Assignment 2 ( Building X-ray ) Flipbook PDF
Assignment 2 ( Building X-ray )
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BUILDING SERVICES (DDWR 2412)
ASSIGNMENT 2 ( BUILDING X-RAY ) FORMICARY CLUBHOUSE
GROUP MEMBERS : NUR EL IMAN BINTI AZMI (LEADER)) SITI NURUL ALIAH BT ABDULLAH NORHIDAYAHTUL NAZIRAH BINTI ABDUL RASHID NUR AIN ATHIRAH BINTI HARUN MUHAMMAD HAIKAL BIN RAZAK MUHAMMAD NURAIMAN BIN AZMAN
A19DW2362 A19DW2361 A19DW2657 A19DW2373 A18DW1946 A19DW2637
LECTURER : MR MURUGADASS A/L GANATHIPAN
TABLE OF CONTENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.0 - Abstract 1.1 - Project Introduction
2-4 2 4
2.0 INTERNAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 5-10 2.1. Introduction 5 2.2.Case study 6-7 2.2.1 Components of system used/missing in the building 8 2.2.2 Problems of the designed building towards its services 8 2.2.3 Benefits of system used or new system used 9 2.2.4 Future improvements 9 2.3 Conclusion 10 3.0 SEWAGE SYSTEM
4.0 SANITARY SYSTEM AND APPLIANCES 14-34 4.1. Introduction 14-20 4.2. Case study 20-22 4.2.1. Basin 23-25 4.2.2 Benefits of system used or new system services 26-27 4.2.3. Problems of the designed building towards its 28-29 services 4.2.4. Future improvements 30-33 4.3 Conclusion 34 5.0 DRAINAGE SYSTEM 5.1 : Introduction 5.2 : Case study 5.3 : Components of system 5.4: Benefits of system used 5.5 :Problems of designed building towards its services 5.6 : Future Improvements 5.7 : Uniform Building By-Law ( UBBL) 5.8 : Conclusion
37-46 37 38 38-41 41-42 43 44 45 46
6.0 PASSIVE AND ACTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM
7.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 7.1 : Introduction 7.2 : Case Study 7.3 : Components and Appliances of electrical system 7.4 : Conclusion
9-74 5 59-60 61-65 66-73 74
8.0 LEARNING FROM THE GROUP PROJECT
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Abstract
In this assignment, information regarding internal water supply, sanitary system and appliances,sewage and drainage system, passive and active environmental system as well as electrical supply systems were identified and understood. Basic principles, process and equipment of various building services systems found in buildings were introduced. Each system has its own pro’s and con’s, and thus they were studied. Through the analysis, appropriate measures of building services systems were proposed for a multi-storey public building. Their functions, such as the connections, intersections and installation of different parts and equipment were properly understood. The information was summarized in diagrammatic forms and images. Moreover, all of the systems proposed were compared to the UBBL Law requirement and other legal requirements to make sure they were realistic and impractical if the building was to be built with the integrated systems. As an approach to this assignment,Formicary Clubhouse is the building of our choice as it is able to provide us with sufficient information that regards to our studies.The scope of the research will cover all of the areas above in detail and information through evidence that will be provided in the report.The information will also be referred to the Uniform Building BY-Laws to see if the building services meets the requirements of the law based on our observations.
1.1 Project Introduction
Figure 1.1: Rendering of the student clubhouse
The chosen building is a student clubhouse under a Studio 2 proposal located at Faculty of Built and Surveying.The student clubhouse aims to have a proper center for clubs at the faculty to carry out their activities and programmes for the people in UTM.The building is a two-storey building with an open ground floor plan and a clustered first floor plan.
There are many activity spaces ranging from an interactive gathering area to a quiet discussion and office space to a wide open event space.It is widely dependent on natural ventilation and sunlight from its lack of barriers, however electrical supply systems and electrical fans are still required for the enclosed rooms present. Accessibility between the two floors involves staircases.
Introduction of site
Figure 1.2 (top right) key plan Jalan Lingkaran Ilmu & (overall) location plan Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying
UTM has played a pivotal role over the years as the nation’s largest contributor of technical and professional workforce for the local industry, government agencies as well as multinational companies. It is located both in the heart of Kuala Lumpur, known as the UTM Kuala Lumpur Campus, and in Johor Bahru, which is its main campus, situated in a strategic location in the Iskandar Malaysia region, a vibrant economic corridor in the south of Peninsular Malaysia. To be the faculty of choice for education and professional development in a built environment.We strive to develop professionals who are responsible towards shaping a sustainable built environment through synergistic partnership with the industries, professional bodies and alumni.
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Figure 1.2 shows water distribution system at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to Formicary Student Clubhouse Combined gravity and pumping system is the most common system.Treated water is pumped and stored in an elevated distribution reservoir.Then supplied to consumers by action of gravity.The excess water during low demand periods gets stored in reservoirs and gets supplied during high demand period.Economical, efficient and reliable system. A hydraulic ram, or hydram, is a cyclic water pump powered by hydropower. It takes in water at one "hydraulic head" (pressure) and flow rate, and outputs water at a higher hydraulic head and lower flow rate. The device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started. The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful, since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water.
2.0 INTERNAL WATER SUPPLY 2.1 INTRODUCTION This is about the basic study regarding water services in the case study of This building. Information mentioned is associated with the case study on how water supply is made available and the mechanism in which it is distributed throughout the building. The water services study conducted also includes the water supply system, water storage system, water distribution system, piping system and cold water system. Analysis of water supply will be analyzed to provide a more understanding about water services.
2.1.1 Literature Review In Malaysia, there is only one water supply distributor, Jabatan Bekalan Air (JBA). The JBA distributes water to each individual state which has their own privatized corporation. In Johor, SAJ is responsible for supplying water to the consumers. However, before water is supplied, it has to be treated through the process of aeration, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection and conditioning. This enables safe drinking of water. Then, processed water is stored in the service reservoir through the grid distribution of underground pipe works, and supplied to the consumers. Water in Malaysia is treated according to international standards of drinking water set out by the World Health Organization (WHO). All domestic, commercial and industrial users are metered.
2.2. CASE STUDY Water in this building is used for domestic purposes like flushing toilets, and supplying tap water. In this title will be explained about Components of system used ,problems towards its services , benefits of system used or new system used and Future improvements.
2.2.1 COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM USED A water distribution system is the physical works that deliver water from the water source to the intended end point or user. It is designed to deliver sufficient water quantity and quality to meet the requirements of the customer. -Internal water supply system For internal water supply systems,this building uses an indirect system.The indirect water supply system is only the pantry sink and the storage tank which are connected to the main supply line while all the other appliances are fed with water from the storage tank located at the terrace of the building.
Diagram 126.96.36.199 Diagram water supply
Figure 188.8.131.52 showing the placement of a water tank at the formicacy clubhouse
-Water storage Water storage needs to be quantified to satisfy the 24-hour interruption of supply because Water consumption varies at different hours of the day.The storage capacity depends upon a few factors such as, type ad use of buildings, number of occupants, type and number of fittings, frequency and pattern of use, probability and frequency of breakdown of supply. Not only that, pressure in mains and fire storage requirements can also determine the size of this storage capacity.Also for flow requirements. Storage should meet peak flow requirements, equalize system pressures, and provide emergency water supply.
