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E magazine 2 Flipbook PDF

E magazine 2





Homogeneous mixture of the gaseous substances nitrogen, oxygen, and smaller amounts of other substances; gas mixture present in the Earth's atmosphere. Air refers to the Earth's atmosphere. Air is a mixture of many gases and tiny dust particles. It is the clear gas in which living things live and breathe. It has an indefinite shape and volume. It has mass and weight, because it is matter. The weight of air creates atmospheric pressure. There is no air in outer space. A fan is used to move air. Air is a mixture of about 78% of nitrogen, 21% of oxygen, 0.9% of argon, 0.04% of carbon dioxide, and very small amounts of other gases. There is an average of about 1% water vapour. Animals live and need to breathe the oxygen in the air. In breathing, the lungs put oxygen into the blood, and send back carbon dioxide to the air. Plants need the carbon dioxide in the air to live. They give off the oxygen that we breathe. Without it we die of asphyxia. Wind is moving air. This causes weather. Air can be polluted by some gases (such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides), smoke, and ash. This air pollution causes various problems including smog, acid rain and global warming. It can damage people's

health and the environment. Since early times, air has been used to create technology.



I am Star and Sun is my name Centre of the Solar System is what I claim. Bright and Golden Shining high You can see me up in the Sky A ball of fire is how I am seen All Planets orbit me, making me supreme. Here they come, the family of the Sun. He lives in a milky way, with 8 little ones. Do you know their names????? Let’s start with the Sun It’s a big, glowing ball Shining light on everyone. Then come to the planets Their names, do you know????? They spin around the sun Round and round they go Mercury is the first and tiniest of them all Also the second hottest, with no winter, spring or fall Next comes Venus, its very hot and bright You can even see it glow. Third on the list is Earth, Our mother It’s three-quarters of the water

A planet like no other Then comes Mars, the lovely red planet It has tall mountains, but no martians on it Waiting right behind is Jupiter, the giant one It has sixty-seven moons, And spins faster than you run Saturn is number six, with rings of stones and ice Titan is its biggest moon, and it looks really nice. Lucky number seven, is Uranus, the ice giant It keeps spinning sideways, a mystery to science. Last but not least, the coolest planet Neptune It spins really fast, and has thirteen moons They go round and round, around the big sun Now, you know their names Oh! Has not this been fun





Earth is an integral part of the solar system. It gets heat and light from the sun. If you look at the globe, most of the surface is covered with water i.e. approximately 71%. The rest 29% is covered by lands. Among this 71% water, only 3% is fresh water and the rest 97% is salted water of oceans and seas. The Earth is surrounded by 6 layers known as its atmosphere. Earth’s atmospheric layers aretroposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere, and ionosphere. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed of various gases like nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.97%) and CO2 (0.04%), water vapor, etc. The origin of the Earth is believed to be almost 5000 to 6000 million years ago. The Earth came into existence in the form of condensed cloud and other gases. The Earth was made up of mainly iron and silicate and some other elements in its origin. Some of these elements were radioactive. After millions of years from its origin, the Earth becomes hotter and hotter due to continuous energy release through radioactive decay. As a result, the iron started melting and eventually, it reaches the center. Finally, the iron accumulated at the core of the Earth.



Earth, along with the other planets, is believed to have been born 4.5 billion years ago as a solidified cloud of dust and gases left over from the creation of the Sun. For perhaps 500 million years, the interior of Earth stayed solid and relatively cool, perhaps 2,000°F. The main ingredients, according to the best available evidence, were iron and silicates, with small amounts of other elements, some of them radioactive. As millions of years passed, energy released by radioactive decay—mostly of uranium, thorium, and potassium—gradually heated Earth, melting some of its constituents. The iron melted before the silicates, and, being heavier, sank toward the center. This forced up the silicates that it found there. After many years, the iron reached the center, almost 4,000 mi deep, and began to accumulate. No eyes were around at that time to view the turmoil that must have taken place on the face of Earth—gigantic heaves and bubblings on the surface, exploding volcanoes, and flowing lava covering everything in sight. Finally, the iron in the center accumulated as the core. Around it, a thin but fairly stable crust of solid rock formed as Earth cooled. Depressions in the crust were natural basins in which water, rising from the interior of the planet through volcanoes and fissures,

collected to form the oceans. Slowly, Earth acquired its present appearance.



