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P ROGRES S I V E We look to the future, to progress from strength to strength. The Health Sciences Authority plays a critical national role in securing and advancing public health, through providing access to health products that are safe and of the highest quality; ensuring the safety of the nation’s blood supply; and supporting the administration of justice. Our roles are founded on scientific rigour, excellence and innovation. To excel, we strive towards going beyond our present capabilities, and build ourselves up to face the challenges in serving our nation and the international community. We continue to make advancements in every area, from improving our knowledge and capabilities, to leveraging technology to improve the efficiency and quality of our services. We also put in place robust governance frameworks to instil public confidence and are constantly innovating to do our job better.

ontents Vision, Mission & Values 02 Our Accolades 03 Chairman’s Message 06 CEO’s Message 08 HSA Board 10 HSA Executive Committee (EXCO) 13 Corporate Governance Statement 14 Organisation Chart 16 Principal Officers 18 Health Products Regulation Group 20 Blood Services Group 44 Applied Sciences Group 58 Corporate Services Group 76 Our Achievements in Figures 86 Financial Highlights 90 1

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Our Vision To be the leading innovative authority protecting and advancing national health and safety Our Mission • To wisely regulate health products • To serve the administration of justice • To secure the nation’s blood supply • To safeguard public health Our Core Values Service to the Nation We are part of the Singapore Public Service, committed to integrity, excellence and efficiency. Passion for Excellence We aim to be the best in all that we do. Develop Our Community We value our people and build trusted teams. Inspire Trust We act with credibility, professionalism and integrity, to instil public trust and confidence. Live Innovation We seek constantly to improve and transform. 2

Vision, Mission & Values | Our Accolades Our Accolades Organisational Excellence The Public Service Achievement Award 2014 The Public Service Milestone Award 2010 Singapore Quality Class Star March 2014 Singapore Quality Class since 2009 People Developer Certification since 2002 Singapore Innovation Class first public healthcare agency to be endorsed 2003 Singapore Service Class March 2014 Singapore H.E.A.L.T.H. Platinum Award 2012 Public Service Award for Organisational Excellence 2006 Meritorious Defence Partner Award since 2005 Meritorious Home Team Partner Award since 2008 Community Chest Awards since 2003 Singapore Family Friendly Employer Award 2004 ISO 9001:2008 Corporate Headquarters since June 2015 ISO 9001:2008 Information Management Department Corporate Headquarters since 2011 3

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Our Accolades Professional Excellence HEALTH PRODUCTS REGULATION GROUP ISO 9001:2008 Audit & Licensing Division since October 2015 ISO 9001:2008 Tobacco Regulation Branch since February 2011 Accession to Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme (PIC/S) Audit & Licensing Division since January 2000 Member of the Management Committee for the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Agencies (ICMRA) since May 2013 BLOOD SERVICES GROUP Compliance with PIC/S Good Manufacturing Practice Standard Cell Therapy Facility was audited to acceptable GMP standard jointly by HPRG and Swissmedic August 2014 Joint Accreditation Committee – International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Group for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (JACIE) July 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI) August 2008 AABB Accreditation first national blood service in Asia to be accredited May 2006 Certified On-the-Job Training Centre December 2005 World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Transfusion Medicine since 1992 4