Figure 2.1 Round water tank
-This building used a 5000L Round water tank made of UV stabilised food grade polyethylene. BPA free. Perhaps the most common water tank type seen around the country, the classic round water tank offers unbeatable storage capability. The largest tanks can hold up to tens of thousands of litres, helping you maintain a reliable supply of water year-round.They are therefore suitable for particularly dry areas where long-term harvesting and storage of rainwater is critical. -Pipe The water supply system also has an internal system consisting of a network of pipes passing inside the building and leading communications to the water intake points.So this building uses material HDPE pipes for the plumbing.
Figure 2.2. HDPE pipes They are made from polyethylene under low pressure, therefore they are durable and are excellent for water supply of both technical and drinking water. Such pipes are popular in modern construction because they have high elasticity and resistance to freezing. At low temperatures, they do not burst and allow you to transport both cold and hot water. In the system, the pipes are joined by welding or soldering, installation is easy, because polyethylene bends well.
2.2.3 PROBLEMS TOWARDS IT SERVICES 1. Water stored in storage tanks degrades over a period of time from a quality point of view. 2. Additional pipe network is required for carrying water to storage tank and from storage tank to appliances, increasing cost of pipe works and of course pumps. 3. Potable water may not be available at all taps.
4. You have to regularly operate and maintain pumps. 5. The tank will always need maintenance and may create problems with leakages. 6. the negative impact on the water quality due to longer water retention times and deficient mixing regimes.
2.2.3 BENEFITS OF SYSTEM USED The main advantage of an indirect system is that even if the water supply to the property is cut off, there’s still a reserve of water. For example, you’ll still be able to flush the toilet until the loft cistern is empty. Indirect systems also operate at a lower pressure than mains water. They are much quieter, and less susceptible to water hammer. Another benefit of the indirect supply is its positive contribution to minimize energetic costs because it allows the pumps to work on their Best Efficient Point. In this system,there is no threat of pipe burst and water leakages are less because water pressure will be less from the tank and less water will escape and have less loss.Also the benefits of indirects system is less wear and tear of all fixtures because of less pressure and plumbing materials. Advantages of water tanks have been widely reported in the literature. It can be said that the reservoirs are designed with two main objectives , to supply reliable water to consumers at a reasonable cost and to provide an emergency volume for fire contingencies.
2.2.4 FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS Strategies that need to be implemented to achieve the improvement for internal water supply are discussed in this section.To change the existing system from providing an intermittent water supply to providing a continuous supply, facility improvements and other actions need to be implemented. (1) Facility Improvement. The water distribution pipelines have sufficient capacity to meet the water demand continuously. Water reservoirs have sufficient capacity to absorb any water consumption fluctuation meaning a stable water supply is possible. Therefore, if the facilities are improved, a continuous water supply can be achieved.Also,the facilities must be maintained after the improvement works are complete.Without maintenance,
the efficiency of the facilities may decline or they may malfunction.Adequate, timely, and preventative maintenance must be carried out to ensure continuous water supply. (2) Replacement of Defective Meters. All defective meters should be replaced with working meters. The defective meters will be identified during the house connection survey. The water meters that are difficult for the Malaysian Public Works Department ( PWD ) meter reader to access should be replaced to provide for easier access. Currently, if a meter is not working a flat rate is applied to that connection. This does not encourage efficient water use and therefore results in water wastage. Efficient water use will not be possible using flat rates. Malfunctioning water meters will also cause difficulties when the PWDis trying to evaluate the Non revenue water (NRW) in the distribution area.
2.3 CONCLUSION To conclude that ,we have identified and clearly understand that relevant understand that relevant information related to in internal water supply system in Formicacy clubhouse.We have understood how each components function and its connectivity as well as space implications.Therefore we can conclude that the fundamental purpose of water supply system is to make sure every floor that there is an a adequate and sufficient supply of clean water.
3.0 SEWAGE SYSTEM LITERATURE REVIEW
Water for premises use is obtained from a reservoir and treated in a water treatment plant before it is distributed. In premises, water is obtained from taps, it is used for daily activities and is turned contaminated thus is considered as sewage when it is discharged from sanitary appliances or traps into other parts of a sewerage system. “Sewage“ means any liquid discharges containing human excreta, animal or vegetable matters in suspension or solution derived from domestic activities and being generated from household, commercial, institutional and industrial premises including liquid discharges from water closets, basins, sinks, bathrooms and other sanitary appliances but excluding rain water and prohibited effluent. (Sewerage Services Act 1993 [Act 508]) “Sewerage system” means a system incorporating sewers, disposal pipes, pumping stations or sewage treatment works or any combination thereof and all other structures, equipment and appurtenances (other than individual internal sewerage piping, common internal sewerage piping or septic tanks) used or intended to be used for the collection, conveyance, pumping or treatment of sewage and sewage sludge or the disposal of treated sewage effluent or sewage sludge. (Sewerage Services Act 1993) The chemical constituents of sewage are characterized into organic, inorganic substances and gases (Iwkcommy, 2015): Organic - Carbohydrates, Fats, Oil, Grease, Proteins and Surfactants Inorganic - pH, Chlorides, Citroen, Phosphorus, Sulphur Gases - Hydrogen Sulphide, Methane, Oxygen It is important that sewerage, sanitary and drainage systems in every building runs smoothly because any leakages might lead to death. For instance, many victims died in confined spaces like manholes, chambers and sludge tanks due to inhalation of toxic gases. As world population increases, environmental pollution is becoming more serious also, fresh water supplies are more crucial thus proper sewerage, sanitary and drainage systems as well as sewerage treatment are being given more attention and emphasis.
Figure 3.0 Illustrates sewerage and drainage system in Formicary Student Clubhouse
Formicary Student Clubhouse is divided into two levels: ground floor level and first level. Washrooms and pantry are placed at similar positions throughout the different levels and direct stack is shared among the levels.
Diagram 3.0 : Shows the mechanism of a sewerage system.
Diagram 3.0.1 : Shows the mechanism of a sewerage system.
In a sewerage system, sewage is collected starting from water closets, urinals,basins, sinks and any other sanitary appliances. It is conveyed to septic tank through traps and piping systems such as waste pipe, soil pipe etc. Sewage, rain and natural groundwater are treated in the pumping system before they are discharged to the septic tank. However, septic tanks are excluded from sewage or wastewater disposal systems in the Formicary Student Clubhouse, treated wastewater is discharged to the Indah Water treatment plant.
4.1. SANITARY APPLIANCES 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION Sanitary appliances remove soil water and waste water to manhole via piping system, they are categorised into two types: 1) Soil fitments for example water closets and urinals which convey soil water and human excreta. 2) Waste water fittings for example basins, baths, showers and sinks which convey wastewater produced from washing and the preparation of food. To suit the functions, materials used to make sanitary appliances should be waterproof. Soil water and waste water which contain ammonia bring an unpleasant smell and might cause infection in certain cases. Bleach used in cleaning is too corrosive and therefore dangerous for direct contact with human skin and eye. Ergo, stainless steel, ceramic, clay, travertine, marble, onyx and granite are some of the common materials we see in conventional sanitary appliances design.
Diagram 184.108.40.206 Shows the diagrammatic of sanitary system
4.2 CASE STUDY 4.2.1. BASIN Basin is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, dishwashing, and other purposes. Basin have taps (faucets) that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing. They also include a drain to remove used water this drain may itself include a strainer or shut-off device and an overflow-prevention device. Sinks may also have an integrated soap dispenser. Many sinks, especially in kitchens, are installed adjacent to or inside a counter.
