Data Loading...

Emerging Tech of China Flipbook PDF

Technology lies at the root of many innovations. It got us from combustion engine to adaptive cruise control, and from g


172 Views
78 Downloads
FLIP PDF 27.31MB

DOWNLOAD FLIP

REPORT DMCA

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

Emerging Tech of China

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

Technology lies at the root of many innovations. It got us from combustion engine to adaptive cruise control, and from gunpowder to launching rockets to Mars. Nonetheless, the potential of a lot of new exciting technologies is still waiting to be unlocked, such as fully autonomous vehicles and prescriptive maintenance. Our mission at Bit is to help companies innovate 10 years earlier. We do this by helping you find out which of these emerging technologies fit your challenge, creating a chance to early adoption rewards. For this, we created the Bit Maturity Wave.

Bit Maturity Wave

China

Science fiction +20 years

3

Lab prototype +10 years

Space Solar

Artificial Moon

Space Mining Quantum Internet Space Elevator

Chinese Internet Cockroach Robot Single Cell Surgery AI Brain Radar-proof planes AI Judge Cargo Drones

The maturity wave This model walks technologies through several phases. From things we can only imagine (sci-fi) like a space elevator to technologies we see everywhere (mainstream).

4

First applications 5 - 10 years

Potential unlocked 2-5 years

Dynamic Traffic Information AI Healthcare City-scale air purifier Mock-Meat Mooncakes Extended Reality

Mainstream 0-1 year Surveillance State

Electric Vehicles

Facial Recognition Artificial Sun 5G phones Crime prediction Autonomous port

Deepfake propaganda

5G Network Autonomous Vehicles Emotional Surveillance

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

SciFi Mainstream adoption

Sci-fi

The first wave is the furthest away from becoming reality. It captures technologies that we can only envision. We have yet to figure out how we would build these technologies. Think of tech you see in Star Wars or Jules Verne novels like teleporting or Quantum internet.

Image by John C. Mankins. Image: name

Sci-Fi

20+ years to mainstream

8

Space Solar Read more

By 2035 China plans to have a 200 tonne megawatt-level space-based solar power station in space to accommodate them with solar energy. The solar station will capture the sun's energy that never makes it down to the earth's surface, convert it to microwaves or lasers and beam it down for human consumption. We currently receive only one part in 2.3 billion of the sun's output and with its lifetime estimated at 4-5 billion years, this is a long-term and big scale solution to the energy problem. The idea arose from science fiction author Isaac Asimov in 1941, and after an investment of $28.4M dollars by the Chinese government, a testing base is being built. Scientists from NASA say that China has "a perfectly good technical plan, and they can do it by 2030".

Sci-Fi

20+ years to mainstream

9

Space mining Read more

Chinese startup Origin Space is launching the first 'space mining robot' NEO-1 in November 2020. Space is full of valuable resources and even though scientists urge to leave it be 'Space Wilderness' and exploit no more than 1/8 of the Solar System, China and the USA want to exploit our space’s resources. NEO-1 will not be mining yet, instead it will be testing technologies. In 2021 another mission 'Yuanwang-1' will be launched, equipped with a telescope to scout for mining possibilities. The mineral wealth in near-Earth astroids worth mining, is estimated between $800M and $8.8B. More research is needed to narrow down this wide range. If all goes well, the first mining missions into space are only 10 years away and once someone makes a huge profit, we should expect a gold rush.

Image: name

Image by James Vaughan.

Sci-Fi

20+ years to mainstream

11

Quantum Internet China set up a quantum connection between two ground stations through a satellite, over a 1200 km distance, making fast, secure & accurate quantum internet seem possible.

Growth

Impact

$15B invested by Alibaba in 2017

$10B government investment into National Laboratory for Quantum Information

+ security

Fully secure communication through quantum links

+ 85% accuracy

85% better GPS accuracy for indoor navigation

+ leverage

leverage China

Powerful tech China having companies having more leverage more leverage over other countries

Sciences

Players Universities ■

■ ■

University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) Chinese Academy of Sciences3 Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Corporations & organisations ■ ■

Alibaba Quantum Lab Huawei HiQ Quantum Computing Simulation Cloud Service Platform

Towards mainstream Theories need to be tested to see if the potential is as big as is being anticipated. Next, technical hurdles such as noise control and calculating speed need to be overcome, which take at least a decade to solve. A stepping stone to wireless quantum connections can be to roll out quantum internet through existing glass fiber cables. Depending on international collaboration between research facilities, we might be surfing the quantum web within the next 20 years.

