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PhiloMagz VOL 1 NO. 1

FEBRUARY 2021

the magazine for the rising philosophers

DESCRIPTION ABOUT CONFUCIUS CONFUCIUS: A Glimpse of the Philosopher Behind the Golden Rule

EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY The Origin of the Ancient Chinese Philosopher: Confucius’ Early Life and Family

CONFUCIUS: THE PARAGON OF CHINESE SAGES

孔⼦

CONFUCIANISM CONFUCIANISM: Philosophy or Religion?

BELIEFS, PHILOSOPHY, AND TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS

CONFUCIUS’ POOL OF THOUGHTS: His Beliefs, Philosophy, and Teachings

INTERESTING FACTS Learn key facts about Confucianism and the life of Confucius here.

contents

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孔⼦

DESCRIPTION ABOUT CONFUCIUS CONFUCIUS: A Glimpse of the Philosopher Behind the Golden Rule

BOOKS BY CONFUCIUS

6 8

The Five Classics and Four Books of Confucianism

EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY The Origin of the Ancient Chinese Philosopher: Confucius’ Early Life and Family

LATER LIFE

CONFUCIUS: His Bittersweet Return to Lu

EARLY CAREER OF CONFUCIUS

Confucius’ Walk Towards Death

CONFUCIANISM CONFUCIANISM: Philosophy or Religion?

LEGACY

Confucius’ Everlasting Legacy in Ancient and Modern China

13

25 27

BELIEFS, PHILOSOPHY, AND TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS

CONFUCIUS’ POOL OF THOUGHTS: His Beliefs, Philosophy, and Teachings

INTERESTING FACTS

Learn key facts about Confucianism and the life of Confucius here.

1

22

Confucius before Confucius

CONFUCIUS' DEATH

9

18

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DESCRIPTION ABOUT CONFUCIUS

CONFUCIUS: A Glimpse of the Philosopher Behind the Golden Rule By: Shayne N. Sinugbuhan

Was there ever a time someone told you: “do not do unto others what you don’t want others to do unto you”? Surely, most of us have already encountered

or

heard

about

that

certain

quotation,

because

this

has

been

regarded as one of the most notable and recognized phrases, as well as the most direct

and

general

principle

of

ethics.

At

some

point

in

our

lives,

the

aforementioned quotation, which is more commonly known as The Golden Rule, was either used by our parents, peers, or elders, to remind us of the value of care and respect for one another. As a matter of fact, people of different religions greatly treasure this rule, as to why it has different versions, still with the same thought. But, if I were to ask you, have you ever wondered even once in your life who the origin of the golden rule is? Actually, the person who delivered that well-known phrase is none other than one of the most famous Chinese philosophers… Confucius.

2

Confucius, also known as Kong Qiu, K’ung Fu-tzu, or Master Kong, is China’s

most

influential

famous

figure,

he

teacher, was

political

widely

theorist,

known

for

his

advisor,

and

aphorisms,

philosopher.

his

models

As

of

an

social

interaction, and most importantly, his philosophy and belief system called Confucianism. According to the Analects, an ancient Chinese book where his teachings were preserved, his teachings and principles largely focused on providing insights of the ethical models of family, public interaction, and educational standards. Due to this, his philosophy and teachings profoundly contributed to the civilizations of China and other East Asian countries and because of this, he then became regarded as the most significant thinker in East Asian history.

It is no doubt that Confucius was indeed a vital figure in China,

especially in the aspect of education, politics, leadership, or law. As not what many people know, Confucius was born during the period of the great war and famine in China and as he grew up, he first-handedly witnessed the sufferings of the people around him. This drove his will and determination to express his realizations in life that the best way to transform a society into a better and progressive one is by shifting

people’s

thinking.

This

is

when

he

began

to

become

interested in becoming an educator. Not long after, he then finally decided to become a teacher to change the world.

According to Chin (n.d.), Confucius was known to be the first ever teacher in China who desired to make education widely available for everyone and to establish the art of teaching as a vocation. From that, it can already be depicted that Confucius immensely valued the significance of education. In fact, he was even considered as The Great Teacher because of his contributions and teachings in the aspect of education. As the first private teacher of China, Confucius did not care about the social statuses of his students; he taught students from all backgrounds, may they be rich or poor. His teachings were usually expressed in short

phrases,

interpretations,

which that

are

open

allowed

his

to

various

students

and

to

diverse

shift

their

thinking.

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In the same way, Confucius also lived his life expressing his philosophies in the aspect of politics, leadership, and law. Confucius firmly believed that rulers are required to be good, wise, trustworthy, and generous. He emphasized that the values of virtue and tradition, propriety and humility were fundamental in the political field, because it would conclusively lead to a better and progressive society. Furthermore, records also suggest that Confucius was substantially effective in handling conflicts involving law and order, especially in diplomatic assignments. It was believed that he always used to guarantee that the ruler and his mission were well-prepared and well-planned out for the unexpected and for situations that might jeopardize them in any way. In short, he was knowledgeable in terms of advising political leaders to bring a complicated negotiation to a successful conclusion. Despite how many years have already passed, the principles and ideas of Confucius towards education, government, morals, and compassion still continue to influence and inspire millions of people around the globe every single day. He once said that:

“I was not born with knowledge, but I am quick to seek it.” Most probably, the abovementioned phrase is included in one of his

many teachings about his philosophies in life. It signifies that although the facts of his life are shrouded in legend, the truths he found have influenced the world for generations. With that, because of his contributions in China and other East Asian countries, many Chinese people feel that no matter what political situation or no matter what their religious inclinations are, they are all followers of Confucius at heart. Confucius was THAT prominent and influential.