Figure 220.127.116.11. Shows wash basins used in pantry of The Formicary Clubhouse
Undermount basin mount to the bottom of the countertop and are held in place by heavy-duty clips and caulk or a special adhesive. An undermount basin does have a rim, but the rim is not visible because it rests up against the bottom of the counter. The edge of the countertop along the basin cut out is entirely exposed. For this reason, undermount basins generally must be used with solid countertop materials, such as solid surface, natural stone, or quartz. With an undermount basin, the countertop extends all the way to the basin. The Formicary panty is a tight place, so the undermount is the way to go. Benefit of the undermount basin is the best for counter cleaning. It is why we choose that because there is no lip to form an obstruction around the basin, we can sweep food particles directly off the counter and into the basin. However , undermount basins have a problem which is on cost . Cost for the undermount basin is higher, but only marginally, about RM200 to RM300 more. Other than that , undermount basin cannot diy installation because it’s too easy to damage an expensive countertop if we make a mistake The future improvement based on the undermounted basin is we can make undermounted basin as a multifunctional basin which, undermount not just wash dishes, plates and hands, but we can chop meat and vegetable and make dishwasher, disinfector, fruits and vegetable cleaner machine.
Figure 18.104.22.168. Shows compartments wash basins with dimension.
Figure 22.214.171.124 Shows wash basins used in toilet of The Formicary Clubhouse For our toilet, we use a wall-mounted basin. A wall hung basin, as its name suggests, is mounted directly onto the wall, with no bathroom vanity underneath. This makes it a flexible and practical choice for bathrooms of all sizes. With a wide range of different design options available, a wall mounted basin enables you to stamp our own personality onto our bathroom design. The benefits of a wall hung basin is it makes a 18
feature out of your basin. Despite being essential, the basin is often overlooked as a feature in the bathroom. As it is usually attached to a vanity, this is what tends to grab the attention. The vanity is larger than the basin itself and so overpowers the basin as a visual focal point. Having the basin coming directly out of the wall draws the eye to it, making it an unusual and attractive design element. Other than that, it saves on space. A bathroom vanity can take up a large amount of space in a bathroom. A wall hung basin only needs to take up as much room as its own dimensions. It is a great space saving option, making it ideal for smaller bathrooms. However, the wall-mounted basin can be loose. It is because the caulking that once lined the back of the basin may be cracked and separated, and may even see a gap between the sink and the wall. As with any heavy object attached to a wall, over time a basin can become loosened from its anchored state on a bathroom wall or under a kitchen cabinet.
Figure 126.96.36.199 Shows a typical and compartments wash basins with dimension
4.2.2. WATER CLOSET Water closet is is a toilet that disposes of human waste (urine and feces) by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their waste.
Figure 188.8.131.52. Shows water closet used in The Formicary Clubhouse. A wall mounted water closet is the one that is fixed to the wall or in other words it is hung on the wall. It gives a different styling to your bathroom since this concept of a water closet highlights the modern way of bathroom designing. The wall mounted water closet is the ‘new in’ when it comes to designing the small bathrooms. It has four parts: the wall tank, the flush, the toilet bowl and the seat. Benefit wall mounted water closet is saved space, the extra space of the tank and the floor space underneath the seat gets saved if the wall mounted water closet is used. The tank is flushed in the walls and the area below the seat is also clear. Other benefit is convenient the wall mounted water closet can be altered and fixed at different heights keeping in mind the comfort of the user. If someone prefers the seat height to be high, then the water closet can be fixed at that particular height. The problem of a wall mounted water closet is costly one of the cons of a wall mounted water closet is its cost. The installation and the water closet as a whole unit become quite expensive. The installation of a wall mounted water closet becomes extra work since another thicker wall called the Ledge Wall is required to install this water closet. The extra, Ledge wall is needed to hold the flush tank inside. The future improvement for the wall-mounted water closet is that we can do advanced toilets, which marks a new standard of excellence in the bathroom. We can design wall mounted water closets in modern and compact, but that does not hinder its functionality. We provide features accommodating for the user’s comfortability, including motion-activated cover and seat, advanced bidet functionality, integrated air dryer, deodorizer, heated seat, foot warmer, illuminated panels and music. The controls are touch screen and include a magnetic docking station, user presets,also we can do flushing technology and auxiliary controls. This toilet seems to have it all and can be in the bathroom.
Types of water closet is used in The Formicary are wash-down water closet. It uses the weight and gravitational flow of water from the tank to flush-out waste from the toilet bowl. The washdown is relatively clog-free because of its short and wide trapway. And the main reason why the washdown toilet can not have a large water volume in the bowl is that the content needs to be light to get pushed over easily. Most of the washdown toilets come with a push-button dual flushing system. It has 2 flushing capacity, a full flush and half a or partial flush. Because of that the water is saving. Wash down toilets can accommodate 3 or 6 gallons ( 11 –22 LITRE ) per flush for solid or liquid waste. The problem of the wash-down water closet is , it has a bad tendency to clog due to the bigger trapway. Other than that, washdown flushing requires a smaller elongated bowl to fill water properly to flush.
Figure 184.108.40.206. Shows compartments of a wash down water closet and it's flushing mechanism. As illustrated in diagram above, as water is flushed down a cistern, it enters the toilet bowl from inlet via rim holes spread evenly along the edge of a toilet bowl, it then enters trapway carries along with it urine and excreta and finally is discharged to soil pipe.
Figure 220.127.116.11. Shows compartments of cistern used in a water closet. Flushing mechanism in a cistern goes this way: 1) When the trip lever is pushed, it raises the flapper or tank ball, a rubber seal. 2) Water rushes down via the flush valve. (As described in the last paragraph.) 3) As the tank is emptied, the flapper seals the tank again. 4) Float ball rides on the surface of water, it automatically opens the ballcock when it drops. 5) Ballcock refills the tank. 6) When the tank is full, the float ball raises and the ballcock is closed. 7) This process repeats when the trip lever is pushed again.
Figure 18.104.22.168. Shows a compartments water closet with dimension 22
4.2.3. Water seal and trap Water seals and traps are fixed at the end of a soil pipe or waste pipe. It prevents unpleasant smells from waste water from entering a building. Traps should be self-cleaning, meaning that their internal wall is scoured with water rushing down in them. 22.214.171.124 Water seal Water seal prevents hydrocarbons or any other dangerous sewer gases and pests from entering the building thus it serves a direct hygiene purpose. Its depth should allow a minimum of 75 mm of water to allow waste water to flow smoothly.
Figure 126.96.36.199.1 Shows a water seal in a ‘P’ trap. 188.8.131.52 P Trap
184.108.40.206.1 Shows ‘P’ trap used in The Formicary Clubhouse
220.127.116.11.2 Shows the compartments and its dimension of ‘P’ trap 4.2.4 Bottle trap Bottle trap is widely used in the basin in The Formicary Clubhouse. In terms of maintenance, bottle trap is very convenient to use as its bottle can be opened and cleaned if it is clogged. Its disadvantages is it is always filled with a certain amount of water and thus it tends to foul easily.