Our Accolades APPLIED SCIENCES GROUP Forensic Medicine Division Pharmaceutical Division National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) Associate Membership to the Official Medicines first agency outside North America to be accredited Control Laboratories (OMCL) September 2005 since May 2014 Commendation for Significant Contribution in World Health Organization Collaborating Centre Helping Singapore Overcome SARS for Tobacco Testing and Research March — May 2003 since June 2009 Accreditation of Laboratory for Pathology Training ASEAN Leading Country for Colorants and by The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Tretinoin Analysis in Cosmetic Products since 1999 since 2004 Forensic Science Division, Biology Division, Illicit World Health Organization Collaborating Centre Drugs Division and Analytical Toxicology Division for Drug Quality Assurance since February 1993 Excellence for Singapore Award 1999 Food Safety Division American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/ ASEAN Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins Analysis Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB) since June 2004 since June 1996 World Health Organization Collaborating Centre Pharmaceutical Division & Food Safety Division for Food Contamination Monitoring since July 1992 Public Service Award for Organisational Excellence July 2003 Chemical Metrology Division Singapore Quality Class Member of the Consultative Committee for Amount since August 2002 of Substance: Metrology in Chemistry and Biology (CCQM) ISO/IEC 17025 Accreditation under Singapore since November 2014 Accreditation Council – Singapore Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (SAC-SINGLAS) Accredited as a Proficiency Testing Provider under since 1997 ISO/IEC 17043 by the Singapore Accreditation Council since August 2013 5

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 A Chat with Our Chairman th HSA is celebrating its 15 year — how with the screening, diagnosis and management of would you describe our journey thus these diseases and help to improve public health in far? Singapore. Our Health Products Regulation Group’s Vigilance HSA has grown significantly over the past 15 years. and Compliance Branch has also been recognised We have come a long way, from a merger of what for their achievements, winning the inaugural Mrs were five separate agencies then, to the cohesive, Tan Shook Fong Innovative and Scientific Award for highly specialised, scientific organisation today. their pharmacogenetic project to identify increased We have also gained recognition nationally and risk of serious skin reactions with the anti-epileptic internationally for our expertise. drug carbamazepine (CBZ) in patients with the We have been successful in fulfilling our mission and HLA-B*1502 gene. As a result of this finding, it is vision. While we have had our share of challenges, now the standard of care for doctors in Singapore it is these challenges that have helped strengthen to test patients for this gene before commencing our foundation and made us more resilient. treatment with CBZ. Since the implementation of the HLA-B*1502 genotype screening in 2013, HSA I am grateful to the many HSAians who have has not received any reports of adverse events dedicated their long careers to the work of HSA. associated with the use of CBZ in patients screened These pioneers have been an integral part of our for the gene. In comparison, there was an average growth, striving together to build and advance of 15 CBZ-induced adverse events per year in the our services, and ensure our success. The firm past. foundation they laid will serve us well into the future. While we can be proud of our achievements, We have also leveraged on advances in new we cannot afford to be complacent. As new needs technology to help us enhance our capabilities. A surface, they have to be met. Globally, new good example is how our Blood Services Group looks technologies are emerging, and we have to learn to at new testing and process technologies to make take advantage of them quickly and strengthen our our blood supply even safer. We have been closely scientific capabilities. monitoring developments in Pathogen Reduction Technology, a technology for reducing infectious What is the outlook for HSA? agents in blood components. This heralds a new approach to blood safety. We are also looking at This year’s theme — Progressive — encapsulates using RFID technology for real-time tracking of the HSA's mindset. We are looking towards making national blood inventory to enhance productivity further advancements, growing our knowledge, and accuracy. improving our infrastructure, and innovating to build efficiency and provide better services. Our Science and technology have helped our Applied commitment to our key priorities drives us — to Sciences Group to achieve more precise and advance public health and safety, secure the nation’s accurate analysis to support the courts and law blood supply, and support the administration of enforcement agencies in the investigation and justice. prosecution of criminals. For instance, the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory has acquired a Science is the means through which we realise our Reflectorless Total Station to aid in traffic accident purpose. We will continue to look at how science reconstruction. The Reflectorless Total Station can be employed to further improve public health enables us to do longer-range measurements in and safety. For example, our Chemical Metrology traffic crash reconstruction, and when used in Laboratory runs an External Quality Programme conjunction with the 3D laser scanner, can provide for clinical laboratories in Singapore to assess the more visuals in our reports to aid in investigations. accuracy of their test results for chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease. By improving the Besides continuing to embrace new and innovative accuracy of these measurements, we can assist solutions, we will look at enhancing productivity 6