4

Before Confucius died, he was convinced that his teachings did not make a significant impact in Chinese culture, but little did he know that even in the modern period, his teachings still continue to play an integral part of the Chinese education and his influence remains tremendously visible in contemporary Chinese culture. Up to date, the emphasis of Confucius’ teachings on family relationship and respect, significance of rituals, the value given to ceremonies, and the strong belief in the power and benefits of education still lingers in the hearts of Chinese people, as well as the believers of Confucius. They firmly believed that the moral teachings of Confucius had the potential to play the same role that Christianity had done in the modernization of Europe and America, which means that Confucius really left a trace in almost every aspect of the lives of Chinese people, which contributed to their transformation and development as a country.

Therefore, to sum it all up, we can definitely say that Confucius still has value for us today, even though he uttered his ideas thousands of years ago. His ideas undeniably continue to help the society progress and flourish, and this just goes to show that no matter how ancient or how old the teachings are, it does not necessarily mean that it cannot be applied to the modern-day society. But, despite that, always put in mind that Confucius’ teachings are only his OWN beliefs and philosophies, which means that we are not obligated to follow or agree with it. We have different perspectives in life, so it is absolutely fine if there are people who would disagree with him; we should not force people to believe into something that is against their own will and principles. Instead, we should only make use of his philosophies as a reminder or guide on how we should live our lives, without forcing other people to follow it. Let us allow diversity in society to thrive.

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Early Life and Family

The Origin of the Ancient Chinese Philosopher: Confucius’ Early Life and Family By: Junice Nicole A. Miranda and Christine A. Polintang

Let us now know the story of a well-known and most influential philosopher, the one and only, Confucius. His Early Life and Family is quite a long story and has been one of the challenging moments Confucius has to face. There are a lot of people who may not be familiar with his childhood. Confucius was born on September 551 BCE in Lu, located in the modern province of Shantung in northeastern China. He belonged to the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

According to some reports, the Kongs from the state of Song were the early ancestors of Confucius. However, the family had lost political standing and most of its wealth. Due to this, their family is under difficult financial conditions. During that time, class structure in ancient China was prevalent.

6

His family was part of the middle class called “Shi” in China, not nobility but still considered as superior to other common peasants. Confucius’s father was a soldier named Kong He. His father died when he was still at the age of 3. After his father died, his mother became widowed and has to feed him by herself. He spent all his childhood living in poverty. Later on, his mother died at the age of 23, which made Confucius mourn for three years as per prevalent tradition.

It was not easy for Confucius to enter the government service due to his background status. Therefore, he concluded that because he was poor and came from

a

lowly

station,

he

must

become

skilled

in

many

menial

things.

These

situations gave him the idea of the different outlooks on the life of people. He thought that people should be known by their talents, not by the status of their family.

In his early years, he worked as a book-keeper, cowherd, and clerk.

Confucius was good at handling problems related to Law. His journey lasted for 14 years, looking for rulers who are willing to accept his influence and be guided by his vision of virtuous government. In addition, Confucius has established his own school located in his hometown. The purpose of this is to provide students with the teachings of the ancients. Confucius did not consider himself a “creator” but rather a “sender” of these ancient moral traditions. The school of Confucius was open to all classes regardless of their background status.

"It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop." -Confucius 7

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EARLY CAREER

Confucius before Confucius By: Claire-Riza L. Limbo

Confucius as Chinese philosopher, politician, and teacher, whose message of knowledge, benevolence, loyalty and virtue were the main guiding philosophy of China for thousands of years. As a young man, Confucius worked as a shepherd, a bookkeeper and a government advisor. Confucius is known as the first teacher in China who wanted to make education broadly available and who was instrumental in establishing the art of teaching as a vocation.

Confucius worked hard until he became the brightest man of his day. His knowledge reached the rest of his community and later sent their sons to learn from him, he then became the first private teacher in China. Confucius was persevering in teaching. He

developed

Confucianism,

a

philosophy

of

developing

responsibility

and

moral

character through rigid rules of behavior.

Confucius was never elected for the high political office. He only aspired to contribute to the cause of civilization. This meant for him being employed by and having the opportunity to bring his ideas into action. He spent the majority of his life traveling from one state in a mission to gather an audience to listen to his ideas.

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CONFUCIANISM

CONFUCIANISM: Philosophy or Religion? By: Abigail Anne G. Ferrer

Confucianism is a philosophy and belief system from ancient China that’s propagated by the Chinese philosopher, Confucius, in the 6th–5th century BCE which

laid

the

foundation

for

much

of

Chinese

culture

for

more

than

two

millennia. It focuses on the importance of personal ethics, good behavior, and morality. Confucianism believes in ancestor worship and human-centered virtues for living a peaceful life. The golden rule of Confucianism is “Do not do unto others what you would not want others to do unto you.” Confucius essentially systematized elements of ancient Chinese philosophy, which were later compiled by his disciples in two authoritative volumes known as the Four Books and the Five Classics, the most important being the Lunyu.