18.104.22.168 Shows bottle trap used inThe Formicary Clubhouse and its dimension.
4.2.5 Floor trap. Floor trap or known as nahani trap is provided in the floor to collect waste water from the washbasin, shower, sink and bathroom. Floor trap available in cast iron or UPVC material and have removable grating (JALI) on the top of the trap. The minimum depth of water seal is 50mm.
22.214.171.124 Shows compartments of floor trap
Figure 126.96.36.199 Shows compartments area of floor trap
Flip floor drain is widely used in the basin in The Formicary Clubhouse. Flip floor drain is the use of gravity to open the case of water, closed without water. It looks like it will deodorise, but it will actually be used differently. The problem is these self-sealing floor drains do not deodorise, are easy to plug, and have a short life. Benefit is there are more options for panel styles.
Figure 188.8.131.52 Shows dimension of floor trap
184.108.40.206 Shows axonometric of the floor trap
220.127.116.11 Shows cross section layout of the connection of basin into trap body with venting. The future improvement for the floor trap is, do the floor trap automatic floor trap which is when the water comes out from the tap, automatically the flip floor trap opens it and it can also absorb the water if the floor is wet.
4.2.6 Gully trap. A gully trap is provided outside the building before connecting it to the external sewerage line. It also collects waste water from the kitchen sink, wash basins, bath and wash area. Gully Trap is provided to prevent the foul gases entering into the building by providing water seal. It has a deep water seal of minimum 50 mm depth and it also prevents entry of bugs and insects from sewer line to waste water pipes. Gully traps receive sullage from baths, wash basins, kitchen sinks and pass it on into the sewer carrying discharge from W.C. Gully trap, therefore, disconnects the sullage drain from the sewer line of the house. When a gully trap is provided it may not be necessary to provide individual traps for baths, basins and kitchen sinks. Blockages and overflow are major problems with gully trap.
18.104.22.168 Shows a typical and compartments gully trap with dimension
22.214.171.124 Shows how a gully trap is connected to waste pipe and basin. If plunger cannot solve blockage, overflow can be expelled via grating on gully trap 4.2.7 Interceptor trap Interceptor trap is provided in the Interceptor Manhole (Interceptor Chamber). An Interceptor manhole is provided at the interception of building sewer and Public sewer. Intercepting traps are provided to prevent the foul gases from public sewers entering into the building sewer by providing water seal. It has a deep water seal of 100 mm depth and it also prevents entry of bugs and insects from sewer line to building sewer.
126.96.36.199 Shows a interceptor trap
4.2.8 Stack Stacks are vertical lines of pipe that extend from the horizontal building drain under the slab or in the basement up to and through the roof of the building. 188.8.131.52 Single stack As toilet in The Formicary Clubhouse are arranged in a similar position and sanitary centralised, it is suggested that a single stack or one-pipe system is used. This system is more economic than double stack as less pipe works are needed. Moreover, it is very effective if designing and installation of traps is well considered to prevent spread of foul smell. Benefit of a single stack system is to prevent transmission of foul air into the building and minimize blockage and provide enough pipe access to clear those blockages. The problem of a single stack is ventilation is not very efficient and there are limited distances. If the appliances are placed farther to the stack than the specified limit, the system may not work properly. For example, the distance of a water closet should be a maximum of 1.5 meters from the stack, the washbasin, to a maximum of 1.6 meters and kitchen sink 2.3 meters.
184.108.40.206.1 Shows how the system of single stack
4.2.9 Venting Venting system or plumbing vents remove sewer gases outside of a building and at the same time allows oxygen to enter waste system for aerobic sewage digestion to take part. The paramount reason of having venting system is it maintain a certain air pressure to allow traps to hold water. Air-tight vent pipes act as a channel that dispel unpleasant smell from inside to outside of a building,usually via roof. Corrosion is reduced as slime formation in pipes is reduced as air moves freely in drain pipes. Venting system contributes to overall smooth flow of drainage system. Some common types of vents are: 1) Stack vent – soil stack extended above the roof to fresh air. Usually, it is used in residential building and begins above the highest fixture branch connection; while for high rise building it is on the top floor. 2) Branch vent – one or more individual vent branching into a vent stack 3) Common vent – single vent connected to a common drain for back to back fixtures. 4) Individual vent – every trap is provided with an individual vent. This arrangement is continuous venting or back venting. It is considered as the most direct, simple and effective way of venting. 4.2.10 Sump
Figure 220.127.116.11.: Shows sump pit found in basement of Formicary Student Clubhouse.
Figure 18.104.22.168: Shows the inside of another sump pit found also in the basement of Formicary Student Clubhouse.
Figure 22.214.171.124: Shows compartments of a typical sump pump A sump pump is usually located in the basement of a building to collect sump basins and remove accumulated waste water from a building to prevent flooding in the basement. The sump pumps are located inside the sump chamber and are submersible pumps, each sump contains 2nos of pumps which are used to pump the waste water to the ground floor outlet. A flow capacity of 7.5 litres/sec is maintained and it is controlled by a level regulator to prevent overflow and underflow.
4.2.11 Septic Tank
Figure 126.96.36.199: Shows septic tank found in Formicary Student Clubhouse.
Figure 188.8.131.52: Shows the inside of a septic tank found in the Formicary Student Clubhouse. Septic tank is a container where wastes is given ample time to degrade into scum clarified liquid and sludge before they are discharged. A septic tank is an underground chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for basic treatment. Settling and anaerobic processes reduce solids and organics, but the treatment efficiency is only moderate (referred to as "primary treatment").
Figure 184.108.40.206: Shows the schematic of a typical septic tank. Operation of a typical septic tank can be easily explained this way. Waste water enters and after some time, the heavy solid settles at the bottom of the tank before bacteria break them down into sludge anaerobically. Scum usually consists of 10% of the working capacity. On the other hand, lighter solids, fats and grease will partially decompose and eventually a layer of floating scum is formed on top of clarified water in the tank. In some cases where a septic tank has two compartments, the clarified waste water enters the second chambers for further settlement to take place.
Diagram 220.127.116.11: Shows standard of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Suspended Solids (SS) that effluent discharged upstream (Standard A) and downstream (Standard B) should meet. (Environmental Quality Act 1974)
Figure 18.104.22.168: Shows the schematic of a typical septic tank.
Figure 22.214.171.124: Shows manhole used at Formicary Student Clubhouse (Left) Figure 126.96.36.199 (b): Shows internal of a typical manhole, manhole ring and ladders are designed to allow easy access (Right)
Figure 188.8.131.52: Shows section of a typical manhole with its dimension. Manholes or maintenance holes are underground chambers built to allow maintenance work for pipes in both sewer drains (foul) and surface water drains (storm) and utilities such as electrical cables to be carried out. Its opening is covered with a metal manhole cover or “biscuit” designed to prevent any accidents and unauthorized access. This is also to ensure no leakage as the sewer gases like methane and hydrogen sulphide are poisonous and may cause death. In case any sewer lines is damaged and an access into manhole is needed, safety equipment needed are: 1) Approved gas detector (properly calibrated) 2) Fresh air blower 3) Safety harness, rope and tripod safety system 4) An approved hardhat All personnel involved with entering and working in a sewer and confined spaces must be physically fit and free from any of the medical conditions/ impairments listed in paragraph 10.2 of the Department of safety and Health (DOSH) Guidelines for Safe Working in a confined Space.