Chairman's Message through automation. We can expect more innovative efficient HSA building located along Jalan Bukit drugs and novel therapies to be developed. This Merah — our new home for the entire HSA family. means we will have to develop innovative regulatory In our building design and planning, we need to approaches to enable fast and safe access to these not only facilitate process efficiency but also create health products for the population. the most conducive working environments, setting aside space for staff collaboration and interaction What challenges do you think HSA for greater exchange of knowledge and ideas and to faces ahead? nurture innovations. In the health arena, we are always kept on our Then, as now, we will continue to use the best toes with new challenges. Globally we are seeing science to fulfil our goals of protecting public health continuing outbreaks of infectious diseases like and safety, securing the nation’s blood supply and Ebola and MERS, and now outbreaks of the Zika supporting the administration of justice. virus. We have to ensure our blood products remain safe. We are also navigating challenging economic and business conditions, and it is our responsibility as a public service organisation to manage our resources prudently. It is of vital importance that we remain mindful of how our policies and processes impact our stakeholders. We will continue to streamline and simplify our regulatory and business processes to minimise duplication and unnecessary costs. Professor Satkunanantham One major event that HSAians are certainly looking s/o Kandiah forward to is moving to the new high-rise, energy Chairman This year’s theme — Progressive — encapsulates HSA's mindset. We are looking towards making further advancements, growing our knowledge, improving our infrastructure, and innovating to build efficiency and provide better services. 7

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Reviewing the Year with Our CEO How would you define HSA and what we do? Knowledge and Innovation As a science-based and tech-centric organisation, knowledge HSA is an organisation with many critical functions. We play a vital role in serving the nation — safeguard public health and innovation are critical. We have to always be on the through regulating health products, save lives through lookout for new developments and findings that have the providing a safe and secure blood supply, and serve the potential to enhance our capabilities. administration of justice through our forensic medicine, and For example, our DNA Profiling Lab is developing the forensic and analytical science services. capability to estimate the age, appearance and ethnicity of an individual from blood samples recovered from crime scenes. What underpins all our functions is our scientific expertise. Our scientific rigour and commitment to excellence and There is also ongoing work to extend this capability to other innovation have enabled us to consistently deliver reliable biological materials like semen and saliva. Such capabilities and quality services to our stakeholders, and to the public. can help provide the authorities with more investigative HSA’s work is continually benchmarked against the best-in- leads to narrow down their search for perpetrators of crimes. class organisations, and has garnered strong international Our Pharmaceutical Lab supports the Health Products repute and professional standing. Regulation Group in ensuring the safety of health products in Singapore. Unscrupulous manufacturers are always coming As a progressive organisation, we are always looking forward and seeking ways to enhance our competencies and up with new ways to adulterate health products with capabilities and utilise our resources to achieve even more. dangerous drug substances, and detecting these unpermitted substances can be difficult as they cannot be identified by routine testing methods. Through our vigilance and using our What is the foundation of HSA's success? scientific expertise, we managed to detect a new compound, Without a doubt, our people are the foundation of HSA’s lorcaserin, in samples of health supplements. We have since success. added this compound to our adulterants screening library, further strengthening and expanding our analytical testing The heart of our success lies in the team of competent and capabilities. committed staff who are aligned to our goals. The know-how, skillsets and expertise of our people are vital to our ability To remain a leader in what we do, we must continue to access to carry out our roles well. So we are committed to recruiting and assimilate new knowledge and information, share best talented individuals who resonate with HSA’s mission, practices, and undertake research collaborations with our vision and core values. We are also focused on retaining our counterpart institutions. We must also maintain good local talents, and giving them opportunities to attain their fullest and global knowledge networks to remain at the forefront of potential. science, technology and medicine. We have a Professional Board, which helps us attract, We are currently working to set up a comprehensive research retain and develop talent by developing and strengthening governance framework and structure to manage and promote specialist career tracks. This helps us ensure that our career the conduct of research in HSA. This organisation-wide tracks remain relevant and comparable with our peers. framework will ensure our compliance with new national biomedical research regulations, and provide guidance to An example would be HSA’s review of our nursing career our researchers in critical areas such as ethics approval, and track, which is now aligned with career paths in public grant applications, where applicable. sector hospitals. Our nurses now enjoy more opportunities to develop their professional careers, and to advance nursing Technology and Infrastructure expertise and practice in transfusion medicine. With the smart use of technology, we are able to scale up Aside from reviewing career tracks, the Professional Board our capabilities, ensure quality and consistency in processes, also looks at developing training roadmaps to serve as a and improve efficiency and productivity. guide for all staff at every stage of their career. This helps An example would be the purchase of an X-ray irradiator by the our staff to be better-informed on how they can do well and Blood Services Group. This has increased workflow efficiency grow further in their jobs. and lessened radiation risks. The Blood Services Group also Going forward, how can HSA continue to remain studied and successfully implemented an alternative method of freezing red blood cells to extend their shelf life from relevant and work towards its mission? 24 hours to 14 days. This facilitates better management of the thawed frozen blood inventory and enables us to better The future is bright, but it also holds many challenges. To help us be future ready, responsive and relevant, we have a mitigate shortages in months of low blood collection. five-year strategic roadmap to guide us on our journey. We have also started various Information Technology 8