Although often grouped with the major historical religions, Confucianism differs from them by not being an organized religion. Nonetheless, it spread to other East Asian countries and has exerted a profound influence on spiritual and political life. Whether Confucianism is only a philosophy or also a religion is disputed. Confucianism is best understood as an ethical guide to life and living with strong character.

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Yet, Confucianism also began as a revival of an earlier religious tradition. Confucian gods are nonexistent, and Confucius himself is worshipped as a spirit rather

than

a

god.

However,

there

are

temples

of

Confucianism,

wherein

important community and civic rituals happen. This debate remains unresolved and many people refer to Confucianism as both a religion and a philosophy. Both the theory and practice of Confucianism have indelibly marked the patterns of government, society, education, and family of East Asia.

The main idea of Confucianism is the significance of having a good moral character, which can then affect the world around that person through the idea of “cosmic harmony.” If the emperor has moral perfection, his rule will be peaceful and benevolent. Natural disasters and conflict are the result of straying from the ancient teachings.

The three core Confucian principles are ren, ritual, and filial piety:

Ren or “humanity,” sometimes translated love or kindness, is not any one virtue, but the source of all virtues since it leads to more virtuous behaviours, such as respect, altruism, and humility. Ren nurtures the inner character of the person

and

furthers

his/her

ethical

maturation.

Confucianism

is

all

about

conformity and acceptance of social roles, and the cultivation of conscience and character, which involves broad education and reflection on one's actions. It was a lifetime commitment to character building, carving and polishing the stone of one's character until it was a lustrous gem.

“At fifteen, I set my heart on learning. At thirty, I was firmly established. At forty, I had no more doubts. At fifty, I knew the will of heaven. At sixty, I was ready to listen to it. At seventy, I could follow my heart's desire without transgressing what was right.” From Confuscius’ Analects, 2:4

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Rituals in Confucianism were designed to bring about this respectful attitude and create a sense of community within a group. Confucius applied the term "ritual" to actions beyond the formal sacrifices and religious ceremonies to include social rituals: courtesies and accepted standards of behavior– what we today call social mores. He saw these time-honored and traditional rituals as the basis of human civilization, and he felt that only a civilized society could have a stable, unified, and enduring social order.

The idea of “filial piety,” or devotion to family, is key to Confucius thought. This devotion can take the form of ancestor worship, submission to parental authority, or the use of family metaphors, such as “son of heaven,” to describe the emperor and his government. The family was the most important group for Confucian ethics, and devotion to family could only strengthen the society surrounding it. By embracing filial piety, one was taking the initial step toward the other constants and virtues because one was subjecting one's self to a policy of behavior that did not elevate the self.

Confucius’ philosophical vision was very simple: Human beings were innately good. “Good” being defined as understanding the difference between right and wrong, and inclined naturally to choose what is right. This claim could be proven by how people reacted to others in times of trouble. The best-known example of this concept (given by the later Confucian Mencius) is a person coming across a young boy who has fallen into a well. One's first impulse is to save the boy – either by direct action or by running to find someone to help – even though one does not know the boy or his parents and might be risking one's own safety in trying to help him. In cases where one did neither of these things – in other words, where one chose wrong over right – it was due to ignorance of what was right owing to a lack of a moral code and standard of conduct. Someone who would allow the boy to drown in the well would most likely have done so out of an overdeveloped sense of self-interest.

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If such a person were educated in right action and a proper understanding of the world and their place in it, they would choose right over wrong. Confucius believed in the importance of education in order to create this virtuous character.

Even though Confucius gave his name to Confucianism, he was not the first person to discuss many of the important concepts in Confucianism. Rather, he can be understood as someone concerned with the preservation of traditional Chinese knowledge from earlier thinkers. After Confucius’ death, several of his disciples compiled his wisdom and carried on his work. The most famous of these disciples were Mencius and Xunzi, both of whom developed Confucian thought further.

Confucianism remains one of the most influential philosophies in China. During

the

Han

Dynasty,

emperor

Wu

Di

(reigned

141–87

B.C.E.)

made

Confucianism the official state ideology. During this time, Confucius schools were established to teach Confucian ethics. Confucianism existed alongside Buddhism and Taoism for several centuries as one of the most important Chinese religions. In the Song Dynasty (960–1279 C.E.) the influence from Buddhism and Taoism brought about “Neo-Confucianism,” which combined ideas from all three religions. However, in the Qing dynasty (1644–1912 C.E.), many scholars looked for a return to the older ideas of Confucianism, prompting a Confucian revival.

FACT 1: Confucius regarded the family as the cornerstone of society. Yet he divorced his wife and spent most of his life living with a group of young, male acolytes. 12

BELIEFS, PHILOSOPHY AND TEACHINGS

CONFUCIUS’ POOL OF THOUGHTS: His Beliefs, Philosophy, and Teachings By: Helaena Francheska C. Baba and Kheeia S. Valdes

BELIEFS AND PHILOSOPHY

During the sixth century B.C., competing Chinese states undermined the authority of the Chou Empire, which had held supreme rule for over 500 years. Traditional Chinese principles began to deteriorate, resulting in a period of moral decline. Confucius recognized an opportunity — and an obligation — to reinforce the societal values of compassion and tradition. The Golden Rule Confucius’ social philosophy was based primarily on the principle of "ren" or "loving others" while exercising selfdiscipline. He believed that ren could be put into action using the Golden Rule, "What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others." (Lunyu 12.2, 6.30). On Politics Confucius’ political beliefs were likewise

based

discipline.