Earth, our home, is the third planet from the sun. It's the only planet known to have an atmosphere containing free oxygen, oceans of water on its surface and, of course, life. Earth is the fifth largest of the planets in the solar system. It's smaller than the four gas giants — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — but larger than the three other rocky planets, Mercury, Mars and Venus.

Earth has a diameter of roughly 8,000 miles (13,000 kilometers) and is round because gravity pulls matter into a ball. But, it's not perfectly round. Earth is really an "oblate spheroid," because its spin causes it to be squashed at its poles and swollen at the equator. Water covers roughly 71 percent of Earth's surface, and most of that is in the oceans. About a fifth of Earth's atmosphere consists of oxygen, produced by plants. While scientists have been studying our planet for

centuries, much has been learned in recent decades by studying pictures of Earth from space. Earth’s Orbit While Earth orbits the sun, the planet is simultaneously spinning on an imaginary line called an axis that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole. It takes Earth 23.934 hours to complete a rotation on its axis and 365.26 days to complete an orbit around the sun. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted in relation to the ecliptic plane, an imaginary surface through the planet's orbit around the sun. This means the Northern and Southern hemispheres will sometimes point toward or away from the sun depending on the time of year, and this changes the amount of light the hemispheres receive, resulting in the seasons. Earth's orbit is not a perfect circle, but rather an ovalshaped ellipse, similar to the orbits of all the other planets. Our planet is a bit closer to the sun in early January and farther away in July, although this variation has a much smaller effect than the heating and cooling caused by the tilt of Earth's axis. Earth happens to lie within the so-called "Goldilocks zone" around the sun, where temperatures are just right to maintain liquid water on our planet's surface. Earth’s Formation and Evolution Scientists think Earth was formed at roughly the same time as the sun and other planets some 4.6 billion years

ago, when the solar system coalesced from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula. As the nebula collapsed because of its gravity, it spun faster and flattened into a disk. Most of the material was pulled toward the center to form the sun. Internal Structure Earth's core is about 4,400 miles (7,100 km) wide, slightly larger than half the Earth's diameter and about the same size as Mars' diameter. The outermost 1,400 miles (2,250 km) of the core are liquid, while the inner core is solid; it's about four-fifths as big as Earth's moon, at some 1,600 miles (2,600 km) in diameter. The core is responsible for the planet's magnetic field, which helps to deflect harmful charged particles shot from the sun. Magnetic Field Earth's magnetic field is generated by currents flowing in Earth's outer core. The magnetic poles are always on the move, with the magnetic North Pole accelerating its northward motion to 24 miles (40 km) annually since tracking began in the 1830s. It will likely exit North America and reach Siberia in a matter of decades. Earth's magnetic field is changing in other ways, too. Globally, the magnetic field has weakened 10 percent since the 19th century, a ccording to NASA. These changes are mild compared to what Earth's magnetic field has done in the past. A few times every million years or so, the field completely flips, with the North and the

South poles swapping places. The magnetic field can take anywhere from 100 to 3,000 years to complete the flip. Earth’s Atmosphere Earth's atmosphere is roughly 78 percent nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen, with trace amounts of water, argon, carbon dioxide and other gases. Nowhere else in the solar system is there an atmosphere loaded with free oxygen, which is vital to one of the other unique features of Earth: life. Air surrounds Earth and becomes thinner farther from the surface. Roughly 100 miles (160 km) above Earth, the air is so thin that satellites can zip through the atmosphere with little resistance. Still, traces of atmosphere can be found as high as 370 miles (600 km) above the planet's surface. The lowest layer of the atmosphere is known as the troposphere, which is constantly in motion and why we have weather. Sunlight heats the planet's surface, causing warm air to rise into the troposphere. This air expands and cools as air pressure decreases, and because this cool air is denser than its surroundings, it then sinks and gets warmed by the Earth again. ANSH KUMAR


Earth is one of the eight planet of our solar system that revolves around the sun. Earth is the only known planet supporting life in the entire solar system. Around 73% of the surface of the earth is covered with water.

