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© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Grade 2

All images ©Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Inc., unless otherwise noted Cover: ©Jayson Wayne Brown/Dreamstime.com Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be submitted through our Permissions website at https://customercare.hmhco.com/contactus/Permissions.html or mailed to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, Attn: Compliance, Contracts, and Licensing, 9400 Southpark Center Loop, Orlando, Florida 32819-8647. Printed in the U.S.A. ISBN 978-0-358-29687-4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 XXXX 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 4500000000 r2.21 If you have received these materials as examination copies free of charge, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company retains title to the materials and they may not be resold. Resale of examination copies is strictly prohibited. Possession of this publication in print format does not entitle users to convert this publication, or any portion of it, into electronic format.

k o o b y M

Look at the cover. I notice

I wonder

I observe.

I measure.

ii

I question.

I record.

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. I am a scientist

What does your robot look like?

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Science makes me feel …

I like science because …

iii

Consulting Authors Michael A. DiSpezio

Global Educator North Falmouth, Massachusetts

Marjorie Frank

Science Writer and Content-Area Reading Specialist Brooklyn, New York

Michael R. Heithaus, PhD

Dean, College of Arts, Sciences & Education Professor, Department of Biological Sciences Florida International University Miami, Florida

Peter McLaren

Executive Director of Next Gen Education, LLC Providence, Rhode Island

Bernadine Okoro Social Emotional Learning Consultant

STEM Learning Advocate & Consultant Washington, DC

Cary Sneider, PhD

Associate Research Professor Portland State University Portland, Oregon

Paul D. Asimow, PhD Eleanor and John R. McMillan Professor of Geology and Geochemistry California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California

Sten Odenwald, PhD Astronomer NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center Greenbelt, Maryland

Eileen Cashman, PhD Professor of Environmental Resources Engineering Humboldt State University Arcata, California

Bruce W. Schafer Director of K-12 STEM Collaborations, Retired Oregon University System Portland, Oregon

Mark B. Moldwin, PhD Professor of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

Barry A. Van Deman President and CEO Museum of Life and Science Durham, North Carolina

Kelly Y. Neiles, PhD Associate Professor of Chemistry St. Mary’s College of Maryland St. Mary’s City, Maryland

iv

Kim Withers, PhD Assistant Professor Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, Texas

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Program Advisors

Classroom Reviewers Julie Ahern Andrew Cooke Magnet School Waukegan, Illinois

Roya Hosseini Junction Avenue K–8 School Livermore, California

Craig Moss Mt. Gleason Middle School Sunland, California

Amy Berke South Park Elementary School Rapid City, South Dakota

Rana Mujtaba Khan Will Rogers High School Van Nuys, California

Joanna O’Brien Palmyra Elementary School Palmyra, Missouri

Pamela Bluestein Sycamore Canyon School Newbury Park, California

George Kwong Schafer Park Elementary School Hayward, California

Kelly Brotz Cooper Elementary School Sheboygan, Wisconsin

Kristin Kyde Templeton Middle School Sussex, Wisconsin

Wendy Savaske Education Consultant Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction

Andrea Brown HLPUSD Science and STEAM TOSA, Retired Hacienda Heights, California

Marie LaCross Sulphur Springs United School District Santa Clarita, California

Marsha Campbell Murray Elementary School Hobbs, New Mexico

Bonnie Lock La Center Elementary School La Center, Washington

April Thompson Roll Hill School Cincinnati, Ohio

Leslie C. Antosy-Flores Star View Elementary School Midway City, California

Imelda Madrid Assistant Principal Montague Charter Academy for the Arts and Sciences Pacoima, CA

Tina Topoleski District Science Supervisor Jackson School District Jackson, New Jersey

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Theresa Gailliout James R. Ludlow Elementary School Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Susana Martinez O’Brien Diocese of San Diego San Diego, California

Emily Giles Assistant Principal White’s Tower Elementary School Independence, KY

Kara Miller Ridgeview Elementary School Beckley, West Virginia

Robert Gray Essex Elementary School Baltimore, Maryland

Mercy D. Momary Local District Northwest Los Angeles, California

Stephanie Greene Science Department Chair Sun Valley Magnet School Sun Valley, California

Dena Morosin Shasta Elementary School Klamath Falls, Oregon

Isabel Souto Schafer Park Elementary School Hayward, California Michelle Sullivan Balboa Elementary School San Diego, California

Terri Trebilcock Fairmount Elementary School Golden, Colorado Emily R.C.G. Williams South Pasadena Middle School South Pasadena, California

These are some smart people!

v

Designing Solutions.......................................... xi Claims, Evidence, and Reasoning................ xv Safety in Science............................................ xvii

Unit 1 Engineering Design Process...... 1 Lesson 1

Compare Design Solutions.....................................2



Ha nds On

Engineer It Design a Ramp.................................4



Ha nds On

Engineer It Compare Features............................8

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Unit Review......................................................................14

vi

Unit 2 Matter............................................................ 17 Lesson 1

Properties of Matter............................................ 18



Ha nds On

Sort Objects.........................................................20



Ha nds On

Engineer It  Explore Properties..........................23

Lesson 2

Objects Can Be Put Together..............................30



Ha nds On

Explore What Objects Are Made Of..................32



Ha nds On

Build Objects from Smaller Pieces......................35

Lesson 3

Matter Can Change.............................................42



Ha nds On

Explore Cooling....................................................44



Ha nds On

Explore Heating....................................................48

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Unit Review..................................................................... 54

vii

Unit 3 Earth’s Surface.....................................57 Lesson 1

Water on Earth.....................................................58



Ha nds On

Observe Water All Around..................................60



Ha nds On

Observe Temperature Changes to Water...........63

Lesson 2

Landforms on Earth.............................................70



Ha nds On

Model Landforms.................................................72



Ha nds On

Mapping Landforms and Bodies of Water.........75

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Unit Review......................................................................82

viii

Unit 4 Changes to Earth’s Surface......85 Lesson 1

Slow Changes on Earth........................................86



Ha nds On

Try to Change Rocks.............................................88



Ha nds On

Model Weathering and Erosion........................... 91

Lesson 2

Fast Changes on Earth........................................98



Ha nds On

Model an Earthquake......................................... 100



Ha nds On

Model a Volcano................................................ 103



Ha nds On

Model Moving Water......................................... 107

Lesson 3

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Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land....................................... 114

Ha nds On

Explore Changing Land......................................116



Ha nds On

Engineer It Prevent Water from Changing Land.................... 119

Unit Review.................................................................... 126

ix

Unit 5 Environments for Lesson 1

Plant Needs........................................................ 130



Ha nds On

Explore Sunlight and Water.............................. 132



Ha nds On

Explore Space for Plants.................................... 136

Lesson 2

Plants Depend on Animals.................................142



Ha nds On

Engineer It  Spread Seeds................................144



Ha nds On

Model Moving Pollen..........................................148

Lesson 3

Plants and Animals in Land Habitats................. 154



Ha nds On

Model a Plant..................................................... 156



Ha nds On

Model an Animal................................................ 159

Lesson 4

Plants and Animals in Water Habitats............... 166



Ha nds On

Compare Water Habitats................................... 168



Ha nds On

Model a Water Habitat......................................171

Unit Review.................................................................... 178

Interactive Glossary........................................ G1 Index....................................................................I10

x

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Living Things........................................ 129

Designing Solutions

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A ferry boat and a bridge help people cross water. They are both solutions to the same problem. A solution is something that fixes a problem. An engineer uses math and science to solve problems, such as how to cross water. Engineers use a design process to help them find good solutions to problems. You can use a design process, too! A design process is a set of steps that helps you find a solution.

xi

Explore Find out more about the problem. You can find better solutions when you know more about a problem. Explore the problem in the picture. Tell how you can get more information about the problem.

Make

What solution do you think will best solve the problem in the picture?

xii

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Think of as many solutions as you can. Then make a plan for how each solution might solve the problem. You may make and test many solutions.