12

Image by Unknown

Case: no unnoticed eavesdropping Read more

The laws of quantum mechanics can realise a truly safe internet where unnoticed eavesdropping for valuable information is impossible. When particles (or qubits in quantum computing) are entangled, the state of one of a single particle is dependent on the state of the other particles. Any measurement of any of these particles would destroy this entanglement in what we call the collapsing of the wave function. This means that 3rd parties looking at your data cannot go unnoticed. Realisation of this complex physics-phenomena-internet lies far in the future, but the use cases and benefits are worth the wait.

Sci-Fi

20+ years to mainstream

13

Space Elevator Material carbon nanotube has proven to be able to hold the weight of an elevator that travels into space faster, cheaper and more efficient than current space travel methods.

Growth $2.4M awarded by NASA

$230M in total invested in Chinese space in 2018

Impact -97% cost

launch costs compared to current ways

+ frequency

Allowing for more frequent trips to space

- fuel

Less fuel needed to break out of Earth's atmosphere

+ materials

Space mining possible for methane, water or metal

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

Meteors and space debris form a major danger to the space elevator's mechanical structure. Therefore, a space cleanup is needed to safely install the elevator. However, an elevator on the moon is within closer reach as it does not have to contend with the Earth's gravitational force or space debris. Whether on the moon or on the Earth, Japan wants to have its space elevator up and running by 2050. China is in the race to beat their rival by finishing in 2045. Therefore, a lab prototype is expected to arrive in 10 years from now and potential mainstream adaption lies in the far future.

■ ■

Tsinghua University Shizuoka University

Corporations & organisations ■ ■



NASA International Academy of Austronautics Obayashi Corporation

14

Image by Alamy

Case: Research Read more Read more

A research team from Tsinghua University in Beijing got us one step closer to realising an elevator into space. Their research proved that just 1 cubic centimeter of fibre from carbon nanotube, weighing 1.6 grams, can hold more than 800 tonnes - or 160 elephants. With a tensile strength of 80 GPa, this is the first material to withstand the necessary 62.5 GPa for a space elevator, according to NASA. Japan has launched two satellites to test an elevator mechanism in space and so has China, of which the results are classified.

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

Lab ProtoTypes Mainstream adoption

Lab prototypes

The second wave comprises the first manifestations of what used to be sci-fi. These prototypes that emerge in research labs (MIT, Harvard) or R&D heavy companies (Google, IBM) are tasked to show that it can be built in a controlled environment. Now we have proof that conceptually it can be built, but these prototypes are not built for scale. From these prototypes, it can take over 10 years to reach mainstream adoption.

Image: name Image by Shutterstock.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

18

Artificial Moon Read more

In Chengu the streetlights are soon supposed to be swapped for evening light from an artificial moon. An illumination satellite is being developed by the Tianfu New Districs System Science Research Institute, to capture and cast sunlight back to earth during the night. This light will be one-fifth of the brightness of normal streetlights and will illuminate an area of 50 square meters. The 'artificial moon' is estimated to save $170M annually in electricity costs for the city of Chengu. The first satellite was estimated to be up in space by 2020, with 3 more following by 2022, but no news has been published thus far.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

19

Chinese Internet China's biggest telecom companies are building a new top down version of the internet (New IP) that will bring functionalities that future technologies need, but also takes away autonomy, privacy and freedom of speech.

Growth

Impact

914.1M Internet users in China in 2020

+1,239%. Growth of internet users between 2000-2020

+ security

Claims to be more secure and trustworthy

- freedom of speech

Impairs freedom of speech with 'shut up command'

private to government

Shift internet governance from private parties to governments

+ market

China is building a 'Digital Silk Road' to implement their internet services

Players

Towards mainstream

Corporates & organisations

New IP is being developed by a research group within the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and should be ready for testing in early 2021.Whether New IP will be adopted will be a mainly political discussion. If China's New IP and America's Clean Network are both adopted, businesses and internet users are likely to participate in both.