CEO's Message initiatives, including a revamp of existing laboratory continually engage our partners and stakeholders to hear information systems to improve operational efficiency and about their issues and concerns, and work together on strengthen IT infrastructure. solutions. On the regulatory front, HSA is transferring the current regulatory controls of therapeutic products to the Infrastructure-wise, we opened our third satellite blood collection centre, the [email protected] Tower, in June Health Products Act. The Health Products Regulation Group has held many consultations with industry stakeholders 2015 to serve donors from western Singapore. [email protected] and healthcare professionals to ensure a smooth transition. Dhoby Ghaut was also expanded to accommodate more donors in a more comfortable environment. We hope these These consultations are critical in making sure that we adopt relevant risk and confidence-based regulatory controls moves will make blood donation more convenient for donors, and attract more donors to help us meet an increasing need that safeguard patient health and safety, without creating unnecessary regulatory burden and compliance costs for the for blood. industry. Governance and Stewardship To tackle any future challenges that come our way, we must It is essential for us to have a robust governance framework continue to fine-tune and strengthen our risk management and good stewardship in place to help us to optimise the competencies to help us anticipate and address potential use of our resources, improve efficiency, and ensure proper challenges and scenarios — this will safeguard our value to checks and balances in all we do. stakeholders and help to maintain our good reputation. We also conduct regular reviews and audits of our processes With strong leadership, and staff who are both united and to ensure that our quality management systems are robust. committed to achieving the goals in our five-year plan, One of the ways we have shown our dedication to this is I believe that HSA will be more than able to fulfil our the achievement of the ISO 9001:2008 Certification by responsibility of safeguarding public health and justice in our Corporate Services Group, as well as the Audit & Singapore. Licensing Division. I am proud to share that we attained both certifications with zero non-conformities, which is a testament of our commitment to continual improvement in delivering consistent quality services to our stakeholders. HSA is a pro-enterprise organisation, and we are mindful Dr Mimi Choong that the decisions we make can impact the industry. We Chief Executive Officer What underpins all our functions is our scientific expertise. Our scientific rigour and commitment to excellence and innovation have enabled us to consistently deliver reliable and quality services to our stakeholders, and to the public. HSA’s work is continually benchmarked against the best-in-class organisations, and has garnered strong international repute and professional standing. 9

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 HSA Professor Satkunanantham Board s/o Kandiah Chairman Health Sciences Authority As at August 2016 Mr Max Loh Managing Partner ASEAN and Singapore Ernst & Young Mr Tai Lee Siang Chair World Green Building Council Ms Serene Wee Chief Executive Singapore Academy of Law 10

