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Java Programming D. Kavitha M. Neelamegan

Java Programming

D. Kavitha, M.Sc., M.Phil., Set. (Ph.D)  HOD of  BCA

M. Neelamegan, ME., MBA., Assistant Professor Department of BCA SVM ATRS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE   Katteri, Uthangarai

For online purchase

www.charulathapublications.com New No.24, Thambiah Road, West Mambalam, Chennai - 33.

Mobile : 98404 28577

June 2019

© Charulatha Publications

ISBN No. : 978-93-89051-14-8

Published by

CHARULATHA

PUBLICATIONS

New No.24, Thambiah Road, West Mambalam, Chennai - 600 033. Phone : 24745589, 24746546 Email : [email protected] [email protected] www.charulathapublications.com

PREFACE Java Programming is an introduction to computer science and applications with programming intended for readers with little or no experience. In this second edition, we added managing Input/ Output operations on files along with the first edition. We start with the most basic concepts and are careful to define all terms when they are first used. The book presents each new idea in a logical progression. Larger topics, like recursion and objectoriented programming, are divided into smaller examples and introduced over the course of several chapters. This book is intentionally concise. It is not meant to be a comprehensive presentation of Java, but rather, an initial exposure to programming constructs and techniques.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many persons have contributed to make this book a reality. We would especially like to express our appreciation to Dr.K.Arul, Principal, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts & Science College, Katteri, Uthangarai for his unstinted support and encouragement. We would also like to thank Thiru.R.P.Rajee, Secretary, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts & Science College, Katteri, Uthangarai for his continuous guidance. Finally, we wish to express our sincere thanks to all our family members for their moral support.

D. KAVITHA., M. Sc., M.Phil., SET., M. NEELAMEGAN, M.E., MBA.,

SYLLABUS PERIYAR UNIVERSITY BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION (B.C.A.) SEMESTER V CORE XI - JAVA PROGRAMMING UNIT— I Java Evolution — Simple Java Program — Java program structure — Java Tokens — Java Statements — JVM— Command Line Arguments — Constants, Variables, and Data Types — Operators and Expressions. UNIT- II Decision Making and Branching: Introduction — Decision Making with if Statement—Simple ifStatement — The if... else Statement — Nesting of if...else Statement — The else if Ladder — The SwitchStatement — The ?: Operator. Decision Making and Looping: Introduction — The While Statement — TheDo Statement — The For Statement — Jumps in Loops — Labelled Loops. Classes, Objects and Methods:Introduction — Defining a Class — Fields Declaration — Methods Declaration — Creating Objects —Accessing Class Members — Constructors — Methods Overloading — Static Members —Nesting ofMethods — Inheritance —Overriding Methods — Final Variables and Methods — Final Classes — FinalizerMethods — Abstract Methods and Classes — Methods with Varargs — Visibility Control. UNIT- III Arrays, Strings and Vectors: Introduction —One-dimensional Arrays — Creating an Array — TwodimensionalArrays — Strings — Vectors — Wrapper Classes — Enumerated Types —

Annotations. Interfaces: Introduction — Defining Interfaces —Extending Interfaces — Implementing Interfaces —Accessing Interface Variables — Packages: Introduction —Java API Packages — Using System Packages—Naming Conventions — Creating Packages — Accessing a Package—Using a Package — Adding a Class toa Package — Hiding Classes — Static Import. UNIT- IV Multithreaded Programming: Introduction —Creating Threads — Extending the Thread class — Stoppingand Blocking a Thread - Life cycle of a Thread— Using Thread methods — Thread Exceptions — ThreadPriority — Synchronization — Implementing the Runnable interface — Inter-thread Communication.Managing Errors and Exceptions: Introduction —Types of Errors — Exceptions — Syntax of ExceptionHandling Code — Multiple Catch Statements — Using Finally Statement — Throwing Our OwnExceptions. Applet Programming: Introduction — Difference Between Applets and Applications— WriteApplets - Building Applet code - Applet life cycle - Creating an Executable Applet —Designing a webpage — Applet Tag — Adding Applet to HTML File— Running the applet — Applet Tags—PassingParameters to Applets —Aligning the Display — Displaying Numerical values — Getting input from theuser — Event handling. UNIT— V Graphics Programming: Introduction — The Graphics Class - Lines and Rectangles — Circles andEllipses — Drawing Arcs — Drawing polygons — Line Graphs — Using Control Loops in Applets — DrawingBar Charts. Managing)/0 Files in Java:lntroduction — Concept of stream — Stream classes — Byte streamclasses — Character stream classes — Using stream — Using the file class — Creation of Files-Reading/Writing characters— Reading/Writing Bytes— Handling Primitive Data types — Concatenatingand buffering Bytes - Random access files.

