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Grade 4 Poetry Student Activity Book Flipbook PDF

Grade 4 Poetry Student Activity Book


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“Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf” from ROALD DAHL’S REVOLTING RHYMES by Roald Dahl, text Copyright © 1982 by Roald Dahl Nominee Limited. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House LLC. All rights reserved. Any third party use of this material, outside of this publication, is prohibited. Interested parties must apply directly to Random House LLC for permission.

Grade 4, Unit 3, Poetry - Poet’s Journal ISBN 978-1-68161-265-2

“Ask Aden” from SLEEPING WITH THE DICTIONARY by Harryette Mullen. Berkeley: U of California P, 2002. Copyright © by the Regents of the University of California. “My First Memory (of Librarians)” by Nikki Giovanni from ACOLYTES by Nikki Giovanni. Copyright © 2007 by Nikki Giovanni. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers. “Harlem (2)” from THE COLLECTED POEMS OF LANGSTON HUGHES by Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad with David Roessel, Associate Editor, copyright © 1994 by the Estate of Langston Hughes. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Random House LLC. All rights reserved. Any third party use of this material, outside of this publication, is prohibited. Interested parties must apply directly to Random House LLC for permission. “Why We Play Basketball” by Sherman Alexie. Reprinted from THE SUMMER OF BLACK WIDOWS, Copyright © 1996 by Sherman Alexie, by permission of Hanging Loose Press. “She Had Some Horses” by Joy Harjo. Copyright © 1983 by Joy Harjo, from SHE HAD SOME HORSES by Joy Harjo. Used by permission of W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

© 2017 Amplify Education, Inc. and its licensors www.amplify.com

“Words Free As Confetti” by Pat Mora from CONFETTI: POEMS FOR CHILDREN by Pat Mora. Text Copyright © 1999 by Pat Mora. Permission arranged with Lee & Low Books, Inc., New York, NY. All rights not specifically granted herein are reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any other language in any form or by any means without the written permission of Amplify Education, Inc.

“Kavikanthabharana” (“A Poet Should Learn With His Eyes”) by Kshemendra translated into the English language by W. S. Merwin, currently collected in EAST WINDOW: THE ASIAN TRANSLATIONS. Translation Copyright © 1998 by W. S. Merwin, used with permission of The Wylie Agency LLC. All rights reserved.

Core Knowledge Language Arts and CKLA are trademarks of the Core Knowledge Foundation.

“They Were My People” by Grace Nichols. Reproduced with permission of Curtis Brown Group, Ltd, London on behalf of Grace Nichols. Copyright © Grace Nichols 1988.

All Rights Reserved.

Trademarks and trade names are shown in this book strictly for illustrative and educational purposes and are the property of their respective owners. References herein should not be regarded as affecting the validity of said trademarks and trade names. Printed in the USA 02 LSCOW 2017

Contents Introduction 

1

Roald Dahl From “Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf ” 

2

Harryette Mullen “Ask Aden” 

14

Norman Ault “Wishes” 

18

Nikki Giovanni “My First Memory (of Librarians)” 

32

Langston Hughes “Harlem” 

44

Sherman Alexie From “Why We Play Basketball” 

62

Walt Whitman “I Hear America Singing” 

74

Joy Harjo From “She Had Some Horses” 

84

Pat Mora “Words Free As Confetti” 

98

Carl Sandburg “Fog” 

112

Ernest Lawrence Thayer “Casey at the Bat” 

120

Kshemendra From Kavikanthabharana 

136

Grace Nichols “They Were My People” 

146

Unit Assessment 

148

Pausing Points 

154

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow “Paul Revere’s Ride” 

154

Emma Lazarus “The New Colossus” 

172

Glossary 

183

Creative Space 

192

Introduction The American poet Emily Dickinson, who lived in the 1800s, once compared poetry to possibility, and that seems like a good comparison, because poetry uses a set of tools called figurative language to show how words can mean many different things, depending on how you use them. Poets write about all sorts of subjects, from how they feel to what they believe, from questions they have to their dreams for themselves and the world. In this unit, you will study poems written by men and women from different countries and time periods. You’ll learn how to read poems aloud and how to figure out what possibilities each poem holds. You’ll also learn how to recognize the tools poets use and to use them in poems of your own. We hope you’ll enjoy learning all about these possibilities!

Now let’s get started!

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 1 | Poet’s Journal

1

From Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf Roald Dahl

As soon as Wolf began to feel That he would like a decent meal, He went and knocked on Grandma’s door. When Grandma opened it, she saw The sharp white teeth, the horrid grin, And Wolfie said, ``May I come in?’’ Poor Grandmamma was terrified, ``He’s going to eat me up!’’ she cried.

And she was absolutely right. He ate her up in one big bite. But Grandmamma was small and tough, And Wolfie wailed, ``That’s not enough! I haven’t yet begun to feel That I have had a decent meal!’’ He ran around the kitchen yelping, ``I’ve got to have a second helping!’’ Then added with a frightful leer, ``I’m therefore going to wait right here Till Little Miss Red Riding Hood Comes home from walking in the wood.’’ (no stanza break)

3

He quickly put on Grandma’s clothes, (Of course he hadn’t eaten those). He dressed himself in coat and hat. He put on shoes, and after that He even brushed and curled his hair, Then sat himself in Grandma’s chair. In came the little girl in red. She stopped. She stared. And then she said,

``What great big ears you have, Grandma,’’ ``All the better to hear you with,’’ the Wolf replied. ``What great big eyes you have, Grandma.’’ said Little Red Riding Hood. ``All the better to see you with,’’ the Wolf replied.

He sat there watching her and smiled. He thought, I’m going to eat this child. Compared with her old Grandmamma She’s going to taste like caviar.

4

Then Little Red Riding Hood said, ``But Grandma, what a lovely great big furry coat you have on.’’ ``That’s wrong!’’ cried Wolf. ``Have you forgot To tell me what BIG TEETH I’ve got? Ah well, no matter what you say, I’m going to eat you anyway.’’ [. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] A few weeks later, in the wood, I came across Miss Riding Hood. But what a change! No cloak of red, No silly hood upon her head. She said, ``Hello, and do please note My lovely furry wolfskin coat.’’

Activity Page

1.1

Name: Date:

Reflection and Inference This part of “Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf ” does not explain in detail what happens to the wolf, but it does give several clues to help readers infer what happens next. Remember that when you infer something, it means that you make a reasonable conclusion based on the evidence or information provided. Read the end of the poem again, then use words from the poem to answer the questions below. These questions will help you infer what happens after Little Red Riding Hood meets the wolf. 1. Where and when did the speaker of the poem see Little Red Riding Hood?

2. The speaker lists two things that have changed about Little Red Riding Hood. What are those changes?

3. The poem’s title refers to “Little Red Riding Hood,” but in this section of the poem, the speaker calls her something different. What does the speaker call her in this part of the poem?

6

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 1

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

1.1

Date:

4. How is the new name the narrator uses different from her name in the title of the poem?

5. Based on the words in the poem, why do you think the speaker called Miss Riding Hood something different from before?

6. What is Miss Riding Hood wearing when she meets the speaker?

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 1 | Poet’s Journal

7

Activity Page

1.2

Name: Date:

Poetic Devices Some special terms exist to help describe different parts of a poem. Part 1: Stanza and Line Poetry is usually written in stanzas, or groups of lines. Lines may be complete sentences, but they may also consist of phrases—or even just a single word. A stanza is usually separated from other stanzas with extra space called a stanza break. Because your reader includes a section of the whole poem, the dotted line after “I’m going to eat you anyway” shows where part of the poem was cut. Therefore, it is not a stanza break. Stanza 1 runs from the poem’s first line to the line “‘He’s going to eat me up!’ she cried.” 1. Draw a star by the stanza break after stanza 1. 2. Count the number of lines in the first stanza. 3. Count the number of stanzas in the poem. 4. The word stanza comes from an Italian word that means “little room.” Why might this be the word used to describe a group of lines in a poem?

5. What do the stanzas in a poem have in common with the rooms of a building?

8

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 1

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

1.2

Date:

Part 2: Rhyme Remember that rhyming words end with the same sound and that poems with a rhyme scheme, or pattern of rhyming words, usually put those words at the ends of lines. Working silently, reread the following stanza, using a colored pencil to underline each end word with the same ending sound. For example, if the poem contained the end words hat, rat, cat, droop, and soup, the words hat, rat, and cat would be underlined in one color, while the words droop and soup would be underlined in a second color. And she was absolutely right. He ate her up in one big bite. But Grandmamma was small and tough, And Wolfie wailed, “That’s not enough! I haven’t yet begun to feel That I have had a decent meal!” He ran around the kitchen yelping, “I’ve got to have a second helping!” Then added with a frightful leer, “I’m therefore going to wait right here Till Little Miss Red Riding Hood Comes home from walking in the wood.” He quickly put on Grandma’s clothes, (Of course he hadn’t eaten those). He dressed himself in coat and hat. He put on shoes, and after that He even brushed and curled his hair, Then sat himself in Grandma’s chair. In came the little girl in red. She stopped. She stared. And then she said, Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 1 | Poet’s Journal

9

Activity Page

1.2

Name: Date:

Think Like a Poet When you have finished the activity, your teacher will assign you a group. Working with your group, pick one of the underlined rhyming pairs, then add as many different words as you can think of that also fit in this rhyme scheme. For example, if you had the rhyming pair droop and soup, you could add the words stoop, swoop, or dupe. Look at the way those words are spelled: words do not have to look like each other in order to rhyme. It is often helpful to read a poem out loud—or at least to think of its sounds in your head—to help yourself notice the surprising ways the poet may have used sound.

10

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 1

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Vocabulary Core Vocabulary caviar—n.

decent—a

dj.

leer—n.

fish eggs, an expensive and rare foo d considered a special treat acceptable or good enough

unpleasant look

REMINDER The back of your Poet’s Journal contains a glossary with definitions for some of the words in the poem. If you can’t find a definition you need in the glossary, you might try to figure out the word’s meaning from the other words around it. You can also look in a dictionary or ask your teacher for help.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 1 | Poet’s Journal

11

Literary Vocabulary

dialogue—n

.

excerpt—n.

infer—v. line—n. stanza—n.

stanza bre ak—n.

12

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 1

words or sentences spoken by a character in a poem, play, or story small part of a larger work; for example, one chapter of a novel or one paragraph of a newspaper article

ART

to reach a reasonable conclusion based on available evidence

basic unit of a poem; together, lines form stanzas section of a poem; consists of a line or group of lines blank space dividing two stanzas from each other

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Leonard McCombe/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

Biography

Roald Dahl Roald Dahl was born in Wales on September 13, 1916. His parents, who were from Norway, gave him the name of a famous explorer from their home country. Dahl himself led an adventurous life, attending boarding school in England, then working in Africa. During World War Two, Dahl served as a pilot in the Royal Air Force, an experience he wrote about in the book Going Solo. After the war Dahl returned to England and became an author. He wrote many different things, including movie scripts, mysteries, plays, and short stories. When he began writing James and the Giant Peach, a book for children, he enjoyed it so much that he kept writing children’s books, for which he remains best known today. His books include Matilda, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and Revolting Rhymes, in which “Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf ” appears. Dahl died in 1990.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 1 | Poet’s Journal

13

Ask Aden Harryette Mullen (For A.D.)

14

Are aardvarks anxious? Do dragons dream? Ever seen an eager elephant? Newts are never nervous, are they?

15

Activity Page Name:

2.1

Date:

Reading “Ask Aden” and Alliteration 1. The speaker of the poem has chosen a subject in each line. What do all of the subjects have in common?