■ ■



Huawei International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Chinese government

20

Image by 3Bplus.

Case: The Clean Network Read more

The USA's counteraction at China's New IP is The Clean Network. In their own words it is "a comprehensive approach to safeguarding the nation’s assets including citizens’ privacy and companies’ most sensitive information from aggressive intrusions by malign actors, such as the Chinese Communist Party." The network is an expansion of the 5G Clean Path Initiative, which aims to keep Chinese hardware companies like Huawei and ZTE out of America's 5G infrastructure. It is an aggressive but still vague plan with disruptive potential in the countries' clash.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

21

Cockroach Robot Read more

Image by Handout.

Scientists from the Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute have prototyped a miniature robot with similar characteristics to a cockroach. The robot is small, nearly indestructible and fast. The robot has the robustness of his insect look-a-like and can easily withstand being stepped on by an adult, which is about 1 million times heavier than its own weight. This robot can be used in disaster areas where it is difficult for big machines or dogs to find life underneath debris. Right now the prototype is still powered through an electrical wire, but this will be replaced by an integrated battery and control circuit to make the cockroach-robot wireless.

22

Single Cell Surgery Read more

Image by Harbin Institute of Technology.

A research team from the Harbin Institute of Technology has recently made progress on mechanical perforation of single cells. The research has promising results for potential applications in intracellular imaging, gene editing and artificial insemination. The problem that is being overcome with this new development is insufficient propulsive force to open the cell membrane. The technique used to perforate a single cell is called 'swimming nanomechanics', which is a system that converts the energy stored in the surrounding environment of the cell into self-propelled, controllable motion. Being able to operate on a single cell opens up a different dimension in healthcare.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

23

AI Brain In the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), China is combining brain research with computer science as it develops intelligent AI brains that promise to revolutionise industries.

Growth

Impact

$157M Estimated to be invested annually in Chinese brain research

$2.1B Research park being build by Chinese government dedicated to AI development

government funded

15 year government funded China Brain Project finishes in 2030

surveillance society

Enhanced surveillance society through 'City Brain'

unethical AI

Unethical Artificial Intelligence (AI) issues like crime prediction is are a scary reality

+ efficiency

Using a computer with your your brain, like with Brain Talker, increases efficiency but also invades privacy

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

In order to become mainstream, the AI brains need to be tested on a large scale, trained to be unbiased and function ethically. The next step could be 'Beyond AI', a learning model developed to be a general-purpose intelligence cognition technology that generates new ideas without needing to have experienced them, by using artificial life with an imagine function. China's tech giants are working their way to full AI intelligence.

■ ■

Zhejiang University Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Startups ■ ■

Megvii The Brain

Corporations & organisations ■ ■

Alibaba Tencent

24

Image by Baidu

Case: Baidu Brain Read more

Baidu unveiled the capabilities of Baidu Brain through two virtual avatars at their annual conference Baidu World 2020. The avatars are supported by AI technologies from Baidu Brain, Baidu's core AI technology engine and open AI platform. The CTO said "Baidu Brain can enable all industries to apply AI technology more efficiently, while accelerating the process of industrial intelligence.”, aiming at the fourth industrial revolution. As the engine behind all of Baidu's technology, this is one to pay attention too.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

25

Radar-proof planes Read more

At the Chinese Academy of Sciences a new material technology has been discovered that can help build aerial vehicles that are invisible to military radars. One year earlier a stealth combat drone was developed and this new material can accelerate the manufacturing of such aerial vehicles. Other research showed the discovery of stealth bulletproof material, which is another development in the Chinese military field. The impact of such developments is frightening as vehicles made out of this material can enter aerial zones or war zones unnoticeable. It makes the mind wonder what could be kept a secret under such powerful circumstances.

Image: name Image by Defensie.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

27

AI Judge Artificial Intelligent judges can assist human judges in making unbiased decisions, lowering the workload and allowing them to focus on more complex cases.

