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E - PORTFOLIO FES 460

FABRIC FOR FASHION

PREPARED BY : NURUL ‘AQIDAH HIDNI BINTI YASMI

INTRODUCTION Fabric has always been an important part of life. Fabric has been used for survival since the beginning of time, but it wasn't exactly the same as it is now. Every garment begins with fabric. It is the fabric that brings a design to life. We can dramatically alter our design’s end result by simply changing the cloth we make it from.

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Clothing and containers are two of the most common uses for this material (bags and baskets.)

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Textiles are used in the home for carpeting and upholstered furniture.

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Textiles can be used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering in the workplace.

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Textiles are used in a variety of traditional crafts, including sewing,

HISTORY o

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Textiles, most likely felt, were first used around 100,000 years ago in the late Stone Age. However, the earliest examples of cotton, silk, and linen are thought to have appeared around 5,000 BC in India, Egypt, and China.

WHAT IS FABRIC / FIBRE ? Fabric is a material created by weaving, knitting, spreading, felting, stitching, crocheting, or bonding that can be used to make other products.

Photo by Ive Freya

quilting, and embroidery

FUNCTION 1

Photo by Malababa

SOURCES OF THE FABRIC / FIBRE ▪

ANIMAL

Hair, fur, skin, and silk are the most common materials used to make animal textiles (in the case of silkworms)





Textiles are made from a variety of materials, the most common of which are animal, plant, artificial and synthetic.



The first two are entirely natural.



Artificial fibres made from petroleum were supplemented to them throughout the 20th century.

PLANT

The porous nature of the fiber allows garments to breathe and at the same time accompany you during the coldest days of winter



ARTIFICIAL

Artificial ones they are produced using renewable natural raw materials, but still undergo some chemical processes to make a yarn



SYNTHETIC

Synthetic textiles are primarily used in the manufacture of clothing as well as geotextiles.

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FABRIC TERMINOLOGY 1. YARN A continuous length of fibres which are interlocked, and it’s used to produce fabrics

2. GRAIN A variety of yarns in a fabric. Grain is described and spoken of in terms of lengthwise grain, crosswise grain, and a bias.

3. DRAPE The term "fabric drape" refers to how a fabric hangs under its own weight. It has a significant impact on how well a garment looks when worn.

4. SELVEDGE fabric selvedge is the tightly woven edge that runs along each side of a piece of fabric's lengthwise grain, which is also called the fabric's warp.

5. KNIT one of the techniques used in the fabric-making process

6. KNITTED Knitted fabric is a type of textile produced by knitting, which is the process of inter-looping yarns or intermeshing loops.

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7. DYEING Dyeing is the process of applying dyes or pigments to textile materials in order to achieve the desired colour fastness.

8. WEAVING Weaving, the process of producing fabric by interlacing two sets of yarns so that they cross each other at right angles, usually with a hand- or power-operated loom.

9. UNION FABRIC a fabric woven from two or more different fibres, such as a wool worsted warp and a cotton filling

10. FABRIC WIDTH The width of a fabric is measured from one selvedge to the next.

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EVOLUTION OF TEXTILES (1900-2000)



1900

Styles : Tailor-Made, Suits, Tea Gowns Fabric : Lace, Crepe de chine, Chiffon, Tulle Designers : Charles Frederick Worth, Jacques Doucat





1910

Styles : Cocoon Coats, Turban & Fillets Fabric : Hand-Painted. Emblished silks, Net, Burnout velvet Designer : Paul Poiret, Lucille, Jean Lanvin Styles : Flapper dress, Cardigan



1930

Styles : Flapper dress, Cardigan,Sweaters, Silk Stockings. Fabric : Silk Crepe, Silk goergette,beaded silks. Designers : Madeleine Vionnet, CocoChannel, Jean Patou



Styles : Bathing Suits, Bared-back evening gowns, Fabric : Chiffon, nylon, floral prints, bias-cut drappery Designers : Elsa Schiaparelli, Mainbocher, Elizabeth Haws



1920

1950

Styles : twinsets, pencil skirts, shirtwaist dress, cocktail dress. Fabric : Wool tweed, cashmere, satin, taffeta, organza, nylon net Designers : Christian Dior, Christobal Balenciaga, Pierre Balmain



1940

Styles : Practical Work Wear, austere tailored suits, recycled knits. Fabric : wool, cotton, denim, rayon. Designers : Norman Norell, Hattie carnegie, Carmen Miranda.

1960

Styles : Mini-skirts, shift dresses and jumpers, boxy coats. Fabric : PVC, polyester, crimplene, clear palstic insert. Designers : Andre Courreges, Paco Rabanne, Piere Cardin.

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1970

Styles : Trouser suits, ready-to-wear, maxidresses, A-line skirts. Fabric : Polyester, lycra, brushed wool, corduroy, tweed. Designers : Yves Saint Laurent, Halston, kenzo.

Styles : Mini-skirts, big frilly dresses, slouch socks. Fabric : Spandex, lame, raw silks, bleached denim. Designers : Claude Montana, Thierry Mugler, Yohji Yamamoto.

Styles : Cargo pants, plaid flannelshirts, jeans. Fabric : Ink-jet Printing, laser cutting,cotton flannel, distressed denim. Designers : Marc Jacobs, Anna Sui, Calvein Klein.



1980

Styles : Low-rise skinny jeans, harem pants, crop-tops. Fabric : Organic fabric, nanotechnologgy fabric. Designers : Gucci, Alexander McQueen.

1990

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2000

TYPE OF THE FABRIC / FIBRE NATURAL FABRIC

SYNTHETIC FABRIC ARTIFICIAL FABRIC

FUTURISTIC FABRIC ▪ Fabrics are typically made up of a predetermined number of yarns. ▪ Fabrics are often produced using a variety of methods, including weaving, knitting, and felting. ▪ Fabrics are classified according to the fibres used, the techniques used to mould them, the machinery used to make them, and the techniques used to finish them.

▪ Fabrics may be manufactured in a variety of ways, depending on their intended use. 7

INTRODUCTION • Natural fabrics are made of animal or plant-based fibres.

N A T U R A L

• Plant fibres are collected from the seed cases, leaves or stem (bast) of a plant. These are cellulose-based fibres.

• An animal fibre consists of the hair, fur or natural secretion (silk worm) of an animal. These are protein-based fibres.

Natural fibre is divided into three categories that are used in fabric production: 1. PLANT 2. ANIMAL 3. MINERAL

HISTORY • Since around 7000 BCE, it has played an important role in human society.

Since around 7000 BCE,the it has played an important role human • For last 4000 or 5000 years, it in has beensociety used to make (Ryder,1965;Hillers,1974)For cloth. the lastFlax, 4000 hemp, or 5000silk, years,wool, it has and been cotton used to were make cloth. Flax, the most hemp, silk, wool, and cottonused were fibres. the most commonly used fibres. commonly • Ancient China, Egypt, and Peru all used cotton cloth. • Cloth fabrics discovered in Egypt suggest that cotton was used there prior to the discovery of flax in 12,000 BC. • More than 5000 years old linen mummy cloth has been discovered in Egyptian tombs. It's amazing that this fine fibre has survived to the present day. • People domesticated wool sheep as the first animals. The practise of crossbreeding sheep to increase the amount of hairy undercoat began around 100 CE. • According to the oldest Chinese literature, silk began when a Chinese Empress observed and studied the life of silkworms. Based on this observation, Chinese experts began breeding and producing costly silk cloth.

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