∏mƒ a´-∂q¿ ]g»nbn¬ Xma-kw. inh-]pcw sslkvIq-fnse {][m-\m-≤ym]n-I-bmbn hnc-an-®p. alm-im-kv{X-{]-Xn-`-Iƒ `mKw c≠v F∂ hn⁄m-\-h¿jw ]pkvXIw Nn¥ {]kn-≤o-I-cn®n-´p-≠v. lmbv! F¥p-a-[p-cw, an∂m-an-\p-ßp-Iƒ, IqSpw -Im-Spw, Ccpºpw Xpcp-ºpw, sIm°pa\p-jy≥, i¿°-c-∏m-bkw, Fßp-\nt∂m h∂ Xpºn, \√ Nßm-Xn-am¿ F∂n-hbmWv {]kn-≤o-I-cn® CXc IrXn-Iƒ. {]apJ KWn-Xim- k v { X A- ≤ ym- ] - I \pw dntkmgv k v t]gv k - W p- a mb F ]n {]`m-I-c-\mWv `¿Øm-hv. a°ƒ hnemkw

: iymw, kµo]v, k‘y : "{]Xn`' ]g-»n, Dcp-h-®m¬ X]m¬, a´-∂q¿, IÆq¿ Pn√

D≈-S°w {]km-[-I-°p-dn∏v 7 F√mw Fhn-sS- \n-∂p-≠mbn? 9 Pndm-^ns‚ IgpØpw ]mºns‚ Imep-Ifpw 15 Um¿hn≥ bm{X XpS-ßp-∂p 21 Hcp ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ D¤hw 27 F{X-sb{X hI-t`-Z-߃ 35 {]Ir-Xn-bnepw Hcp sXc-s™-Sp∏v 42 Poh-hr-£-Øns‚ apIp-f-߃ 50 IpXn-cbpw Igp-Xbpw ]ns∂, ko{_bpw 57 Fhn-sStbm Hcp ]q¿∆n-I≥ 64 ]ptcm-ln-Xs‚ ]co-£-W-߃ 73 Po\p-Iƒ Um¿hns\ tXSp∂p 79 Poh-im-kv{X-Ønse \yq´¨ 87 F√mw amdns°m≠n-cn-°p∂p 96 Um¿hn\pw a\p-jy\pw 101 C\nbpw GXv hgn 106 d^-d≥kv 112

{]km-[I - ° - p-dn∏v temIsØ, Nmƒkv tdm_¿´v Um¿hn\p apºpw Um¿hn\p tijhpw F∂p hn`-Pn-°p-∂-Xn¬ sX‰n-√. Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS D¤hhpw ]cn-Wm-ahpw imkv{Xo-ba - mb ASn-Ød - b - n¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v sXfnbn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p Um¿hn≥. Um¿hn≥ Hc-nSnsh´p t]mse Bhn¿`hn® {]Xn-`m-k-a-√. Xs‚ ap≥Km-an-I-fpsS ]co-£-W-\n-co-£-W-ßfp-sSbpw \nK-a-\-ß-fp-sSbpw XpS¿®-X-s∂-bmWv Um¿hns‚ Is≠Ø-ep-I-fpw. F√m P¥p-°fpw Hcp ]q¿∆n-I-\n¬\n∂mWv Bhn¿`hn-®-Xv F∂p-am-{X-a√ A\m-Zn-bmb GtXm HcpImeØv s]mXp-hmb Hcp ]q¿∆n- I - h w- i - Ø n¬\n∂pw th¿]n- c n- ™ - X m- s W- ∂ p- a p≈ Um¿hns‚ \nco-£Ww Cu temIw a\p-jy¿°p-am-{X-ap≈X√ F∂ ka-Im-eo\ kΩ-Xn-bn-te°v hnc¬Nq-≠p-∂p. ]cn-Wm-a-sØ-∏-‰n-bp≈ [mc-W-Iƒ Um¿hn-\n¬\n∂p XpS-ßn-bX√ F∂-Xp-t]mse Um¿hn\n¬ Ah-km-\n-°p-∂p-an-√. Um¿hn-\p-apºpw Um¿hn-\n-eq-sSbpw Um¿hn-\p-ti-j-hp-ap≈ Poh-im-kv{X-Øns‚ k©m-c-ß-fmWv Cu ]pkvXIw {]Xn]mZn-°p-∂-Xv. Nn¥ ]ªn-tjgvkv