Chirag Sharma


Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans but also by lakes, rivers and other fresh water, which together constitute the hydrosphere. Much of Earth's Polar Regions are covered in ice. Earth's outer layer is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over many millions of years. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates Earth's magnetic field, and a convicting mantle that drives plate tectonics. According to radiometric dating estimation and other evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of anaerobic and, later, aerobic organisms. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as early as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of life on Earth,

biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinctions. Over 99% of all species that ever lived on Earth are extinct. Almost 8 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival. Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. Greenhouse gases also play an important role in

regulating the surface temperature. A region's climate is not only determined by latitude, but also by its proximity to moderating oceans and height among other factors. Extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones and heat waves, occurs in most areas and has a large impact on life. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, which is Earth's only natural satellite. Earth orbits around the Sun in about 365.25 days. The gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest and most massive of the four rocky planets. DARIM SAIF


The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, heated to incandescence by nuclear fusion reactions in its core, radiating the energy mainly as visible light and infrared radiation. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers (864,000 miles), or 109 times that of Earth. Its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, and accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[20] Roughly three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron. The Sun is a Gtype mainsequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally and not completely accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf (its light is closer to white than yellow).It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. The central mass

became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process. In its core the Sun currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape the core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. When hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand, eventually transforming the Sun into a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, and render Earth uninhabitable – but not for about five billion years. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, and no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion. The enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times. The Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. The synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of solar calendars, one of which is the predominant calendar in use today.


Animals & Birds Collage

The Earth is not just our home planet, but the home to many animals. Since the beginning of time, animals have inhabited the plant, serving as a friend and foe to humans. Animals are not just fellow inhabitants but an essential part of our ecosystem. However, many of these animals face the threat of extinction due to the actions of humankind. Animals are the kingdom while classifying their species. There are a variety of species present under this, with their presence spanning across the world. Animals are vital to the ecosystem. Animals have different purposes when it comes to the environment. Even microorganisms help to clean our planet. Many animals aide plants to converting free nitrogen present in the air and nourishing the roots and a crucial role in sustaining ecological balance Bhuvi


There, in a meadow, by the river’s side, A flock of nymphs I chanced to espy, All lovely daughters of the flood thereby, With goodly greenish locks, all loose untied, As each had been a bride; And each one had a little wicker basket, Made of fine twigs, entrailed curiously, In which they gathered flowers to fill their flasket, And with fine fingers cropt full featously The tender stalks on high. Of every sort, which in that meadow grew, They gathered some; the violet pallid blue, The little daisy, that at evening closes, The virgin lily, and the primrose true, With store of vermeil roses, To deck their bridegrooms’ posies Against the bridal day, which was not long: Sweet Thames, run softly, till


Early humans

We are all children of Africa. As members of the hominin species Homo sapiens. We are the product of millions of years of shared evolutionary history of life on Earth. But as a species we are relatively recent, emerging between 400,000 and 300,000 years ago in East Africa from indigenous archaic populations. Currently, some of the biggest questions facing palaeoanthropology involve trying to work out how and when early humans left the continent. Was it a single dispersal? Or multiple? A recent discovery of a jawbone fossil in Israel suggests that there could have been a migration as early as about 180,000 years ago. But a new study, published in the journal Nature, suggests early humans may have left Africa much earlier than that. The new research reports the discovery of tools from the Middle Palaeolithic (200,000 to 40,000 years ago) in Tamil Nadu, India. Surprisingly, the tools date back to 385,000 years ago – which is around the same time as this technology is thought to have first developed by archaic or possibly modern humans in Africa. This challenges the view, backed by most researchers, that modern humans brought these technologies to India less than 140,000 years ago. JEEVANSH ARORA


Mango Tree

Banana Tree

Banyan Tree

Apple Tree

Peepal Tree




Poem on stomata

The rainbow Under the shed, my love turns red. It flows in my veins and heals the pain Your presence: stomata on my skin, Always needed, for my chlorophyll is green. You make me worth, Providing me my girth. My trust in you is deep and true, Deeper than ocean which's dark and blue are the mermaid of it, On my shore you are grit, My love shines brighter than the star yellow. You are the sun in my days, At night you become the moon that slays In my lusture you are the glow, My love's crlassic, royal as indigo In my crown you are the feather, We will always remain forever together You were a stranger, who's no more stranger