2. Why might this person be asking all these questions?

3. Look at the letters you wrote by each line of the poem. Now write in the chart below five new letters of the alphabet, making sure not to repeat the ones you wrote by the lines of the poem. Then fill in the chart, making sure that each word you use starts with the letter on its line. The first line shows an example from Mullen’s poem.

ex: a

Animal

Verb or Action Word

Feeling

aardvarks

are

anxious

letter 1: letter 2: letter 3: letter 4: letter 5: 16

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

2.1

Poets use repetition for different reasons. Sometimes they want to stress an important thought or point. Sometimes they want to repeat certain letters or sounds, as in rhyming words, to make their poem sound pleasing. 4. Once you have completed the previous chart, use the words on each line to form a question. Try to make each one a question that you find interesting. You may revise the chart if you wish. Write your questions on the lines below.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 2 | Poet’s Journal

17

Wishes Norman Ault

18

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

What do you look for, what do you seek?

A silver bird with a golden beak.

What do you long for, what do you crave?

Golden gems in a silver cave.

What do you lack, and what do you need?

A silver sword and a golden steed.

What do you want, of what do you dream?

A golden ship on a silver stream.

What do you have, and what do you own?

A silver robe and a golden crown.

What would you be? Oh, what would you be?

Only the king of the land and the sea.

19

Activity Page

2.2

Name: Date:

Reading “Wishes” Using the poem and the images, answer the following questions: 1. Look at the poem’s question lines. How many questions are on each line?

2. What do the questions on line 1 have in common with each other?

3. Using colored pencils, mark the end words for each rhyme sound, assigning one color to each sound. Then write the rhyming pairs here. Don’t forget to include slant rhymes.

20

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

2.2

4. List three things from the poem or images that the speaker believes he will get when he is king.

5. What would a king do with each of these items?

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 2 | Poet’s Journal

21

Activity Page

2.3

Name: Date:

1. In “Wishes,” the speaker dreams of becoming king. Write down the job you would most like to have.

2. Using the list of questions your class assembled, pick the ones that interest you most. Write one question on every line with a Q next to it.

Q:

A: Q:

A: Q:

A: Q:

A: 22

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

2.3

Q:

A: Q:

A: 3. Thinking of the job you wrote in question 1, look back at the questions on the lines marked Q. In the lines marked with an A, answer each question you asked. Make sure to answer based on the job you want.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 2 | Poet’s Journal

23

Vocabulary Core Vocabulary

aardvark-n. crave-v. lack-v.

ewt-n.

n

steed-v.

24

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

rica small mammal native to Af

to want or wish for

to be without parts of the world amphibian found in many important person horse, usually ridden by an or warrior

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Literary Vocabulary the repetition alliteration-n. several words of sounds at the beginning of in order or near one another

dedication

-n. note in or after the title that shows the author

repetition-n. slant rhym e-n.

wrote the poem for a special person

saying the same letters, sounds, or words over and over again words that share only the final consonant sound

REMINDER ssary with ’s Journal contains a glo et Po ur yo of ck ba e Th . If you can’t the words in the poem of e m so r fo s ion nit fi figure de ssary, you might try to glo e th in ed ne u yo u can find a definition her words around it. Yo ot e th om fr g nin ea m out the word’s r help. or ask your teacher fo also look in a dictionary

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 2 | Poet’s Journal

25

© Hank Lazer

Biography

Harryette Mullen Haryette Mullen was born on July 1, 1953, in Florence, Alabama. She was raised in Texas and became fascinated by language and poetry at a young age. Mullen recalls, “At school and at church we were always called on to memorize and recite poems—a whole lot of Langston Hughes and James Weldon Johnson and Paul Lawrence Dunbar.” These poets influenced Mullen, whose poetry won an award and publication in the local newspaper when she was in high school. Mullen’s book Tree Tall Woman considers the lives of southern black women. Her other collections include Muse & Drudge and Sleeping with the Dictionary. Mullen uses humor and wordplay to discuss complicated topics. Writing connects her with people from various races and ethnicities worldwide: “The more people you can talk to and understand, the richer your life and experience can be.” Mullen teaches African-American literature and creative writing at the University of California, Los Angeles.

26

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

© National Portrait Gallery, London

Biography

Norman Ault Norman Ault was born on December 17, 1880, in Birmingham, England. One of eight children, Ault attended King Edward IV Grammar School in Essex, England. While at school, Ault was recognized for his natural creative talents and did remarkably well in both his art and architecture courses. His artistic reputation continued to grow, and he received recognition by The Artist magazine as a “particularly talented artist.” With his wife, Lena, Ault created beautiful and imaginative children’s books, such as The Rhyme Book and The Podgy Book of Tales. In 1920, Ault published Dreamland Shores, a children’s book that paired poems with colorful and whimsical paintings of magnificent adventures. In addition to being a scholar of seventeenth-century British poetry, Ault was recognized by Oxford University for his talent as a writer. He died on February 6, 1950.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 2 | Poet’s Journal

27

28

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 2

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

3.1

Date:

There are many ways to write a poem, and poets have to make choices about the way they want their poems to look and sound. They have to make decisions about content—the poem’s message—and form—the poem’s structure or appearance. When considering a poem’s form, poets have to decide: • how many stanzas, or groups of lines, the poem will have • how many lines each stanza will have • whether or not the poem will include a rhyme scheme When considering a poem’s content, poets have to decide: • what their poem will be about (the poem’s subject or content) • what message they want to present about their subject (For example, they might want to describe their subject, or make a claim about it, or tell a story about it. The poems we are reading in this unit all tell stories about a subject.) • what angle or perspective they want to take on their subject, or whom the poem’s narrator will be (This is often referred to as point of view.)

STUDENT e! NOTE TO oems rhym p ll a t o N ow? have Did you kn t rhyme or o n s e o d m sually If a poe eats, it is u b f o n r e t t a set pa oem. ee verse p r f a d e ll a c

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

29

Activity Page Name:

3.1

Date:

First-person point of view is used when speakers or narrators describe stories or events that include them as characters. It often includes words such as I, me, my, we, or us. For example, a student named Lauren might say: One time I dreamed I could fly. This would be first-person, since Lauren is talking about her own experience. Lauren is a character in the sentence she narrates. Third-person point of view is used when speakers or narrators describe stories or events that do not include them as characters. It often uses words such as he, she, it, or they. For example, Lauren’s classmate José might describe Lauren’s dream: Once, Lauren dreamed she could fly. This would be third-person, since José is talking about someone else’s experience. José is not a character in the sentence he narrates. Here’s an example of how José might make his sentence first-person: Lauren told me that, once, she dreamed she could fly. This sentence is in first-person, since José is a character describing an event from his perspective.

escribe arrators d DENT n U n T e S h O w T d is use NOTE cludes It often in int of view . o p e iv n t o c s e r p e s p Firsteir per ts from th n e v e r o s or us. storie , my, we, e m I, s a words such

30

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

3.2

Date:

Point of View Now that you understand the difference between first- and third-person, practice applying that knowledge. On the line following each of the sentences below, write whether it uses first- or third-person. 1. Emily dreamed of going on a trip to India with her uncle. 2. I dreamed about riding a racehorse. 3. My little brother dreamed of being president after he went to Washington, D.C. 4. Austin had a dream about being a Major League baseball player. 5. Sofia’s mother had dreamed for years about opening a restaurant. 6. In the dream, the friendly dragon offered to let us ride on his back. 7. After hearing the astronaut speak, our class dreamed of going to Mars someday. 8. Write a first-person sentence about a dream you have had while sleeping.

9. Write a first-person sentence about something you dream of doing or becoming.

10. Write a third-person sentence about one of your partner’s dreams.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

31

My First Memory (of Librarians) Nikki Giovanni

32

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

This is my first memory: A big room with heavy wooden tables that sat on a creaky wood floor A line of green shades—bankers’ lights—down the center Heavy oak chairs that were too low or maybe I was simply too short For me to sit in and read So my first book was always big In the foyer up four steps a semi-circle desk presided To the left side the card catalogue On the right newspapers draped over what looked like a quilt rack Magazines face out from the wall The welcoming smile of my librarian The anticipation in my heart All those books—another world—just waiting At my fingertips.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

33

Activity Page

3.3

Name: Date:

Reading “My First Memory (Of Librarians)” Answer the following questions about Giovanni’s poem. Consult the poem for words and details that can help you develop your answers. 1. Is this poem in first- or third-person? Underline the word or words in the poem that make this clear.

2. Based on the title of the poem, what is the narrator describing? Put the answer in your own words.

3. The narrator lists two reasons the chairs might not have fit her very well. Name both reasons.

4. The narrator describes the librarian as having a “welcoming smile.” Based on these words, how do you think the narrator felt about seeing the librarian? Give a reason for your answer.

34

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

3.3

5. In the final stanza, the narrator says she felt anticipation about visiting the library. Using the third-person, write a sentence that describes, in your own words, how the narrator felt when she was at the library.

6. When you read Nikki Giovanni’s biography, you were asked to think about how she might have felt about libraries and librarians when she was younger. Based on your answers to questions 4 and 5, does the poem show Giovanni feeling the way you expected? Explain your answer.

7. In the next-to-last line of the poem, the speaker calls the library’s books “another world.” How can books be like another world?

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

35

Activity Page

3.4

Name: Date:

Visualizing Detail Now that you’ve read and thought about Nikki Giovanni’s poem, it’s time to imagine what her library looked like. To do that, you will think about all the details in the poem, then draw them in the space on the next page. 1. Look back at the poem and underline any words that help describe what the library looked like. 2. For each item you underlined, think about how to draw that. Use the details from the poem to help you. For example, does Giovanni remember that some objects were big? Does she tell you the shape of the furniture? Think about how these details can help you imagine what the room looked like. 3. Take one description and draw it in the space below. Make sure to think about where in the space it should be located. 4. As you draw each thing, label it with a word from the poem that helped you imagine how to draw it. 5. Keep adding objects to your library until it looks like the one in the poem. If you feel stuck while you work, make sure to consult the poem, as it will help you know where to put each image. If you finish with time remaining, reread the poem. Look for one more detail you could draw in your library.

36

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

3.4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

37

Activity Page

3.5

Name: Date:

Planning Memory Poems Today’s lesson included Nikki Giovanni’s poem “My First Memory (of Librarians),” a poem in which the narrator remembers an event from her childhood and describes it with lots of detail. In this exercise, you’ll think about a memory of your own, then answer some questions. If you don’t finish during class time, you may complete your work at home. 1. Think about your favorite place. It might be a place where you go often, or it could be a place you have only been once. When you have thought of the place and remembered visiting it, write down the name of the place below.

2. Think about what you did in this place. Did you talk to anyone? Move around? Do anything? Touch anything? Leave anything there or take anything when you left? Using the lines marked “2a” through “2d,” write down four different things you did in this place.

2a. ____________________________________________________



2b. ____________________________________________________



2c. ____________________________________________________



2d. ____________________________________________________

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

3.5

3. Visualize! Now think about what the place looked like. What colors do you remember seeing? What objects were there? Were there other people? What did they look like? What were they wearing? Using the lines below, write down four details that describe how the place looked.

3a. ____________________________________________________



3b. ____________________________________________________



3c. ____________________________________________________



3d. ____________________________________________________

4. Now use your ears! Think about the sounds you heard in this place. Did anyone talk to you? What did they say? Was music playing? Were there other noises, or was it very quiet? Remember that, even in quiet places, you can hear some noises—perhaps you heard your own breathing, or the wind, or the air conditioner. Using the lines below, write down at least four sounds you heard in this place.