He

on

the

concept

believed

that

of a

self-

leader

needed to exercise self-discipline in order to remain humble and treat his followers with

compassion.

would

lead

According

to

by

In

doing positive

Confucius,

so,

leaders

example.

leaders

could

motivate their subjects to follow the law by

13

teaching them virtue and the unifying force of ritual propriety.

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On Education

(Analects

Confucius’ philosophy of education focused

on

the

calligraphy,

"Six

Arts":

archery,

computation,

chariot-driving

and

music,

ritual.

To

Confucius, the main objective of being

12.2)

compassionate,

In

people

order

to

should

be

avoid

self-aggrandizement and be simple in manner

and

slow

should

practice

of

speech.

altruism

They

and

self

restraint.

an educator was to teach people to live Confucius taught that the key to

with integrity. Through his teachings, he

strove

values

of

to

resurrect

the

benevolence,

traditional

propriety

and

achieving

proper

adherence

to

TEACHINGS teachings

of

Confucius

are

both

was

ritual.

teachings,

encompassed

The

correct

Counfucius'

ritual in Chinese society.

self-mastery

quasi

practices

as

veneration

ancestors,

as

well

as

In ritual

religious of

the

dead broader

areas:

concept of etiquette and correct social

Social Teachings, which deal with the

interaction. Confucius taught that there

proper behaviour of the individual in

were

society

between

focused

on

and

two

to

his

interrelated

fellow

men,

and

mutual

obligations

members

arising

of

social

Political Teachings, which deal with

relationships, for example as between

the art of governance and the proper

Husband

relationship of the Ruler to the ruled.

Children, Older Brother and Younger

He

Brother, and so on. Adherence to the

viewed

education

as

central

to

and

Wife,

achieving proper conduct both within

proper

Society and in Government.

members

of

these

guarantee

an

harmonious

between

Social Teachings of Confucius Confucius taught that people should

conduct

Parents

them

and

expected

between

groupings

also

and

would

relationship

serve

as

the

foundation of a just a stable society.

have compassion for one another, and to avoid treating others in ways that they themselves would not wish to be treated:

What

you

do

not

wish

for

yourself, do not do to others.

14

Although the subordinate members of

a

relationship

(children

to

their

Within society, Confucius prescribed the

following

main

ceremonies

or

parents, wives to their husbands) were

rituals:

required to be obedient, their obedience

when a son achieved manhood on his

was not absolute and depended upon the

twentieth birthday - analogous to a Bar

superior

Mitzvah),

member

of

the

relationship

Capping

(

a

joyous

marriage,

occasion

mourning

rites,

(parent, husband for example) acting in

sacrifices, feasts, and interviews. These

accordance with his own obligations.

ceremonies

were

quite

complex

and

highly ritualized. Confucius's

teachings

strongly

emphasized the importance of following

While to Westerners the emphasis on

rituals. He said: "Look at nothing in

ritual

defiance of ritual, listen to nothing in

oppressive, it must be remembered that

defiance of ritual, speak of nothing in

the

defiance or ritual, never stir hand or foot

social teachings is that people should

in defiance of ritual." (Analects 12.1)

follow the Five Virtues and love one

may

guiding

another

and

seem

stultifying

principle

treat

in

and

Confucius's

each

other

with

kindness, which is a concept shared by all

great

religions

and

humanistic

philosophies.

Political Teachings of Confucius Much

of

Confucius's

teachings

focused on the art of governance and how

a

ruler

Machiavelli,

should who

act.

Unlike

expounded

the

concept of amoral statecraft in which he counseled the ruler on how to appear just in order to gain the trust of the people, while at the same time engaging Filial Piety: In this Chinese print from 1848 a noted Song Dynasty calligrapher is portrayed as an example of filial piety because he loved his mother so much that he emptied her chamber pot himself.

15

in oppression and stratagems, Confucius advocated

for

true

justice

and

compassion on the part of the ruler and the ruled.

PhiloMagz

Only by being a just ruler would the

Confucius believed that the rulers

ruler enjoy the Mandate of Heaven and

should observe proper ritual in order to

continue to have the right to rule.

maintain their position and right to rule. These

As

with

his

social

teachings,

rituals

sacrifices

to

included the

giving

ancestors

proper at

the

Confucius believed that the key to good

ancestral temples, the exchange of gifts

governance lay in each man carrying

between members of the nobility which

out

his

bound

He

obligation and indebtedness, and acts of

his

duties

position stated: the

within

Good

ruler

being

a

father,

as

prescribed the

a

ruler,

minister, and

hierarchy.

government

being

the

by

consists the

the

father

son

being

in

them

together

in

a

web

of

etiquette and decorum such as bowing.

minister being a

a

Confucius' Teachings on Education

son.