1 F√mw Fhn-sS- \n-∂p-≠mbn? Hc-h[n Znhkw. hoSn\p ]pd-Øn-dßn H∂p Np‰n-°d- ß - p-I. shdpw ssItbm-sS-b√ - . ssIbn-semcp sIm®p ]pkvXI - hpw s]≥knepw IqSnbn-cp-t∂m-s´. F¥n-\m-sW-∂t√? \S-°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ \nß-fpsS IÆn¬s∏-Sp∂ F√m kky-ß-fp-sSbpw P¥p-°-fp-sSbpw t]cp-Iƒ AXn¬ Ipdn-®n-S-Ww. sNdn-bXpw hen-bXpsa√mw. H∂n-t\bpw hn´pI-f-b-cp-Xv. t\m°q. AXv kmam\yw hen-sbmcp ]´n-I-X-s∂-bm-bn-cn°pw. At√? Ah-bpsS FÆw am{X-a-√, \Ωsf hnkva-bn-∏n-°p-∂Xv, sshhn≤y-hpw -Iq-sS-bm-Wv. kky-ß-fpsS Imcy-sa-Sp°pI. NneXv IÆn-en-´m¬ t]mepw ImWmØ A{Xbpw sNdp-Xv. a‰p- Nn-etXm? am\-tØmfw Dbcw hbv°p-∂-h, NneXv Ip‰n-s®Sn-Iƒ, Nne-sX√mw h≈n-I-fmbn ]S-cp-∂-h. \nd-Ønepw aW-Ønepw, Ce-I-fp-sSbpw Nn√I-fp-sSbpw LS-\b - nepw, ]q°-fpsS BIr-Xn-bnepw, Imb-If - psS hep∏Ønepsa√mw Fs¥¥v hyXym-k-߃. C\n P¥p-°sf t\m°n-bmtem. AhnsS hyXy-mk-߃ am{X-a-t√-bp-≈q. NneXv ]d-°p-∂-h, NneXv \o¥p-∂-h, NneXv Cg-bp-∂-h, Nne¿ \mep-Im-en¬, Nne¿ Bbn- c w- I m- e n¬. Ch- b v ° n- S - b n¬ c≠p- I m- e n¬ k©- c n- ° p∂ a\pjy\pw! Hcp sNdnb ka-bw, sNdnb bm{X. AXn-\n-S-bn¬ C{Xbpw sshhn-≤y-߃ ImWm≥ ]‰p-sa-¶n¬ temIw apgp-h≥ k©-cn-°m≥ Ign-™m¬ F¥m-bn-cn°mw IY? GI-tZiw \qdp-e-£-Øn-e-[nIw C\w kky-ßfpw P¥p-°fpw `qan-bn-ep-s≠-∂mWv Hcp GI-tZi IW-°v. GI-tZ-i-sat∂ ]d-bm≥ ]‰p-I-bp-≈q. ImcWw IrXyamb IW°v BcpsS ssIbnepw C√. a\p-jys‚ IW-°p-I-fn¬ hcmØ