4a. ____________________________________________________



4b. ____________________________________________________



4c. ____________________________________________________



4d. ____________________________________________________

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

39

Activity Page

3.5 5. Now write down any other details you can remember about this experience. These could include how the place feels, how the place smells, or any other special detail that you remember and want to include.

5a. ____________________________________________________



5b. ____________________________________________________



5c. ____________________________________________________



5d. ____________________________________________________

If you’ve answered all the questions, that’s great! If you haven’t, remember that care matters more than speed. Later in the poetry units you’ll use this exercise as the starting point for a poem about your memory. To write a strong poem, you’ll need to have lots of information, so make sure this is as complete as possible. If you remember other details later, you should add them. Think of all the details Giovanni used to help make her description memorable; try to do the same in your own work.

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Vocabula

ry

Core Vocabulary

anticipati

on—n.

bankers’ lights—n.

excitement about something before it happens desk lamps used by bankers; their green shades were believed to help deflect bright light and reduce strain on the eyes—an important thing for people who spent their day poring over complex numbers

card catalogue—n.

the filing system used by librarians before computers; the card catalogue was a collection of cards that told visitors what books the library had and where to locate them

foyer—n.

an entryway, often leading into another room

preside—v.

quilt rack —n.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

rule over or be in charge of used for hanging quilts and blankets once they are folded

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

41

Literary Vocabulary t—n. n e t n o c form—n. free verse—n.

her text the message of a poem or ot e of the structure or appearanc other text

a poem or

eme or set pattern a poem with no rhyme sch of beats

R REMINDE

h ssary wit lo g a s in onta an’t Journal c . If you c ’s m t e e o o p P e r h u t to s in of y o the word might try The back f u o o y e , y m r o it. s a s s for the glos ds around r in o d w e definition e r e n h ou he ot . finition y g from t r for help in e n h a c e a find a de e m t ’s r rd sk you t t h e wo nary or a io t ic figure ou d a lso look in You can a

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 3

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

KAREN BLEIER/AFP/Getty Images

Biography

Nikki Giovanni Yolande Cornelia “Nikki” Giovanni was born on June 7, 1943, in Knoxville, Tennessee. She grew up in an all-black suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio, but spent summers visiting her grandparents in Knoxville. She loved hearing her grandmother’s stories about her ancestors, which greatly influenced her own love for writing. She explained in an interview, “I come from a long line of storytellers.” Giovanni self-published her first book of poetry, Black Feeling Black Talk, in 1968. She has since published over two dozen books, including Rosa and Hip-Hop Speaks to Children, and won many awards. She prides herself on being “a Black American, a daughter, a mother, a professor of English.” Her distinct and imaginative poetry is inspired by her fascination with people and their emotions. It is also influenced by music and her passion for social equality. She is currently a professor of English and Black Studies at Virginia Tech.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 3 | Poet’s Journal

43

Harlem Langston Hughes

What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore —  And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over — like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?

45

Activity Page

4.1

Name: Date:

Figurative Language in Poetry Part 1 One way to start understanding poetry is to understand the different kinds of language poets use. One thing that helps distinguish poetry from other forms of writing is its use of language. Often when we hear a word, we think of its dictionary definition. We call that its literal meaning. Example: Hand me that pen so I can sign Liam’s birthday card In this sentence the speaker is asking for an actual, literal pen, which we use for writing. However, sometimes we mean something slightly different from the literal meaning. Example: The pen is mightier than the sword. When people say this, they do not literally mean that in a duel, the person holding a pen would beat the person holding a sword. What they mean is that words are often stronger than acts of violence. When people speak this way, they are using something called figurative language. A word’s figurative meaning might be a symbol or representative of something else. The key is that the figurative meaning contains ideas, emotions, or connections that differ from the dictionary definition. Although all writers may use the tools of figurative language, it appears in poetry more frequently than in other kinds of writing.

NOTE TO STUDENT The literal meaning of a wo rd is its dictionary definition. The figurative meaning of a word includes all the associations, symbols, and emotions that might be connected to the wo rd. 46

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 4

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

4.1

Date:

Part 2 Now you will get to practice your own examples of figurative language! Each item below lists a figurative statement. Your teacher will review the first example. Then, working with a partner, name the literal meaning for each figurative expression. Figurative statement

I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!

Literal meaning

I am very hungry.

1. It’s raining cats and dogs!

2. I’m on cloud nine!

3. Don’t let the cat out of the bag!

4. It sank like a stone.

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Lesson 4 | Poet’s Journal

47

Activity Page Name:

4.2

Date:

Interpreting Similes in “Harlem” Fill out the chart below. Your teacher will model an example for you. Simile

A. fester like a sore

Literal meaning

to grow infected

B. dry up like a raisin in the sun

C. stink like rotten meat

D. crust and sugar over—like a syrupy sweet

E. sags like a heavy load

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Activity Page Name:

4.2

Date:

Figurative meaning

In the poem, is this good or bad?

deferred dreams are a kind of sickness

bad

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Activity Page Name:

4.3

Date:

What happens when your teeth aren’t brushed? Now you will write your own series of similes to answer a single question, just like Hughes does. Your similes will answer the question, “What happens when your teeth aren’t brushed?” To write your similes, you’ll use the word bank below. In it are nine verbs, or action words. For each of those verbs, you will write a simile by adding an adjective, a noun, and the word like or as. Your teacher will show you an example using the verb charge. Write your similes as a question and put one question on each line. Word Bank

50

charge

howl

sour

clash

sting

wilt

weaken

decay

ooze

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 4

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

4.3

What happens when your teeth aren’t brushed? Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

Do they 

?

When you finish, read over your whole poem silently.

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Lesson 4 | Poet’s Journal

51

Vocabulary Core Vocabulary defer–

v.

to put off or delay

to grow infected

fester-v. .

renaissance-n

bulary Literary Voca

figurative language-n. l litera -n. eaning

people are a time period when many in creating art, interested in big ideas and music, and literature

their ean more than m at th s se ra h p aphors words or similes and met ; n io it n efi d y e dictionar gurative languag fi f o s le p am ex are two nition of a word

defi the dictionary

m

-n.

hor etap

m

simile-n. 52

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 4

at do comparison th

or as es not use like

word like or as e th g n si u n o comparis

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

5.1

Reviewing Figurative Language The previous lesson helped you think like a poet and identify the difference between figurative and literal language. Answer the following questions to review what you learned in that lesson. 1. The previous lesson introduced a poem by Langston Hughes. What was the title of this poem? A. “Dreams Deferred” B. “Harlem” C. “A Raisin in the Sun” 2. Name the two different kinds of dreams discussed in earlier lessons.

3. What is the literal meaning of a word?

4. Is the following sentence literal or figurative? “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!”

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 5 | Poet’s Journal

53

Activity Page

5.1

Name: Date:

5. If someone says, “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!” what does he or she actually mean?

6. What is a simile?

7. What is an example of a simile?

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Activity Page Name:

5.2

Date:

Biography Learning more about a poem’s author and subject can sometimes help readers understand the poem more clearly. The “About the Poet” sections of the Poet’s Journal provide short biographies of the poets whose work you are reading in this unit. Read the “About the Poet” section for Langston Hughes, then answer the following questions. You may consult the Poet’s Journal and the video from this lesson if you need additional help. 1. In what years did Langston Hughes live?

2. In addition to poetry, what other kinds of literature did Hughes write?

3. What was the main theme of Hughes’s poetry?

u have TUDENT n author yo a t u o b a NOTE TO S g , u are writin me! Instead o a y n If st ? ir f w o r n e is or h Did you k name, ld not use h u o sh u o irst and last y f t, e e h t m r h t e o v b e n ly the her use s), or use on ally and eit e h m g r u o f H e n o it r st w e (Lang 1 does abov n io st e u q s ions do. a other quest e h t s a , e last nam Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 5 | Poet’s Journal

55

Activity Page

5.2

Name: Date:

4. What is the literal description of Harlem?

5. What connection did Hughes have to Harlem?

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 5

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Activity Page Name:

5.3

Date:

The Harlem Renaissance Answer the following questions based on the information you learned from the video. 1. What term describes the large amount of creative work in Harlem in the 1920s?

2. What kinds of creative work were being done in Harlem in the 1920s?

3. In the 1920s what appealed to Hughes about Harlem?

4. How was Harlem different in the 1950s from the 1920s?

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 5 | Poet’s Journal

57

Activity Page

5.4

Name: Date:

Hughes and Harlem Answer the following questions. You may look back at the poem “Harlem” or other Poet’s Journal pages as you work. 1. Langston Hughes published “Harlem” in 1951. Based on what you know about how Harlem changed between 1920 and 1950, why might he think of the Harlem neighborhood as a place where people’s hopes and dreams were deferred?

2. Look back at your chart of similes from the previous lesson. Most of the similes Hughes uses describe things that sound bad—things stink and fester. Why might he use all these similes to describe a deferred dream?

3. If Hughes had the chance to give people advice on how to live, what do you think he would tell them about following their dreams? Make sure your answer includes a reason from the poem.

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 5

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Activity Page Name: Date:

5.5

Developing Memory Poems In the lesson on Nikki Giovanni’s “My First Memory (of Librarians),” you started writing about a memory of your own and the setting where it took place. “Harlem” shows another way that poets can write about places they find meaningful. Today you’ll review your work and add some details and ideas to help improve it. We call this process revision, which is making changes to improve something. First, read over your notes on Poet’s Journal 3.5. You will also see that your teacher has left you some comments about additional details you might add to your notes. If you have any questions about your teacher’s comments, raise your hand to get help. Once you understand your teacher’s comments, think about how you might do what your teacher suggests to improve your work. Write down any changes you might make based on your teacher’s comments. Make sure to write down at least two new details you will add to your notes. Once you have listed your changes, think about how Langston Hughes, Nikki Giovanni, and other poets you’ve read write about places that are important to them. Answer the following questions to help you think about ways to show why your memory is so important to you.

1. In one sentence, describe the most important thing that happens in your memory.

2. How did you feel when this happened?

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59

Activity Page

5.5

Name: Date:

3. What two words could you use in your poem to help describe that feeling?

4. Write a simile that shows readers how you felt in the memory.

You will start drafting your poem in the next lesson. If you need to add more details or answers to your work, do that for homework.

NOTE TO STU DENT For more poem s, check out th e Enrichment titles in this uni t. These are ext ra poems we think you’ll enjoy too!

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 5

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Hulton Archive/Archive Photos/Getty Images

Biography

Langston Hughes Langston Hughes was a poet, novelist, and playwright whose long career inspired numerous other writers. Born on February 1, 1902, in Joplin, Missouri, he moved to Lincoln, Ohio, at age thirteen. He began writing poetry there and eventually became one of the most influential poets of the Harlem Renaissance, a movement of African American artists and writers during the 1920s. Hughes wrote about African American life between the 1920s and 1960s. His experiences traveling the world influenced his poetry. His work had many different topics, from beautiful things, such as music and love, to ugly things, such as discrimination and racism. His style was compared to jazz and blues music, perhaps due to its repetition and rhythm, or perhaps because his poems are lyrical and emotional. Hughes was proud of his culture and heritage, despite facing strict racial segregation. His poetry showed readers the injustice of racism and imagined a world of equality. He died in 1967.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 5 | Poet’s Journal

61

From Why We Play Basketball Sherman Alexie It is just a game we are told by those who cannot play it unless it is play. For us, it is war,

often desperate and without reason. We throw our body against another body. We learn to

62

hate each other, hate the ball, hate the hoop, hate the fallen snow, hate our clumsy hands, hate our thirsty mouths

when we drink from the fountain. We hate our fathers. We hate our mothers. We hate the face in our mirror.