Test a solution to see how well it works. If it does not work, choose another solution or change the solution. Test again to see how the changed solution worked. More than one solution may solve a problem. Compare the solutions to choose which works better.

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Observe the solutions. Fill in the chart.

Solution 1

Solution 2

Good features

Flawed features

xiii

Make It Better Make a change you think will make a good solution better. Test the changed solution.

Sometimes you might go back to the Explore or Make steps if you get new information. You can repeat any steps when you need to.

xiv

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Why might you change and test a solution many times?

Claims, Evidence, and Reasoning Make a Claim A claim is a statement you think is true. You can make a claim about what you observe. Some solid things sink.

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A claim can be made before you investigate. Both the lemon and lime will sink.

A claim can be made after you investigate. Lemons float in water, and limes sink.

xv

Use Evidence and Reasoning Evidence is information that shows whether or not your claim is true. Data can be used as evidence. Evidence can come from things you observe or read.

Reasoning tells how or why the evidence supports the claim. You can tell why your claim is true or not. You can tell how you know. My evidence showed that the lemon floats and the lime sinks. This proves my first claim was not true and my second claim was true.

xvi

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My claim was wrong. A lemon will float, and a lime will sink.

Safety in Science Doing science is fun. But a science lab can be dangerous. Know the safety rules and listen to your teacher. Do not eat or drink anything.

Do not touch sharp things. Wash your hands. Wear goggles to keep your eyes safe. Be neat and clean up spills. Tell your teacher if something breaks.

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Show good behavior.

xvii

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Circle the pictures where a safety rule is being followed. Place an X on the pictures where a safety rule is not being followed.

xviii

In this unit, you will use a design process to define a problem by asking questions, making observations, and gathering information. Then you will use that information to develop and test solutions to find the best solution to a problem.

UNI T

1

Engineering Design Process Lesson 1 Compare Design Solutions����������������� 2

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Unit Review......................................... 14

UNIT 1 • Engineering Design Process

1

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Lesson 1

Compa re Design Solutions

Heavy!

2

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

What do you notice about the problem of moving the box? What do you wonder about the problem of moving the box?

Ca n You Explain It?

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How can we use a design process to help Emma’s dad solve his problem?

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

3

Engineer It

This ramp solves a problem. Use a design process to explore a problem. Then make and test a model of a solution. A model shows what an object looks like or how it works. Ask a question about how a design process can help you solve a problem.

4

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

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Design a Ramp

Materials Checklist   a toy truck

  a small block

  construction paper

W H AT ?

Explore Step 1 

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Talk with a partner about the problem you are solving. Think about how to get more information if needed.

Make Step 2  How you can use the materials to solve the problem? Draw or write one idea.

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

5

Engineers do not expect to make the best solution the first time. Talk with a partner about what you will do if your first solution does not work well. Step 4  Compare your solution with another group. Write about what you find out.

6

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

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Step 3  Make a model that you can test to find out how well your solution works. Record what you observe.

Make a claim about how a design process helps you solve a problem.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

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How does this help me explain how Emma’s dad can use a design process to help him solve his problem?

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

7

Engineer It

The shape and material of a ramp can change how it works. Compare the two ramps shown. What is the same about them? What is different? Ask a question about what makes a good ramp.

8

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

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Compare Features

Materials Checklist   a toy truck

  a small block

  craft materials HMM.

Make It Better Step 1  Observe the materials. How can you use them to improve your solution from the last activity? Talk with a partner.

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Step 2  Make a plan to test two other materials. Step 3  Follow your plan. Test each model. Compare the solutions. Good features

Flawed features

Solution 1

Solution 2

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

9

Make a claim about how comparing features of solutions can help you find a better solution.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how Emma’s dad can use a design process to help him solve his problem?

10

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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How can we use a design process to help Emma’s dad solve his problem? Be sure to describe how steps in a design process can help in finding a better solution.

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

11

Self Check 1. Which would you do first when using a design process to solve a problem? A

Explore the problem.

B

Make a solution.

C

Make the solution better.

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2. Describe how the girl is using the drawing as part of a design process.

12

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

3. Which of the following is true? Choose all correct answers. A

Only one solution can solve a problem.

B

Multiple solutions can solve a problem.

C

Some solutions are better than other solutions.

4. Manuel tests model cars he built for a race. The table shows the data. Explain which car Manuel should choose. Use evidence and reasoning to support your claim. Good features

Flawed features

looks nice

slow

Car 2

fastest

expensive

Car 3

medium speed

does not look nice

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Car 1

LESSON 1 • Compare Design Solutions

13

Name 

Unit Review 1. The problem with this grocery bag is that its bottom is too _______. A

strong

B

weak

C

brown

A

color

B

data

C

feelings

3. Arum sees a boy with his pant leg caught on a bike chain. How can she help him solve this problem?

14

UNIT 1 • Engineering Design Process

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2. Kayla tests model cars she built for a race. What helps her decide which car to choose for the race?

4. Explain why it is important to explore a problem before you begin finding a solution.

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5. Which might you do next if a possible solution does not solve the problem? Choose all correct answers. A

Make and test new solutions.

B

Test the same solution until it works.

C

Change the solution and test again.

6. These children are designing a parachute. What part of a design process are they doing? A

planning

B

building

C

testing

UNIT 1 • Engineering Design Process

15

7. Yolanda wants to keep the sun off her face. Explain which hat she should choose and why.

knit hat

narrow brim hat

8. Explain two ways a model can be used in a design process.

16

UNIT 1 • Engineering Design Process

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straw hat

In Unit 1, you used a design process to find and build the best solution to a problem. In Unit 2, you will analyze information you gather from tests on properties of materials to choose the best materials to solve a problem.

UNI T

2

Matter Lesson 1 Properties of Matter........................... 18 Lesson 2 Objects Can Be Put Together............. 30

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Lesson 3 Matter Can Change........................... 42 Unit Review....................................... 54

UNIT 2 • Matter

17

Game on!

18

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

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Lesson 1

Properties of Matter

What do you notice about the different balls? What do you wonder about the different balls?

Ca n You Explain It?

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Why do we use a basketball in one sport and a baseball in a different sport?

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

19

Matter is anything that takes up space. You can describe matter by its properties. A property is one part of what something is like.

Ask a question about how you can sort objects by their properties.

20

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

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Sort Objects

All these balls are matter.

Materials Checklist   a cotton ball

  a rubber ball

  a chenille stick

  a wooden block

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Step 1  Record properties you observe about the objects.

Step 2  Plan a way to sort the objects by their properties. Follow your plan.

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

21

Step 3  Explain your results. Look for patterns. Make a claim about how you can sort objects by their properties.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why we use a basketball in one sport and a baseball in a different sport?

22

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

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Engineer It

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Explore Properties

Think about the properties of a pillow. Should a pillow be soft? Should it be firm? Pillows are filled with different materials, making them good for resting your head or even pillow fights. Ask a question about what properties make the best filling for a pillow.

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

23

Materials Checklist   a pillowcase

 cotton

 foam

 feathers

Explore Step 1  Explore the problem. Make Step 2  Plan two ways to solve the problem. Build your solutions.

S;-)

Plan 2

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Plan 1

CL O U D

24

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

Why is it important to have a plan before you start building your solutions?

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Make Step 3  Test your solutions. Record and compare the results of each filling you tested.

Make It Better Step 4  Choose one solution. Make it better. You can try different materials. Step 5  Share your solution with your classmates. Compare solutions.

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

25

Make a claim about what properties make the best filling for a pillow.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why we use a basketball in one sport and a baseball in a different sport?

26

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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Why do we use a basketball in one sport and a baseball in a different sport? Be sure to describe how properties are connected to the way things work.

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

27

Self Check 1. Dax sorts these materials by using a property. Look for a pattern. Which property does he sort by? A

color

B

shape

C

texture

2. Michael’s feet slip when he pedals his bike. He tests three materials to help stop his feet from slipping off the pedals.