Manhole ring or chamber is designed to BS5911-3, BS5911-4 to withstand pressure. Manhole rings and cover slab are designed in myriad depths and dimensions to suit different pipe diameters and actual depth of site. The joints of the manhole need to be sealed using a mastic strip and approved sealant or cement is used to seal the lifting holes provided in each component.
4.3 FINDINGS & ANALYSIS According to UBBL 1984, Section 43: In all buildings, the size of the latrines, water-closets and bathrooms shall be (a) In the case of latrines or water-closets with pedestal-type closet fittings, not less than 1.5 metres by 0.75 metre.
4.4 CONCLUSION The Formicary Student Clubhouse achieves standards and requirements such as UBBL 1984 in designing every washroom so that they meet the requirements of dimensions. Not only that, Formicary Student Clubhouse also follows guidelines like Malaysia Sewerage Industry Guidelines (MSIG) and standards like MS 1228 ‘Codes of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage Systems’. This helps them a lot in maintaining ideal washrooms for users. They also have precise and consistent maintenance work on their sewerage, sanitary and drainage system which helps them run and control waste water disposal well.
5.0 : DRAINAGE SYSTEM 5.1 INTRODUCTION The drainage system is an essential part of living in a city or urban area,as it reduces flood damage by carrying water away.When it rains,some water naturally seeps into the ground.The rest makes its way through drainage systems,into rivers and creeks and eventually into the bays,or directly to the bays through stormwater beach outlets. Rain water drainage is a system that discharge the unnecessary rain flow from streets,sidewalks,roof and buildings.Surface water will be another word for rain waiter,water that falls as rain,collected by drains and gutters and finally directed to a public sewer.Without a proper rainwater drainage system,the amount of water collected may cause damage to the building and the users. In areas with houses,shops and road,alternative ways for this water to drain away are needed as large amounts of water can build up quickly during heavy rain and storms,and without adequate drainage this flows towards low-lying land,flooding,damage and safety risks will happen.Furthermore,some of this water soaks into the ground,but without proper drainage,excess water may collect and present dangers to both people and physical property.Excess water can lead to flooding,making unsafe conditions for humans and animals and damaging cars and buildings. According to UBBL 1984 , Section 115 : Roof coverings and drainage.All roofs of buildings shall be so constructed as to drain effectually to suitable and sufficient channels,gutters,chutes or troughs which shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of these BY-laws for receiving and conveying all water which may fall on and from the roof.
5.2 CASE STUDY
Figure 5.1.1(a) Direction of the water flow
Figure 5.1.1(b)Typical Drainage System
5.3 : COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM
5.3.1 : Rain Gutter
Figure 5.3.1 ( a) : Rain gutter
A rain gutter is a narrow channel which forms a roof system which collects and direct the rainwater away from the roof.The rain gutter is to protect the foundation of a building from channeling rainwater from its roof.Other than that,it reduces erosion,prevents leaks in basements and also painted or stained surfaces by reducing the chances of exposing the water. The rain water collected by the rain gutter is then directed from the top of the roof to the bottom part of the building where it is then discharged to the public sewer.
5.3.2 : Downspout
Figure5.3.2(b) : Detail of Downspout
A downspout is a vertical pipe which connects the rain gutter for the purpose of carrying and channeling the rainwater to the ground level.Which the rainwater are then directed to the public sewer,to prevent the foundation from water damage.Showing in figure above,splash blocks and drain tiles are needed to keep water away from the house when it reaches the ground level.
UBBL 84.(a) Suitable measure shall be taken to prevent the penetration of dampness and moisture into a building (b) Damp proof courses where provide shall comply with BS 743 (materials for horizontal D.P.C)
5.3.3 : Perimeter drain
Figure 5.3.3(a) : Perimeter drain
Figure 5.3.3(b) : Interior drainage sump pump
Perimeter drainage are usually installed on the interior perimeter of the foundation,it can be also be installed on the exterior of a house depending on its design.Perimeter drain is actually a PVC pipe cover with gravel which direct the water to the drain sump.A perimeter drain, or weeping tile, is a plastic or PVC perforated pipe, which is installed underground, around the perimeter of your house. The perforations consist of thousands of tiny holes or slits that allow water to enter the pipe, and be drained away from the foundation of the home. The pipe is normally covered by a mesh permeable “sock” which helps to prevent soil from getting into the pipe.
UBBL (a) All ground under raised buildings shall be suitably finished and graded to prevent the accumulation of water or the growth of unwanted vegetation or for the breeding of vermin.
5.3.4 : Sump
Figure 5.3.4(a) : Sump
Figure 5.3.4(b) : Sump pump
Sump is a part of the interior drainage which collects water from the perimeter drain.the sump pit collects the water from the perimeter drain for pumping away purpose using a sump pump shown in figure 5.1(e).The water collected in the sump pit needs to be clear from time to time. The design of the sump pump discharge line is an important part to prevent clogs from occurring and ensures that the system works at optimum efficiency. The problems that affect what happens outside of the basement affects the amount of water that can enter the basement and cause flooding.
5.4 : BENEFITS OF USING THE SERVICES
It restricts water accumulation A good drainage system enables the free movement of water and also stops accumulation that can commence to flooding.It prevents the collection of stagnant and filthy water,which can aid mosquitoes to propagate.
It minimizes soil erosion from taking place Stored water can transpire in soil debasement after some time which can eventually cause a muddy floor surface which consequently will lead to soil erosion.With an effective drainage system,It aids in maintaining a balance of the moisture preventing washing away of garden’s top soil. It ensures a healthy existence A well functioning drainage system ensures the proper level of water tables in soil which helps maintain essential minerals such as nitrogen in soil.
It helps with irrigation Good drainage also helps deal with poor irrigation.If you have temporary problems with irrigation Framingham,irrigation Subury or irrigation Berlin, a deep root system enabled by proper drainage can help vegetation withstand a lack of water some time.
5.5 PROBLEMS OF DESIGNED BUILDING TOWARDS ITS SERVICES
Improper Grading Buildings are normally graded so that they drain properly,Water needs to go towards safe areas,like down a curb or inside a catch basin.The problem is that mostly these grades are incorrect.As a result,water will be trapped or even end up flowing towards the building,usually reaching the basement. Overflowing Gutters As our site is highly located at the location that is surrounded by trees , it is possible to encounter this problem.The blockage is often due to fallen leaves but can be corrected with an easy gutter cleaning.The problem may be due to undersized gutter or improperly installed gutters. Root Intrusions Tree and plant roots will burrow deep into the ground until they hit the drainage pipework.Roots are always searching for water,oxygen and nutrients.Pipes,especially sewer systems contain plenty of these,so roots will often penetrate any opening they find to get through.This can allow bad smells and wastewater to seep out.