HSA Board Professor Freddy Boey Deputy President and Provost Mrs Tan Li Lian Nanyang Technological Executive Director University Contemporara Holdings Pte Ltd Mr Clifton Tan Director Pembrooke Investments Pte Ltd Mr Lionel Yee Woon Mr Adam Abdur Rahman Chin, SC Managing Director Solicitor-General Head of Corporate Affairs Attorney-General’s Chambers Citi Singapore and ASEAN Professor Alex Matter Chief Executive Officer Experimental Therapeutics Centre/ Drug Discovery & Development A*STAR 11

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 HSA Board Committees As at August 2016 BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE BUILDING DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE Professor Satkunanantham s/o Kandiah Chairman Mr Tai Lee Siang Chairman Chair Ms Serene Wee Member World Green Building Council Mrs Tan Li Lian Member Dr Mimi Choong Co-Chairman Chief Executive Officer Mr Adam Abdur Rahman Member Health Sciences Authority Mr Lionel Yee Woon Chin, SC Member Solicitor-General AUDIT AND RISK COMMITTEE Attorney-General’s Chambers Mr Jeffrey Wong Member Mr Max Loh Chairman Group Director Mr Clifton Tan Member Corporate Services Group Professor Freddy Boey Member Assoc Professor Sunil Sethi Member Group Director Professor Alex Matter Member Applied Sciences Group Asst Professor Raymond Chua Member Group Director Health Products Regulation Group Dr Ang Ai Leen Member Acting Group Director Blood Services Group Ms Elizabeth Quah Member Group Director (Planning) Ministry of Health Mr Loke Mun Sing Member Director Healthcare Infrastructure Projects Division Ministry of Health Holdings Mr Hoong Bee Lok Member Visiting Consultant Health Sciences Authority 12

HSA Board Committees | HSA Executive Committee HSA Executive Committee (EXCO) As at August 2016 Dr Mimi Choong Chief Executive Officer Asst Professor Assoc Professor Raymond Chua Sunil Sethi Group Director Group Director Health Products Regulation Group Applied Sciences Group Mr Jeffrey Wong Group Director Corporate Services Group Dr Ang Ai Leen Assoc Professor Acting Group Director Chan Cheng Leng Blood Services Group Dr Diana Teo Deputy Group Director Chairman Health Products Regulation Group Professional Board Senior Director Blood Services Group 13

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Corporate Governance Statement The HSA Board and Senior Management Team are committed to maintaining a high standard of corporate governance and complying with the recommendations set out by the Code of Corporate Governance. The Board believes that good governance is essential in enhancing corporate performance and accountability, ensuring transparency and protecting stakeholders’ interests at all times. Our stakeholders include the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance, other government agencies, the healthcare industry, our clients, our suppliers and the public at large. This statement outlines the main corporate governance practices of the organisation that are in place. The Board The Board comprises the Chairman and its members, who are appointed by the Minister for Health for a 2-year or 3-year term. It aims to meet every two to three months to set strategic directions, assume the role of monitoring and reviewing of policies leading to HSA’s improved management and performance. Board Members’ Remuneration HSA follows the Government’s Directorship and Consultancy Appointments Council (DCAC) guidelines in determining the remuneration of the Board Members. Notice and Declaration of Directorships and Interest in Shares and Debentures Board Members are required to declare their directorships in various organisations and their interests in shares and debentures in various corporations. Board Members deemed to have any such interests during the meetings are required to declare them. They are to refrain from any deliberations made when such an interest has been declared. 14