Material

Number of slips

aluminum foil

7

cardboard

5

sandpaper

2

Look closely at the data for patterns. Which material works best?

28

A

aluminum foil

B

cardboard

C

sandpaper

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

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Michael’s Test

3. Mila wants to use clay to design a shape that will roll across the floor. What kind of properties should the shape have?

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4. Mila’s first shape is a cube. It does not roll well. What could she do to her shape to help it roll better?

LESSON 1 • Properties of Matter

29

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Lesson 2

Objects Ca n Be Put Together

Building is fun!

30

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

What do you notice about the toy truck and toy boat? What do you wonder about the toy truck and toy boat?

Ca n You Explain It?

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How can a toy truck change shape to become a toy boat?

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

31

You can make new objects from smaller pieces. This house has windows, a door, and a roof. It uses materials like glass, wood, and stone. Each piece helps support the building in different ways. Ask a question about how each piece is used.

32

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

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Explore What Objects Are Made Of

Materials Checklist

N E AT !

 pictures of buildings made of different materials

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Step 1  Observe the buildings in the pictures. Choose one building. Tell about its parts. What is each part made of?

Step 2  Design your own building. Label the parts. Write about what the parts are made of.

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

33

Step 3  Compare your buildings with others. Make a claim about why buildings are made of different pieces.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how a toy truck can become a toy boat?

34

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

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Build Objects From Smaller Pieces

Think about the pieces that make up these two toy buildings. Each building uses the same set of pieces but in a different way. Observe how one building can become another building. Ask a question about how objects can be taken apart and put together in new ways.

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

35

Materials Checklist   non-hardening clay 

  toothpicks    

  erasers      

  a plastic zip bag

  paper clips

Step 1  Make a plan to find out how many objects you can build from the same set of pieces.

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Step 2  Follow your plan. Draw to record each object you build.

36

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

What can you do if you struggle to come up with different objects to build? Step 3  How are the objects you build alike? How are they different?

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Alike

Different

Step 4  Compare your objects with objects that your classmates make. LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

37

Make a claim about how you can build objects from the same set of pieces.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how a toy truck can become a toy boat?

38

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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How can a toy truck change shape to become a toy boat? Be sure to explain how parts of objects are connected to how they are put together.

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

39

Self Check 1. Michelle takes apart an old toy. She reuses the pieces to make a new one. How could the toy have changed? Choose all correct answers. A

It changed color.

B

It changed shape.

C

It changed size.

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2. You can make new objects from smaller pieces. How would you use the bricks, the door, and the window to make a new object?

40

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

3. How can you build this object from smaller pieces? Number the pictures 1, 2, and 3 to show the correct order.

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4. Zachary builds a house with blocks. How can he use those blocks to build a new object?

LESSON 2 • Objects Can Be Put Together

41

Turn up the heat!

42

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

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Lesson 3

Matter Ca n Cha nge

What do you notice about the icicles and the bread? What do you wonder about the icicles and the bread?

Ca n You Explain It?

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How do icicles and bread change in different ways?

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

43

Explore Cooling

BRR

R!

Cooling can cause matter to freeze, or change from a liquid to a solid. Changes to matter that can be undone are reversible. Changes that cannot be undone are irreversible. Ask a question about how cooling may change matter.

44

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

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S PLAS H !

Materials Checklist   an ice cube

  a cup of water

  a wooden block

  a flower

C O OL !

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Step 1  Observe the items. What do you think will happen to them when they are put in a freezer?

Step 2  Put all the items in a freezer overnight. Take them out the next day. LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

45

Step 3  What effect does freezing have on each item?

ice cube water block

Step 4  Can the flower and the water go back to what they were? How could you find out? Talk with a partner about whether the changes are reversible or irreversible. Why is it important to follow the steps of your investigation in order?

46

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

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flower

Make a claim about how cooling affects different objects.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

I explored How does this help me explain how icicles and bread change in different ways?

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

47

Heat can cause matter to change. When a solid melts, it changes to a liquid. Observe how flames change the corn. Cooking and burning can cause food and its properties to change. Ask a question about how heat affects different objects.

48

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

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Explore Heating

Materials Checklist   an ice pop

  popcorn kernels

  a brown bag

  paper plates

LOOK!

Step 1  Observe the items and their properties. Talk with a partner.

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Step 2  Put the kernels in the bag. Keep the ice pop on a plate. Your teacher will put each item in the microwave. Step 3  Record your observations. What effect does heating have on the ice pop and the kernels?

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

49

Step 4  Can the popcorn and the ice pop go back to what they were? How could you find out? Talk with a partner about whether each change is reversible or irreversible. Make a claim about how heat affects different objects.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

I explored How does this help me explain how icicles and bread change in different ways?

50

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Making Sense

Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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How do icicles and bread change in different ways? Be sure to explain how heating and cooling are connected to reversible and irreversible changes.

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

51

Self Check

A

The materials change from liquid to solid.

B

The materials change from solid to liquid.

C

The materials change to ashes.

2. Elizabeth places juice in a freezer. The next day she observes that the juice is frozen. What evidence does Elizabeth have to make the argument that the juice froze?

52

A

The juice changes from liquid to solid.

B

The juice changes from solid to liquid.

C

The juice changes color only.

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

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1. Look at the snow and the wax. What pattern do you see?

3. What evidence do the pictures give to show that this change is reversible?

4. Which changes are reversible? Which changes are irreversible? Write reversible or irreversible to identify each change.

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Cause

Effect

Change

Fire burns wood. Wood turns to ash. Freezer freezes lemonade.

Lemonade turns solid.

Heat cooks Kernels turn white popcorn kernels. and fluffy.

LESSON 3 • Matter Can Change

53

Name 

Unit Review 1. What causes water to freeze? A

Heat is added to water.

B

Water is cooked too much.

C

Heat is taken away from water.

A

It changes from a liquid to ashes.

B

It changes from a solid to a liquid.

C

It changes from a liquid to a solid.

3. Look at the wax and the muffin batter. Which statements are true? Choose all correct answers. Before

54

After

Before

After

A

Heat causes the wax to melt.

B

Heat causes the muffin batter to cook.

C

Heat causes the wax and muffin batter to burn and turn to ashes. UNIT 2 • Matter

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2. What pattern occurs when matter is melted?

4. Describe a way you could sort these objects by their properties.

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5. Emma wants to find out whether feathers or foam make a better pillow filler. What could she do? A

She could test only the feathers.

B

She could test only the foam.

C

She could test both the feathers and the foam.

6. Which change caused by heating is irreversible? A

a crayon melting

B

butter melting

C

paper burning

UNIT 2 • Matter

55

7. How can you build the cube from smaller pieces? Number the pictures 1, 2, and 3 to show the correct order.

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8. What caused the change? Is it reversible or irreversible? Make a claim about it. Use evidence to support your answer.

56

UNIT 2 • Matter

In Unit 2, you explored properties of matter and how it can change. In this unit, you will observe how these changes cause patterns in the water and land. You will develop maps that can model these patterns on Earth’s surface.

UNI T

3

Earth’s Surface Lesson 1 Water on Earth.................................. 58 Lesson 2 Landforms on Earth........................... 70

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Unit Review........................................ 82

UNIT 3 • Earth’s Surface

57

Go with the flow.

58

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

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Lesson 1

Water on Ea rth

What do you notice about the river? What do you wonder about the river?

Ca n You Explain It?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

What causes the river to look different during different times of the year?

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

59

Water is all around us. In fact, most of Earth is covered in water! Think about where you have seen water on Earth. What bodies of water can you see in the picture? Ask a question about where water is found on Earth.

60

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

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Observe Water All Around

Materials Checklist   nonfiction books

  a computer

  crayons or markers

Step 1  In your group, look up information about the body of water your teacher gave you.