Growth +484% in global legal tech patent filings (2012-2017) lead by China

$1.2B Invested in legal tech in 2019

Players Universities ■

Peking University law School

Startups ■ ■

ai.Law Fagougou

Corporations & organisations ■ ■

Gridsum Hangzhou court

Impact unbiased assistance

Provide assistance to rule out human biases

- workload

Handles heavy workload to let human judges handle complex cases

+ data

Can consider more external factors in the process

new generation

New generation of judges is eager to work with an AI judge to improve their work

Towards mainstream A fully autonomous AI judge is far from ready to start ruling courts, but providing assistance is in its testing phase and China is a good candidate for being an early adopter. The combination of government support, lack of sufficient lawyers, proliferation of new laws and the Chinese smartphone culture make the country a cradle for AI legal technology. A big hurdle to overcome is the issue of biased AI. Trying to overcome biases in jurisdiction by using an AI model trained on data from that same biased jurisdiction will lead to a biased AI judge. Taking China's actions regarding the effects of their surveillance society on minorities, China might not be the country to take on the challenge of creating a non-biased AI judge. Estonia is also working on one and it is worth to stay tuned.

28

Image by Depositphotos

Case: ‘Hangry’ judge prevention Read more

Research has shown that there is a correlation between the leniency of a judge in court, and how recently they had eaten lunch. Catch a judge after lunch and you might get a more favourable treatment. Judges are trained to be objective and are made aware of such facts, but since they are human, there is no way of ruling out 'hangry' (hungry makes angry) court decisions. An AI judge however, does not get hungry and will decide more objectively, giving more fair outcomes. Letting AI take a leading role in smaller cases can help prevent ‘hangry judge’ situations with little risk for mistakes.

Image: name Image by NASA/Advanced Concepts Laboratory.

Lab Prototypes

10+ years to mainstream

30

Cargo Drones Read more

Chinese provider of express logistical services S.F. Holding has successfully tested an unmanned cargo plane. With a maximum load of 1.5 tons and a range of 1200 kilometers, this is a promising test for the adoption of cargo drones. The cargo drone, FH-98, is currently one of the largest ones in China, but there is a lot of movement in the industry. Military purpose cargo drones have been around since 2017, but now several commercially oriented startups are taking on the challenge of building cargo drones. Furthermore, Beihang University is developing a cargo drone that can carry the same payload over an even longer range of 1500 kilometers. By 2025 a dronebased delivery network is expected to be in place in China.

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

First Applica tions Mainstream adoption

First applications

The third wave occurs once a technology leaves the lab. At this point, it's exposed to the real world. Startups, prototyping studios and new ventures try to find the right applications for the newly available technology. A lot of blockchain solutions are in this wave, as they are applied in many areas to see which are a good fit. Once this fit is, found it will usually take 5 to 10 years to reach mainstream adoption.

Image: name Image by Unknown.

First Applicants

5-10 years to mainstream

34

Dynamic traffic information Read more

We all know the flashy matrix signs that tell us the maximum speed, but IBM research China has taken dynamic traffic signs to a new level. Modern cars are being equipped with sensors and cameras that capture real-time data from their surroundings so this data can be used to provide dynamic road information to drivers. This helps improve road safety and helps avoid speeding tickets. Such precise traffic sign information can feed the automatic speed control of autonomous vehicles in the near future, speed up traffic in general and increase travel efficiency. With the development of 5G in and around highways and autonomous cars, this future is expected to be here within 5 to 10 years.

First Applicants

5-10 years to mainstream

35

AI Healthcare Artificial Intelligence supports doctors in performing diagnosis, surgery, health checks and drug development giving better and faster results in healthcare.

Growth $45B Market size expected by 2026 for AI healthcare

$2B Invested sought by Baidu to launch AI biotech company

Impact + data

Possible to diagnose a patient using more data

+ speed

30 times faster cancer diagnosis with 99% accuracy

robotics surgery

Real time remote AI robotics surgery is already possible

- cost

In Europe, AI could reduce costs by $105B (child obesity) and by $90B (breast cancer) over the next 10 years.

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

Creating an international medical data set to train AI models on will provide the best backing possible for medical diagnosis. In order to do that, regulatory hurdles such as software updates that need to be approved every time, need to be overcome. Furthermore, there lies a huge amount of testing ahead of us. China has the advantage of their large population (lots of data) and government support, making testing relatively easy, and will therefore be one of the first countries to mass adopt AI in healthcare.