We play basketball because we want to separate love from hate, and because we know how to keep score.

63

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 6

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Activity Page Name:

6.1

Date:

Practicing Tone Working with your partner, say the sentence below. Take turns adding emphasis or stress to different words in the sentence until you have said the sentence seven different times in seven different ways. As you practice emphasizing each word, put a check by it. I never said he stole my cookie.   I   never   said   he   stole   my   cookie.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 6 | Poet’s Journal

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Activity Page

6.2

Name: Date:

Close Reading Use the Sherman Alexie poem to help you answer the following questions: 1. Reread the poem and pay attention to everything the speaker says the basketball players hate. Write each item the players hate under the appropriate category in the following chart: Parts of the Body

People

Objects or Things

2. In the first stanza, the speaker says some people think basketball “is just a game.” But for the speaker and his friends, it is something else. What word does he use to describe what basketball is for them?

3. What is the literal definition of war?

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Activity Page Name: Date:

6.2

4. Based on that background information, what are some possible figurative meanings of calling something such as a basketball game a “war”?

5. In the final stanza of the poem, Alexie names two reasons why the boys play basketball. What are those two reasons?

6. What is the literal meaning of keeping score in a basketball game?

NOTE TO STUDENT ry. tribe with a rich histo n ica er Am e tiv Na a w The Spokane tribe is of land in what are no s re ac ion ill m l ra ve se The Spokane once had the Spokane tribe has y, da To . ho Ida d an on state. the state s of Washingt rvation in Washington se re a d an rs be em m approximately 3,000 Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 6 | Poet’s Journal

67

Activity Page

6.3

Name: Date:

Drafting Memory Poems Now that you’ve planned and revised your ideas, it’s time to draft your memory poem! As you work, you should consult the description of your memory that you prepared with the Nikki Giovanni lesson (Lesson 3) and the revision work you did in the Langston Hughes lesson (Lesson 5.) Use these materials as you answer the following questions: 1. In one sentence, write the topic of your memory.

2. In revision, you developed a simile to show readers how you felt in this memory. Copy that simile here.

3. Pick one important word that you want to stress as a way of showing your poem’s tone. Write that word here.

4. How will you emphasize the word you picked in question 3? Circle your answer. I will emphasize it through repetition. I will emphasize it by putting it right before a line break. I will emphasize it by using repetition and by putting it right before a line break. 68

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 6

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

6.3

5. Look back over your writing and revision. These exercises helped you brainstorm, or gather lots of ideas about your memory, but you might not need all those details in your poem. Narrow your ideas down to the three most important details about your memory, and write them here. Next to each detail, write why this detail will be so important to your poem.

A. B. C. Now think about the order in which the memory happened. What came first? Second? Last? Put a number by items A through C to indicate the order of events.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 6 | Poet’s Journal

69

Activity Page

6.3

Name: Date:

6. Look over your list. Using the space provided, write your poem. Make sure to write the events in the order you indicated. Use the simile you wrote and other details from your answers to help develop your poem. Don’t forget to stress your important word to help readers understand your poem’s tone.

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Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Vocabulary Core Vocabulary desperate-ad j.

hopeless

Literary Vocabulary

line break-n.

tone-n.

the place where a line ends

the attitude of a piece of writing, expressed through the style of writing and the words the author uses

with ossary l g a s can’t contain oem. If you l a n r Jou y to ep Poet ’s ight tr s in th d r m r u o o u y o w und it. ,y of o he y r t r k a a c f s a s o s b d o wor e gl ome The lp. other s for s d in th n e e o e h i for he t n t i r n u m e o o h y r c f a defi n io r te ning definit sk you ’s mea a d r r o o find a w y e onar out th a dicti n i figure k o lo n also You ca

DER REMIN

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 6 | Poet’s Journal

71

Hulton Archive/Archive Photos/Getty Images

Biography

Sherman Alexie Sherman Alexie is a Native American author who was born on October 7, 1966, on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington state. Alexie and his family were very poor and faced many obstacles. In addition, Alexie was born with a medical condition that led doctors to believe that he would not live past his first birthday. Against all odds he excelled in school, academically and as a basketball star, and eventually became class president despite the prejudice he faced from peers. His writing career began in college. He was largely influenced by other Native American writers, such as Joseph Bruchac. Alexie uses exaggeration, humor, and emotion to shed light on the many difficulties faced by Native American communities in the United States. His most well-known books include The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven and The Absolutely True Story of a PartTime Indian. Alexie currently lives and writes in Washington.

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 6

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name: Date:

7.1

Providing Feedback Throughout the previous lessons, you have been working on your own memory poem. Today you will get to share your poem aloud with a partner. Each person will read his or her poem, then each listener will share responses to the questions below. When it is your turn to read your work aloud, remember to speak clearly and slowly. When it is your turn to listen to your partner, think about the following questions as you listen to the poem. Take a minute to write down your answers and share them aloud with your partner. Remember that you should listen attentively to your partner. This means you should think about what your partner is reading so that you are able to review the key ideas your partner expresses in his or her poem. Make sure to look at your partner while he or she reads the poem aloud. 1. Using your own words, describe the main thing that happens in your partner’s poem.

2. The previous lesson asked you to emphasize a word or phrase in your poem. What word or phrase seems to be emphasized in your partner’s poem? You may look at the written poem as you think about your answer; make sure to give a reason for your answer.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 7 | Poet’s Journal

73

I Hear America Singing Walt Whitman

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I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear, Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong, The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam, The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work, The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck, The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands, The wood-cutter’s song, the ploughboy’s on his way in the morning, or at noon intermission or at sundown, The delicious singing of the mother, or of the young wife at work, or of the girl sewing or washing, Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else, The day what belongs to the day—at night the party of young fellows, robust, friendly, Singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs.

75

Activity Page

7.2

Name: Date:

Understanding Metaphor Up to now, the poems in this unit have used figurative language in clear ways. For example, Sherman Alexie’s poem compares basketball to war by saying directly: “for us, it is war.” However, poets do not always make their comparisons so directly. As readers, one of the things we must figure out is whether or not Whitman is referring to literal songs that people would sing out loud, if he is using the idea of singing as a metaphor, or if he is doing both. Consult the poem as needed to answer the following questions about how Whitman uses metaphor. 1. At the end of the poem, Whitman writes, “Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else.” Using your own words, explain what Whitman means here.

2. Whitman makes sure to explain that the singers are all doing some kind of work. Here, he is probably not saying that everyone is singing at their jobs! Instead, he seems to compare work to singing. Write down ways that each of the following kinds of work might be like singing. A. Shoemaking: ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ B. Plowing a field: __________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Activity Page Name: Date:

7.2

3. Think of a carpenter who is building a piece of wooden furniture. What kind of noises might his tools make?

4. How might someone consider the noises made by a carpenter’s tools to be a kind of music? Give a reason for your answer.

5. Based on the way Whitman compares the work and the songs, what do you think he would consider the most important trait about America? Give a reason from the poem to support your answer.

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Activity Page

7.2

Name: Date:

6. Harmony is a musical term that describes how different notes work together to create a pleasing sound. It also describes how people work together. How does Whitman’s metaphor between singing and work use the two definitions of harmony?

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Activity Page Name: Date:

7.3

Planning In the space below, write down as many things as possible that people do throughout the school day. Make sure to have at least ten items on your list.

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Lesson 7 | Poet’s Journal

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Activity Page

7.4

Name: Date:

“I Hear My School Singing” Now you’ll use the evidence you gathered in the previous activity to help you write a poem about how you hear your school singing. Use that evidence to answer the following questions: 1. Whitman’s poem describes many different kinds of workers that help make up America. What different kinds of workers help make up your school?

2. Whitman compares the work of Americans to songs. What kind of songs do you hear in the school? For example, students’ feet as they enter the class might make a drumlike sound.

Using the material you listed above, compose your own poem on the following lines. Make sure to write the title, “I Hear My School Singing,” on the very first line. As you write, try to include at least ten different kinds of songs you hear in the school day.

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Activity Page Name: Date:

7.4

If you finish with time to spare, look back over your poem. Go back and add at least one more detail that helps readers understand how your school sings throughout the day.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

Lesson 7 | Poet’s Journal

81

Vocabulary Core Vocabulary Core Vocabulary

beam-n.

blithe-adj.

intermission-n. mason-

n.

melodious-adj. robust-adj

.

varied-adj.

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 7

a thick piece of wood

happy and untroubled

a break in the middle of something, usually a performance someone who builds things with stone

pleasant sounding

healthy and strong

different from each other or diverse

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division/LC-DIG-ppmsca-08541

Biography

Walt Whitman Born on May 31, 1819, on Long Island, New York, Walt Whitman worked as a teacher and a journalist before becoming a poet. His poetry related to people of all backgrounds and made him one of America’s most well-known and beloved writers. During Whitman’s time, the United States of America was divided by slavery, which threatened to split the country in two. The Civil War inspired him to write Drum Taps, poetry about the war and his experiences as a battlefield nurse. His writing was powerful; even President Lincoln admired him. In fact, one of his poems, “O Captain, My Captain,” is a patriotic tribute to President Lincoln. Whitman also wrote poems about nature. Whitman died in 1892. However, his poetry and free-verse style, along with his conversational tone, remain appreciated and admired.

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Lesson 7 | Poet’s Journal

83

From She Had Some Horses Joy Harjo She had some horses. She had horses who were bodies of sand. She had horses who were maps drawn of blood. She had horses who were skins of ocean water. She had horses who were the blue air of sky. She had horses who were fur and teeth. She had horses who were clay and would break. She had horses who were splintered red cliff. (stanza break)

84

She had some horses. [...................................] She had horses who danced in their mothers’ arms. She had horses who thought they were the sun and their bodies shone and burned like stars. She had horses who waltzed nightly on the moon. She had horses who were much too shy, and kept quiet in stalls of their own making. She had some horses. [...................................] She had horses who called themselves, “horse.” She had horses who called themselves, “spirit,” and

kept their voices secret and to themselves.

She had horses who had no names. She had horses who had books of names. She had some horses. [...................................] She had some horses she loved. She had some horses she hated. These were the same horses. Note: Poem has been revised for the younger market.

Activity Page

8.1

Name: Date:

Interpreting Metaphor In “She Had Some Horses,” Joy Harjo uses horses to represent different parts of the woman’s personality or identity. Horses occupy a special space in many Native American tribes. The horses are a metaphor for the woman in this poem, but it is not stated directly. The poem also has metaphors that are stated directly. These metaphors compare the horses to other things. Your teacher will arrange you into groups and assign your group a metaphor to investigate. Each group will use the graphic organizer that follows to discuss different figurative meanings its metaphor might have and to think of evidence to back up their ideas. Your teacher will review the first two examples before you start. 1. Example. She had horses who were bodies of sand. 2. Example. She had horses who were maps drawn of blood.

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Activity Page Name: Date:

8.1

The remaining metaphors are listed below. Circle the letter of the metaphor your teacher assigns your group. Then work together as a group to fill out the graphic organizer. Metaphors: A. She had horses who were skins of ocean water.

B. She had horses who were the blue air of sky.

C. She had horses who were fur and teeth.

D. She had horses who were clay and would break.

E. She had horses who were splintered red cliff.

Write your metaphor on the line below. She had horses who were As you work on interpreting the metaphor, you must think like poets, which means thinking very creatively and using your imagination to decide what Harjo might have meant.