5.6 : FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS ON SERVICES
Improving the traditional system Sewage and drainage systems emerged as urban ‘removal systems’. Hence, drainage and sewage-removal systems were combined. After large raw sewage releases became unacceptable,the dominant paradigm guiding the design of sewage systems became the ‘ushing and treatment paradigm’.As a result of history, many sewage systems are still combined sewage/drainage systems.The process of separating drainage and sewage has been extremely slow. As a result, raw sewage is still occasionally emitted into surface water, which creates health risks. Moreover, the efciency of the sewage treatment process is negatively affected by being fed with variable amounts of precipitation Separating Sewage from Drainage As climate change will cause more instances of extreme precipitation, cities will be forced to improve their drainage, and therefore they might also be able to speed up separating drainage from sanitation. This operation takes huge investments, but as sewage pipes have a long life expectancy,the annual costs are only moderate.This operation could have another benecial side effect: The sewage in the pipes of a separated system will have a more constant and higher temperature if precipitation no longer enters the system.Therefore, extracting heat for heating purposes will be more attractive, especially if there is a rather constant heat demand over the year, like for example in the case of a swimming pool. It is estimated that about 15–20% of domestic heat consumption can be recovered from the sewage system. Planning for increased capacity As the population grows and the climate changes theres is recognition that there will be a growing need for adaptability in an approach to drainage.For example,when designing and dimensioning pipes for drainage,why not we design in parallel liners for the pipes that can be fitted more easily at a later date to reduce the friction and hence increase the capacity. Smart Drainage Innovation play a key role in the future of drainage.For instance,Intelligent drainage solutions that can detect,monitor and adapt to the volume of rainwater were suggested as a possible way of coping with the extreme weather events that are likely to accompany climate change.These intelligent systems could also be used for monitoring and maintenance of the systems.Drainage systems that are automated or computerised such that early warnings of potential floods can be sent and maintenance and repair requirements become known well before flood events occur.
5.7 UNIFORM BY LAW ( LICENSED TO MALAYSIA STANDARDS MS 1532:2003 AND MS 1525 ) Street drainage and Building Act 1974,Section 56(1)
Rainwater pipes not be used as soil pipe.No pipe used for the carrying off rainwater from any roof shall be used for the purpose of carrying off the soil or drainage from any privy or water closet or any sullage water Street drainage and Building Act 1974,Section 57 No water pipe,stack pipes or downspout used for conveying surface water from any premises shall be used or permitted to serve or to act as a ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer. - Under JKR 20800 132-23:1:3:1.Storage tank shall be watertight and properly supported,provided with dust and mosquito proof cover.The cover shall be constructed that it shall not be airtight.the storage shall be provided with a high pressure ball valve on the inlet and of the same size as inlet pipe,overflow/warning pipe shall be discharge outside the building. UBBL All roofs of buildings shall be constructed to drain effectively to suitable and sufficient channels,gutters,chutes or troughs which shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of these By-Laws for receiving and conveying all water which may fall on and from the roof. 84.(1) Suitable measures shall be taken to prevent penetration o f dampness and moisture into a building (2) Perimeter drains are primarily used to prevent ground and surface water from penetrating or damaging building foundations. 82.(1) wherever the dampness or positions of the site of a building renders it necessary,the subsoil of the site shall be effectively drained or such other steps shall be taken as will effectively protect the building against damage from moisture.
5.8 CONCLUSION In a nutshell , this building is designed with an effective and complete drainage system that considers the need of the users entering the building.Basic sanitation services as well as storm water drainage systems are well planned that comply with standards and requirements of regulatory bodies in Malaysia.
6.0 PASSIVE AND ACTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM 6.1 VENTILATION Ventilation is the process of processing or replacing air in a space, usually involving the exchange of external and internal air and maintenance of air circulation in a space. It is very important in ensuring high indoor air quality and thermal comfort by drawing in external fresh air and expelling internal stale air. Through ventilation temperature is controlled, pollutants and excessive smell are removed, oxygen is replenished and so on. 6.1.1 ACTIVE VENTILATION (MECHANICAL VENTILATION) LITERATURE REVIEW Mechanical ventilation system is considered as an active system because it uses active energy to function. This system can be divided into three categories which are exhaust ventilation system, supply ventilation system, and underfloor ventilation system. 184.108.40.206 EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM Exhaust ventilation systems work by depressurizing a structure. The system exhausts air from the building, thus causing a change in pressure that pulls in make-up from the outside through leaks in the building shell and intentional, passive vents. Exhaust ventilation is most appropriate for colder climates, since in warmer climates, depressurization can draw moist air into wall cavities where it may condense and cause moisture damage. Exhaust ventilation systems are relatively simple and inexpensive to install. Typically, an exhaust ventilation system consists of a single fan connected to a centrally located, single exhaust point in the house. A better design is to connect the fan to ducts from several rooms, preferably rooms where pollutants are generated, such as bathrooms and kitchens. Adjustable, passive vents through windows or walls can be installed in other rooms to introduce fresh air rather than rely on leaks in the building envelope. Passive vents may, however, require larger pressure differences than those induced by the ventilation fan to work properly
220.127.116.11 SUPPLY VENTILATION SYSTEM Supply ventilation systems use a fan to pressurize a structure, forcing outside air into the building while air leaks out of the building through holes in the shell, bath and range fan ducts, and intentional vents. Like exhaust ventilation systems, supply ventilation systems are relatively simple and inexpensive to install. A typical supply ventilation system has a fan and duct system that introduces fresh air into usually one, but preferably several, rooms that users occupy most. This system may include adjustable window or wall vents in other rooms. Supply ventilation systems allow better control of the air that enters the house compared to exhaust ventilation systems. By pressurizing the house, supply ventilation systems minimize outdoor pollutants in the living Supply ventilation also allows outdoor air introduced into the house to be filtered from pollutants. Supply ventilation systems work best in hot or mixed climates. Because they pressurize the house, these systems have the potential to cause moisture problems in cold climates. In winter, the supply ventilation system causes warm interior air to leak through random openings in the exterior wall and ceiling. If the interior air is humid
enough, moisture may condense in the attic or cold outer parts of the exterior wall, resulting in mold, mildew and decay.
18.104.22.168 BALANCED VENTILATION SYSTEM Balanced ventilation systems, if properly designed and installed, neither pressurize nor depressurize a structure. Rather, they introduce and exhaust approximately equal quantities of fresh outside air and pollution inside air. A balanced ventilation system usually has two fans and two duct systems. Fresh air supply and exhaust vents can be installed in every room, but a typical balanced ventilation system is designed to supply fresh air to bedrooms and living rooms where occupants spend the most time. It also exhausts air from rooms where moisture and pollutants are most often generated, such as the kitchen, bathrooms and the laundry room. Some designs use a single-point exhaust, and because they directly supply outside air, balanced systems allow the use of filters to remove dust and pollen from outside air before introducing it into the house. Balanced ventilation systems are also appropriate for all climates.
6.1.2 PASSIVE VENTILATION (NATURAL VENTILATION) Passive ventilation, also called natural ventilation, makes use of natural forces, such as wind and thermal buoyancy, to circulate air to and from an indoor space. These ventilation systems work to regulate the internal air temperature as well as bring fresh air in and send stale air out. This is largely achieved through the opening and closing of windows and vents which act as a source of air as well as an exhaust. 22.214.171.124 NATURAL WIND VENTILATION Natural wind ventilation is a type of ventilation that relies on the natural force of the wind to provide ventilation for the building. This form of ventilation usually relies on the design of the building’s openings as to what type of ventilation and the efficacy of said ventilation.
ONE SIDED VENTILATION One sided ventilation is where one or more openings are available at one façade of the building. This type of natural ventilation allows for circulation in medium sized space as the ventilation is to both start and end at one opening.
CROSS VENTILATION Cross ventilation is achieved using openings on both sides of a space. This kind of natural elevation allows for proper and constant circulation of air throughout the entirety of the space.