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Step 2  Draw a picture of the body of water you looked up. Label the drawing.

Step 3  Compare your drawing with others’ drawings. alike

different

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

61

Step 4  Analyze your results. Look for patterns. Make a claim about bodies of water on Earth.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain what causes a river to look different during different times of the year?

62

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company



© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (c) ©meunierd/ Shutterstock

Observe Temperature Changes to Water

Glaciers are slow moving sheets of ice. They may be very large and take a long time to form. Sometimes parts of a glacier can melt even in cold areas where glaciers are found. Ask a question about how water changes with temperature.

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

63

Materials Checklist   modeling clay

  a cup of water

  refrigerator

 freezer

Step 1  Make a plan to find out how temperature affects a body of water. Think about how

H M M ..

How do I decide what I do first, next, and last?

64

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

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you can use a model of a body of water in your plan. How could a refrigerator or freezer help you?

Step 2  Follow your plan. Record how the temperature changes affect the water in your model.

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before

after

Step 3  Compare your observations with your classmates. What patterns do you observe?

Step 4  What do you think can happen to some bodies of water during winter? Discuss with your class. LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

65

Make a claim about how temperature may affect a body of water.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why a river may look different during different times of the year?

66

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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What causes the river to look different during different times of the year?

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

67

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Self Check

1. Which picture shows frozen water? Circle the correct choice.

2. What is the same about these two bodies of water? What is different? Explain.

68

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

3. The children see a body of flowing water that has land on both sides. What body of water do they see? A

lake

B

pond

C

river

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4. Makayla is making a model of an ocean for her science class. What patterns do oceans have that her model should show?

LESSON 1 • Water on Earth

69

l lo

w s to

W S

r ve

Ye

Map it!

70

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth Mountains River Valley

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (c) ©Serjunco Bon/Dreamstime

ne Ri

Lesson 2

La ndforms on Ea rth

N E

What do you notice about the landforms and the body of water? What do you wonder about the landforms and the body of water?

Ca n You Explain It?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

How do people show patterns of land and water on a map?

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

71

Mountains, like the ones in the picture, are a type of landform. A landform is a natural feature found on Earth’s surface. Other landforms include hills, valleys, and canyons. Ask a question about landforms and how you can model them.

72

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

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Model Landforms

Materials Checklist   an aluminum pan    gloves  

  sand   

  a spray bottle with water  markers  

  safety goggles

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (tr) ©Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Step 1  Look online or in books to obtain information on hills, mountains, valleys, and canyons. Discuss what you find out with your classmates.

WOW !

Step 2  Use the spray bottle to make the sand damp. Mix the sand and water together. Step 3  Use the damp sand to make models of two different landforms. Draw your models.

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

73

Step 4  Compare your drawings and models with a classmate’s work. Identify any patterns you observe. Make a claim about how making models helps you better understand landforms.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense How does this help explain how patterns of land can be shown on a map?

74

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

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I explored

Mapping Landforms and Bodies of Water

North West

East South

Key mountains valley hills river

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

lake

A map is a drawing or model of a place. It shows where things are located. It can show the shapes and kinds of land and water. A map key shows what the map colors and symbols mean. A compass rose shows the directions north, south, east, and west. Ask a question about how landforms and bodies of water can be shown on a map.

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

75

Materials Checklist  maps 

  markers or crayons

H OW ?

Step 2  Make a plan for a map of a real or made-up place. Choose at least two landforms and two bodies of water to show. Decide on a map title, or what to name your map. Include a map key and a compass rose. Write your plan for your map.

76

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

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Step 1  Look at different maps. What do you notice about them?

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Step 3  Draw your map.

What can you do if you have trouble drawing your map? Step 4  Compare maps with your classmates. What did you find out about making and reading maps? What patterns did you observe?

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

77

Make a claim about how landforms and bodies of water can be shown on a map.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help explain how patterns of land and water are shown on a map?

78

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It? N W

E S

l lo

w s to ne Ri

r ve

Ye

Mountains River Valley

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How do people show patterns of land and water on a map?

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

79

Self Check 1. Match each picture with the name of the correct landform.

canyon

mountain

2. Explain why a map needs a map key and a compass rose.

80

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

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hill

3. Which of the following patterns is shown on the map? Choose all correct answers. North West

East South

Key mountains river hills canyon

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (bl) ©saimai saelim/Moment/Getty Images; (br) ©David Litman/Shutterstock

0

150 feet

A

Rivers flow through canyons.

B

Mountains are bigger than hills.

C

Bodies of water are different colors.

4. Compare the two landforms. What is the same? What is different?

mountain

hill

LESSON 2 • Landforms on Earth

81

Name 

Unit Review 1. What patterns can a map show? Choose all correct answers. A

shapes of land and water

B

where things are located

C

the time it takes to get to a place

2. Which of the following can a model show? Choose all correct answers. A

shapes of landforms

B

patterns of landforms

C

how temperature affects bodies of water

82

A

They are made up of salt water.

B

They are made up of fresh water.

C

They hold most of Earth’s water.

UNIT 3 • Earth’s Surface

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

3. Which is true of oceans? Choose all correct answers.

4. Explain what might cause a body of water to freeze.

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5. Look at the picture of the mountain. Explain how you can use it to help you make a model of a mountain with sand.

6. Describe some ways you can use a map.

UNIT 3 • Earth’s Surface

83

7. Look at each body of water. Make a claim about its patterns. Cite evidence to support your claim.

river

8. Draw a line to match each map part with the words that describe it. compass rose

84

names the place the map shows

key

tells what map colors and symbols mean

title

shows directions

UNIT 3 • Earth’s Surface

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ocean

In Unit 3, you observed patterns in landforms and bodies of water and made a map to model them. In this unit, you will make observations to identify evidence that patterns in landforms and bodies of water are a result of changes to Earth’s surface that can happen slowly or quickly. You will also design solutions to prevent wind and water from changing the land.

UNI T

4

Changes to Earth’s Surface

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Lesson 1 Slow Changes on Earth..................... 86 Lesson 2 Fast Changes on Earth ...................... 98 Lesson 3 Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land ................................. 114 Unit Review.....................................  126

UNIT 4 • Changes to Earth’s Surface

85

This place rocks!

86

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

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Lesson 1

Slow Cha nges on Ea rth

What do you notice about the rocks? What do you wonder about the rocks?

Ca n You Explain It?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Why do the rocks slowly change over time?

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

87

Observe the hole in the rock. It has a very unusual shape. Think about whether the change happened quickly or slowly over time. Ask a question about the change in the rock.

88

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

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Try to Change Rocks

Materials Checklist   a rock

  sandpaper

  hand lens

 black construction paper

  safety goggles NEAT!

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (tr) ©Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Step 1  Use a hand lens to observe the rock. Record what you observe.

Step 2  Can you change the shape of the rock? Use the sandpaper. Rub the rock for 5 minutes. What happens to the rock?

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

89

Step 3  Rub the rock for 2 more minutes. Talk with a partner about what you observe. Make a claim about how a rock changes over time.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why rocks may change slowly over time?

90

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

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Model Weathering and Erosion

Weathering is a process that breaks rock into smaller pieces. Erosion is the picking up and moving of rocks, soil, or sand from one place to another. Think about how erosion has changed this valley. Ask a question about how weathering and erosion change Earth’s surface.

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

91

Materials Checklist   a sugar cube

 blocks

  an eyedropper

  a foil tray

  cup of water

  a hand lens

Step 1  Use a hand lens to observe the properties of the sugar cube. Share what you observe with a partner.

LOO

K!

??

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Step 2  Make a plan to model weathering and erosion by using the sugar cube.

92

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

What can I do if I struggle to come up with a plan?

Step 3  Follow your plan. Compare the sugar cube before and after.

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: ©Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Before

After

Step 4  Compare observations with your classmates. How does this model show how weathering and erosion slowly change Earth’s surface?