Corporate Governance Statement Accountability and Audit HSA’s Senior Management Team is accountable to the Board. In return, (a) Board Executive Committee the Board is accountable to the Minister This Committee assists the Board to review and make recommendations for Health. To allow the Board to on manpower-related issues. These include assessing the adequacy of discharge its duties adequately, Senior manpower numbers and budgets to meet operational needs. Management and staff are required to provide periodic updates and answer (b) Audit and Risk Committee any queries that the Board may have on the operations and planning of the This Committee assists the Board to review and assess the adequacy of organisation. internal controls, provide guidance on financial matters, as well as to have oversight of significant organisational risks. It meets quarterly For accountability purposes, the Board with the Management and auditors to determine the scope of the has established the following Board external and internal audits, review audit findings, and to provide Committees: oversight of financial budgets. (c) Building Development Committee This Committee assists the Board to review and provide guidance on matters related to the new HSA building project. These include having oversight of the project delivery milestones, ensuring compliance with corporate governance guidelines as well as putting forth recommendations for the various approval aspects of the project. Communication with Stakeholders The Professional Groups conduct regular consultations with the industry and their clients, seeking to keep them informed of new directions and regulations, and to listen to their concerns. HSA publishes an annual report to meet statutory requirements and provide information to our stakeholders. In addition, regular updates on matters of interest to our stakeholders are posted on our website. Our Quality Service Manager ensures that the organisation’s professional quality standards are maintained. Code of Business Conduct The Board, officers and employees are required to observe and maintain high standards of integrity, and be compliant with the law, government regulations, organisation policies, and best corporate practices. Risk Management The Management is continually reviewing and improving business and operational activities to identify and manage areas of significant risks with appropriate measures and controls. The Management also reviews all significant control policies and procedures, and highlights significant matters to the Board, the Board Executive Committee, and the Audit and Risk Committee as necessary. 15

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 rganisation Chart As at August 2016 HSA oard hief Executive Officer Quality Professional Internal Service Board Audit Manager 16

Organisation Chart Corporate Services Group Departments • Corporate Communications • Facilities Management • Finance • Human Capital Management • Information Management • Legal • Legal Policy & Prosecution • Professional Board Administration • Risk Management & Emergency Planning • Safety & Quality • Strategy & Business Transformation Health Products Regulation Group • Therapeutic Products • Medical Devices • Complementary Health Products • Clinical Trials • Advanced Therapy Products • Vigilance & Compliance • Enforcement • Tobacco Regulation • Audit & Licensing Blood Services Group Branches • Blood Resources • Blood Supply Management • Patient Services • Clinical Services • Blood Service Support • Capability Development & International Collaboration • Quality Applied Sciences Group • Forensic Medicine • Forensic Science • Illicit Drugs • Analytical Toxicology • Biology • Pharmaceutical • Food Safety • Chemical Metrology • Quality 17

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 rincipal Officers As at August 2016 CORPORATE Legal Policy & Prosecution GROUP DIRECTOR’S & HEADQUARTERS Director STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT Assoc Professor Stella Tan OFFICE Chief Executive Officer (till 1 Sept 2016) Director Dr Mimi Choong Ms Ling Boon Lee Director Professional Board Ms Grace Lim PRE-MARKET CLUSTER Chairman (with effect from 1 Sept 2016) Assistant Group Director Dr Diana Teo Ms Lee Hui Keng Finance Quality Service Manager Director Clinical Trials Branch Director Ms Grace Chan Director Professor Bosco Chen Bloodworth Facilities Management Mr Foo Yang Tong Internal Audit Director Therapeutic Products Branch Assistant Director Ms Lynette Goh Director (Clinical) Ms Adeline Ho Information Management Ms Agnes Chan Director CORPORATE SERVICES Mr Manoj Abraham Director (Quality) GROUP Dr Dinesh Khokal Professional Board Group Director Administration Medical Devices Branch Mr Jeffrey Wong Director Director Mrs Sarojini Padmanathan Ms Wong Woei Jiuang Acting Assistant Group Director Mr Adrian Chia Strategy & Business Complementary Health Products Transformation Branch Corporate Communications Deputy Director Director Director (Concurrent Appointment) Mr Gabriel Yeo Ms Hui Foong Mei Mr Adrian Chia Safety & Quality Advanced Therapy Products Unit Risk Management & Emergency Director Head Planning Professor Bosco Chen Bloodworth Dr Kellathur Nadathur Srinivasan Director Mr Axel Chan HEALTH PRODUCTS POST-MARKET CLUSTER Human Capital Management REGULATION GROUP Assistant Group Director Dr Dorothy Toh Director Group Director Ms Lily Goh Asst Professor Raymond Chua Enforcement Branch Acting Director Legal Deputy Group Director Ms Annie Tan General Counsel Assoc Professor Chan Cheng Leng Ms Linda Chen Vigilance and Compliance Branch Director Ms Jalene Poh 18