10

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xncp-∂Xpw sI Dj

kky-ßfpw P¥p-°fpw Ct∏mgpw Fhn-sS-sbm-s°tbm D≠v. Ign™ Hcp h¿j-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ hS-°≥ tIc-f-Øn¬ \n∂p am{Xw aq∂p ]pXnb C\w k]p- j v ] n- I - f mb kky- ß sf Is≠- Ø n- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . Ign™ A≥]Xp-h¿j߃°n-S-bn¬ apjp-h¿§Øn¬s∏´ aq∂n\w a’y-ßsf a≤y-tI-c-f-Øn¬ ]teSØpw h®v Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. a\pjy≥ h¿§-k¶cWw hgn Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p∂ kky-ßfpw P¥p-°fpw thsd-bp-ap-≠v. CtXm-sSm∏w Hmtcm h¿jhpw ]e Pohn-Ifpw Cu `qap-JØp\n∂v Fs∂-t∂-°p-ambn A{]-Xy-£a - m-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂p F∂pw \ap-°-dn-bmw. Aß-s\-bm-Ip-tºmƒ `qan-bn-ep≈ Poh-Pm-eßfpsS FÆw IrXy-ambn ]d-bm≥ ]‰ptam? Fß-s\-bmWv Ch-sb√mw D≠m-bXv? BIm-iØp\n∂v s]m´nho-W-XmtWm? `qan-bn¬\n∂v apf®v h∂-XmtWm? Bsc-¶nepw D≠m°n-b-XmtWm? A¤p-X-I-c-amb Cu sshhn≤yw BcpsS a\- nepw Db¿Øm-hp∂ tNmZy-ß-ft√ Ch-sb-√mw? ]t£ C∂v CØcw tNmZy-ßf - psS DØ-cß - ƒ Ip´n-Iƒ°v t]mepadnbmw. Pe-Øn-ep-≠mb GI-tImi Pohn-I-fmWv Pohs‚ BZna cq]-߃. Ahbv°p am‰w AYhm ]cn-Wmaw kw`-hn-®mWv C°m-Wp∂ F√m Pohn-h¿§-ßfpw D≠m-b-Xv. Poh-]-cn-Wmaw F∂Xv Poh-im-kv{X-Øns‚ Hcp {][m\ imJ-bmbn AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. ]cn-Wmaw F∂m-¬ am‰-am-Wv. Hcp Pohnh¿§w as‰mcp Pohnh¿§-ambn amdp∂ {]Xn-`m-k-am-Wv. G‰hpw thK-X-Ip-d™ am‰-sa∂mWv ]cn-Wm-a-sØ-°p-dn®v {]ikvX Poh-im-kv{X-⁄-\m-bn-cp∂ sP _n Fkv lm¬tU≥ ]d-™-Xv. F∂m¬ am‰-tØ-°mƒ D]-cnbmbn AsXmcp hnIm-ktam ]ptcm-K-Xn-te-°p≈ k©m-ctam BWv. ImcWw BZna `qan-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ Pohn-I-sf√m eLpLS-\-tbmSp-Iq-Sn-b-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A\p-{I-ahpw F∂m¬ Zo¿L-hp-amb am‰ßƒ°p hnt[-b-am-bmWv Ah C∂p-Im-Wp-∂ k¶o¿Æ-L-S-\-bp≈ Pohn-h¿§-ß-fmbn amdn-b-Xv. ]cn-Wm-a-sØ-°p-dn®v XnI®pw imkv{Xob-sa∂v ]d-bm-\m-hn-s√-¶nepw bp‡-nt_m-[-Øn-\n-W-ßp∂ Hcp GItZi [mcW cq]-s∏-Sp-∂Xv ]Xn-\mdmw \q‰m-≠n-\n-∏p-d-am-Wv. AXp-hsctbm? hyXy-kvX-ß-fmb Pohnh¿§-߃ Fßs\ D≠mbn F∂v a\pjy≥ Nn¥n-°m≥ XpS-ßn-bn´v kl-{km-_vZ-ß-fm-bn. F¶nepw BZyIm-e-L-´-ß-fn¬ Pothm-ev]-Øn-sb-°p-dn®v a\p-jy-sc-Øn-t®¿∂ \nKa-\-ßfpw `mh-\-bn-e-[n-jvTn-X-am-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-bn-te-‰hpw {][m\w krjvSn-hm-ZamWv. ssZh-sa∂ al-Ømb Hcp cmP-inev]n F√m PohnI-sfbpw AXm-Xns‚ cq]-Øn¬ krjvSn-®p. CXm-bn-cp∂p krjvSnhmZ-Øns‚ ImX¬. kwL-SnX aX-߃ Cu [mc-Wsb Ac-°n´v Dd-∏n-°p-Ibpw Hmtcm aXhpw kz¥w kz¥w ssZh-ßsf krjvSn-