CONTENTS CHAPTER – I : FUNDAMENTALS OF OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING 1.1

Introduction of Java

1.1

1.2

Benefits of OOPS

1.4

1.3

Application of OOPS

1.4

CHAPTER – II : JAVA EVALUATION 2.1

JAVA History

2.1

2.2

JAVA Features

2.2

2.3

How JAVA Differs from C and C++

2.4

2.4

Hardware and Software Requirements

2.6

2.5

JAVA Support Systems

2.7

2.6

JAVA Development Kit (JDK)

2.7

2.7

Application Programming Interface

2.9

CHAPTER – III : OVERVIEW OF JAVA LANGUAGE 3.1

Standalone Application

3.1

3.2

JAVA Program Structure

3.4

3.3

JAVA Tokens

3.7

3.4

JAVA Statements

3.10

3.5

Implementing the JAVA Program

3.12

3.6

Command Line Arguments

3.14

CHAPTER – IV : CONSTANTS,VARIABLES AND DATA TYPES 4.1

Constants

4.1

4.2

Variables

4.4

4.3

Data Types

4.4

4.4

Type Casting

4.10

4.5

Getting Values of Variables

4.11

4.6

Standard Default Values

4.12

CHAPTER – V : OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS 5.1 Operators 5.1 5.2