We are unites like the fruit orange In your sweetness I am a bitter seed But still I am one your breed🌿🍁





WATER POLLUTION: It occurs when harmful substances like chemicals or microorganisms contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean or other water bodies, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment. Impacts of Water Pollution:  Destruction of biodiversity  Depletes aquatic ecosystem  Contamination of food chain

Air Pollution: Presence of substances that are harmful to the health of humans and other living organisms or cause damage to the environment.

Impacts of Air Pollution:  It can damage crops and trees.  Harsh weather  Causes diseases like pneumonia, heart disease and cancer.  Causes irritation in eyes, nose and throat.

Land Pollution: Anything that contaminates the land.

Impacts of Land Pollution: Polluted soil which leads to a loss of fertile land for agriculture.  Change in climate like flash floods, irregular rain.  The extinction of species in wildlife.

NOISE POLLUTION: Displeasing human, animal or machine created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.

Impacts of Noise Pollution:  Poor concentration.  Permanent hearing loss.  High blood pressure.

SOIL POLLUTION: Presence of toxic chemicals in soil, in highly enough concentrations to pose a risk to human health or to ecosystem.

Impacts of Soil Pollution:  Loss of soil and natural nutrients present in it.  Harmful to organisms living in soil.

Manit Bhatia

Pet animals

A pet, or companion animal, is an animal kept primarily for a person's company or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock or a laboratory animal. The pet animals which can be kept in the houses are: dog, cat, cow, rabbits and goats.





Future of education

As the world we live in changes to embrace tech futures, how and what we teach in our education system will also be reshaped to keep up to date with the growing demands of the 21st century. Connectedness, collaboration and co-creation The concept of a teacher standing in front of a room full of students who listen and respond to direction is increasingly a thing of the past. While not an entirely new approach, student learning spaces will supercede the typical classroom that we know today. This will see students become partners or co-creators of their own learning. “Experiences that allow collaboration, communication and teamwork for all students often happen beyond classroom walls. We need to facilitate for these experiences in context, and our classrooms need to be a reflection of this,” McLaughlin says. Anywhere, anytime learning As we ride the wave of the digital era, it is becoming easier to get connected with a global reach. A world of information is at your fingertips with the click of a button or a simple voice command, and, as technology continues to advance, students need to grow their learning with it.

Technology is no longer a motivating factor when it comes to learning – it is a must. It’s something that needs to be incorporated in the future of education to ensure students are equipped with the skills to cope in a world dependent on technology. While some argue that technology in our classrooms creates lazy, disconnected students, McLaughlin believes this is a myth. She says technology has created endless boundaries of where learning can occur, with whom and why. “The reality is, classrooms can be anywhere anytime. Students can be working on projects in virtual contexts with other students from around the world at any given moment,” she says. Technological advances have enabled interconnectedness of information and people with the touch of a button. Customization for a learner-first approach Alongside our changing notions of what constitutes a classroom, our ideas about the way teaching is delivered must also be reshaped. “Most professions treat each individual’s case differently – each patient of a doctor has individualized treatment plans. Education should be no different,” McLaughlin says. She says the old ‘one model of teaching and learning fits all’ is outdated and has no place in the agenda for future

education. Teachers will become facilitators of learning and students will have more control of their own learning journey. “In the past, all children did the same work regardless of ability or skills. We now know that this contributes to disengagement, misbehaviour and poor outcomes,” she says. As a result, teachers will have individualized learning plans for students, which will enable each student to learn at a pace that best suits their abilities and to engage with content that is most beneficial to them. Putting testing to the test McLaughlin poses the question “what are we testing for?” Students today are heavily focused on the end result – achieving that high ATAR score, receiving a distinction in class, acing those tests. Education of the future will prove what you have been told many times before: results do not define you. McLaughlin believes that testing on its own can be a dangerous approach. “We too easily jump onto the test results in isolation of what we need to achieve. This can lead us off in the wrong direct to what’s really important,” she says.