■ ■

Fudan University Jiao Tong University

Startups ■ ■ ■

iCarbonX iFLYTEK Synyi

Corporations & organisations ■ ■

Tencent Holdings Hancom Group

36

Image by Yann Kebbi

Case: VTE control pipe Read more

Startup Synyi has developed an intelligent VTE (Venous Thromboembolism, a blood clot starting in a vein) control pipe that uses Artificial Intelligence to identify potential risks early and send intelligent warnings. The system uses Natural Language Processing to understand patients' medical history and combines different sets of data to signal risks much faster and more accurate than humans.

First Applicants

5-10 years to mainstream

37

City-scale air purifier Read more

An experimental large scale air purifying tower was build in Xian. This project is in line with the 'Blue Sky Defense War', a 3 year action plan against air pollution with a budget of $57B for environmental protection. This massive air purifier is improving air quality over an area of 10 square kilometers and cleans 10M cubic meters of air daily. Test results by the Institute of Earth Environment at the Chinese Academy of Sciences show that harmful PM2.5 levels have dropped by 15% since implementing the new technology. Long term results to be seen over the next years are not only health related, but also environmental damage will decrease such as less acidic waterbodies, less damaged sensitive forests and an increase of diversity of ecosystems. This technology unlocks potential for the first largescale air purifying market, which is expected to have global traction as air pollution grows to become an international problem.

Image: name Image by AFP.

First Applicants

5-10 years to mainstream

39

Mock-Meat Mooncakes China plans to half the country’s meat consumption by 2030, boosting development of vegetarian versions of Chinese meat products.

Growth $100M Invested by Nestlé in building a plant-based plant

$28.5M Invested in Lever China Alternative Protein Fund

Impact - 50% revenue

-50% drop in revenue (-$41.7B) for Chinese meat industry expected by 2030.

- 1B metric tonnes CO2

- resources used

1B metric tonnes drop in animal food-related CO2 emissions by 2030.

Less resources depletion for cattle grasslands and food.

x 3 market size

Chinese meat replacement market almost tripled because of COVID-19 related vegetarian food motivation.

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

In order to get vegetarian meat replacement options adopted by the public, a generation switch will be the most effective way to make mock-meat an accepted alternative and not a sign of low status. Furthermore, meat-like taste in vegetarian versions needs to be improved, just like the cooking behaviour of vegetarian alternatives. The sizzling cooking experience of mock-pork will help adoption in the current Chinese society.





Beijing Technology and Business University Shanghai Society of Food Science

Startups ■ ■

Starfield Zhengmeat

Corporations & organisations ■ ■

KFC x Cargill China Plant Based Foods Alliance (CPBFA - 2019)

40

Image by Unknown

Case: Starfield Mooncakes Read more

Startup Starfield is producing mock-meat mooncakes for the Chinese market. They are diving into the market gap of Chinese mock-meat products, as the industry has mainly focussed on Western food for the past years, holding back mass adoption of vegetarian 'meat' in China. Next to mooncakes, dumplings and crayfish are getting vegetarian versions that have grown in popularity due to COVID-19, making consumers switch to vegetarian options for health reasons.

First Applicants

5-10 years to mainstream

41

Extended Reality Extended reality (XR) technology gets more

adopted by the public as 5G improves the quality of Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR) and Mixed Reality (MR) experiences, opening up opportunities for virtually all sectors regarding engagement and efficiency.

Growth

Impact

$65B Expected to be spend by China on AR and VR by 2030

$1,006B Expected value of global XR industry by 2030

+ AR jobs

AR humans replace certain hospitality jobs

+ leisure sector

57.3% of the XR market growth (2020-2030) expected in entertainment sector

+ remote education

Possibilities for (remote) education grow as XR becomes home-based

+ $1.8T global economy

VR and AR could boost global economy with $1.8T by making workspaces safer & more efficient

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

Competitions such as the XR competition by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2019 boost the development of practical applications of XR. Furthermore, 5G development will boost adoption of XR technology as it makes smartphone XR experiences more successful through better connectivity. Ergonomic design of XR equipment will make use more attractive to the mass audience. Design requirements for these ergonomics can be found here and there on the web.