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Activity Page

8.1

Name: Date:

Fill in the last words of What does this thing your metaphor below. do, or how does it act?

bodies of sand

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Poet’s Journal | Lesson 8

Sand is little, hard to separate, always moving or shifting around.

What does this thing feel, smell, taste, or look like? Lots of pieces but together they all look like one thing, feels grainy or rough.

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

8.1

Date:

How might this relate to horses? Sometimes horses travel in herds or packs, maybe they are rough too.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

What do you think this metaphor means in your own words? The horses were always moving, one group with a lot of individuals within it.

Lesson 8 | Poet’s Journal

89

Vocabulary Core Vocabulary stall—

n.

waltz—n.

to an animal a room in a stable assigned or animals a kind of dance

Literary Vocabulary ora—n.

anaph

90

Poet’s Journal | Lesson 8

e start of a series the repetition of words at th of lines in a poem

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

Activity Page Name:

9.1

Date:

Figurative Language: Actions The fourth stanza of “She Had Some Horses” describes horses performing lots of different actions. Since horses cannot really do all these things, we know Harjo must be using figurative language. She may also be reminding readers that the horses represent different parts of the woman in the poem. Use your best interpreting skills to decide what the figurative language in this stanza might mean. You may refer to the poem as you work. 1. What are some possible figurative meanings for “danced in their mothers’ arms”?

2. What are some possible figurative meanings for “thought they were the sun and their bodies shone and burned like stars”?

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

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Activity Page

9.1

Name: Date:

3. What are some possible figurative meanings for “waltzed nightly on the moon”?

4. What are some possible figurative meanings for “kept quiet in stalls of their own making”?

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Activity Page Name: Date:

9.2

Planning Anaphora Poems Planning In writing, it is important to think about what you want to accomplish before you begin. This exercise will help you do that. First consider what you are going to write: a poem that uses anaphora to describe different aspects of your own personality. Think about how Harjo does this: She uses the horses as representatives of different parts of the woman’s identity. Horses have an important role in Native American culture, so it’s likely that this helped influence Harjo’s choice. 1. Think about your own life and the things that are most important to you. What will you use to represent the different parts of your identity? 2. Think about the ways you might use anaphora. You could start each line by saying, “I am like ___” or, “My body is ___” or, “I consist of ___.” You could also think of your own phrase to repeat at the start of most of your poem’s lines. Think about it, and write that phrase here. Organizing Now that you have an idea of how you will include anaphora, you need to develop ideas about how to organize the different characteristics. In this exercise you’ll use the same ideas Harjo did. Follow the prompts below to list the parts of your personality you will write about in the poem. 3. Harjo’s second stanza describes what the horses are made of, using things from the natural world. List at least two features from nature that are metaphors for what you are made of. For example, if you are stubborn, you might describe yourself as a boulder, because it is not easily moved.

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4. Harjo’s fourth stanza describes actions the horses take. List at least two actions here that describe aspects of your personality or character. Remember that, like Harjo, you may use figurative language here. 5. Harjo’s eighth stanza describes how the woman feels about the horses. Write down at least two different feelings you have about the character traits you have listed above. If you finish this section with time remaining, go back and try to add two more features to each of your lists. For example, for question 3, you would add two more features from nature; for question 4, you would add two more actions that describe your personality or character.

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Drafting Anaphora Poems Now it’s time to draft your poem! Use the space that follows to write your poem. Remember to follow these steps: • Make sure to use anaphora by including your phrase from question 2 at the start of at least three lines. • Make sure to include different aspects of your personality by using some of the items you brainstormed on your lists in questions 3–6. If you finish drafting with time remaining, go back and try to add two more details to your poem.

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Chris Felver/Archive Photos/Getty Images

Biography

Joy Harjo Joy Harjo was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1951 and is a member of the Mvskoke Nation. She frequently includes Native American mythology, symbolism, and beliefs in her poetry. Her work is largely autobiographical and inspired by her love of nature. In 1975 she published her first volume of poetry, The Last Song. Her writing emphasizes the unique worldview of Native American people and blends everyday experiences with Native American spirituality. She has said that she writes poetry for herself; however, her work has inspired many people from all over the world and has earned her many awards. She is an award-winning musician and has produced five albums with her band, Poetic Justice. She also writes nonfiction and children’s literature, including The Good Luck Cat and For a Girl Becoming. She currently lives and works in Oklahoma.

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Lesson 10 | Poet’s Journal

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Words Free As Confetti Pat Mora

Come, words, come in your every color. I’ll toss you in storm or breeze. I’ll say, say, say you, Taste you sweet as plump plums, bitter as old lemons, I’ll sniff you, words, warm as almonds or tart as apple-red, feel you green and soft as new grass, lightweight as dandelion plumes, (no stanza break)

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or thorngray as cactus, heavy as black cement, cold blue as icicles, warm as abuelita’s yellowlap. I’ll hear you, words, loud as searoar’s Purple crash, hushed as gatitos curled in sleep, as the last goldlullaby. I’ll see you long and dark as tunnels, bright as rainbows, playful as chestnutwind. I’ll watch you, words, rise and dance and spin. I’ll say, say, say you in English, in Spanish, I’ll find you. Hold you. Toss you. I’m free too. I say yo soy libre, I am free free, free, free as confetti

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Alliteration In this exercise you’ll practice your alliteration skills. In an earlier lesson you used alliteration to describe the way an animal might feel. In this lesson you’ll write new examples of alliteration that link to your own name. Write a letter from your name on each of the five lines on the next page. Only use each letter one time. If you run out of letters from your first name, move on to your last name. For example, if your name were Sid Sawyer, you would write the following letters on the lines: S, I, D, A, W. After you put a letter on each line, write a sentence using each letter. Each sentence should have at least three words that start with the letter from your name. Examples: Letter: S Shea spied swans. Letter: W Wally watched walruses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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If you finish with time remaining, try to add two more words to each sentence using alliteration. Examples: Letter: S Shea spied swans swimming silently. Letter: W Wally watched walruses waiting in the water.

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tart as apple-red

warm as almonds

bitter as old lemons

sweet as plump plums

Simile

taste

Words can be sweet or pleasant to your mouth; they can be fun to say.

Figurative meaning: how this applies to words

10.2

Sense (you may have more than one sense)

The first row of the chart has been completed for you as an example.

The following chart lists the similes in Mora’s poem. Each simile has to do with one of the five senses: smell, touch, sight, sound, or taste. For each, write down the sense it deals with. Then think about what each simile might say about words and complete the possible figurative meaning of the simile.

Interpreting Similes

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Figurative meaning: how this applies to words

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heavy as black cement

thorngray as cactus

lightweight as dandelion plumes

green and soft as new grass

Simile

Sense (you may have more than one sense)

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hushed as gatitos curled in sleep

loud as searoar’s purple crash

Figurative meaning: how this applies to words

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warm as abuelita’s yellow lap

cold blue as icicles

Simile

Sense (you may have more than one sense)

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Figurative meaning: how this applies to words

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playful as chestnut wind

bright as rainbows

long and dark as tunnels

hushed as the last gold lullaby

Simile

Sense (you may have more than one sense)

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Writing with All Five Senses Now it’s your turn to write using all five senses and alliteration! In this activity you will follow Mora’s example and write a poem about something that is extremely important to you. Follow the instructions below to plan, organize, and draft your poem. 1. Mora writes about words because she values them. In this poem you will write about something that is very important to you. Take a minute to think about an object that you value. It may not be something you actually own, but it should be something you know well enough to describe in a lot of different ways. When you have decided on the object you will write about, write it below.

2. Mora’s poem uses all five senses to describe words. You will do the same thing in your poem. For each letter below, describe how the sense listed applies to your object. Depending on the object you selected, you may not be able to give a literal meaning for each sense. For example, if you selected a favorite rock to write about, you have probably never tasted it! But think about how Mora uses similes to introduce a figurative meaning into her descriptions. Try to do the same with your object. A. What does it feel like when you touch it?

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B. What does it smell like?

C. How does it sound?

D. What does it look like?

E. What does it taste like?

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3. Mora describes how she feels free like words. How does your object make you feel?

4. Describe a way that you are like your object.

5. Now pick one of your answers from above and think about a way to describe it using alliteration. Write that here.

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Now that you’ve thought about the things you might include in your poem, it’s time to write! Use the lines below to describe your object. Make sure to use all five senses. If you finish with time remaining, read back over your poem silently. Try to add alliteration to another line. Then try to add a simile.

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Vocabulary Core Vocabulary n.

plume-

used as decoration a feather, either on a bird or such as on a woman’s hat

REMINDER The back of your Poet’s Journal contains a Glossary with definitions for some of the words in the poem. If you can’t find a definition you need in the Glossary, you might try to figure out the word’s meaning from the other words around it. You can also look in a dictionary or ask your teacher for help.

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Biography

a r o M Pat Pat Mora is a Latina poet and author. Born in El Paso, Texas in 1942 on the Mexico-US border, she grew up speaking English and Spanish at home. Her love of poetry started early: “I always liked poetry and I had lots of books in my house so I would just open them up and read.” Mora became a teacher, a university administrator, and a writer inspired by her culture and childhood: “Many of my book ideas come from the desert where I grew up in the open spaces, wide sky, [and] all that sun.” Mora supports bilingual literacy programs. She is deeply involved in spreading “bookjoy”— exciting children to read at a young age. Her books Tomas and the Library Lady, The Rainbow Tulip, and House of Houses capture the imaginations of young readers. She currently lives and writes in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

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Fog Carl Sandburg

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The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on.

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Reading Extended Metaphors When a writer’s metaphor continues for more than one sentence of a story or more than one line of a poem, it is called an extended metaphor. Carl Sandburg’s poem “Fog” uses an extended metaphor to compare the fog to a cat. Using the poem as a reference, complete the following chart to show the different parts of Sandburg’s extended metaphor. Words from poem

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How this might describe a cat

How this might describe fog

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Writing Poems with Extended Metaphors Now that you have seen how Carl Sandburg uses an extended metaphor to describe the weather, it’s your turn! Follow the steps below to write your own poem that contains an extended metaphor comparing the weather to an animal. 1. Read the words in the word bank below and pick the kind of weather you want to describe in your poem. Circle your choice. breeze

hail

lightning

clouds

gust

rain

downpour

hurricane

rainbow

snow

sunshine

thunder

tornado

wind

earthquake

2. Write down at least five different things that describe the word you circled above. If you get stuck for ideas, you might think about what this kind of weather looks, sounds, or feels like. You might think about its shape, color, and way of moving.

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3. What animal would make a good metaphor for the word you circled above?

4. Remember that in an extended metaphor, you must make your comparison over more than one line of the poem. Write down at least three ways your animal is like the weather you circled above.

If you can’t think of three things, try a different animal.

ne ore than o TUDENT m S r o O f T s E e T u NO , it is r contin of a poem ’s metapho e r n e li it r e n w o a n When ore tha story or m a f o e c n sente hor. ded metap n e t x e n a called

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5. Once you have listed three ways in which the animal compares to the weather, use the following lines to compose your poem.

If you finish with time remaining, look back over your work to make sure your metaphor extends for more than one line of the poem. Then think of one more way you could compare the animal to the weather, and add that to your poem. Congratulations—you just wrote another poem!

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Vocabulary Literary Vocabulary extended metaphor-n.

a metaphor that continues for more than one sentence of a story or more than one line of a poem

REMINDER The back of your Poet’s Journal contains a Glossary with definitions for some of the words in the poem. If you can’t find a definition you need in the Glossary, you might try to figure out the word’s meaning from the other words around it. You can also look in a dictionary or ask your teacher for help.