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xncp-∂Xpw sI Dj

11

bpsS Imc-W-°m-c-\mbn Ah-tcm-[n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. lnµpaX-hnizm-ka - \ - p-kc - n®v {_“m-hmWv krjvSnbpsS hn`mKw ssIImcyw sNøp∂-Xv. ss__n-fnse Dev]Øn ]pkvX-I-Øn-emWv krjvSn-sb-°p-dn®p≈ hnh-cWw IrXy-amb ka-b-{I-a-a-\p-k-cn®v sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂Xv. ssZhw \S-Ønb krjvSn-{I-aw Cß-s\-bm-W-s{X. H∂mw \mƒ ssZhw shfn®w krjvSn-®p. sXm´-SpØ Znhkw BIm-ihpw aq∂mw Znhkw ssZh-Øm¬ krjvSn°-s∏-´-XmWv Icbpw IS-epw kky-PmXn-I-fpw. AXp Ign™v \memw Znh-k-amWv kqcy-N-{µ-∑mcpw \£{X-ß-fp-ap-≠m-hp-∂-Xv. kqcy-\p-≠m-hp-∂-Xn\v ap≥]v kky-ß-fp-≠mhptam F∂ tNmZy-Øn-s\m∂pw ChnsS {]k-‡n-tb-bn-√. ASpØ Znh-kw, AXm-bXv A©mw Znhkw Pe-Øn¬ Pohn-°p∂ Pohn-Isfbpw ]£n-I-sfbpw krjvSn-®p. Bdm-asØ Znh-k-amWv Ic-bnse Pohn-I-sfbpw a\p-jy-s\bpw krjvSn-®Xv. Bdv Znh-ksØ krjvSn I¿Ω߃°v tijw Ggmw \mfn¬ ssZhw hn{i-an-s®∂pw ss__nƒ ]d-bp-∂p. krjvSn-sb-°p-dn®v ]d-bp∂ aX-߃ kwlm-c-sØ-°p-dn®pw ]dbp-∂p-s≠∂v {i≤n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. lnµphnizm-k-a-\p-k-cn®v Hmtcm a\z¥-c-Øn-s‚bpw Ah-km-\-Øn¬ alm-{]-f-b-ap-≠m-hp-Ibpw AXn-\ptijw Ime-a-S°w F√mw ]pXn-b-Xmbn D≠m-hp-Ibpw sNøpw. ss__n-fnepw Hcp {]f-b-sØ-°p-dn®v ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. t\ml-bpsS t]SI-Øn¬ c£s∏Sm≥ hn[n-°-s∏-´ Pohn-I-fn¬\n∂v ho≠pw ]pXnb temIw Bcw-`n-°p-∂p. F∂m¬ {]mNo\ ImeØv Xs∂ CØcw hniz-mk-ßsf tNmZyw sNøp∂ hmZ-K-Xn-Ifpw temIØv Db¿∂ph∂n-cp-∂p. IW-߃ sIm≠mWv F√mw \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-´Xv F∂ Nn¥m-[mc D≠m-bXv C¥ybn-em-Wv. Cu hmZw Ah-X-cn-∏n® Nn¥-Isc \Ωƒ IWm-Z≥ F∂v t]cn´v BZ-cn-®p. BIm-iw, `qan, hmbp, Pew, A·n F∂o ]©-`q-X߃sIm≠m-Wv Poh-ic - ocw \n¿Ωn-°s - ∏-´Xv F∂Xpw `mc-Xob Nn¥m-Wv. {Ko°v Nn¥-Isc kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw aÆv, hmbp, Pew A·n F∂n-ßs\ \mev LS-I-ß-fmWv F√m-Øn-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm\w. Pohs‚ Dev]Øn Pe-Øn¬\n∂m-bn-cn-°Ww F∂ Nn¥ BZyambn Ah-X-cn-∏n-®Xv {Ko°v Nn¥-I-\mb sYbn¬kv BWv. F∂m¬ sYbn¬kns‚ ka-Im-en-I-\mb A\m-Ivkn-sa-\kv ]d-™-Xv F√mØn-s‚bpw Dd-hnSw hmbp As√-¶n¬ \ocm-hn-bm-sW-∂m-Wv. Ch¿°v tijw h∂ Fw]n-tUm-¢nkv GsX-¶nepw Hcp ASn-ÿm\ aqeIw F∂ Bi-bsØ Xnc-kvI-cn-°p-Ibpw aÆv, hmbp, Pew, A·n F∂nh- b psS tNcp- h - b n¬\n∂mWv F√mw D≠m- h p- ∂ - s X∂v hniz- k n°pIbpw sNbvXp. kqcy≥ F√m Poh-Pm-e-I-߃°pw {][m-\-s∏-´Xm-sW∂v s]mXpsh F√m {Ko°v Nn¥-Icpw hniz-kn-®p.