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

93

Make a claim about how weathering and erosion can cause changes to Earth’s surface.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why rocks may change slowly over time?

94

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company



Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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Why do the rocks slowly change over time? Be sure to describe what causes the rocks to change.

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

95

Self Check 1. What is the effect of wind slowly weathering and eroding a rock? A

The rock does not change.

B

The rock gets smaller.

C

The rock gets larger.

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

2. How does erosion change the land? Write 1, 2, and 3 to show the correct order.

96

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

3. Michelle is using a cube of salt to model a rock. She has a cup of water. How can she model weathering and erosion?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

4. Observe the pictures of the valley. How has it changed? Explain whether you think this change happened slowly or quickly.

LESSON 1 • Slow Changes on Earth

97

What’s shaking?

98

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

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Lesson 2

Fa st Cha nges on Ea rth

What do you notice about the volcano and the earthquake? What do you wonder about the volcano and the earthquake?

Ca n You Explain It?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

How do these events quickly change Earth’s surface?

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

99

An earthquake causes a sudden shaking of the ground that makes land rise and fall. It can also cause a landslide. A landslide is when rocks and soil slide down a slope. Observe how the road looks different after an earthquake. Think about whether this change is fast or slow. Ask a question about how earthquakes can change Earth’s surface.

100

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

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Model an Earthquake

Materials Checklist   graham crackers

  a paper plate

H OW

?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (tr) ©Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Step 1  Record what you observe about the graham crackers.

Step 2  Make a plan to use graham crackers to model an earthquake. Follow your plan.

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

101

Step 3  Discuss your results. Talk with a partner about whether the change was fast or slow. Make a claim about how an earthquake can cause fast changes to Earth’s surface.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

I explored How does this help me explain how events cause fast changes to Earth’s surface?

102

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Making Sense

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (t) ©Vadim Zakharishchev/Shutterstock

Model a Volcano

A volcano is an opening in Earth’s surface where lava, gases, and bits of rock erupt. Ash and dust burst from the opening at the top. You can make a model to show what happens when a volcano erupts. Ask a question about how volcanoes can change Earth’s surface.

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

103

Materials Checklist   dish soap

 paint

  plastic cup

  safety goggles

  baking soda

 water

 vinegar

 gloves

HM

M Step 1  Talk with a partner about how you can model a volcanic eruption.

Step 2  Mix together dish soap, baking soda, paint, and water in the cup. Record what you observe.

104

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

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Why is it important to listen when other people are talking?

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Step 3  Slowly pour the vinegar into the cup. Record what you observe.

Step 4  Discuss your observations with your partner. How does your volcano compare to a real volcano?

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

105

Make a claim about how a volcano can cause fast changes to Earth’s surface.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how events cause fast changes to Earth’s surface?

106

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company



© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (c) ©wachira tasee/Shutterstock

Model Moving Water

Moving water has flooded this area, which is usually dry. The land is covered with water. The water has knocked over trees. Think about whether this happens quickly or slowly. Ask a question about how moving water can change Earth’s surface.

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

107

Materials Checklist  soil

  a container

 sand

 water

 rocks

 gloves

  safety goggles NEAT

Step 2  Talk with a partner about what you think the model will look like after you add water. Will adding water be a fast change or a slow change to the land? 108

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

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Step 1  Make a model of land using rocks, soil, and sand. Draw your model.

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Step 3  Quickly pour water onto the model. Record what you observe.

Step 4  Compare the model before and after you added water. How does this help you understand how moving water changes an area?

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

109

Make a claim about how moving water can cause fast changes to Earth’s surface.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how events cause fast changes to Earth’s surface?

110

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company



Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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How do these events quickly change Earth’s surface? Be sure to explain what happens during each event to cause these changes.

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

111

Self Check 1. How does moving water change Earth’s surface? Write 1, 2, and 3 to show the correct order.





2. Lava and ash have quickly covered the land. Which event caused this to happen? A

an earthquake

B

moving water

C

a volcano erupting

112

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

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© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: (tl) ©Hotshotstock/Shutterstock; (tr) ©Hotshotstock/Shutterstock

3. Compare the pictures. How did an earthquake change Earth’s surface? Explain if the change was fast or slow.

4. Mia’s teacher shared a picture of an area with lots of trees. Then she shared a picture of the same area covered by water. How can moving water change Earth’s surface?

LESSON 2 • Fast Changes on Earth

113

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Lesson 3

Prevent Wind a nd Water from Cha nging La nd

On a roll!

114

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

What do you notice about the rocks and the technology in use? What do you wonder about the rocks and the technology in use?

Ca n You Explain It?

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How can people help prevent fast changes to Earth’s surface?

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

115

Crops can grow well in healthy soil. Soil can become unhealthy. This can happen quickly or slowly. For example, wind can slowly blow away healthy soil. Windbreaks are trees and shrubs used to block wind. Ask a question about how wind can cause soil to become unhealthy.

116

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

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Explore Changing Land

Materials Checklist   pictures of farmland

YIKES!

  pictures of windbreaks

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Step 1  Observe the pictures of the farmland. Talk with a partner about what causes the soil of the farmland to change.

Step 2  Study the pictures of the windbreaks. With your partner, show how farmers can use trees to help stop soil from blowing away.

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

117

Step 3  Compare your models to your classmates’ models. Make a claim about how windbreaks help farmland.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how people help prevent fast changes to Earth’s surface?

118

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

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Engineer It

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Prevent Water from Changing Land

Rocks from landslides are not the only things that can change Earth’s surface. Water can, too! Moving water can quickly flood a place and cover large areas of land. Ask a question about how people can slow or prevent water from changing land.

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

119

Materials Checklist  sand

 rocks

  gloves  

  safety goggles 

 soil

 ruler

  water

  craft materials

  a container COOL!

Explore Step 1  Define the problem. In small groups, talk about how water can change land.

Why is it important to draw your solution before you build it?

120

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

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Make Step 2  Draw a way to prevent water from changing the land. Build your model.

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Step 3  Test your solution by pouring water onto the model. Observe and measure the height of its banks. Record your observations.

Make It Better Step 4  Make your solution better. Test it again. Measure the height. Compare the two solutions.

Step 5  Compare your model with other groups. LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

121

Make a claim about how technology can be used to help prevent changes to land.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how people can help prevent fast changes to Earth’s surface?

122

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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How can people help prevent fast changes to Earth’s surface? Be sure to explain what causes the changes and how technology can help.

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

123

Self Check 1. Why would a farmer add trees and shrubs around his farm?

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2. How can people prevent or slow water from changing land? Circle all correct answers.

124

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

3. Circle all the pictures that show changes caused by wind moving soil.

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4. Maria has an idea for how to help her town prevent water from changing the land. How can she test her idea? What should she do if her idea does not work?

LESSON 3 • Prevent Wind and Water from Changing Land

125

Name 

Unit Review 1. How do canyons slowly change over time? A

They get deeper.

B

They get rockier.

C

They get smaller.

3. Does each event change Earth’s surface quickly or slowly? Write quickly or slowly on the line below each picture.

126

UNIT 4 • Changes to Earth’s Surface

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2. Identify two kinds of technology that can slow or prevent moving water from changing Earth’s surface. Explain which solution you think is better.

4. How does the fence protect the sand dune? Choose all correct answers. A

The fence allows animals to pass through.

B

The fence blocks some of the wind.

C

The fence keeps the sand from moving a lot.

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5. Lucas has a rock and some sandpaper. He rubs the rock for 5 minutes, and nothing happens. He tries again several more times. The rock still does not change. What question could Lucas investigate further?

6. Which items can you use to build something that will slow or stop moving water? Circle all correct answers.

UNIT 4 • Changes to Earth’s Surface

127

7. Match each event to the effect. earthquake

The ground cracks and shifts.

landslide

Lava and gas erupt.

volcano

Rocks rush down a mountain.

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8. Observe the farmland. Draw what could happen to the farmland if a farmer did not use windbreaks to protect the soil.