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Evans/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Biography

Carl Sandburg Carl Sandburg was born January 6, 1878, in Galesburg, Illinois. Sandburg’s family was desperately poor, so he left school at age thirteen, doing odd jobs to earn money for the family. While serving in the Spanish-American War years later, he met a student from Lombard College who persuaded Sandburg to return to school after the war. At Lombard College, Sandburg was mentored by a writing professor who encouraged him to pursue poetry and supported him in publishing his first collection of poems, Reckless Ecstasy. Sandburg wrote in the free-verse style, inspired by the poetry of Walt Whitman. While living in Chicago as an adult, he published several volumes of poetry, including Chicago Poems and Cornhuskers. He became famous for his depictions of urban life and the industrial city. He won the Pulitzer Prize three times, once for his biography of President Lincoln and twice for poetry. Sandburg died in 1967.

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Casey At The Bat Ernest Lawrence Thayer

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The outlook wasn’t brilliant for the Mudville nine that day: The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play, And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same, A sickly silence fell upon the patrons of the game. A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. The rest Clung to the hope which springs eternal in the human breast; They thought, “If only Casey could but get a whack at that— We’d put up even money now, with Casey at the bat.” But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Jimmy Blake, And the former was a hoodoo, while the latter was a cake; So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat, For there seemed but little chance of Casey getting to the bat. But Flynn let drive a single, to the wonderment of all, And Blake, the much despisèd, tore the cover off the ball; And when the dust had lifted, and men saw what had occurred, There was Jimmy safe at second and Flynn a-hugging third.

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Then from five thousand throats and more there rose a lusty yell; It rumbled through the valley, it rattled in the dell; It pounded on the mountain and recoiled upon the flat, For Casey, mighty Casey, was advancing to the bat. There was ease in Casey’s manner as he stepped into his place; There was pride in Casey’s bearing and a smile lit Casey’s face. And when, responding to the cheers, he lightly doffed his hat, No stranger in the crowd could doubt ‘twas Casey at the bat. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt; Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt; Then while the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip, Defiance flashed in Casey’s eye, a sneer curled Casey’s lip. And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air, And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty grandeur there. Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped— “That ain’t my style,” said Casey. “Strike one!” the umpire said. From the benches, black with people, there went up a muffled roar, Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore; “Kill him! Kill the umpire!” shouted someone on the stand; And it’s likely they’d have killed him had not Casey raised his hand.

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With a smile of Christian charity great Casey’s visage shone; He stilled the rising tumult; he bade the game go on; He signaled to the pitcher, and once more the dun sphere flew; But Casey still ignored it and the umpire said, “Strike two!” “Fraud!” cried the maddened thousands, and echo answered “Fraud!” But one scornful look from Casey and the audience was awed. They saw his face grow stern and cold, they saw his muscles strain, And they knew that Casey wouldn’t let that ball go by again. The sneer is gone from Casey’s lip, his teeth are clenched in hate, He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon the plate; And now the pitcher holds the ball, and now he lets it go, And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey’s blow. Oh, somewhere in this favoured land the sun is shining bright, The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light; And somewhere men are laughing, and somewhere children shout, But there is no joy in Mudville —mighty Casey has struck out.

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“Casey at the Bat” This poem is too complex to understand completely without hearing and reading it multiple times. However, you probably still understood a great deal on just your first experience with the poem. The following questions will help show just how much you understand about the poem already. 1. Who is this poem’s main character?

2. What sport does Casey play?

3. Why do the fans want Casey to come up to bat?

4. What happens when Casey does come up to bat?

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Summarizing a Stanza Working with the group your teacher assigned, follow these steps to figure out the meaning of your stanza. 1. Read the stanza silently. 2. Have one member of the group read the stanza aloud. 3. If the stanza has any words you do not know, ask your group members for help. You might look in the glossary to see if the word is defined. If not, work together as a group to think about how context clues can help you infer the word’s meaning. 4. Go through each of the stanza’s four lines and talk about what they mean. 5. Once you agree on a meaning for each line, summarize those into the action of the stanza. Remember that in a summary, you should describe the most important things happening. You should not include every detail, but you should give readers a sense of the basic points of the section. 6. When you have agreed on a summary, write it here.

7. Pick one group representative to share the summary with the class when the teacher calls on your group. Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

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Poetic Devices Now it’s time to explore the way this poem uses poetic devices. To do this, you will need to use things you learned from other lessons in the poetry unit. Think back to the different kinds of poetic devices you have learned about so far. Thayer uses a lot of them in his long poem! Answer the following questions, consulting the poem as needed, to think more about which devices he used and why he chose them. 1. In stanzas 1 and 2, the phrases “sickly silence” and “deep despair” are examples of which poetic device?

2. Poets often use alliteration to add emphasis to certain details. Look back at the first two stanzas of “Casey at the Bat.” Why might the “sickly silence” and “deep despair” be important things to emphasize here?

3. Stanza 4 describes how Blake “tore the cover off the ball.” The poet uses figurative language here; Blake did not really tear up the ball. What is the figurative meaning of this statement?

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4. In stanza 9, the poet writes: . . . there went up a muffled roar, Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore.

Read each word carefully. What poetic device is used here? Name the word that helps you know this.

5. The lines in question 4 compare two different things. What are they?

6. How are the two things compared by the lines in question 4 similar?

7. Stanza 13 repeats the word “somewhere” many times. Circle the word every time it appears in the stanza. How many times does it appear?

8. We know that poets often use repetition to focus on important details. Why might the author of this poem want to focus on “somewhere” in this stanza?

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Vocabulary Core Vocabulary defiance-n.

disobedience

ease-n.

on a feeling of comfort or relaxati

fraud-n.

a dishonest action

healthy and strong

lusty-adj.

oly-n.

melanch

sadness

multitude-n.

large group

.

-n patrons

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; fans people who support something

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stern-adj. j.

stricken-ad visage-n.

strict or harsh

upset

a face or the expression on it

Literary Vocabulary

e-n.

an exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally; for example, “I’ve been waiting forever” uses hyperbole to state that the speaker has waited a long time.

-n.

a four-line stanza

hyperbol

quatrain

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Poetic Structure 1. What is a stanza?

2. Number the stanzas in the poem “Casey at the Bat.” How many stanzas does the poem contain?

3. How many lines are in each stanza?

4. Write down the rhyming words in the poem’s first stanza.

STUDENT NOTE TO ith A stanza w is called four lines . a quatrain

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13.2

Planning Narrative Poems “Casey at the Bat” tells a story about how things didn’t work out the way the people of Mudville thought they would. You’ll follow its example in this writing activity. To get started, think of a time when something didn’t go the way you expected. Write a sentence about that time in the space that follows.

Now answer the following questions to help you develop your ideas for your own poem. 1. Describe the scene of your story. Where were you?

2. When did the story take place?

3. Who was there with you?

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4. What did you expect to happen?

5. What actually happened?

6. How did you feel about what happened?

7. Think of one detail you want to emphasize in your poem. Write it here.

8. How will you emphasize that detail? Write the name of the poetic device you will use here.

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Drafting Narrative Poems Now it’s time to start drafting! Use the following space to write your poem. Don’t forget to use poetic devices to emphasize important details. If you finish with time remaining, read over your poem. In the space that follows, write down one more detail you could add to your poem to make it even better.

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© Bettmann/CORBIS

Biography

r e y a h T e c n e r Ernest Law Ernest Lawrence Thayer was born on August 14, 1863, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, to a wealthy family. He attended private schools as a boy, then studied philosophy at Harvard University. He was the editor and president of Lampoon, a Harvard literary magazine. After graduating, he moved to San Francisco and worked for the San Francisco Examiner writing humorous columns and poetry. Thayer left San Francisco due to poor health and moved back to Massachusetts. He continued to write poetry, however, for several newspapers around the country. He is most famous for “Casey at the Bat,” which is considered the most well-known baseball poem. The poem became so popular that it was made into a short film in 1914. Thayer remained ill for the rest of his life and did little writing, but he enjoyed reciting his famous poems for friends. He died in 1940.

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From Kavikanthabharana Kshemendra

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A poet should learn with his eyes the forms of leaves he should know how to make people laugh when they are together he should get to see what they are really like he should know about oceans and mountain in themselves and the sun and the moon and the stars his mind should enter into the seasons he should go among many people in many places and learn their languages

Lesson 14 | Poet’s Journal

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Interpreting a Passage In this activity you will work in groups to answer the following questions about part of the Kavikanthabharana. Your teacher will give your group a section of the poem to work on and will review the first example. Use the excerpt of the poem you were given to answer the following questions. Write your section of the poem in the space below.

1. What is the literal meaning of the section?

2. What are some possible broader meanings of the section?

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3. Why might this be an important thing for poets to do?

4. Often, if we know what something does, we can make an inference about why it matters. Based on your answers to the previous questions, why does poetry matter?

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Ideas for Poets Now it’s time to think about how you can apply Kshemendra’s ideas to your own life as a poet. Working together with your group and using the section of the poem assigned to your group, answer the following questions. Your teacher will review the first example before you start. You may refer to the literal or the broader meaning of the section in developing your answers. Write your group’s section of the poem below, then use the ideas in it to answer questions 1–3. 1. List at least three ways you could practice this during the next week.

2. List at least three ways you could practice this as you grow older.

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3. List at least three different kinds of poems you could write about the ideas above.

NOTE TO STUDENT t’s Journal has extra Don’t forget that your Poe u can write new space in the back where yo ur group answers all the poems on your own! If yo ing, pick one of these questions with time remain new poem right now! ideas and start drafting a

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Writing Advice Poems Now it’s your turn to write an advice poem. In this poem, you will describe what a reader of poetry should do. Follow the prompts below to compose your poem. As you work, you may want to think about the list of ideas your class brainstormed. You may also look back at the excerpt from Kavikanthabharana if you would like. 1. Name at least three things you try to notice when you read a poem for the first time.

2. What is the most important thing you have learned about reading poetry?

3. What helps you most when you read a poem?

4. When you find a poem you really love, what do you do?

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Now use your answers above to write an advice poem for people who have never read poetry before. What would they need to know in order to read poetry successfully? Make sure your poem tells them at least four different things about what poetry readers should know or do.

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If you finish with time remaining, read back over your poem. Make sure to give it a title. Then think about all the tools you have been given in this unit for reading poetry. Is there someone you know who might enjoy reading poetry, too? Maybe you could give them a copy of this poem as a way to inspire or encourage them. 144

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Biography

Kshmendra Writing during the twelfth century, Kshemendra lived in the region today known as India. Kshemendra wrote in the ancient language of Sanskrit. He studied Buddhism and Hinduism, and he wrote epic poems based on various stories and gods from those religions. Additionally, Kshemendra was a playwright, a novelist, and a historian. Despite being born into a wealthy and powerful family, Kshemendra wrote about downtrodden or common people, on topics that appealed to the masses. His work remained mostly unknown until its discovery in 1871. In total, eighteen pieces of his writing have been found and translated. Now people from all over the world can read his work in their own language and appreciate this once-forgotten poet.

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They Were My People Grace Nichols

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They were those who cut cane to the rhythm of the sunbeat They were those who carried cane to the rhythm of the sunbeat They were those who crushed cane to the rhythm of the sunbeat They were women weeding, carrying babies to the rhythm of the sunbeat They were my people, working so hard to the rhythm of the sunbeat - - long ago to the rhythm of the sunbeat.

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Assessment Name: Date:

Today you will read a new poem by Grace Nichols titled “They Were My People.” After reading the poem, you will answer several questions.