Principal Officers Tobacco Regulation Branch Quality & Accreditation Professional Practice Branch Director Senior Manager Branch Director Mr Norman Chong Ms J Thilakavathi Assoc Professor Gilbert Lau Audit & Licensing Division BLOOD RESOURCES Operations Branch Acting Division Director Branch Director Branch Director Ms Jessica Teo Mr William Sim Dr Marian Wang Audit Branch BLOOD SUPPLY MANAGEMENT FORENSIC SCIENCE Director Assistant Group Director Ms Jessica Teo Laboratory Director Dr Angeline Yap Ms Sally Lam Licensing & Certification Branch Analytical Toxicology Division Director PATIENT SERVICES Division Director Dr Lai Weng Fai Immunohaematology & Cell Dr Yao Yi Ju Therapy Support BLOOD SERVICES Laboratory Director Biology Division GROUP Dr Marieta Chan Division Director CLINICAL SERVICES Assoc Professor Christopher Syn Acting Group Director Director Forensic Science Division Dr Ang Ai Leen Dr Jason Chay Acting Division Director Senior Consultant Mr Lim Thiam Bon Dr Diana Teo APPLIED SCIENCES Illicit Drugs Division GROUP Assistant Group Director Division Director (covering) (Operations) Group Director Dr Angeline Yap Dr Tan Hwee Huang Assoc Professor Sunil Sethi ANALYTICAL SCIENCE Assistant Group Director QUALITY Assistant Group Director (Administration) Director Ms Low Min Yong Col (NS) Tay Kim Chiew Dr Chow Shui Tse Senior Scientific Advisor GROUP DIRECTOR’S OFFICE FORENSIC MEDICINE Professor Bosco Chen Bloodworth Blood Service Support Chief Director Dr Paul Chui Chemical Metrology Division Ms Koh Geok Tin Division Director Infrastructure Branch Dr Lee Tong Kooi Capability Development & Branch Director Knowledge Management Dr George Paul Food Safety Division Senior Manager Division Director Ms Leou Kwee Kim Technical Capabilities Branch Ms Joanne Chan Ms Wong Wai Cheng Branch Director Pharmaceutical Division Assoc Professor Cuthbert Teo Division Director Ms Low Min Yong 19


We are Enhancing Our Regulatory System for Public Health and Safety HEALTH PRODUCTS REGULATION GROUP Our primary role is to protect public health by wisely regulating drugs, innovative therapeutics, medical devices and health-related products. We do this through safety, quality and effectiveness checks, auditing, licensing, post-market surveillance, and close partnerships with local and international counterparts. Ultimately, we envision having safer health products for the public, more streamlined requirements for the industry, and a stronger regulatory system for stakeholders. 21

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 mproving Pre-market Initiatives Work through Transferring Regulatory Controls of Pharmaceutical Products to Health Products Act Innovation We work hard to ensure that Singaporeans have access to innovative and improved health products that meet stringent standards of safety, quality and effectiveness. To this end, we constantly review current regulatory processes and facilitate regulatory innovation. As an ongoing initiative by HSA to update and consolidate the regulatory controls of health products into a single legislation, we are working on transferring controls of pharmaceutical products from the Medicines Act and Poisons Act to the Health Products Act, where pharmaceutical products will be regulated as 'therapeutic products'. To facilitate this, extensive consultations with stakeholders such as industry and healthcare professionals were conducted. There were multiple focus group discussions with pharmacy personnel, clinical trial stakeholders (industry and healthcare institutions), industry professionals, stakeholders in medical device clinical research materials, and industry associations. The intended Therapeutic Products (TP) port-over will refine the existing controls to ensure that the new regulations will remain relevant to the evolving pharmaceutical development landscape, and are adequate to safeguard public health and facilitate timely access to TP. Six pieces of subsidiary legislation for the controls of therapeutic products were finalised and gazetted on 15 July 2016. The port-over will be completed and new regulations under the Health Products Act implemented on 1 November 2016. 22