Grading is a waste of time if its purpose is solely to point out who is at the top and who is at the bottom. Assessments in the future will be evidence based, using measures that allow learning plans to be drawn up and personalized. Educators of the future Curriculum teaching and learning already extends well beyond the classroom and will continue to do so, and as education changes to suit the future’s needs, the role of a teacher must also adapt and grow. It is each teacher’s responsibility to empower students to take risks, be innovative and seize any opportunity thrown their way. In light of a shift towards a more personalised learner experience, teachers of the future must be prepared to be data collectors, as well as analysts, planners, collaborators, curriculum experts, synthesizers, problemsolvers and researchers


Future of transport

Flying Car

Automatic Bus Model

Transportation is an essential infrastructure for the economic well-being and growth of a country. A healthy transportation sector provides crucial support for economic growth in both rural and urban areas, national defense and sustained access to safe, efficient travel for the country’s inhabitants. In a report released in 2015 by the Department of Transportation (DOT), there is a critical need for improvement of our nation’s transportation system. While the DOT has begun accelerating the improvement of our country’s highways and bridges, new forms of transit are being developed and will most likely be implemented soon.

Here are 5 innovations that transportation in the near future.



1. Self-driving drone taxis: Autonomous drone taxis that drive themselves are currently being tested before being released on the market. The drones, which look much like a regular helicopter, have 18 propellers. They can carry 2 passengers and are expected to be in service by July 2018. 2. Maglev trains: Maglev (short for “magnetic levitation”) trains hover about 4 inches above their tracks and are propelled by electrically-charged magnets. Riders claim the trains are exceptionally comfortable and stable. Maglev trains have been recorded to travel at a rate of 375 miles per hour (mph). Maglev trains are already in operation in China and Germany and are expected to become a common mode of transportation throughout the world by 2030. 3. Hyperloop transportation systems: This transportation concept, conceived by Elon Musk, founder of Tesla Motors and SpaceX, is currently being designed and developed. Hyperloops are essentially transportation tubes that run pods of passengers or freight through a pressurized track at high speeds. Hyperloops run at an average of 600 mph; their top speed

is 760 mph. There are several companies currently working to advance the technology. One company hopes to launch its first passenger service in 2021. 4. Satellite-based air traffic control systems: Air traffic control systems in operation today are groundbased, using technology that that dates back to the 1960’s. Satellite-based control systems allow air traffic controllers to be more efficient. The U.S. is currently working on NextGen, a satellite-based air traffic control system that is being implemented in stages through 2025. GPS technology will be used to increase accuracy and shorten routes. NextGen is expected to save time and fuel, reduce air traffic delays, increase flight capacity and permit air traffic controllers to monitor aircraft with improved safety margins. Once NextGen is rolled out across America’s airports, airplanes will be able to fly closer together, making it easier to take direct routes and avoid delays caused by “stacking” planes waiting for takeoff. NextGen will reduce aircraft gridlock, both in the sky and in airports.

5. Self-driving electric buses: Automated city buses and shuttles will be in operation in the near future. Autonomous vehicles use cameras, radars and GPS systems to recognize and communicate with traffic lights and have impressive safety records. These buses of the future will reduce the impact on the environment because they are electric. Self-driving buses are already in operation in China and Germany, and are being tested in the U.S. Autonomous buses have a backup mode where a human can take control of the vehicle if needed.









Education & Learning is a never ending process in Human life. India has a very low literacy rate post-independence. But Indian Govt. emphasized & introduced various modules under which People of India understood the value of Education & therefore inclined for their descendants to be wee educated. In our Indian System the Education has been divided in into following categories: Primary Education – Free almost in Govt. Schools and also encouraging by distribution of Mid – Day Meal, Free Books & Uniform to attract kids from Poor & Low Income strata.

Secondary Education – Once the habit of education & learning inculcate among the kids then majority of kids go for secondary education.

Higher Education – This segment of education is a tough challenge for Education where Money & Intelligence rules.

But in the current Pandemic situation since March 2020 the complete education system has been crippled.