Reading Questions (30 minutes) 1. Grace Nichols’s poem uses two different examples of anaphora. What are they?

2. What are some reasons that Grace Nichols might use anaphora?

3. The poem “They Were My People” includes several different examples of alliteration. How many can you name?

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Assessment Name: Date:

4. The phrase “to the rhythm of the sunbeat” is an example of figurative language. What might Nichols mean by this expression?

5. Nichols reminds the readers that the subjects of the poem were her people. What might she mean by this?

6. Below are two examples of figurative language (not from the poem). Which is a simile and which is a metaphor? A. The thunder rumbled like a roaring lion.

B. The clouds were fluffy pillows moving across the sky.

Reading Score:

/14

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Writing Questions 7. Write your own poem describing one of your memories. Make sure your poem includes a title and anaphora. You should also try to include figurative language or at least one example of alliteration. When you have completed your poem, complete the table that follows.

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Assessment Name: Date:

Check

Question

Complete the question below

The poetic tool I use in this poem is … My poem is a really strong example of the tool being used. I know this because … I convey the message in a creative and new way. This is not a poem another person would write, because it shows my unique imagination in the following way … I have looked over each line and made intentional choices about where to begin and end each line. I decided … I read my poem aloud, thought about how it sounded, and then revised the poem so it is easy to follow and sounds great.

(No writing here)

My poem will surprise my readers because …

My poem has strong images, such as …

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Assessment Name: Date:

Check

Question I have chosen the best words to express myself. I took out all the words I don’t need.

Complete the question below (No writing here)

I have written a strong beginning to my poem by …

The ending of my poem looks and feels like an ending because …

I chose the best title for my poem. it is really good because … I looked at my poem and decided whether it needed a shape, line breaks, long lines or short lines. I decided … I have carefully decided how to use white space in my poem, especially in places where I want the reader to pause to think about what I just said. I decided … I have checked my spelling and every word is spelled correctly.

Writing Score: 152

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(No writing here)

/15 Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

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Paul Revere’s Ride Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

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Listen my children and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five; Hardly a man is now alive Who remembers that famous day and year.

He said to his friend, “If the British march By land or sea from the town to-night, Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch Of the North Church tower as a signal light,— One if by land, and two if by sea; And I on the opposite shore will be, Ready to ride and spread the alarm Through every Middlesex village and farm, For the country folk to be up and to arm.”

Then he said “Good-night!” and with muffled oar Silently rowed to the Charlestown shore, Just as the moon rose over the bay, Where swinging wide at her moorings lay The Somerset, British man-of-war; (no stanza break)

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A phantom ship, with each mast and spar Across the moon like a prison bar, And a huge black hulk, that was magnified By its own reflection in the tide.

Meanwhile, his friend through alley and street Wanders and watches, with eager ears, Till in the silence around him he hears The muster of men at the barrack door, The sound of arms, and the tramp of feet, And the measured tread of the grenadiers, Marching down to their boats on the shore.

Then he climbed the tower of the church, By wooden stairs, with stealthy tread, To the belfry chamber overhead, And startled the pigeons from their perch On the sombre rafters, that round him made Masses and moving shapes of shade,— By the trembling ladder, steep and tall, (no stanza break)

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To the highest window in the wall, Where he paused to listen and look down A moment on the roofs of the town And the moonlight flowing over all.

Beneath, in the churchyard, lay the dead, In their night-encampment on the hill, Wrapped in silence so deep and still That he could hear, like a sentinel’s tread, The watchful night-wind, as it went Creeping along from tent to tent, And seeming to whisper, “All is well!” A moment only he feels the spell Of the place and the hour, and the secret dread Of the lonely belfry and the dead; For suddenly all his thoughts are bent On a shadowy something far away, Where the river widens to meet the bay,— A line of black that bends and floats On the rising tide, like a bridge of boats.

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Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride, Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride, On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere. Now he patted his horse’s side, Now he gazed at the landscape far and near, Then impetuous stamped the earth, And turned and tightened his saddle girth; But mostly he watched with eager search The belfry tower of the old North Church, As it rose above the graves on the hill, Lonely and spectral and sombre and still. And lo! as he looks, on the belfry’s height A glimmer, and then a gleam of light! He springs to the saddle, the bridle he turns, But lingers and gazes, till full on his sight A second lamp in the belfry burns!

A hurry of hoofs in a village street, A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark, And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark (no stanza break)

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Struck out by a steed that flies fearless and fleet; That was all! And yet, through the gloom and the light, The fate of a nation was riding that night; And the spark struck out by that steed, in his flight, Kindled the land into flame with its heat.

He has left the village and mounted the steep, And beneath him, tranquil and broad and deep, Is the Mystic, meeting the ocean tides; And under the alders, that skirt its edge, Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge, Is heard the tramp of his steed as he rides.

It was twelve by the village clock When he crossed the bridge into Medford town. He heard the crowing of the cock, And the barking of the farmer’s dog, And felt the damp of the river-fog, That rises after the sun goes down.

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It was one by the village clock, When he galloped into Lexington. He saw the gilded weathercock Swim in the moonlight as he passed, And the meeting-house windows, black and bare, Gaze at him with a spectral glare, As if they already stood aghast At the bloody work they would look upon.

It was two by the village clock, When he came to the bridge in Concord town. He heard the bleating of the flock, (no stanza break)

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And the twitter of birds among the trees, And felt the breath of the morning breeze Blowing over the meadow brown. And one was safe and asleep in his bed Who at the bridge would be first to fall, Who that day would be lying dead, Pierced by a British musket-ball.

You know the rest. In the books you have read, How the British Regulars fired and fled,— How the farmers gave them ball for ball, From behind each fence and farmyard-wall, Chasing the red-coats down the lane, Then crossing the fields to emerge again Under the trees at the turn of the road, And only pausing to fire and load.

So through the night rode Paul Revere; And so through the night went his cry of alarm To every Middlesex village and farm,— A cry of defiance, and not of fear, (no stanza break)

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A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door, And a word that shall echo forevermore! For, borne on the night-wind of the Past, Through all our history, to the last, In the hour of darkness and peril and need, The people will waken and listen to hear The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed, And the midnight message of Paul Revere.

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Activity Page

P.P.1

Name: Date:

Short-Answer Questions Consult the poem “Paul Revere’s Ride” as you answer the following questions. 1. Who is the narrator of the poem?

2. What metaphors, similes, or other forms of figurative language does this poet use?

3. Identify the rhyme scheme of the poem.

4. In one sentence, write what this poem is about.

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Activity Page Name:

P.P.1

Date:

Graphic Organizer Imagine the night of Paul Revere’s ride from the main character’s point of view. What would the character see, hear, smell, taste, and feel? Using details from the poem, complete the graphic organizer to infer what Paul Revere experienced. Paul Revere

Lines or words from the poem that support your answer

heard 

saw 

smelled 

tasted 

felt 

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Activity Page

P.P.1

Name: Date:

Writing Questions—Creative Write down three new words that you learned while reading the poem, then use each word in an original sentence.

Pretend you are a character who is not the narrator. Write a poem from the point of view of that character.

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Activity Page Name: Date:

P.P.1

“Paul Revere’s Ride” is a poem about an important event in American history. Pick another important historical event and write a poem about it. You may wish to visit the library to learn more about the event.

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Vocabulary Core Vocabulary .

belfry-n

moorings-n. phantom-n.

barrack-n.

grenadiers-n.

-adj.

hy stealt

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ing bells, a bell tower or steeple hous one that is part of a church

especially

s by or to which a the ropes, chains, or anchor boat, ship, or buoy is tied

a ghost ings used to a building or group of build house soldiers es soldiers armed with grenad ner, so behaving in a cautious man seen or heard

as not to be

Grade 4 | Core Knowledge Language Arts

sombre-adj. sentinel

-n.

spur-v. impetuous-

adj.

word– spectral-adj.

wordtranquil-adj.

alders

-n.

Core Knowledge Language Arts | Grade 4

dark or dull in color or tone; gloomy a soldier or guard whose job is to stand and keep watch to urge (a horse) forward by digging one’s heels into its sides

moving forcefully or rapidly

like a ghost

free from disturbance; calm

widely distributed trees of the birch family

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dj. a d e d gil -n.

musket

defiance-n.

t f or gold pain a le ld o g h it red thinly w

cove

by ically carried p ty l e rr a b g lon a gun with a e military members of th isobedience

ce; bold d open resistan

REMINDER The back of your Poet’s Journal contains a glossary with definitions for some of the words in the poem. If you can’t find a definition you need in the glossary, you might try to figure out the word’s meaning from the other words around it. You can also look in a dictionary or ask your teacher for help.

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The New Colossus Emma Lazarus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles.  From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command  The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame, “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

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P.P.2

Name: Date:

Short-Answer Questions Consult the poem “The New Colossus” as you respond to the following prompts. 1. Summarize the poem you read.

2. Name three things you liked in this poem.

3. Suggest a new title for the poem, one that highlights a different part of the poem than its current title does.

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Activity Page Name:

P.P.2

Date:

Short-Answer Writing Questions 1. Who is the speaker of the poem?

2. What literary devices does this poet use? Fill in your answers in the table below. Poetic Device

Example(s) from “The New Colossus”

Point of View

Alliteration

Imagery

Rhyming

Metaphor

Simile

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Activity Page

P.P.2

Name: Date:

Graphic Organizer What imagery does this poet use? Fill in the chart below to keep track of descriptive language. In the center, you will find the subject of the poem, the Statue of Liberty. In the circles reaching out from the center, write details from the text about the poem.

The Statue of Liberty

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Activity Page Name: Date:

P.P.2

In one sentence, write what this poem is about.

Writing Questions—Creative Write down two new words that you learned while reading the poem, then use each word in an original sentence.

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Activity Page

P.P.2

Name: Date:

This poem is about a physical object—the Statue of Liberty. It is also about a symbol—what the statue means to people. Choose another physical object that means something to you, or others, and write a poem about it. If you wish you may use one of the devices you learned about—anaphora, alliteration, or figurative language—in your poem.

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Vocabula

ry

Core Vocabulary

brazen—adj

.

bold and without shame or made of brass

exiles–n.

ones who have been forced out of or barred from their native country

yearn–v.

to have an intense feeling of longing for someone (or something)

refuse–n

.

matter thrown away or rejected as worthless; trash

teem (teeming)–v.

to be full of or swarming with

tempest–n.

a violent windy storm

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Activity Page

P.P.3

Name: Date:

Performance Reflection Sheet 1. What did you like about the subject of the poem—what it was about?

2. What did you like about the language that was used in the poem? Did the student use figurative language, alliteration, or anaphora?

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Activity Page Name:

P.P.3

Date:

3. What did you like about how the speaker performed the poem?

4. Did anything stand out for you? What was it and why?

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Glossary A aardvark-n. 

a small mammal native to Africa

alders-adj.

widely distributed trees of the birch family

alliteration-n.

the repetition of sounds at the beginning of several words in order or near one another

anaphora-n.

the repetition of words at the start of a series of lines in a poem

anticipation-n.

eagerness, thinking about something before it happens

B banker’s lights-n.

desk lamps used by bankers. Their green shades were believed to help deflect bright light and reduce strain on the eyes—an important thing for people who spent their day poring over complex numbers

barrack-n.

a building or group of buildings used to house soldiers

beam-n.

a thick piece of wood

belfry-n.

a bell tower or steeple housing bells, especially one that is part of a church

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Glossary

blithe-adj.

happy and untroubled

brazen-adj.

bold and without shame or made of brass

C card catalogue-n.

the filing system used by libraries before computers; the card catalogue was a collection of cards that told visitors what books the library had and where to locate them

caviar-n.

fish eggs, an expensive and rare food considered a special treat

content-n.

the message of a poem or other text

crave-v.

to want or wish for

D decent-adj.

acceptable or good enough

defiance-n.

open resistance; bold disobedience

desperate-adj.

hopeless

dialogue-n.

words or sentences spoken by a character in a poem, play, or story

E ease-n.