128

UNIT 4 • Changes to Earth’s Surface

In Unit 4, you used evidence to explain that processes that cause changes to Earth’s surface can happen quickly or slowly. In this unit, you will plan and carry out investigations to describe diversity of plant and animal life in land habitats and water habitats, how living things find what they need to grow and survive in these habitats, and interrelationships between plants and animals.

UNI T

5

Environments for Living Things

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Lesson 1 Plant Needs.................................... 130 Lesson 2 Plants Depend on Animals............ 142 Lesson 3 Plants and Animals in Land Habitats................................ 154 Lesson 4 Plants and Animals in Water Habitats.............................. 166 Unit Review.................................... 178

UNIT 5 • Environments for Living Things

129

Let’s plant!

130

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

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Lesson 1

Pla nt Needs

What do you notice about the sunflowers in the open field? What do you wonder about the sunflowers in the open field?

Ca n You Explain It?

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Why can these sunflowers grow here?

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

131

Gardening is an activity that is often done in spring and summer. People buy seeds to grow all types of plants, such as flowers and vegetables. Most plants get nutrients from soil. A nutrient is anything that living things need as food. Ask a question about whether plants need sunlight and water to grow.

132

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

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Explore Sunlight and Water

Materials Checklist  several plants of the same type

  measuring cup

HMMM

 water

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Step 1  Observe the plants. Record what you observe.

Step 2  With the group, make a plan to find out whether plants need sunlight or water.

Why is it important to follow the order of the steps in your plan? LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

133

Step 3  Follow your plan. Record your observations for your group every two to three days.

Sunlight

Water

1 2 3

Step 4  Talk with a classmate to complete the other half of the table. What causes the plants to grow differently?

134

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

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4

Make a claim about whether plants need sunlight and water to grow.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

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How does this help me explain why sunflowers grow where they do?

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

135

Look at the plants growing close together. Each plant has roots that grow in the soil. Roots take in water and nutrients. They also hold a plant in place. Ask a question about whether plants need space to grow.

136

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

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Explore Space for Plants

Materials Checklist W H OA !

  pictures of plants

Step 1  Observe the pictures. Talk with a small group.

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Step 2  Draw how plants look with different amounts of space. Label the plants.

Step 3  What was the effect of growing plants too close to each other? Talk with a partner. LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

137

Make a claim about whether plants need space to grow.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why sunflowers grow where they do?

138

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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Why can sunflowers grow here? Be sure to describe all the things that plants need to live and grow.

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

139

Self Check

2. Tyler and his family go away for two weeks. No one waters his plant while they are gone. What will the plant look like when they get home?

140

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

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1. What do plants need to grow? Circle all correct answers.

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3. What would happen to this plant if it stopped getting sunlight and water?

4. Jen observes that only one of the plants in her pot is bright green. All the other plants have droopy, yellow leaves. What is causing her plants to look this way?

LESSON 1 • Plant Needs

141

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Lesson 2

Pla nts Depend on Animals

Let’s help plants!

142

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

What do you notice about the bee and the chipmunk? What do you wonder about the bee and the chipmunk?

Ca n You Explain It?

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How do animals help plants?

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

143

Engineer It Spread Seeds

Plants have seeds that can grow into new plants. These seeds need sunlight, water, air, and space. Because plants cannot move, they depend on animals to move seeds from place to place. Think about how the body parts of animals are shaped to move seeds. Ask a question about how animals move seeds.

144

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

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WOW

!

Materials Checklist   animal covering materials   burdock seeds

H OW ?

Explore Step 1  Explore the materials. Talk with a partner about what you observe.

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Step 2  Choose three materials. Predict which ones will pick up seeds. Then lightly drag each material across the seeds. Record your results. Material

Prediction

Test Results

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Step 3  What are some properties of materials that pick up seeds? Talk with a partner.

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

145

Step 5  Compare your tool with a partner’s tool. Tell how you got an idea from observing an animal or seeds. Tell how working with a partner helps you get ideas about how animals move seeds.

146

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

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Make Step 4  Design a tool to help people move seeds. Draw a picture of your tool, and label each part.

Make a claim about how animals move seeds.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

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How does this help me explain how animals help plants?

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

147

Pollen is a light, sticky powder that flowers need to make seeds. Animals such as bees and ladybugs help move pollen as they feed on nectar deep within the flower. Think about how the body parts of animals are shaped to move pollen. Ask a question about how animals move pollen.

148

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

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Model Moving Pollen

Materials Checklist   3 colors of chalk powder   3 small cups

  3 cotton balls

  cotton swabs

 water

N

E AT ! Step 1  Place each powder in a different cup with a cotton ball. Dip a cotton swab in water. Roll

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it over each cotton ball. Record what you observe.

Step 2  Repeat two more times. Compare your results with a partner. Step 3  What parts of an animal can help move pollen from plant to plant?

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

149

Make a claim about how animals move pollen.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain how animals help plants?

150

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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How do animals help plants? Be sure to explain how the parts of animals help plants move seeds or pollen.

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

151

Self Check A

The pollen is light and sticky.

B

The pollen has structures like wings.

C

The pollen has hooks that catch onto the bee.

2. What can you find out from a model of a seed? A

the shape of the seed

B

the size of the seed

C

the structure of the seed

152

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

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1. What causes a bee to move pollen?

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3. Explain how this type of seed can be moved from place to place.

4. A farmer sees that his strawberry crop is not as large as it was last year. He reads in the newspaper that there are fewer bees in the area. What conclusion can you draw about why his crop is smaller?

LESSON 2 • Plants Depend on Animals

153

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Lesson 3

Pla nts a nd Animals in La nd Habitats

In a rain forest!

154

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

What do you notice about the iguana and the zebra plant? What do you wonder about the iguana and the zebra plant?

Ca n You Explain It?

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Why can an iguana and a zebra plant live in a rain forest and not in a desert?

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

155

In a forest, some trees are tall. They get a lot of sunlight. Other plants grow in the shady areas low to the ground. Cacti live in dry, hot deserts. They do not need a lot of water to grow. Other plants grow in rain forests and savannas. Ask a question about why different plants grow in different places.

156

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

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Model a Plant

Materials Checklist   nonfiction books

  craft materials

  a computer

C O OL !

Step 1  Use nonfiction books or a computer to find out about different plants. Where do they grow? Why do they grow there?

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Step 2  Draw one plant you found out about, and show a place where it grows.

Step 3  Use craft materials to make a model of the plant and where it grows. Compare your model with your classmate’s models. LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

157

Step 4  Think about all the models your classmates shared. What pattern do you observe? Make a claim about why different plants grow in different places.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why an iguana and a zebra plant live in a rain forest and not in a desert?

158

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

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Model an Animal

African elephants live in a savanna. Sloths live in a rain forest. These animals live in different habitats. A habitat is a place where a living thing can get the food, water, and shelter it needs to live and grow. Some habitats can be found in trees or in tall grasses. Ask a question about why different animals live in different places.

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

159

Materials Checklist   nonfiction books

  a computer

  craft materials

 shoebox

N E AT !

Step 2  Draw the animal you found out about. Include its habitat in your picture. Tell about where your animal lives.

160

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

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Step 1  Use nonfiction books or a computer to find out about different types of animals. Where do they live? Why do they live there?

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Step 3  Use craft materials to make a model of the animal and the place where it lives. Compare your model with your classmate’s models.

How can you show respect to your classmates when they are sharing their models? Step 4  Think about all the models your classmates shared. What could happen if an animal were moved to a different place with a different habitat?

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

161

Make a claim about why different animals live in different places.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why an iguana and a zebra plant live in a rain forest and not in a desert?

162

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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Why can an iguana and a zebra plant live in a rain forest and not in a desert? Be sure to compare the features of a rain forest and a desert.

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

163

Self Check

A

They have claws for climbing trees.