(Analects 12.11)

It was essential that the ruler possess virtue. Virtue would enable the ruler to retain the supreme position. He who governs by means of his virtue is, to use an analogy, like the pole-star: it

Palace Examination at Kaifeng, Song Dynasty, China.

remains in its place while all the lesser stars do homage to it. (Analects 2.1)

Confucius taught that one the key to

Remarkably, given the violent nature of

self mastery was through scholarship

his

and study. He stated "He who learns

times,

Confucius

believed

that

rulers should not have to resort to force

but

or the threat of punishment to maintain

thinks but does not learn is in great

power.

danger."

He

stated:

"Your

job

is

to

govern, not to kill" (Analects XII:19)

does

not

think

(Analects

is

lost.

2.15)

In

He

his

who

own

teachings, Confucius did not expound, but rather used asked questions of his

As in the case of social relationships such

as

those

between

parents

children, husbands and wives,

and

pupils

and

used

analogies

to

classic

texts. According to Confucius “I only instruct

the

eager

and

enlighten

the

fervent.

16

If I hold up one corner and a

China was eventually conquered by

student cannot come back to me with

neighboring barbarians, who established

the other three, I do not go on with the

their

lesson.” (Analects 7.8).

maintained

In exhorting

own

dynasties, the

though

educational

they and

men to become gentlemen or Superior

examination system. When the rapidly

Men, Confucius recommended diligent

rising European powers came to China,

study under a master familiar with the

China

rules

He

technological innovations and as a result

the

China suffered further humiliations as it

of

correct

recommended

behaviour.

learning

from

was

slow

to

adopt

Western

classics. In time, Confucius's emphasis

was

on education and his belief that position

influence

and rank should be based on merit, led

other European powers from the 1800s

to

to World War 2.

the

establishment

bureaucracy

in

of

which

an

imperial

admission

partitioned by

among

Germany,

spheres England

of and

was

based not on birth but on how well the applicant

did

examinations.

on

This

the

was

an

imperial admirable

system which in theory at least awarded merit and therefore recruited the best candidates;

however

in

practice,

the

school curriculum, which was based on meeting the requirements of the state examinations, great

an

emphasis

knowing classical

became

and

being

authors

economics

were

stultified.

was

placed

able

while

Too

to

science

neglected.

on

quote and

"Life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated."

-Confucius

Although

this had not been Confucius's intent, the result was that China's education system produced which

a

was

traditionalist ill

equipped

bureaucracy to

deal

with

military and economic problems.

17

PhiloMagz

BOOKS BY CONFUCIUS

The Five Classics and Four Books of Confucianism By: Heleina Christine S. Almanzor

The Five Classics and Four Books were the basis of the civil

四 四書書五 經 五

examination in Imperial China. The Five Classics consists of the Book of Odes, Book of Documents, Book of Changes, Book of Rites, and the Spring and Autumn Annals. The Four books are the preliminary material to learn Confucianism in China written before 300 BC. It comprises the Doctrine of the Mean, the Great Learning, Mencius, and the Analects. Confucius is credited with writing and editing some of the most prominent traditional Chinese classics.

The Five Classics is traditionally said to have been compiled by

Confucius. It is a group of books which regarded early Confucianism’s basic text. The I Ching, commonly recognized as the Book of Changes, was believed to

have

existed



at

Time

of

Confucius

and

the

oldest

of

the

classics.

It

encompasses a system of divination, primarily based on the concepts of yin and yang.

18

The Book of Documents or the Book

of

History

collection by

is

organized

supposedly and

conventionally

the

behavior

of

introduced

Book of Rites, proper ritual conduct

to

would

maintain

empire,

compilation

virtue of piety.

figures

and

records

by

of

the

doctrine of the mean. According to the

attributed

speeches

and

a

Confucius by early scholars. It is a of

scholars,

major

events

as

well

harmony as

in

emphasize

the the

in

ancient China.

Confucius

also

compiled

a

historical account of the 12 dukes of Other books by Confucius consist

Lu, called the Spring and Autumn

of the rearrangement of the Book of

Annals. It is the longest of the Five

Odes. The Book of Odes or known as

Classics

the Book of Songs or Book of Poetry

historical chronicle of the State of Lu,

is a collection of three hundred and

Confucius’s

five

compiled

BC). The Spring and Autumn Annals

comprises

seem to have been produced primarily

(305)

around different

songs/poems

600

BCE

themes

that

such

as

love

and

that

is

composed

native

state

of

the

(722-481

for annalistic purposes.

marriage, agricultural concerns, daily lives and war. It also includes chants and hymns that are sung at sacrifices to heroes and ancestral spirits of the royal house.

Liji, or the Book of Rites, one of the

Five

Confucian

Classics literature

of that

Chinese have

been

assembled by Confucius, emphasizes moral values in dealing with subjects such

as

development

royal of

rites,

regulations, ritual

“Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.”

-Confucius

objects

and sacrifices, education, music,

19

PhiloMagz

论语

Analects of Confucius

The Analects of Confucius is an anthology of brief passages of speeches by Confucius and his disciples, description of Confucius as a man and a recount of several events of his life. It is a collection that comprises twenty (20)

books

of

sayings

and

ideas

attributed

to

the

Chinese

philosopher,

Confucius and his contemporaries, and traditionally believed to have been written by Confucius’ followers after his death. Since Confucius’ time, the Analects have heavily influenced the philosophy and moral values of China and later on, other East Asian countries. The Chinese title, Lunyu, means “collected

conversations''

Confucius”.

and

its

English

title

means

“briefs

saying

of

According to the Annalects, the initial step in knowing “The Way” is to devote oneself to learning. The Analects does not offer the “right” answer however,

it

encourages

reflection,

contemplation,

and

personal

growth.