Digital ART lab Shanghai Jiao Tong University Tsinghua University(D2MRC)

Startups ■ ■

SenseTime HiScene

Corporations & organisations ■ ■ ■

Huawei Alibaba China Telecom

42

Image by Nreal

Case: AR glasses Read more

Extended Reality is an all encompassing therm that includes Augmented Reality (real world experienced with an overlay of computer generated information), Virtual Reality (entirely simulated environment that shuts out the real world) and Mixed Reality (the real world mixed with believable virtual objects). Startup Nreal develops AR glasses that can be connected to your phone and give you an AR experience wherever you are. Whether you take online conferences to another level, give your online shopping experience more depth or play games in AR, this portable device opens up possibilities in virtually all sectors.

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

Potential unlocked Mainstream Potential adoption unlocked

The fourth wave is crucial when spotting early successes. Once an applied technology has found its place in the real world and starts to provide value, its potential will truly be unlocked. Note that for adoption to ensue, the value it generates should at least be on par for the competing solutions. This is the reason why blockchain is stagnating, as in many cases it isn't superior to a centralized database. Within 2 to 5 years, a technology in this wave can become mainstream.

Potential Unlocked

2-5 years to mainstream

45

Electric Vehicles Read more

Image by AFP

China was lagging behind in the field of electric vehicles, but by 2019 they had 2.58M battery electric vehicles (EV), compared to 0.97M in Europe and 0.88M in the USA. China is not just the word's biggest EV driver, it is also the world's biggest lithium producer (+60% share in 2019) and controls 62% of global chemical cobalt and 100% of spherical graphite, the main components for EV battery technology. The newest cobalt-free Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) batteries are Chinese and promise a huge cost reduction. We are seeing electric trucks, electric taxis and Chinese-made Teslas with similar specs and lower prices, in an industry where both production, sales and use is dominated by one country. China has already taken over and is ready to excel.

46

Artificial Sun Read more

Image by CNS

Not one, but the power of twelve artificial suns is embedded in China's tokamak, their fusion reactor that heats plasma up to 360M degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature the titular effect takes place, fusing nucleuses and generating energy in the process. The HL-2M Tokamak is expected to be up to full speed by the end of 2020 and contributes to China's 'Beautiful China 2050' energy system plan to move away from coal and towards green energy. Last July, France announced the start of project ITER, a tokamak to be build in collaboration with China amongst other countries who will contribute by providing parts. China is bringing their scientific and practical knowledge from their artificial sun to the table.

Potential Unlocked

2-5 years to mainstream

47

Crime Prediction Crime prediction software is helping police predict who will commit a crime and where this crime will occur, using big data, facial recognition and Artificial Intelligence in a biased system that threatens minorities.

Growth $150B Chinese AI industry expected by 2030

$60B Global police modernisation market expected by 2025, almost 33% software related.

Impact + 90% accuracy

Some methods can predict crime with more than 90% accuracy

+ biases

Strengthens racial, gender and minority biases in society

surveillance state

Strengthens surveillance society by tracing suspects

- human rights

Fuelling reeducation facilities by detaining people to 'educate' them before criminal behaviour occurs.

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

Chinese citizens are showing their worry about the rise of the mass data collection, which might mean that privacy protection needs to come in place. Next to that, biases against Uyghurs amongst others, that are embedded in the crime predicting software need to be removed in order for it to be ethically sound. However, it is unlikely that the Chinese government addresses this problem soon, even though AI experts say that research into crime prediction must end. Instead, mass implementation is more likely to happen, considering China’s ability to push regulations such as these.

■ ■

Tianjin University Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Startups ■ ■ ■

Megvii Watrix SenseTime

Corporations & organisations ■ ■

Huawei Alibaba

48

Image by AFP/Getty Images

Case: Surveillance glasses Read more

Chinese police are turning to surveillance glasses for support. The glasses use facial recognition (which also works on people wearing face masks) to find suspects or criminals, and are driven by Artificial Intelligence using big data tools to analyse behaviour and predict who will commit a crime. Already since 2016, the 'Integrated Joint Operations Platform' (IJOP) has been giving Chinese law enforcers real time, predictive warnings on suspicious persons and using surveillance glasses is now an every day police tool.