126.96.36.199 THERMAL BUOYANCY STACK VENTILATION Stack ventilation works by making use of the principle of thermal buoyancy where temperature differences between the hot air inside the space and the cooler external air. Warm air rises because it is less dense than cold air. When warm air rises to the roof of a building, it creates a small vacuum in the building's lower levels, this will help to pull fresh air in through openings in the ground floor. This creates a natural airflow. This process works when there is a height difference between the openings that let outdoor air in and the openings that let out 'used' indoor air.
BUILDING CONTEXT For the clubhouse the ventilation utilised is cross ventilation on the ground floor and one sided ventilation on the 1st floor
AIRFLOW DIAGRAM GROUND FLOOR
6.2 PASSIVE DAYLIGHTING Passive daylighting is the strategic usage of daylight in terms of quantity and distribution throughout a building. Usage of windows, skylights and clear doors to invite natural lighting into most spaces of a building is how this passive strategy is executed as to decrease usage of electrical lighting and heating.
SUNPATH The relationship of the building to the site’s sunpath greatly influences the building’s passive daylighting and shading elements.
The full glass windows facade allows for sunlight to enter to most areas of the building throughout the day. 6.3 SOLAR ENERGY (ACTIVE SYSTEM) Solar energy is the product of conversion of light energy from the sun to usable electrical energy in the building. The use of solar panels that convert the light photons into a DC electrical current which are wired to an inverter that changes the current into AC which is either sent to the building’s appliances or batteries that store said energy.
INTRODUCTION OF SOLAR ENERGY INTO THE BUILDING COMPONENTS SOLAR PANELS A solar panel is actually a collection of solar (or photovoltaic) cells, which can be used to generate electricity through photovoltaic effect. These cells are arranged in a grid-like pattern on the surface of solar panels.
SOLAR INVERTER An inverter’s basic function is to “invert” the direct current (DC) output into alternating current (AC). AC is the standard used by all commercial appliances, which is why many view inverters as the “gateway” between the photovoltaic (PV) system and the energy off-taker.
BATTERIES Batteries are used to store energy generated during the day to be used throughout the night when the system is no longer generating power. Battery technology is quickly developing into a more feasible option for those who primarily use their energy in the evenings.
Introduction of space for solar inverter onto the 1st floor.
Placement of solar panels on roof.
7.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter explains the basic and general study of the electrical supply system at Formicary Student Clubhouse. The information mentioned is linked with the case study regarding how the electrical supply system is distributed throughout the whole building of Formicary Student Clubhouse. The electrical supply system case study will be covered to include the electrical power supply system, electrical components, the study on the function of the electrical rooms, the basic design considerations and dimensions. The findings are concluded in a diagram to give a brief understanding on how the electrical supply system works at Formicary Student Clubhouse. LITERATURE REVIEW Electricity was never invented. Its properties were discovered, examined and explained. The conveyance of electric power is coming from a power to consumers’ premises, which is known as an electrical supply system. An electric supply system consists of three principal components, which are the power station, the transmission lines and the distribution system. The electrical supply systems can be broadly classified into D.C. (Direct Current) or A.C. (Alternating Current) system and overhead or underground system. Nowadays, the 3-phase and 3-wire A.C. system is universally adopted for generation and transmission of electric power as an economical proposition. Below is the typical A.C. Power Supply Scheme.
7.2 CASE STUDY A. Generation, transmission and distribution system Electrical transmission and distribution systems in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. ● General description of the public distribution system in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak (500kV, 275kV, 132kV, 33kV, 11kV, 400/230V), generation levels. ● Generation systems (Smart Grid, PV, etc). ● Design and application of power supply to private installation; EHV intake, 33kV intake,PPU for township, 33kV and 11kV switch rooms for private installation, single-chamber & double chamber substation. Load estimation and substation design; selection of tariff. TNB Supply Handbook, Contribution Charges Handbook and Sarawak Electricity Rules. ● Power factor correction (tariff requirement and method of PF correction). ● Standby Power supply system; generator set, battery pack, changeover system. ● MV and HV intake design configurations (1-feeder, 2-feeder, H-formation, double-bus, single bus system). ● Fault level and Basic Insulation level design considerations. ● Safe operation working procedures for the distribution system. The network can be broadly divided into two parts : 1. Transmission system 2. Distribution system
Diagram 7.2 Transmission and Distribution System at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia(UTM) to Formicary Student Clubhouse
Each part can be further subdivided into two which are the primary transmission and secondary transmission and primary distribution and secondary distribution. The main objective of an electric power system is to obtain electrical energy and make it reachable safely to the load point where it is being used in usable form. This is done in five stages namely: 1. Generating Station 2. Primary Transmission 3. Secondary Transmission 4. Primary Distribution 5. Secondary Distribution Generating Station The place where electric power produced by the parallel connected three phase alternators/generators is called Generating Station (i.e. power plant). Generation is the part of the power system where we convert some form of energy into electrical energy. This is the source of energy in the power system. It keeps running all the time. It generates power at different voltage and power levels depending upon the type of station and the generators used. The maximum number of generators generate the
power at voltage level around 11kV-20kV. The increased voltage level leads to greater size of generator required and hence the cost involved. Primary Transmission The electric supply (in 132kV, 220 kV, 500kV or greater) is transmitted to load center by three phase three wire (3 Phase – 3 Wires also known as Delta connection) overhead transmission system.Therefore, for the delivery of electrical energy at such a long distance, an arrangement must be there to make it possible. Hence, the transmission system is essential for the delivery of electrical energy. This is made possible by using transmission lines of different length. These are overhead transmission lines in almost every case. Some exceptions occur when it is needed to cross an ocean. Then there is a compulsion to use underground. Secondary Transmission Area far from the city (outskirts) which have connected with receiving stations by lines is called secondary transmission. At the receiving station, the level of voltage is reduced by step-down transformers up to 132kV, 66 or 33 kV, and electric power is transferred by three phase three wire (3 Phase – 3 Wires) overhead system to different sub stations. Primary Distribution At a substation, the level of secondary transmission voltage (132kV, 66 or 33 kV) is reduced to 11kV by step down transforms. Secondary Distribution Electric power is transferred by (from primary distribution line i.e.11kV) to distribution substation is known as secondary distribution. This sub station is located near domestic & consumer areas where the level of voltage is reduced to 440V by step down transformers.
Diagram 7.3 shows the micro electrical distribution system at Formicary Student Clubhouse
Diagram 7.1 Electrical supply system in Formicary Student Clubhouse
ONE PHASE SUPPLY In the entire electrical domain, 1 phase supply is the delivery of AC power by a system in which there is a simultaneous change in all the supply voltages. This type of power supply sharing is utilized when the loads (home appliances) are generally heat and lightning included with huge electric motors.
Figure 7.2 shows one phase supply electrical system Benefits The benefits of choosing a 1 phase supply are because of the following reasons. ● The design is less complex ● Design cost is less ● Enhanced efficiency which delivers AC power supply of nearly 1000 watts ● It holds the ability to deliver a maximum of 1000 watts power ● Employed in multiple kinds of industries and applications Applications The applications of single-phase supply include the following. ● This power supply is applicable for homes as well as businesses. ● Used to supply plenty of power for homes, as well as for non-industrial businesses. ● This power supply is sufficient to run the motors up to about 5 horsepower (hp).