Furthermore, it also accentuates the importance of good governance, social order, proper behavior, filial piety, virtue and ritual. The Imperial examinations during

the

Jin

Dynasty

emphasize

the

Confucian

studies

and

expect

the

candidates to quote or apply the words of Confucius in their essays. During the Song Dynasty, there was a great resurgence of Confucian Philosophy and public officials are required to memorize The Analects. It is the basis of the civil

service

examination

and

the

exams

were

a

vital

component

of

the

development during that period. The Analects was an incredibly important aspect of a young man’s education. The Analects offers an evolving record of the image of Confucius and his ideas through the changing standpoints of various branches of the school of thought he established.

20

Did you know? The

illustration

depicted

is

a

medieval hand copy of the Analects, dated 890 CE. It is recovered from an archaeological dig at Dunhuang, in the Western desert regions of China. Recovery of this particular copy of the

text

second

was

valuable

century

CE

since

the

commentary

included is a famous one written by the

great

largely

early

lost.

scholar

has

Unfortunately,

论语

been the

recovered text was only of a portion of

the

Analects

and

not

the

entire

commentary. The picture depicts the opening portion of Book IX of the Analects.

LUNYU OR ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS

21

PhiloMagz

CONFUCIUS' LATER LIFE

CONFUCIUS: His Bittersweet Return to Lu By: Harriet Lei N. Ollada

“We have two lives, and the second begins when we realize we only have one - Confucius“ Unlike in Taoism and Buddhism, the Confucian focus on death is through living one’s life. This explains that an individual should follow a moral stand (propriety, filial piety, health and humanness) and this stand should be continuous even in the last moment of life. It has been said that Confucius quit his government job at the age of 51 and travelled around China to teach his philosophy for several years.

22

According to a legend, as Confucius

was

busy

trying

to

⼈ 类

After Confucius’ self-exile, he spent

several

years

journeys

Lu,

state

and small kingdoms of north-east

thought

and central China. He left Lu with

became

neighboring worried.

Qi

They

Lu

the

the

too

(Tzu-lu) and Yen Hui, his favorite.

government, powerful.

they

A

in

would

strategy

be

was

then

former

They

disciples,

states

many

Confucius

his

many

and felt that as long as the state of had

of

the

short

restore the power to the Duke of the

across

taking

soldier

wandered

including

Chung

Yu

throughout

the

formulated by the Duke of Qi. He

eastern states of Wei, Sung, and

sent

Ch'en

a

luxurious

present

of

100

and

their

threatened

Duke of Lu, who for three days

Confucius was nearly assassinated

had

so

in

he

another case, he was mistaken for

engrossed

in

and

been

luxury,

that

abandoned his official duties.

Sung

explorer

by

different

were

horses and 80 dancing girls to the

indulged

at

lives

one

Yang

Huan

Hu

times.

T'ui.

and

In

was

captured and left in custody until As

the

Duke

of

Qi

had

predicted, Confucius was greatly and

deeply

disappointed

by

his true identity became clear.

his

emperor. That was the reason why Confucius

chose

to

resign.

Clearly, this story is a fabrication intended motive

to for

hide the

a

less

noble

departure

of

Confucius, namely the threat from the

clans,

who

must

have

been

frightened by Confucius’ attempt

CONFUCIUS AND HIS STUDENTS

to reduce their control.

23

PhiloMagz

⼈ 类

Confucius was received with great respect by the rulers of the states he

visited, and he also seems to have received occasional emoluments. He spent much of his time cultivating and sharing his theories on the art of government, as well as continuing his teaching. He had acquired a large following, and the solidification of the Confucian school probably happened during those years of exile. Not all of his disciples accompanied him on his journeys, and some of them actually returned to Lu and took up places with the Chi clan.

In 484, Confucius was already an elderly man - most likely in the mid-

60s – who had been welcomed back to Lu and became an influential teacher and philosopher who helped shape and form the Chinese culture, which we still remember and recognize in the world today. Most of his time was dedicated to teaching and he appears to have been more or less distant from politics. His followers wrote down his ideas and thoughts in a book called The Analects of Confucius. He is also credited with authoring three major works during this period: "Book of Odes" on ancient Chinese poetry, the revised historical account called "Book of Documents" and a political commentary of the rule of the 12 dukes of the Lu state, titled "Annals of the Spring and Autumn."

But later on, the peace and contentment of Confucius' final years was broken by a string of heartbreaking personal defeats. Around this time, his only son died; his favorite disciple, Yen Hui, died the very year of his return to Lu; and in 480 Tzu-lu was killed in battle. All these defeats Confucius felt profoundly, and his desperation and anger must have been compounded by the fact that his political ideas had reached no sympathetic ear among the rulers of his own kingdom. Confucius died in 479. His disciples held his funeral and observed a time of mourning for him.