Image: name Image by Trent Port Services

Potential Unlocked

2-5 years to mainstream

50

Autonomous Port Read more

Qingdao Port is taking the lead in automation by developing a fully automated port. The first autonomous 'intelligent container vehicles' started functioning in 2017 and today they own the world's first case of 5G-based technology applied in remote-controlled cranes. Telecom giants Huawei, Ericsson and Unicom are contributing to the development of this 5G smart harbour, reducing up to 70% in labour costs and increasing efficiency by 30%. Artificial Intelligence is the second big driver of automation, next to 5G, with startups showcasing its applications. By making this port autonomous, the weight of the facility was reduced by 10 metric tons and both complexity and maintenance costs lowered. Qingdao Port is an example for the world's biggest ports and shows that autonomous facilities are already reality.

Potential Unlocked

2-5 years to mainstream

51

5G Network The 5G network brings faster, stronger and more advanced connections than its predecessor 4G, necessary to carry the load of our IoT world.

Growth $411B Investment expected by China into 5G networks between 2020 and 2030

$70B Investment expected by Tencent into 5G networks between 2020 and 2025

Impact 10-30x faster

10 to 30 times faster wireless service and a more responsive network.

+ edge computing

Real time edge computing possible, accelerating communication between devices.

industry 4.0

Allowing Industry 4.0 to become a mainstream reality.

remote surgery

Connection with almost no lag time allows for long-distance surgery.

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

Currently 80% of 5G users is based in China, but by 2025 5G is going to be everywhere, according to network giant Ericsson. Regulations are the main bottleneck, but governments and regulations in Europe are slowly loosening up so adoption can get up to speed. Looking ahead, China started developing a 6G network with two teams, made up out of government departments and 37 universities, research institutes and enterprises, which is expected to roll out in 2030.





Shanghai University of Engineering and Technology Huawei x international universities

Startups ■ ■

Dalongyun Redtea Mobile

Corporations & organisations ■ ■ ■

Huawei ZTE Baidu

52

Image by DNV-GL

Case: High Precision Farming Read more

Do you remember 3G and 4G? A new mobile wireless generation has been introduced every decade for the past 40 years. 5G supports a higher capacity of Internet of Things (IoT) devices than 4G did, which is boosting connectivity. High Precision Farming is an application where 5G's real time connectivity can support autonomous machine development that can save up to 90% costs for, amongst others, weed elimination.

Potential Unlocked

2-5 years to mainstream

53

Autonomous Vehicles China is catching up to Silicon Valley on autonomous driving by performing large scale tests, improving driving safety using their knowledge on 5G in C-V2X technology.

Growth

Impact

$400M Invested by Toyota in startup Pony.ai

$500M Invested by softBank Vision Fund in ridehailing network Didi Chuxing

- $190B

Potential to reduce motor vehicle deaths by 90%, saving lives and $190B annually in healthcare costs

- driver jobs

Human jobs such as taxi drivers or public transit drivers will be altered or replaced

- 60% costs

Saving up to 60% operational costs by using autonomous vehicles in industrial fields

+ public space

New urban planning: car sharing opens large surfaces of current parking spaces for new purposes

Players

Towards mainstream

Universities

China wants a third of all cars in China to be conditionally driverless by 2025: self-driving with a human who can take control in case of an emergency. To achieve that they are testing, testing and testing. COVID-19 slowed down development in the USA, but accelerated testing on quiet roads for China. Lastly, a societal push, high need for self-driving cars due to many Chinese not having a drivers license (28% of people in China have a drivers license, versus 65% people in the Netherlands), is driving fast mainstream adoption.

■ ■

Tsinghua University Shanghai Jiao Tong Universtiy

Startups ■ ■ ■

AutoX Qualcomm WeRide

Corporations & organisations ■ ■ ■

Baidu FAW Alibaba

54

Image by Continental

Case: C-V2X pedestrian warning Read more

C-V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) technology makes autonomous vehicles aware of the situation around them by connecting them to IoT devices within their surroundings using 5G. Other cars, trucks, cameras, pressure sensors, smart watches and much more are connected to each other, allowing the autonomous vehicle to see beyond its line of sight and drive safer. This technology can be used to warn autonomous vehicles of pedestrians crossing the streets, preventing road accidents. The 5G network supports the C-V2X technology and China is accelerating its development by testing on a large scale, made possible due to the safety provided by C-V2X.