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a feeling of comfort or relaxation

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Glossary

excerpt-n.

a small part of a larger work; for example, one chapter of a novel or one paragraph of a newspaper article

exiles-n.

ones who have been forced out of or barred from their native country

extended metaphor-n. a metaphor that continues for more than one sentence of a story or more than one line of a poem

F fester-v.

to grow infected

figurative language-n. words or phrases that mean more than their dictionary definition; similes and metaphors are two examples of figurative language form-adj.

the structure or appearance of a poem or other text

foyer-n.

an entryway, often leading into another room

fraud-n.

a dishonest action

free verse-n.

a poem with no rhyme scheme or set pattern of beats

G gilded-adj.

covered thinly with gold leaf or gold paint

grenadiers-n.

soldiers armed with grenades

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Glossary

H hyperbole-n.

an exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally; for example, “I’ve been waiting forever” uses hyperbole to state that the speaker has waited a long time

I impetuous-adj.

moving forcefully or rapidly

infer-v.

to reach a reasonable conclusion based on available evidence

intermission-n.

a break in the middle of something, usually a performance

L lack-v.

to be without

leer-n.

an unpleasant look

line-n.

the basic unit of a poem; together, lines form stanzas

line break-n.

the place where a line ends

literal meaning-n.

the dictionary definition of a word

lusty-adj.

healthy and strong

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Glossary

M mason-n.

someone who builds things with stone

melancholy-n.

sadness

melodious-adj.

pleasant sounding

metaphor-n.

comparison that does not use like or as

moorings-n.

the ropes, chains, or anchors by or to which a boat, ship, or buoy is tied

multitude-n.

a large group

musket-adj.

a gun with a long barrel typically carried by members of the military

N newt-n.

an amphibian found in many parts of the world

P patrons-n.

people who support something; fans

phantom-n.

a ghost

plume-n.

a feather, either on a bird or used as decoration such as on a woman’s hat

preside-v.

rule over or be in charge of

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Glossary

Q quatrain-n.

four-line stanza

quilt rack-n.

used for hanging quilts and blankets once they are folded

R refuse-n.

matter thrown away or rejected as worthless; trash

renaissance-n.

a time period when many people are interested in big ideas and in creating art, music, and literature

repetition-v.

saying the same letters, sounds, or words over and over again; often used to add emphasis or to make a poem sound pleasant

robust-adj.

healthy and strong

S sentinel-n.

a soldier or guard whose job is to stand and keep watch

simile-n.

comparison using the words like or as

slant rhyme-n.

words that share only the final consonant sound

sombre-adj.

dark or dull in color or tone; gloomy

spectral-adj.

like a ghost

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Glossary

spur-v.

urge (a horse) forward by digging one’s heels into its sides

stall-n.

a room in a stable assigned to an animal or animals

stanza-n.

a section of a poem; consists of a line or group of lines

stanza break-n.

the blank space that divides two stanzas from one another

stealthy-adj.

behaving in a cautious manner, so as not to be seen or heard

steed-n.

horse, usually ridden by an important person or warrior

stern-adj.

strict or harsh

stricken-adj.

upset

T teem (teeming)-v.

to be full of or swarming with

tempest-n.

a violent windy storm

tone-n.

the attitude of a piece of writing, expressed through the style of writing and the words the author uses

tranquil-adj.

free from disturbance; calm

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Glossary

V varied-adj.

different from each other or diverse

visage-n.

face or the expression on it

W waltz-n.

a kind of dance

Y yearn-v.

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to have an intense feeling of longing for someone (or something)

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Core Knowledge Language Arts Amplify. Editorial Staff Susan Lambert, Vice President, CKLA Julie Weintraub, Senior Account Manager Elizabeth Wade, PhD, Managing Curriculum Developer Patricia Erno, Managing Curriculum Developer Jamie Raade, Senior Curriculum Developer Amber McWilliams, ELL Specialist Christina Cox, Copy Editor Julia Cantuaria, Associate Marketing Manager

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Rosie McCormick

Kelina Summers

Cynthia Peng Liz Pettit Tonya Ronayne Deborah Samley Kate Stephenson Elizabeth Wafler James Walsh Sarah Zelinke Acknowledgments These materials are the result of the work, advice, and encouragement of numerous individuals over many years. Some of those singled out here already know the depth of our gratitude; others may be surprised to find themselves thanked publicly for help they gave quietly and generously for the sake of the enterprise alone. To helpers named and unnamed we are deeply grateful. Contributors to Earlier Versions of These Materials Susan B. Albaugh, Kazuko Ashizawa, Kim Berrall, Ang Blanchette, Nancy Braier, Maggie Buchanan, Paula Coyner, Kathryn M. Cummings, Michelle De Groot, Michael Donegan, Diana Espinal, Mary E. Forbes, Michael L. Ford, Sue Fulton, Carolyn Gosse, Dorrit Green, Liza Greene, Ted Hirsch, Danielle Knecht, James K. Lee, Matt Leech, Diane Henry Leipzig, Robin Luecke, Martha G. Mack, Liana Mahoney, Isabel McLean, Steve Morrison, Juliane K. Munson, Elizabeth B. Rasmussen, Ellen Sadler, Rachael L. Shaw, Sivan B. Sherman, Diane Auger Smith, Laura Tortorelli, Khara Turnbull, Miriam E. Vidaver, Michelle L. Warner, Catherine S. Whittington, Jeannette A. Williams. We would like to extend special recognition to Program Directors Matthew Davis and Souzanne Wright, who were instrumental in the early development of this program. Schools We are truly grateful to the teachers, students, and administrators of the following schools for their willingness to fieldtest these materials and for their invaluable advice: Capitol View Elementary, Challenge Foundation Academy (IN), Community Academy Public Charter School, Lake Lure Classical Academy, Lepanto Elementary School, New Holland Core Knowledge Academy, Paramount School of Excellence, Pioneer Challenge Foundation Academy, PS 26R (the Carteret School), PS 30X (Wilton School), PS 50X (Clara Barton School), PS 96Q, PS 102X (Joseph O. Loretan), PS 104Q (the Bays Water), PS 214K (Michael Friedsam), PS 223Q (Lyndon B. Johnson School), PS 308K (Clara Cardwell), PS 333Q (Goldie Maple Academy), Sequoyah Elementary School, South Shore Charter Public School, Spartanburg Charter School, Steed Elementary School, Thomas Jefferson Classical Academy, Three Oaks Elementary, West Manor Elementary. And a special thanks to the CKLA Pilot Coordinators, Anita Henderson, Yasmin Lugo-Hernandez, and Susan Smith, whose suggestions and day-to-day support to teachers using these materials in their classrooms were critical.

Poets “Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf” from ROALD DAHL’S REVOLTING RHYMES by Roald Dahl, text Copyright © 1982 by Roald Dahl Nominee Limited. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House LLC. All rights reserved. Any third party use of this material, outside of this publication, is prohibited. Interested parties must apply directly to Random House LLC for permission. “Ask Aden” from SLEEPING WITH THE DICTIONARY by Harryette Mullen, © 2002 by the Regents of the University of California. Published by University of California Press. “My First Memory (of Librarians)” by Nikki Giovanni from ACOLYTES by Nikki Giovanni. Copyright © 2007 by Nikki Giovanni. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers. “Harlem (2)” from THE COLLECTED POEMS OF LANGSTON HUGHES by Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad with David Roessel, Associate Editor, copyright © 1994 by the Estate of Langston Hughes. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Random House LLC. All rights reserved. Any third party use of this material, outside of this publication, is prohibited. Interested parties must apply directly to Random House LLC for permission. “Why We Play Basketball” by Sherman Alexie. Reprinted from THE SUMMER OF BLACK WIDOWS, Copyright © 1996, by Sherman Alexie, by permission of Hanging Loose Press. “She Had Some Horses” by Joy Harjo. Copyright © 1983 by Joy Harjo, from SHE HAD SOME HORSES by Joy Harjo. Used by permission of W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. “Words Free As Confetti” by Pat Mora from CONFETTI: POEMS FOR CHILDREN by Pat Mora. Text Copyright © 1999 by Pat Mora. Permission arranged with Lee & Low Books, Inc., New York, NY. All rights not specifically granted herein are reserved. “Kavikanthabharana” (“A Poet Should Learn With His Eyes”) by Kshemendra translated into the English language by W. S. Merwin, currently collected in EAST WINDOW: THE ASIAN TRANSLATIONS. Translation Copyright © 1998 by W. S. Merwin, used with permission of The Wylie Agency LLC. All rights reserved. “They Were My People” by Grace Nichols. Reproduced with permission of Curtis Brown Group, Ltd, London on behalf of Grace Nichols. Copyright © Grace Nichols 1988.

Illustration and Photo Credits Sherman Alexie © Chris Felver/Archive Photos/Getty Images; Nikki Giovanni © KAREN BLEIER/AFP/Getty Images; Roald Dahl © Leonard McCombe/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images; Carl Sandburg © Evans/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; Joy Harjo © Chris Felver/Archive Photos/Getty Images; Langston Hughes © Hulton Archive/Archive Photos/Getty Images; Walt Whitman © Library of Congress/Prints and Photographs Division/LC-DIG-ppmsca-08541; Ernest Thayer © Bettmann/CORBIS; Norman Ault © National Portrait Gallery, London; Harryette Mullen © Hank Lazer. Dahlia roots: Shutterstock; Illustration of Figs: © nicoolay/iStockphoto; Dragon engraving: Shutterstock; Writing Hand: Art d’écrire, from Diderot und d’Alembert: Encyclopédie, c. 1765; Statue Of Liberty: Library of Congress; Casey At The Bat: Rare Books Division/The New York Public Library; Union Pacific Railroad track: Shutterstock, Thomas Hart Benton-Cut The Line: Image Courtesy of The Naval History and Heritage Command/U.S. Navy; Old Leather Cover: © nicoolay/iStockphoto; Harlem Brownstones: © sx70/ iStockphoto; Sand: © pepifoto/iStockphoto; Water Surface: © danilovi/iStockphoto; Confetti: © LiliGraphie/ iStockphoto; Paperclip: © rambo182/iStockphoto; Clouds: © aluxum/iStockphoto; Retro Chicago: © pawel. gaul/iStockphoto; Navajo Blankets: © ChuckSchugPhotography/iStockphoto; Revere Monument: Three Lions/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 19th century Navajo blanket: Universal Images Group/Getty Images; Paul Revere’s Ride 1775: National Archives and Records Administration; Scrapbooking: © frentusha/ iStockphoto; Hand-written text: © Tempura/iStockphoto; Blank Open Book: © kamisoka/iStockphoto; Mandala Stroke: © Tatiana_Ti/iStockphoto; Tribal Texture: © helgy716/iStockphoto; Painting depicting the midnight ride of Paul Revere: National Archives and Records Administration; Buddha: © windcatcher/ iStockphoto; Paper tear: © tjhunt/iStockphoto; Norway spruce: © ilbusca/iStockphoto; Embroidered Cloth: © Raylipscombe/iStockphoto; Basketball: Tom Stoddart Archive/Hulton Archive/Getty Images.

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