24

CONFUCIUS' DEATH

Confucius’ Walk Towards Death By: Jemimah Cayenne Montealegre

The Chinese philosopher Confucius died in 479 BC of natural causes. He returned to his native state to spend his last few years after he wandered from state to state. He teaches his disciples there. He went there without expecting that he would be given any responsible position in the government and he accepted it.

His last few years was an unhappy period for him. He distanced himself from political affairs and spent his time in teaching. His favorite disciple, Yen Hui died when He returned to Lu. Also, his only son died in that period; and another

disciple

was

killed

in

the

battle

which

is

Tzu-lu.

Confucius

was

devastated because of all of these losses. When he felt frustrated and sad, he realized that all of his political ideas had no longer support among the rulers of his

own

state.

He

really

changed

a

lot

after

that.

A

hermit

once

said

of

Confucius: “Is that not the man who knows that striving is without hope and yet goes on?”. Confucius continued his life and studied the Book of Changes. After that, he made a new mode of education by writing and teaching a group of men. He completed systematic groundwork for it.

25

PhiloMagz

One day, Confucius felt that his death was near. He walked to the courtyard, humming the words: “The great mountain must collapse, the mighty beam must break, and the wise man wither like a plant.” When one of his pupils spoke to him, he said: “No wise ruler arises, and no one in the Empire wishes to make me his teacher. The hour of my death has come.” After that, he rested only eight days and died at the age of 73.

FACT 2:

Confucius' Cemetery was repaired and rebuilt 13 times. - Since the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD), the Cemetery of Confucius was repaired and rebuilt 13 times by the emperors of many Chinese dynasties. Today, the Cemetery of Confucius plays an important role in the analysis of the development of ancient Chinese politics, the economy and culture, as well as changes in Chinese funeral customs.

"

君 ⼩戚 荡 ⼦荡⼈戚 坦常

"

The superior man is satisfied and composed; the mean man is always full of distress - Confucius

26

LEGACY

“Confucius’ Everlasting Legacy in Ancient and Modern China” By: Beatriz Anne P. Caburian

The philosopher Confucius (551-479 B.C.) influenced the most profound reforms of ancient China, but he left a legacy that today hinders the pursuit of democratic change by some Asians. This legacy is a focus on centralized rule. Many of the neighboring Asian countries have embraced elements of Chinese culture, including Confucianism. As these countries have developed

economically,

their

citizens

have

demanded

political

rights

commensurate with their newly-found economic power.

Confucius taught that sound moral values ensure harmony between family members, ruler and ruled, and among nations. Confucianists viewed the state as an enlarged family headed by a single, paternalistic sovereign ruling

by

moral

example

rather

than

by

force.

The

ideal

ruler

acts

benevolently for the people's welfare. But some leaders have exploited the ethical system in attempts to legitimize the harshest absolute rule.

Yet agitators for democracy, including despots, may still evoke Confucianism. The sage has taught that the leader should abdicate or be overthrown if he lacks the "Mandate of Heaven" or large public support.

27

PhiloMagz

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT CONFUCIUS FACT 3:

There are only 70 odd disciples who mastered what Confucius taught. Traditionally it is said and widely believed that Confucius had 3000 disciples, but only 72 mastered what he had to teach. Yan Hui was the favorite disciple of Confucius. He is considered the first among the Four Assessors or the four prominent Chinese philosophers in the Confucian tradition.

FACT 5:

CONFUCIUS IS NOT HIS REAL NAME. Confucius’s personal name is understood to be Kǒ ng Qiū (Zi). Zi represents the family lineage and Kong, a certain branch of the family. As per prevalent customs his personal name was only used by the family elders and his courtesy name Zhòngní was commonly used by his contemporaries.

FACT 7:

CONFUCIANISM EMERGED AS A MAJOR PHILOSOPHY IN THE 100 SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT. The era of the “100 schools of thought” is considered one of great ages of cultural, philosophical and intellectual expansion in China. It took place during the Spring and Autumn period (771 to 476 BC) and the Warring States period (475 to 221 BC) of ancient China. Confucius and his followers competed successfully with many other schools during the era.

FACT 4: CONFUCIUS WENT IN A SELF-IMPOSED EXILE FOR 13-14 LONG YEARS. His ideas did not sit well with the aristocracy and other states also developed jealousy over him. So around 496 BC, Confucius went into a long self-imposed exile of 13 to 14 years looking for a feudal state that would utilize his services.

FACT 6:

CONFUCIUS HAD TO TAKE UP MANY SMALL TIME JOBS IN HIS YOUTH.. Kong He, Confucius’ father, a soldier and commander in the Lu garrison died when Confucius was three years of age. The little boy was thus cared for by his mother Yan Zhengzai.Confucius married Qiguan when he was 19. The couple had a son and two daughters. He took up many minor jobs to support his family.

FACT 8:

There is an annual festival to celebrate Confucius. Every year between September 26th and October 10th in Qufu City, the hometown of Confucius, there is the Qufu International Confucius Culture Festival. Celebrations include a worshipping ceremony and performances such as ancient music and dancing.