B

They do well in a wet habitat.

C

They can find the food they need in this habitat.

2. A zebra lives in a savanna. How does it get what it needs there? Choose all correct answers. A

It can find the food it needs.

B

It can get the water it needs.

C

It can find the shelter it needs.

164

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

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1. These animals live on the rain forest floor. Which patterns explain why they live there? Choose all correct answers.

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3. This elephant lives in a savanna. Could it live in a forest? Explain why or why not.

4. Amy makes a model of a cactus. Tarek makes a model of a desert tortoise. Both these living things live in a desert. What pattern can the children observe?

LESSON 3 • Plants and Animals in Land Habitats

165

Salty or fresh?

166

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

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Lesson 4

Pla nts a nd Animals in Water Habitats

What do you notice about the sea urchin and the catfish? What do you wonder about the sea urchin and the catfish?

Ca n You Explain It?

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Why does a sea urchin live in a different place than a catfish?

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

167

Ponds and river deltas are different places that have different habitats within them. A habitat is the place where a living thing can get the food, water, and shelter it needs to live and grow. Water habitats are under the water or near the water’s edge. Ask a question about why different plants and animals are found in different water habitats.

168

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

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Compare Water Habitats

Materials Checklist  pictures of animals and plants in water habitats

WOW !

Step 1  Observe the pictures. Talk with a partner about the living things found in each water habitat. Think about why they live there.

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Step 2  Choose two water habitats. Draw the living things in each one. Label your drawings. Compare with your partner.

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

169

Step 3  What might happen if a living thing from one habitat were moved to a different habitat? Make a claim about why different living things are found in different water habitats.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense How does this help me explain why a sea urchin lives in a different place than a catfish?

170

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

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I explored

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Model a Water Habitat

This aquarium has salty water. Some aquariums have fresh water, which is water that is not salty. Plants and animals that live in saltwater aquariums cannot live in freshwater aquariums. Ask a question about living things in an aquarium.

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

171

Materials Checklist   a small tank

 water  

  aquarium soil  

 snails

  safety goggles

  gloves  

  local freshwater plants

S WE E T !

© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • Image Credits: ©Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Step 1  Observe the materials. With a partner, draw a plan to set up a freshwater habitat. Think about the type of water your habitat will need.

Why is it important to finish the task before starting another? 172

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

Step 2  Follow your plan. Build your model. Be sure to include all the materials your teacher gave you. Step 3  Record what you observe. Compare your observations with others.

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Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Step 4  Think about all the models your classmates made. What pattern did you observe?

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

173

Make a claim about living things in ​ an aquarium.

What is your evidence? Talk with a partner about your reasoning.

Making Sense I explored

How does this help me explain why a sea urchin lives in a different place than a catfish?

174

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

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Name 

Lesson Check Ca n You Explain It?

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Why does a sea urchin live in a different place than a catfish? Be sure to explain the differences between where a sea urchin lives and where a catfish lives.

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

175

Self Check 1. This plant lives in a small body of fresh water. The water is still so it doesn’t move very much. Where does the plant live? A

in a pond

B

in a river

C

in an ocean

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2. Melissa and Elizabeth are comparing water habitats. Elizabeth thinks that a fish from the ocean could live in a lake. Explain why or why not.

176

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

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3. This alligator lives in a river. Could it live in the ocean? Explain why or why not.

4. Different water habitats have different living things. What is one thing that all habitats have in common? A

All habitats are large in size.

B

All habitats have fresh water.

C

All habitats have the food and water that living things need.

LESSON 4 • Plants and Animals in Water Habitats

177

Name 

Unit Review 1. What can cause a plant’s leaves to be yellow and droopy? Choose all correct answers. A

not enough sunlight

B

not enough water

C

not enough wind

3. Sadie’s plant does not look healthy. What does it need? A

soil

B

shelter

C

water

178

UNIT 5 • Environments for Living Things

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2. Sammy plants some flowers in the garden. He puts them very close together. What may happen to the flowers?

4. Observe the deer in the forest. Why does the deer live there?

5. How do plants depend on animals? Choose all correct answers. A

They move plants from place to place.

B

They move pollen so plants can make seeds.

C

They move seeds so new plants can grow.

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6. Look at these pond plants. What pattern do you observe?

A

Both plants do not need sunlight.

B

Both plants have leaves that are above the water.

C

Both plants live underwater.

UNIT 5 • Environments for Living Things

179

8. Susie observes burrs stuck to her socks. When she walks, the seeds fall off in different places. How can Susie build a tool to spread seeds?

180

UNIT 5 • Environments for Living Things

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7. Observe the cypress trees in the river delta. A river delta has fresh water or a mix of fresh and salty water. Could cypress trees seeds grow near an ocean? Explain why or why not.

Interactive Glossary This Interactive Glossary will help you learn how to spell and define a vocabulary term. The Glossary will give you the meaning of the term. It will also show you a picture to help you understand what the term means. Where you see write your own words or draw your own picture to help you remember what the term means.

Glossary Pronunciation Key With every Glossary term, there is also a phonetic respelling. A phonetic respelling writes the word the way it sounds, which can help you pronounce new or unfamiliar words. Use this key to help you understand the respellings. Sound

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a ah air ar aw ay ch e ee

er eye i ing k ngk

As in bat lock rare argue law face chapel test metric eat feet ski paper fern idea bit going card kite bank

Phonetic Respelling (BAT) (LAHK) (RAIR) (AR•gyoo) (LAW) (FAYS) (CHAP•uhl) (TEST) (MEH•trik) (EET) (FEET) (SKEE) (PAY•per) (FERN) (eye•DEE•uh) (BIT) (GOH•ing) (KARD) (KYT) (BANGK)

Sound oh oo ow oy s sh th u uh

y z zh

As in over pool out foil cell sit sheep that thin pull medal talent pencil onion playful dull yes ripe bags treasure

Phonetic Respelling (OH•ver) (POOL) (OWT) (FOYL) (SEL) (SIT) (SHEEP) (THAT) (THIN) (PUL) (MED•uhl) (TAL•uhnt) (PEN•suhl) (UHN•yuhn) (PLAY•fuhl) (DUHL) (YES) (RYP) (BAGZ) (TREZH•er)

G1

C  compass rose  (KUHM·puhs ROHZ) A part of a map that shows directions north, south, east, and west. (p. 75)

North West

East South

D  design process  (dih·ZYN PRAHS·es)

E

 earthquake  (ERTH·kwayk) Causes a sudden shaking of the ground that makes land rise and fall. (p. 100)

G2 G2

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A set of steps that helps you find a solution. (p. xi)

 engineer  (en·juh·NEER) A person who uses math and science to solve problems. (p. xi)

 erosion  (uh·ROH·zhuhn)

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The process of picking up and moving rocks, soil, or sand from one place to another. (p. 91)

F

 freeze  (FREEZ) A change in matter from liquid to solid. (p. 44)

G3

H  habitat  (HAB·ih·tat) A place where a living thing can get the food, water, air, and shelter needed to live. (pp. 159, 168)

I  irreversible  (ir·ih·ver·suh·buhl)

L  landform  (land·fohrm) A natural feature found on Earth’s surface. (p. 72)

G4 G4

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A change that cannot be undone. (p. 44)

 landslide  (LAND·slyd) The sliding down of rocks and soil on or from a hill, mountain, or other slope. (p. 100)

M  map key  (MAP KEE) A part of a map that shows what the colors and symbols mean. (p. 75) Key

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Road Lake Trees 0 100 feet

 matter  (MAT·er) Anything that takes up space. (p. 20)

G5

 melt  (MELT) A change in matter from solid to liquid. (p. 48)

 model  (mahd·l)

N  nutrient  (NOO·tree·uhnt) Anything that living things need as food. (p. 132)

G6 G6

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Something that shows what an object looks like or how it works. (p. 4)