All the students have been confined to their Homes and subsequently On-Line Education started and every students now glued to the Laptops & Mobile Smart phones for learning.

And on this stream new education portals have also started whose methodology is thru online classes viz. Byjus, White Hat, Vedantu, Edelweis are the upcoming companies started this new venture of E-Education.

As we know that there is 2 sides of every coin and it implies here as well with merits & de-merits running parallel. But in current Covid-19 situation this is the only respite to go for e-education with following aspects: 1. Knowledge sharing

Knowledge sharing thru play way method is useful amongst modern kids. The sharing of information is also essential for the generational switch which is currently occurring. Without knowledge sharing, vital and valuable information would be lost in translation. 2. Mobile learning Moblie Learning is the hippest trend on the block and it’s no surprise why a new crawling kid is attracted to play with mobile phone. Even parents also nurture & do upbringing their kids by use of Mobile Phones in various moods like Rhymes & Story telling. So the mobile phones are exposed to the kids since their birth. So eventually it has become an essential tool of e-education.

3. Gamification E-education has another field of implementing gaming elements to learning strategy to engage kids, allowing them to complete a greater quantity of course lessons at a higher standard. Gamification includes the introduction of various board games, Quiz & Puzzles & multi challenges games. 4. Situations Under this Placing learning in situations allows learners to essentially have the effect of that particular situation to make them understand. This allows kids to effectively recall information to create a holistic picture of any given concept. 5. Templates Good authoring tools allow users access to a vast library filled with a plethora of ready-to-use templates. These templates are responsive, aesthetic and a large part of a successful micro learning lesson. PARV MAKHIJA


DETAILS ABOUT OLD COMPUTERS A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. ... Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations.

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, using nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes.


KEY FEATURES OF NEW COMPUTERS • Speed: A computer works with much higher speed and accuracy compared to humans while performing mathematical calculations. • Accuracy: Computers perform calculations with 100% accuracy. • Diligence: A computer can perform millions of tasks or calculations with the same consistency and accuracy. • Versatility • Reliability • Memory TYPES OF COMPUTERS Classes by purpose: • Microcomputers (personal computers) • Minicomputers (mid-range computers) • Mainframe computers • Supercomputers • Servers

• • •

Workstations Information appliances Embedded computers



A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data (input), process the data according to specified rules, produce information (input), and store the information for future use.

Generation of computers: Based on characteristics of various computers developed from time to time, they are categorized as generation of computers. Generation of computer

First Generation

Second Generation

1940 to 1956

1956 to1963

Third Generation 1964 to 1971

Fourth Generation 1972 to 2010

Fifth Generation 2010 to Present

Generations of Computers

Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. Nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system. There are five computer generations known till date. Each generation has been discussed in detail along with their time period and characteristics. In the following table, approximate dates against each generation have been mentioned, which are normally accepted.

Father of computer CHARLES BABBAGE

Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered the “father of computer” he conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer in the early 19th century.

First Generation Computers The period of first generation was from 1946-1959. The computers of first generation used vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for CPU (Central Processing Unit). These tubes, like electric bulbs, produced a lot of heat and the installations used to fuse frequently. Therefore, they were very expensive and only large organizations were able to afford it. In this generation, mainly batch processing operating system was used. Punch cards, paper tape, and magnetic tape was used as input and output devices. The computers in this generation used machine code as the programming language. The main features of the first generation are: Vacuum tube technology Unreliable Supported machine language only Very costly Generates lot of heat Slow input and output devices Huge size Need of AC Non-portable Consumes lot of electricity Some computers of this generation were: ENIAC EDVAC UNIVAC IBM-701 IBM-750

Second Generation Computers The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. In this generation, transistors were used that were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first-generation machines made of vacuum tubes. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. In this generation, assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. The computers used batch processing and multiprogramming operating system. The main features of second generation are: Use of transistors Reliable in comparison to first generation computers Smaller size as compared to first generation computers Generates less heat as compared to first generation computers Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers Faster than first generation computers Still very costly AC required Supported machine and assembly languages Some computers of this generation were: IBM 1620 IBM 7094 CDC 1604 CDC 3600 UNIVAC 1108