12

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xncp-∂Xpw sI Dj

{Ko°v Nn¥-I\pw alm-\mb tπt‰m-bpsS injy-\p-amb AcntÃm-´n-en-s\-bmWv imkv{X-]-T-\-Øns‚ ]nXm-hmbn IW-°m-°p-∂Xv.]co-£W - m-Sn-ÿm-\Ø - n-ep≈ \nK-a\ - ß - f - psS ]cn-tim-[\ Bcw-`n-®Xv At±l-am-Wv. imkv{X-Øn-s‚ ASn-ÿm-\-amb bp‡n-Nn¥ Acn-tÃm´n-ens‚ kw`m-h-\-bm-Wv. P¥p-Pm-e-I-ß-fpsS hnI-k\w {Iam-\p-K-Xam-bn-´m-sW∂v At±-l-Øn-\-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-∂p. kky-ß-sfbpw P¥p°-sfbpw Ah-bpsS kz`m-h-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ hnhn[ hn`mK-ßf - m-°p∂ coXn XpS-ßn-bXpw Acn-tÃm-´n-em-Wv. F∂m¬ Nfn-bn¬ \n∂pw a’y-߃ D≠m-hp∂p F∂pw No™-gp-Ip∂ amwk-Øn¬ \n∂mWv ]pgp-°-fp-≠m-hp-∂-sX∂pw At±lw hniz-kn-®p. {InkvXp-aXw i‡n{]m]n-®-tXmsS ]cn-Wm-a-sØ°pdn®p≈ N¿®-Iƒ ASn-®-a¿Ø-s∏-Sp-Ibpw krjvSn-hmZw i‡n-{]m-]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXn-s\-Xn-cmb GXv {]kvXm-h-\bpw aX-\n-µm-°p-‰-ambn IW-°m-°-s∏-´p. ]t£ aX-Øns‚ {]Xn-tcm[w F{X i‡n-bp-≈Xm-bmepw AXn\v a\p-jys‚ kzX-{¥Nn-¥sb XS-™p-sh-°m-\mhn√ F∂-Xn\v Ncn{Xw km£n-bm-hp-∂XmWv \mw ]n∂oSv ImWp∂Xv. 1543 ¬ kqcy- \ mWv {]]- © tI{µw F∂v {]Jym-]n-®p-sIm≠v tIm∏¿\n-°kv Hcp hnNm-c-hn-π-hØn\v Xncn-sIm-fp-Øn. Xs‚ ZqcZ¿in-\n-bn-eqsS A\-¥-hn-lm-b- nte°v IÆ-b®v Is≠-Ønb Imcy߃ Keo-entbm hnfn®p ]d-™t∏mƒ aX-Øns‚ tIm´-Iƒ ho≠pw Ipep-ßn. Keo-en-tbm-hns\ XS-hn-en´ aX-t\-Xr-Xz-Øn\v At±l-Øns‚ Nn¥-Isf Hfn-∏n®p sh°m≥ IgntIm∏¿\n-°kv ™n-√. Keo-entbm sXfn® hgn-bneqsS bm{X XpS¿∂ sFk-Iv\yq-´¨ {]IrXn{]Xn-`m-k-߃°v B[m-c-amb `uXnI \nb-a-߃ hni-Zo-I-cn-®p. `uXnI imkv{X taJe-bn¬ \yq´¨ Db¿Ønb hnNm-c-hn-πhw ]cn-Wm-a-sØbpw Hcp {]IrXn{]Xn-`m-ka - mbn ImWm\pw ]Tn-°m\pw Poh-im-kv{X-⁄∑msc t{]cn-∏n-®p. imkv{Xw hnkvt^m-S-Im-fl-I-amb coXn-bn¬ Pohn-X-Øns‚ kakvX-ta-J-e-I-sfbpw am‰n-a-dn-°m≥ XpS-ßnb ImeØpw Xo{h-amb aX-t_m-[t- ØmsS krjvSn-hm-ZsØ ]n¥p-S¿∂n-cp∂ Nn¥-Icpw D≠mbn-cp∂p F∂v ad-°-cp-Xv. tIw{_nUvPv k¿∆I-em-im-e-bnse Nm≥kedpw {]apJ aX-im-kv{X-⁄-\p-amb tPm¨sse‰v^p´v 1620 ¬