P  pollen  (PAHL·uhn) A light, sticky powder that flowers need to make seeds. (p. 148)

 property  (PRAHP·er·tee)

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One part of what something is like. (p. 20)

R  reversible  (rih·VER·suh·buhl) A change that can be undone. (p.44)

G7 G7

S  solution  (suh·LOO·shuhn) Something that fixes a problem. (p. xi)

V  volcano  (vahl·KAY·noh)

W  weathering  (WETH·er·ing) A process that breaks rock into smaller pieces. (p. 91)

G8 G8

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An opening in Earth’s surface where lava, gases, and bits of rock erupt. (p. 103)

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 windbreak  (WIND·brayk)

Trees or shrubs planted to help block the wind. (p. 116)

G9

Index air, 136, 144 animal, 167, 171. See also fish; insect African elephant, 159 body parts, 144, 148, 151 chipmunk, 142, 143 help plants, 142, 143, 147, 150, 151 iguana, 154, 155, 158, 162, 163 in land habitats, 154 live in different places, 159, 167, 170, 174, 175 move pollen, 148 move seeds, 144 sloth, 159 in water habitats, 166, 168, 171 aquarium, 171 ash, 103

B ball, 17, 19, 20 baseball, 18, 19, 26, 27 basketball, 18, 19, 26, 27 body of water, 60, 71 bread, 42, 43, 47, 50, 51 build objects, 35 burning, 48

I10

C Can You Explain It? 3, 11, 19, 27, 31, 39, 43, 51, 59, 67, 71, 79, 87, 95, 99, 111, 115, 123, 131, 139, 143, 151, 155, 163, 167, 175 change, 100, 107 in Earth’s surface, 86, 91, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 106, 107, 110, 111, 115, 118, 119, 122, 123 explore, 116 fast, 98, 106, 110, 115, 118, 122, 123 irreversible, 44, 51 prevention from wind and water, 114 quick, 88, 99, 100, 103, 111, 116 reversible, 44, 51 to rocks, 90 slow, 87, 88, 90, 94, 95, 116 temperature, 63 claim, xv claim, evidence, and reasoning, in Hands On! 7, 10, 22, 26, 34, 38, 47, 50, 62, 66, 74, 78, 90, 94, 102, 106, 110, 118, 122, 135, 138, 147, 150, 158,

162, 170, 174 compass rose, 57, 70, 75 cooking, 48

D desert, 155, 158, 162, 163 design process, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11 steps, 11

E Earth, 60 fast changes, 98 landforms, 70, 72 slow changes, 86 earthquake, 98, 99, 100 Earth’s Surface causes of change, 91, 123 change, 99, 100, 102, 103, 106, 107, 110, 111, 115, 118, 119, 122, 123 engineer, xi erosion, 91 evidence, xvi

F fast change, 106, 110, 115, 118, 122, 123. See also quick

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A

change fish catfish, 166–167, 170, 174, 175 sea urchin, 166, 167, 170, 174, 175 flood, 107, 119 flower, 148 food, 132 forest, 156, freeze, 44 fresh water, 166, 171

G gardening, 132 gas, 103 glacier, 63 glass, 32

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H habitat, 159, 168 Hands On! 75–78 Build Objects from Smaller Pieces, 35–38 Compare Water Habitats, 168–170 Engineer It • Compare Features, 8–10 Engineer It • Design a Ramp, 4–7 Engineer It • Explore

Properties, 23–26 Engineer It • Prevent Water from Changing Land, 119–122 Engineer It • Spread Seeds, 144–147 Explore Changing Land, 116–118 Explore Cooling, 44–47 Explore Heating, 48–50 Explore Space for Plants, 136–138 Explore Sunlight and Water, 132– 135 Explore What Objects Are Made Of, 32–34 Mapping Landforms and Bodies of Water, 75–78 Model an Animal, 159–162 Model an Earthquake, 100–102 Model a Plant, 156– 158 Model a Volcano, 103–106 Model a Water Habitat, 171–174 Model Landforms,

72–74 Model Moving Pollen, 148–150 Model Moving Water, 107–110 Model Weathering and Erosion, 91–94 Observe Temperature Changes to Water, 63–66 Observe Water All Around, 60–62 Sort Objects, 20–22 Try to Change Rocks, 88–90 heat, 42, 48, 51 heavy, 2 hole in rock, 88 house, 32

I ice, 63 icicle, 42, 43, 47, 50, 51 insect bee, 142, 143, 148 ladybug, 148 irreversible change, 44, 51

L land, 75, 79 landform, 71, 72, 74 canyon, 72

I11

Index

M Making Sense, in Hands On! 7, 10, 22, 26, 34, 38, 47, 50, 62, 66, 74, 78, 90, 94, 102, 106, 110, 118, 122, 135, 138, 147, 150, 158, 162, 170, 174 map, 57, 70, 71, 74, 75, 78, 79 map key, 70, 75 material, 23 matter, 20 can change, 42, 48 properties, 20 melt, 48, 63 melting, 48 model, 4 mountain, 72

I12

moving a box, 3 moving water, 107, 119

N nutrient, 132, 136

P pattern of land, 71, 78, 79 on a map, 78, 79 of water, 71, 78, 79 pillow, 23, 26 properties, 23 plant, 136, 144, 151, 171 cactus, 156 flower, 148 grow in different places, 156 in land habitats, 154 need animals, 144 needs, 130, 132, 136, 139, 156 pollen, 148, 151 root, 136 seed, 132, 144, 148, 151 sunflower, 130 sunflowers grow, 131, 135, 138, 139 in water habitats, 166 zebra, 154, 155, 158, 162, 163 pollen, 148, 151 pond, 168

prevent changes, 115, 119, 122, 123 problem, xi, 3, 4 property, 20, 27 of matter, 20 of a pillow, 23

Q quick change, 88, 99, 100, 103, 111, 116. See also fast change

R rain forest, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 162, 163 ramp, 4, 8 reasoning, xvi reversible change, 44, 51 river, 58, 59 delta, 168 look different, 58, 62, 66, 67 rock, 86, 87, 90, 91, 94, 103, 114, 115, 119 causes of change, 95 hole in, 88 root, 136

S safety, xvii,xviii salty water, 166, 171 sand, 91

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on Earth, 70 hill, 72 on a map, 74 mountain, 72 valley, 72, 91 landslide, 100, 119 lava, 103 Lesson Check, 11, 27, 39, 51, 67, 79, 95, 111, 123, 139, 151, 163, 175 liquid, 44 living thing, 159 in an aquarium, 171 needs, 132, 159, 168

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savanna, 156, 159 seed, 132, 144, 148, 151 Self Check, 12–13, 28–29, 40–41, 52–53, 68–69, 80–81, 96–97, 112–114, 124–125, 140–141, 152–153, 164–165, 176–177 shaking, 98, 100 shrubs block wind, 116 slow change, 87, 88, 90, 94, 95, 116 soil, 91, 132, 136 unhealthy, 116 solid, 44 solution, xi, 4 solve a problem, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11 space to grow, 136, 144 spring, 132 stone, 32 summer, 132 sunlight, 144 plants need, 132

T technology, 115, 123 temperature change, 63 test, xii, xiii, xiv toy boat, 30, 31, 34, 38, 39 building, 35

truck, 30, 31, 38, 39 tree blocks wind, 116 knocked over, 107

U unhealthy soil, 116 Unit Review, 14–16, 54–56, 82–84, 126– 128, 178–180

V volcano, 98, 99, 103 eruption, 103

W water body of, 71 on Earth, 58, 60 fresh, 166, 171 habitat, 168, 171 on a map, 75, 79 moving, 107, 119 plants need, 132, 136 salty, 166, 171 seeds need, 144 weathering, 91 windbreak, 116

I13

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COL

! s U OR

Engi neering robot

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Life Science robot

I am a scientist.

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KE

ing! o g EP

Physica l Science robot

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Ea rth Scien ce robot

Science is FUN!

I18

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