Figure 7.3 shows single phase electrical supply system
Figure 7.4 shows the substation present at Formicary Student Clubhouse
The substation is an assembly of electrical components that are connected in a definite sequence in which a circuit can be switched off manually and automatically. The substation receives electrical power from the generating station via incoming transmission lines and delivers electrical power via the outgoing transmission lines.
There are four types of substations: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Transmission Substation Distribution Substation Collector Substation Switching Substation
Every substation has the following parts and equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Outdoor Switchyard Main Office Building Switchgear and control panel Battery room and D.C. Contribution System Mechanical, Electrical and other auxiliaries (ex: fire fighting system)
Figure 7.4 shows the type of transformer present at the building A transformer can accept energy at one voltage and deliver it at another voltage. This permits electrical energy to be generated at relatively low voltages and transmitted at high voltages and low currents, thus reducing line losses and voltage drop.
MAIN SWITCH ROOM
Figure 7.4 shows the type of main switch room in the building Its main function is to receive electrical power supply, control power supply, distribute the power supply and forfend the potency supply. An area containing an assembly of electrical equipment for controlling and protection of electrical circuits. a switch room may be associated with a substation but only contains switches. The main switch to isolate electricity supply is in the main switch room.
COMPONENTS OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM WITHIN THE BUILDING The basic components for an electrical system are constant throughout every development,although some variables may occur depending on the scale of such building,provided here are components that are essential for an electrical system inside a building. 1)Distribution Board
A distribution board is an arrangement of orders of fuses and circuit breakers that are arranged to distribute electrical power to numerous individual circuits or points in a building.The board divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits,while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit,in a common enclosure. The distribution board is located in the main switch room. Distribution inside Large Buildings 1.In large building the type of distribution depends on the building type,dimension,the length of supply cables and the loads 2.The distribution system can be divided into : -The vertical supply system(rising mains) - The horizontal supply ( distribution at each floor level ) Figure shows : Scheme of power distribution in a large building
A transformer is an electrical device that transfer energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.It functions to increase or decrease the input voltage in a system.Transformer can be classified into step-up and step-down,oil based and dry type. The transformer is usually found in the substation located at the ground floor of the building.This is to allow sufficient ventilation to cool down the transformer inside.We assume the type of transformer in this building is a dry type,air filled transformer.It is a step down transformer as smaller voltage is required.Only authorized personnel is allowed to access the room due to safety purpose.
3) Circuit Breaker
Figure shows: Typical circuit breaker The circuit breaker is considered as an essential device when electricity and safety is concerned.Whenever there are excessive amounts of current flowing through,this simple mechanism automatically stops the power before any life threatening accident happens,once the power is cut it enables the user to fix the problem without getting fatally harmed from electricity current.Without these circuit breakers,the potential of fires and other life threatening mayhem would spark from the simplest wiring problem or failure,making the electrical system very unsafe and useless
The switch is an electrical component that breaks the circuit.This component interrupts the current or diverts it from a conducting component to another conducting component.There are 2 gang switch types,3 gang switch types and other combinations of gang switch types.Gang switch means more than 1 switch is used on single fitting. 5)Power plug and socket
This is a device that allows the electrical plugs to have various voltages and current ratings,types of connectors and sizes as well as shapes. 6)Circuit Wire
Electrical wiring transmits electricity from one point to another,it is used throughout a building and enables electricity power to reach different places in the building so that the user can have
access to electricity via sockets.An electric cable is made up of a conductor, usually copper, which channels electricity flow, and an insulation that protects the electricity flow from consumers(safety) 7)Electric meter
The primary function of an electric meter is to measure the amount of electricity used by the consumer , it is usually measured by kilowatt/hour(kwh).Meters can come in analog or digital format,the format TNB currently uses now for all buildings are digital meters.
ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES IN THE BUILDING
A ceiling fan is a mechanical fan mounted on the ceiling of a room or space, usually electrically powered, that uses hub-mounted rotating blades to circulate air. They cool people effectively by increasing air speed. They cool people effectively by increasing air speed. Fans do not reduce air temperature or relative humidity, unlike air-conditioning equipment but create a cooling effect by helping to evaporate sweat and increase heat exchange via convection.
An air conditioner is a system that is used to cool down a space by removing heat from the space and moving it to some outside area. The cool air can then be moved throughout a building through ventilation. Air conditioners require some input of work to operate, otherwise entropy would decrease naturally which is forbidden by the Second law of thermodynamics. Air conditioners act similarly to a heat pump, but instead follow a cooling cycle.
An LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using one or more light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The directional emission characteristics of LEDs affect the design of lamps. While a single power LED may produce as much light output as an incandescent lamp using several times as much power, in most general lighting applications multiple LEDs are used. This can form a lamp with improved cost, light distribution, heat dissipation and possibly also color-rendering characteristics.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a home appliance consisting of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from its inside to its external environment so that its inside is cooled to a temperature below the room temperature.
The chosen building has a unique characteristic of being very open. Therefore, mechanical ventilation plays an important role in circulating air in open spaces. Ceiling fans have to cool down the majority part of the building while the exhaust hood removes gases and odours from the kitchen. Wall ventilation fans and centrifugal fans have to be installed in the elevators to properly circulate air within the cores and cars. The discovery of electricity was a turning point of history because without it we would not live in the world that we live in today which is filled with life changing technology but it all needs and uses electricity. Without electricity you would not be able to view this page or be on a computer at this very moment.
8.0 LEARNING FROM GROUP WORK PROJECT This report is the result of the hard work that was given by a group of students with a great amount of teamwork,dedication and communication.
Through this overall report,we are now able to identify the components and the systems involved in the specific building services.We have learnt extra knowledge on the site and understand more about the theories that we learnt from the lecture classes by applying it to the case study.This project has gained all of us a great amount of knowledge in building services.Through this project,we were able to observe and analyse small details or components in any building in general.We have learned the implementation of building services to fit with the building codes required and how in a way it would affect the design as well.This project was very important as it gives us a hands on by-laws of architecture as we are entering the real world. From this group work we can apply all the topics and knowledge that we learned
from the class to the building. This group work also is that being social significantly enhances learning . Not only do we have to hear others’ perspectives. Perhaps someone else’s perspective will change their mind or show weaknesses and their own ideas but it is very helpful . Team members are collaborators on a project in which they are collectively trying to develop a shared understanding of a topic, shared, perspective is sharper, richer and more dynamic as a result of the collaboration. Through this group project, we realise that certain common services we learnt are compatible and some of them are not compatible with the building. As said, we have learnt extra knowledge about building services even if it is beyond our standard of syllabus. We discussed a lot with team members about what type of building services that we should use at the building. Apart from that, we even consult with our lecturer Mr. Muru for further information and guidance throughout the process of this project. This project has taught us many important knowledge about building services and the uniform building by laws in Malaysia. In conclusion, this study has achieved interesting results. We have many contributions undergoing many discussions in completing this group project. We have become wiser in the implementation of certain services and undergoing technical drawings on the floor plan showing flows of drainage and sewage system and electrical system. Other than that, teamwork has put this project into a success, without teamwork this project could become a failure. We even get to expose ourselves to a variety of perspectives in doing this project. We now understand and get to explain relevant information related with the case study. We also get to identify the application, system, installation, process, benefits, problems and ways to solve it. As said, this project is very important to us as it gives us a glimpse of the laws of architecture in the real world. We are thankful towards our lecturer, Mr. Muru for guiding us in this project and taught us important information about building services so that we are prepared for our intern in the next semester.
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