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xncp-∂Xpw sI Dj

13

ckIcamb Hcp I≠p-]n-SnØw \SØn. 4004 _n kn, HIvtSm_¿ 21-˛mw Xob-Xn-bmWv ssZhw BZysØ a\p-jy-\mb BZm-ans\ krjvSn-®sX∂v! ss__nƒ IYm-]m-{X-ß-fpsS Bbp v Iq´nbpw KWn- ® p- a mWv At±lw Cu I≠p-]n-Sp-Ø-Øn-seØn-b-Xv. as‰mcp {]IrXn imkv{X⁄-\mb Iphn-b¿ (1769˛1832) alm\mi kn≤m-¥-Øns‚ h‡m-hmbn cwKØv h∂p. Cu kn≤m-¥-a-\p-kcn®v `qI-ºw, A·n-]¿∆X kvt^mImƒ en\-bkv S\w, sh≈-s∏m°w XpS-ßnb {]IrXn-Zp-c-¥-߃ Hcp {]tZ-isØ Poh-Pm-e-I-ßsf ]q¿Æ-ambpw C√mXm-°p-∂p. a‰p-`m-K-ß-fn¬\n∂pw Pohn-Iƒ Atßm´v IpSn-tbdn ]pXnb Pohn-h¿§-ambn Xma-k-am-cw-`n-°p-∂p. Cßs\ \mi-Øn-\n-cbm-hp∂ Pohn-I-fpsS Ah-in-jvS-ß-fmWv t^mkn-ep-Iƒ F∂-t±lw hmZn-®p. F¥n-\[ - nIw! h¿§o-Ic - W imkv{X-Øn\v ASn-Ød - b - n-Sp-Ibpw kky-߃°pw P¥p-°ƒ°pw imkv{Xo-b-ambn t]cv sImSp-°p∂ k{º-Zmbw XpS-ßp-Ibpw sNbvX U®v {]IrXnimkv{X-⁄-\mb Imƒ en\-bkv (1707˛1778) t]mepw Pohn-Isf AXm-Xns‚ cq]-Øn¬ {]tXyIw krjvSn-®-Xm-sW∂v Dd®p hniz-kn-®n-cp-∂p. 1789 ¬ \S∂ {^©v hnπhw cmjv{Sob, kmaq-ly, kmº-ØnI kmwkvIm-cnI taJ-e-I-fn-se√mw henb am‰-߃°v Imc-W-ambn. imkv{X-Øns‚ `mKØp\n∂pw ]pXnb Nn¥-Ifpw kn≤m-¥-ßfpw Cu ImeØv Db¿∂ph∂-Xmbn \ap°v ImWmw. ]cn-Wma kw_‘n-bmbpw G‰hpw hnπ-h-I-c-sa∂v ]d-bm-hp∂ Bi-b-߃ BZyw Db¿∂ph∂Xv {^m≥kn¬\n∂p Xs∂-bm-Wv. {]ikvX {]IrXnimkv{X-⁄-\m-bn-cp∂ sImwsX Un _^\v {]tNm-Z-\-am-bXv \yq´¨ Bhn-jvI-cn® `uXnI imkv{X \nb-a-ßfm-bn-cp-∂p. Pohn-Iƒ°v Hcp s]mXp ]q¿∆n-I-\p-≠mhmw F∂ hnπh-Ic - a - mb Bibw BZy-ambn Ah-Xc - n-∏n-®Xv At±-lam-Wv. Nne PohPm-Xn-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ kmZr-iy-amWv At±l-sØ- A-Xn\v t{]cn-∏n-®Xv. a\p-jy\pw Ipc-ßp-Ifpw Hcp s]mXp ]q¿∆n-I-\n¬ \n∂v ]cn-Wan-®p-≠m-b-Xm-sW∂v At±lw Dd®p hniz-kn-®p. AXp-t]mse a\pjy≥ sacp°n hf¿Øp∂ I∂p-Im-en-bn-\-ß-fpsS _‘p-°sf h\Øn¬ Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-bp-sa∂pw At±lw ]d-™p. `qan°v ss__nfn¬ ]d-bp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ A≥]Xv e£w h¿jw ]g-°-ap-s≠∂pw At±- l - Ø n- \ v \√ Dd- ∏ p- ≠ m- b n- c p- ∂ p. ]t£ _^≥ Hcp \√