Second Generation

Third Generation Computers The period of third generation was from 1965-1971. The computers

of third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This development made computers smaller in size, reliable, and efficient. In this generation remote processing, time-sharing, multi-programming operating system were used. High-level languages (FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.) were used during this generation. The main features of third generation are: IC used More reliable in comparison to previous two generations Smaller size Generated less heat Faster Lesser maintenance Costly AC required Consumed lesser electricity Supported high-level language Some computers of this generation were: IBM-360 series Honeywell-6000 series PDP (Personal Data Processor) IBM-370/168 TDC-316

Fourth Generation Computers The period of fourth generation was from 1971-1980. Computers of Third fourth generation usedgeneration Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI)

circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements with their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Fourth generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to Personal Computer (PC) revolution. In this generation, time sharing, real time networks, distributed operating system were used. All the high-level languages like C, C++, DBASE etc., were used in this generation. The main features of fourth generation are: VLSI technology used Very cheap Portable and reliable Use of PCs Very small size Pipeline processing No AC required Concept of internet was introduced Great developments in the fields of networks Computers became easily available Some computers of this generation were: DEC 10 STAR 1000 PDP 11 CRAY-1(Super Computer) CRAY-X-MP(Super Computer)      

Fifth Generation Computers The period of fifth generation is 1980till date. In the fifth generation, VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production of

microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components. This generation is based on parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. AI is an emerging branch in computer science, which interprets the means and method of making computers think like human beings. All the high level languages like C and C++, Java, Net etc., are used in this generation.

The main features of fifth generation are: ULSI technology Development of true artificial intelligence Development of Natural language processing Advancement in Parallel Processing Advancement in Superconductor technology More user-friendly interfaces with multimedia features Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates Some computer types of this generation are: Desktop Laptop Notebook Ultra book Chrome book


After getting computers

How Computers Have Changed the World Computers have changed the world in many ways. They allow huge amounts of information to be stored in a small space. They also allow a person to calculate mathematical problems with ease. Finally, computers allow people to communicate with one another through internet sites such as Facebook, My Space, and Twitter. Personal computers today can hold up to 32 gigabytes of memory. They can be used to store music, pictures, documents, videos, and much more. Computers are able to be reprogrammed to suit any user's needs. This is one of the key traits of a computer today. Computers were first designed to help a person calculate numbers; this function can be seen as far back as 2000 B.C. with the use of the abacus. Modern computers are simply very advanced calculators. Almost any mathematical function can be plugged into a computer, and the computer will solve almost instantaneously. The use of a computer as a calculating device takes away the monotonous task of calculating by brute force. Finally, computers have changed the way that we communicate as a society. People can now talk to one another in almost no time at all through the use of social networking sites, and people can even live video chat with applications such as Skype.


Old time games

India is known for its religious attractions, historical monuments and awe-striking scenic destinations, but that is not all. The root of Indian culture spreads a lot more than these areas and is reflected through the games played in the country. Gilli Danda Gilli Danda is nothing but the ancient form of baseball and cricket combined together. You will use a large stick as the bat and a smaller one as ball. The rule is to lift the small stick off the ground with the large stick and hit it hard. In the time while the small stick is in the air, you need to touch a crease point before the opponents get hold of the small stick. Kho-Kho Kho-Kho tournaments have become common in some states of India. In the game, there are two roles to play – catcher and runner. The runners run through the catchers sitting in exact alternate directions. The

catchers should take turn to eliminate the runner by touching him/her. This chase and run game of Kho-Kho is one of the desi games of Maharashtra. It has also become a part of Indian Olympic Association. Pitthu Has a second name Lagor, Pitthu is widely played in Kerala and is one of the most played traditional games of India. In this game, teams target a stone column created using 7-10 stones (pile them up in a straight column to make a tower). One team target to break the stone tower while the other team reaches to gather the fallen stone pieces and arrange it back. While they arrange it, the opponent team having the ball can hit the players before they complete the arrangement . Pachisi If you have been to India as a child to your relative’s place, you must remember your cousins teaching you this amazing childhood game of India–Pachisi, now famous as Ludo. Ludo also has historical connections –Akbar played it with his ministers. You can still find the cloth format board and differently