Image: name Image by Unknown

Potential Unlocked

2-5 years to mainstream

56

Emotional Surveillance Technology Read more

Think your boss is watching you? Chinese employers are monitoring their employees' brain waves and emotions through placing wireless sensors in hats or caps. Together with Artificial Intelligence algorithms, these sensors spot emotions of rage, anxiety or sadness. The data serves as input to optimize break times, but also to send employees home. State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power in Hangzhou has seen its profits increase by $315M within 4 years of using this technology. Government-funded brain surveillance project 'Neuro Cap' from Ningbo University is researching the topic and is using China's 'modest' privacy laws, large population and AI knowledge to boost the development of this emotional surveillance technology, which follows the plan of making brain research on of China's focus areas within science. In the few years until this is mainstream technology, China is monitoring its workers using the GPS in smartwatches. The full surveillance society is around the corner.

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

Main stream adoption Mainstream adoption

When potential is unlocked, things start to develop really fast. Solutions become easier to implement as technology becomes available off-the-shelve. Think of how easy it is these days to integrate a chatbot on your website. 10 years ago, this would have required fast teams of developers to build it. When the technology hits mainstream adoption, being a forerunner is hard, as there is a lot of competition. It means you have to get into it within a year, or you are out. Think of having an app as a customer interface.

Image: name Image by Qilai Shen

Mainstream

0 years to mainstream

60

Surveillance State Read more

China's citizens are having their every step watched and their every data point taken. Camera's and other sensors track people as they move in public spaces and a Social Credit System ranks how good you are as a citizen based on your behaviour. People's Bank of China (PBoC) is testing a central bank digital currency that will fully digitalise currency and give the government full access to everyone's financial transactions. It is not just China, European companies are selling biometric surveillance tools to the Chinese who violate human rights using them. Almost any data is useful, so is the data from COVID-19 apps for Chinese gambling companies who have pressured Thai officials to access their health surveillance databases. The surveillance state is in full operation and influences the world through its reach and market opportunities. It is worth keeping an eye on.

Mainstream

0 years to mainstream

61

Facial Recognition Read more

Image by Gfycat

Facial recognition is an unavoidable technology for Chinese citizens. Taking the subway, buying a phone or picking up medication, it all involves identification through facial recognition. The Chinese government pushes the use of facial recognition in their overall surveillance society, for example by making facial recognition mandatory when registering a SIM card. You can even pay with your face since 2019 by smiling in a camera at checkout, but this method has not seen the expected adoption by the Chinese public, who prefer to pay with their phone. It is only a matter of time before this application will be widely adopted as China continues to add use cases to the list while the global facial recognition is estimated to surpass $12B by 2025.

62

5G Phones Read more

Image by Unknown

Consumers in China can buy a 5G smartphone for less than $150, where less than a year ago this was a luxury. Company Realme (spin-off of Oppo and sister company of Vivo and OnePlus) currently has the world's cheapest 5G smartphone. Nearly half of all 5G smartphones on the globe were shipped to China last year, with Huawei dominating the market with a 60% share. Recently, Royole released the second version of their foldable 5G smartphone and as Huawei keeps growing, developments like these are expected to occur more frequently. China is ahead on the 5G smartphone game and they are ready to supply the rest of the world.

Mainstream

0 years to mainstream

63

Deepfake Propaganda Read more

Deepfake technology is available for the Chinese public. Starting relatively innocent, a pro-China propaganda campaign on social media created fake followers to gain online traction. They used a 'generative adversarial network' (GAN), a machine learning technology to create fake human faces that look frighteningly real. That's not all: DeepFaceDrawing from China uses AI to turn a drawing of a face into a realistic picture, opening up possibilities for fake news and scams. Taking it one step further, the 'Deepfake' app ZAO allows users to place their faces over film and TV characters, bringing deepfake technology to the masses. This is causing fraud and privacy fears in China, as most of their public services but also financial transactions are made using facial recognition. The technology is here for the public and it is worth watching how it will be used.

Image: name Image by William Joel

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

You can now… Pick technologies What technologies reveal promising opportunities for the context of your industry and organization?

Plan innovation When will these technologies be relevant and applicable? How does this translate to your short- and longer-term innovation strategy?

Start experimenting What technology fits your challenge and creates a change to early adoption rewards?

Emoticons used in this Ebook originated from Google.

Ebook

Edition 04

October 2020

For a bit more Bit, check out our free weekly newsletter, ebooks and cases at wearebit.com