28

REFERENCES Berling, J. (n.d.) Confucianism. Asia Society. Retrieved from https://asiasociety.org/education/confucianism Biography Your Dictionary (n.d). Confucius. Retrieved from: https://biography.yourdictionary.com/confucius Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2020, June 5). Liji. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Liji Cartwright, M. (2012, November 29). Confucius. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Confucius/Chin, A. (2020, October 19). Confucius. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius Confucius. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.biography.com/scholar/confucius Confucius Teachings. (2021). Retrieved from http://confucius-1.com/teachings/ Confucius - the great teacher. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://china.mrdonn.org/confucius.html#:~:text=People% 20heard%20of%20his%20knowledge,through%20rigid%2 0rules%20of%20behavior. Confucian Thought. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://china.mrdonn.org/confucius.html#:~:text=People% 20heard%20of%20his%20knowledge,through%20rigid%2 0rules%20of%20behavior. Ducksters. (2021). Ancient China: Confucius Biography. Ducksters. Retrieved from https://www.ducksters.com/history/china/confucius.php? fbclid=IwAR0dYzJclR9_BrinTOzWm9cnac9Lpdqr0mSE K63fdfDwYvalLui1vtiMqrc Editors, TheFamousPeople.com. (n.d.). Confucius Biography. TheFamousPeople.com. Retrieved from https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/confucius84.php

Ellen, K. (2016). The death of Confucius. Retrieved from https://www.talkativeman.com/the-death-of-confucius/ Encyclopedia of World Biography (n.d). Confucius Biography. Retrieved fromhttps://www.notablebiographies.com/CoDa/Confucius.html Eno, R. (2015). The analects of Confucius: An online teaching translation. Retrieved from https://chinatxt.sitehost.iu.edu/Analects_of_Confucius_(E no-2015).pdf Flannagan, S. (2021). The Tragic Real Life Story of Confucius. Retrieved from: https://www.grunge.com/315270/thetragic-real-life-story-of-confucius/ Mark, J. (2020). Confucianism. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Confucianism/ National Geographic Society. (2020). Confucianism. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/confucia nism/ National Geographic Society. (2019). Early career. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/article/confu cius? fbclid=IwAR2TI_nKFnrdgQpTntoMHqJuaClvhqbiYkEVd pTDAut7yTiaYC_YgqHglmI Simply Knowledge. (n.d). Biography of Confucius. Retrieved from: http://simplyknowledge.com/popular/biography/confucius Weebly (n.d). All About Confucius. Retrieved from: https://allaboutconfucius.weebly.com/exile-and-returnhome.html Weiming, T. (2019). Confucianism. Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Confucianism Wilson, T. (2010). Five classics & four books. Retrieved from https://academics.hamilton.edu/asian_studies/home/cultte mp/sitepages/fiveclassics.html#:~:text=The%20Four%20B ooks%20are%20comprised,%2C%20Mencius%2C%20and %20the%20Analects.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS Name: Heleina Christine S. Almanzor

Name: Junice Nicole A. Miranda

Address: 1811 int. 44 Bo. Sta. Maria, Pedro Gil St.,

Address: 1591 Jimenez st. San Andres Bukid,

Paco, Manila

Manila

Birthdate: July 18, 2003

Birthdate: February 4, 2004

Email: [email protected]

Email: [email protected]

Philosophy in Life: "It's a slow process but you'll

Philosophy in Life: "Having a lot of money does not

get there."

measure one's success"

Name: Helaena Francheska C. Baba

Name: Jemimah Cayenne Montealegre

Address: 741 Don Quijote St. Sampaloc Manila

Address: 9633 Pililia St. Brgy. Valenzuela, Makati

Birthdate: October 23, 2003

City

Email: [email protected]

Birthdate: February 3, 2003

Philosophy in Life: "The only way you can get what

Email: [email protected]

you want is when you decide that it's something you

Philosophy in Life: "The beat of success is the right

need."

path to happiness"

Name: Harriet Lei N. Ollada Name: Beatriz Anne P. Caburian Address: 2345 Tejeron St. Sta. Ana, Manila Birthdate: October 1, 2003 Email: [email protected] Philosophy in Life: "Living your life to the best of your capabilities."

Address: 9516 E Anubing St. San Antonio Village, Makati City Birthdate: December 27, 2003 Email: [email protected] Philosophy in Life: "Don't fear failure. Fear not trying."

Name: Abigail Anne G. Ferrer

Name: Christine A. Polintang

Address: 1130-A. Industria St. Pandacan, Manila

Address: 2515 Granate St. San Andres ,Manila

Birthdate: July 8, 2004

Birthdate: March 20,2004

Email: [email protected]

Email: [email protected]

Philosophy in Life: "One must always believe in

Philosophy in Life: “True Happiness Makes You

what they prayed for."

Laugh”

Name: Shayne N. Sinugbuhan Name: Claire Riza L. Limbo

Address: 2261 NLC Residences, Pasigline St., Sta.

Address: 2301-A Syquia St. Sta Ana, Manila

Ana, Manila, Brgy 79

Birthdate: February 3, 2003

Birthdate: March 18, 2004

Email: [email protected]

Email: [email protected]

Philosophy in Life: "No pain, No Gain."

Philosophy in Life: "Failure can be turned into success if we learn from it."

SUBMITTED TO: MS. ROGENETE REDOÑA MR. ROBERT NUQUI

Name: Kheeia S. Valdes Address: 1609 int. 11 Pedro Gil st. Paco Manila Birthdate: May 30, 2004 Email: [email protected] Philosophy in Life: "Make hay while the sun shines"