14

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xncp-∂Xpw sI Dj

{InkvXp-aX hnizm-kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. krjvSnhmZ-Øn-s\-Xn-cmbn Ah-Xcn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp∂ GXv Bi-bhpw Xs∂ A]-I-S-Øn-em-°p-sa∂v At±l-Øn\v \√ Dd-∏p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. AXp-sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°Ww kz¥w \nKa-\-߃ tIhew km≤y-X-Iƒ F∂ \ne-bn¬ am{Xw At±lw Xs‚ {]_-‘-ß-fn¬ {]kvXm-hn-°p-∂-Xv. F¶nepw auen-I-amb Bi-bß-fpsS t]cn¬ B[p-\nI Poh-im-kv{X-⁄¿ At±lsØ ]cn-Wma-hm-Z-Øns‚ ]nXm-hmbn IW-°m-°p-∂p. F∂m¬ Xs‚ Bi-b-ß-tf-°mƒ hen-sbmcp kw`m-h\ _^≥ imkv { X- t em- I - Ø n\v \ev I n- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . AXmWv Po≥ _m]v ‰ nÃv emam¿°v F∂ {]IrXnimkv{X-⁄≥. BcmWv Cu emam¿°v? \ap°v t\m°mw.

Um¿hn≥ ]d-™Xpw Um¿hn≥ Adn-bm-Xncp-∂Xpw sI Dj

15

2 Pndm-^ns‚ IgpØpw ]mºns‚ Imep-Ifpw ]cn-Wmaw \n›n-X-amb Nne {]IrXn\nb- a - ß ƒ°v A\p- k - c n®mWv \S-°p-∂Xv F∂v kss[cyw BZy-ambn {]Jym-]n® Poh-im-kv{X⁄-\mWv Po≥ _m]v‰nÃv emam¿-°.v 1744 BKkvXv 1˛mw XobXn hS°≥ {^m≥knse ]n°m¿Un \Kc- Ø n- e mWv emam¿°v P\n- ® - X v . Ipeo-\-sa-¶nepw Zcn-{Z-am-bn-cp∂p At±l-Øns‚ IpSpw-_w. ]pcp-j∑m-cmb AwK-ß-sf√mw ssk\nI Po≥ _m]v‰nÃv emam¿°v tkh-\-Øn\v t]mhp∂ Hcp ]mcºcyw B IpSpw-_-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp∂p. _me-\mb emam¿°n\pw ]´m-f-°m-c-\m-hm≥ CjvS-am-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ Xs‚ Cf-b-]p-{X≥ tImtf-Pn¬ t]mbn ]Tn-°-W-sa-∂mWv At±-l-Øns‚ A—≥ Xocp-am-\n-®Xv. F∂m¬ emam¿°v sNbvX-sX-¥m-sWt∂m? ]nXmhv acn-°p-∂Xp-hsc ]T\w XpS¿∂p. 1760 ¬ A—≥ acn-®-bp-S≥ Hcp IpXn-c-sbbpw hnebv°p hmßn ]´m-f-Øn¬ tNcm≥ bm{X Xncn-®p. {^©v ]´mfw A∂v P¿Ω-\n-bn¬ {]jy-bp-ambn bp≤-Øn--te¿s∏-´n-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. Atßm-´mWv At±-lhpw t]mb-Xv. At∏mƒ emam¿°ns‚ {]mbw shdpw ]Xn-t\-gm-bn-cp∂p Ft∂m¿°-Ww. bp≤-°-f-Øn¬ B bphmhv {]Z¿in-∏n® [oc-Xbpw t]mcm-´-ho-