styled dices of Ludo in India. Ludo or Pachisi was the root of the Mahabharata, the greatest Hindu Epic. Snake and Ladder It is another interesting board game with 4-6 players running to reach a destination on the top. Players take turns to roll the dice and move the coins forward aiming to climb the ladders in order to reach the goal faster. If one lands up with his/her coin in a snake’s mouth, he/she will have to take back the coin down the snake’s tail on the board and start from that point. The one to reach the goal first is declared the winner. Dhopkhel An Assamese game played during Bihu, the springfestivalof Assam, Dhopkhel is quite famous among the villagers. The desi game involves two teams (eleven members each) playing with a rubber ball. The game is to throw the rubber ball towards an opponent, right below waistline and he gets shifted to opposite side.The opponent’s role then is to get the ball

back without being touched. The team to lose 10 players first loses. These are some of the many interesting games to enjoy in India like gutte, jattikattu, human pyramid, antakshari, etc. SHRUTI

Parts of plants

THE ROOT SYSTEM – It is located below the ground, responsible for absorbing water and minerals from the soil as well as give firmness to the whole plant/tree. The root system includes organs such as the roots, tubers, and rhizomes ➤ THE SHOOT SYSTEM – It is located above the ground, helps plants make their food by the process of photosynthesis. The shoot system includes the organs

such as stem, leaves, flowers (in the flowering plant), and fruits (if the plant has any).


ABOUT THE EARTH Earth is the third planet in the solar system from the sun and our home planet in which we live Earth is at the average distance of about 93 million miles from the sun. Scientists believe that earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago, nearly at the same time when the rest of the solar system was formed. Moon is the only natural and permanent satellite of the planet earth .In space, Earth revolves around the sun. It completes one orbit in 365.26 days and this time is known as the Earth year .During one year, Earth rotates about 366.26 times around its own axis. Earth is the only special planet of the Solar system that contains life due to the presence of liquid water in abundance and free atmospheric oxygen .Earth has an oblate spheroidal shape. The mass of Earth is approximately 5.97 x10²⁴.Earth revolves around the sun and completes its one round in 365.26 days. The axis of rotation of the Earth is at a constant tilt with respect to its orbital plane, that results in the changing of seasons on the Earth . Earth also revolves about its own axis and complete one rotation in 24 hours. The orientation of Earth on its axis is stabilized by the oceanic tides (the rise and fall of sea level), which are caused by the gravitational interaction between Earth, Moon, and the Sun.

The planetary body of Earth is generally divided into four basic layers; It is the innermost part of the Earth in its middle and is believed to be made up of an iron-nickel alloy. It may have a temperature like that of the sun’s surface (approximately 5505°C). It is the part just above the inner core and below the mantle. This part is liquid and is made up of iron and nickel. It is approximately 2,260 km thick. Its temperature ranges from 6100°C (near the inner core) and 4,400°C in the outer region near the mantle . It is a layer above the outer cover and below the crust. It is the most massive and largest layer of the Earth’s planetary body and has about 67% of the total Earth mass while 84% of the total Earth’s volume. It is 2,900km (1,800 miles) thick. This layer is made up of silicate rocks It is the outermost, rocky surface layer of the Earth. It is made up of silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. About 70% of the crust is covered by liquid water. The atmosphere mainly consists of nitrogen and oxygen with a little amount of carbon dioxide, water vapours, and other gases.

The sun The Sun is the heart of our solar system it is a yellow star and is made up of hot glowing gases. 

The Sun is the largest object within our solar system, comprising 99.8% of the system’s mass.

The Sun is located at the center of our solar system, and Earth orbits 93 million miles awayThe Sun is the heart of our solar system it is a yellow star and is made up of hot glowing gases.

Importance of sun Without the Sun , Earth's land, water, and air would all be frozen solid! Life on Earth would cease to exist. That's because almost all living things rely on the steady light and heat of the Sun. The Sun's heat makes liquid water on our planet possible. And all life that we know of — from bacteria to elephants — needs liquid water to survive. People can harness the heat and light of the Sun to generate electricity. Solar energy is becoming cheaper and more widespread. Someday it could supply most of our electricity.