Operator Precedency and Associativity

5.8

5.3

Mathematical Function

5.9

CHAPTER – VI : DECISION MAKING AND BRANCHING 6.1

Branching

6.1

6.2

Types of Condition Branching (or) Decision Making6.1

CHAPTER – VII : DECISION MAKING AND LOOPING 7.1

Looping

7.1

7.2

Jumps IN Loop

7.8

7.3

Labelled Loop

7.10

CHAPTER – VIII : CLASSES AND OBJECT 8.1

Classes

8.1

8.2

Data Members

8.2

8.3

Methods

8.2

8.4

Accessing Data Member

8.3

8.5

Constructor

8.4

8.6

Method Overloading

8.5

8.7

Method Overriding

8.6

8.8

Nesting of Methods

8.9

8.9

Static Members

8.10

8.10 Inheritance : Extending a Class

8.11

8.11 Final Variables and Methods

8.16

8.12 Visibility Control

8.20

CHAPTER – IX : CLASSES AND OBJECT 9.1

Arrays

9.1

9.2

Strings

9.5

9.3

String Buffer

9.8

9.4

Vector

9.9

CHAPTER – X : INTERFACE : MULTIPLE INHERITANCE 10.1 Interfaces

10.1

10.2 Extending Interfaces

10.2

10.3 Implementing Interfaces

10.3

CHAPTER – XI : PACKAGES 11.1 API Package

11.1

11.2 Utility Package

11.2

11.3 Networking Package

11.3

11.4 System Package

11.2

11.5 User Defined Package

11.3

11.6 Hiding Classes

11.6

CHAPTER – XII : THREADED PROGRAMMING 12.1 Multi Threading

12.1

12.2 Creating a Thread

12.2

12.3 Thread Life Cycle

12.6

12.4 Thread Priority

12.11

CHAPTER – XIII : MANAGING ERRORS AND EXCEPTION 13.1 Error

13.1

13.2 Exception Handling

13.2

13.3 Multiple Catch Statements

13.6

13.4 Using Finally Statement 13.5 Throwing our own Exception

13.8 13.10

CHAPTER – XIV : APPLET PROGRAMMING 14.1 Applet

14.1

14.2 Applet Life Cycle

14.3

14.3 Creating Web Page

14.5

14.4 Applet Tag

14.7

14.5 Passing Parameters to Applet

14.8

14.6 Event Handling

14.11

14.7 Event Sources

14.12

14.8 Event Listeners

14.12

CHAPTER – XV : GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING 15.1 Graphics Classes

15.1

15.2 Introduction to AWT Package

15.3

15.3 Introduction to Swing

15.4

CHAPTER – XVI : MANAGING INPUT / OUTPUT FILE 16.1 File

16.1

16.2 File Processing

16.1

16.3 Stream

16.2

16.4 Managing Input / Output File

16.3

Byte Stream Class

16.6

Input Stream Classes

16.6

Output Stream Classes

16.8

Reader Stream Classes

16.9

Using Streams

16.11

Other Useful I/O Classes

16.12

Using the File Class

16.13

Input / Output Exceptions

16.14

Creation of Files

16.15

Reading / Writing Characters

16.17

Reading and Writing Bytes

16.19

Handling Primitive Data Types

16.22

Concatening and Buffering Files

16.25

APPENDIX : Previous Year Question Papers

CHAPTER - I FUNDAMENTALS OF OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING 1.1 Introduction of Java Basic Concepts of OOPs  Object  Classes  Data abstraction3  Encapsulation  Inheritance  Polymorphism  Dynamic binding  Message passing Objects Objects are the basic runtime entity in an object oriented system. Syntax: Classname objectname = new objectname(); Example: Student s1 = new Student(); Classes A class is a collection of objects in similar type. Class can contain a data members and methods. Syntax Class classname { Data members;

1.2

Java Programming

Methods; } Example: Class Student { ——————— ——————— } Data Abstraction It refers to the act representing essential features without including the background details or explanation. Encapsulation The wrapping up of data members and methods into a single unit class is known as Encapsulation.

Inheritance The mechanism of deriving a new class from old class is known as Inheritance. Old class is also known as Super class or Base class. New class is also known as Sub class or Derived class. It supports the concept of hierarchical classification. Eg:

Fundamentals of Object Oriented Programming

1.3

Polymorphism Poly means many. Morph means Forms. It takes more than one forms.

There are 2 types. They are,  Run time Polymorphism  Compile time Polymorphism Dynamic Binding Binding refers to the linking of a procedure call to the code executed in response to the call. It is also known as Late Binding. Message Passing An object oriented program consists of a set of object that communication with each other.

It involves the following basic steps 1. Creating classes that define objects and their behavior

Java Programming

1.4

2. Creating object from class definition 3. Establishing communication among objects. 1.2 Benefits of OOPs The principal advantages are: 1. Through inheritance, we can eliminate redundant code extend the use of existing classes. 2. We can build programs from the standard working modules that communicate with one another that lead to saving of development time and higher productivity. 3. The principle of data hiding helps the programmer to build secure program. 4. It is possible to have multiple instances of an object to co-exist without any interference. 5. It is possible to map object in the problem domain to those in the program. 6. It is easy to partition the work in a project based on objects. 7. The data-centered design approach enables us to capture more detail of a model can implemental form. 8. Object-oriented system can be easily upgraded from small to large system. 9. Message passing techniques for communication between objects makes to interface descriptions with external systems much simpler. 10. Software complexity can be easily managed. 1.3 Application of OOPs  Real time system  Simulation and modeling  Object oriented database  AI and Expert system  CIM/CAM/CAD system  Neural Networks and parallel programming

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