Health Products Regulation Group Annual Reclassification Exercise for Medicinal Products We have been working to make more drugs available as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to bring greater convenience to consumers as they purchase these drugs from retailers or from a pharmacist without a doctor’s prescription. These medicines have a proven history of use both locally and internationally and are deemed safe enough to be consumed without medical supervision, if taken in accordance with the product information. In January 2016, we launched a yearly reclassification exercise to further enhance access to effective and safe medicines by the general public. This initiative was the result of focus group discussions with the Pharmaceutical Society of Singapore Community Chapter and other industry stakeholders. We will identify and review the candidates for reclassification, taking into consideration proposals by healthcare professionals and industry stakeholders, as well as international regulatory best practices. Priority Reviews for Life-saving Medicinal Products Advances in technology often lead to the discovery of new medicines to help patients. Priority reviews may be considered for medicinal products that are intended to treat life-threatening conditions and address unmet medical needs. In 2015, nine medicinal products were approved under the priority review programme, facilitating timely access of these life-saving medicines for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases such as Hepatitis C. Approving First Generic Drugs First generics are drug products that have never been approved before as generic drug products and are new to the marketplace. First generic drugs provide an alternative to brand name drugs when patent and data exclusivity barriers to approval have been lifted, often leading to lower drug prices for patients and the healthcare system. In 2015, 14 first generic drugs were approved. It is projected that this will result in potential savings of several million dollars for the healthcare system in the following year. Singapore Quality Overall Summary Workgroup Working closely with representatives from the pharmaceutical industry helps us identify possible areas of improvement in our processes. A workgroup comprising representatives from HSA, the Singapore Association of Pharmaceutical Industries and Singapore Pharmaceutical Trade Organisation/Singapore Pharmaceutical Manufacturer’s Council was formed in January 2015. The aim was to discuss and address the challenges encountered when using the Singapore Quality Overall Summary (SQOS) in the submission of New Drug and Generic Drug applications. Based on the workgroup’s recommendations, HSA will work towards the removal of SQOS as a submission requirement to reduce this regulatory burden. 23

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Further Enhancement of Drug Screening Processes We initiated a programme review project that aims to enhance evaluation efficiency, improve transparency and the processing timeline of New Drug and Generic Drug Applications, such as the introduction of new screening guidelines. We will continue to conduct industry consultations to get feedback on the proposed changes. Work-sharing Projects and Collaboration with International Regulatory Agencies HSA participated in the 8 and 9 Australia-Canada-Singapore-Switzerland th th (ACSS) Consortium Generic Working Group Meetings in May 2015 in Pretoria, South Africa and in October 2015 in Seoul, South Korea. The key outcome from these meetings was the establishment of the framework of the Generic Medicines Work-Sharing Trial, modelled after the European Union’s Decentralised Procedure. The experience gained from undertaking this trial is expected to support regulatory decision-making within each jurisdiction and lead to future work-sharing initiatives. The four agencies acknowledged the importance of pro-active engagement with their respective generic industry associations and other stakeholders to facilitate the timely availability of safe, effective and quality generic drugs. In September 2015, we participated in the first face-to-face ACSS Consortium New Chemical Entity (NCE)/Benefit Risk Working Group meeting in Montreux, Switzerland. One of the objectives of the Working Group is to explore work-sharing arrangements on new drugs for the consortium agencies. The Working Group has initiated cluster discussions in 2016 for selected topics of common interest as part of confidence building, information sharing and promoting regulatory convergence for the consortium agencies. Advancing Cell Therapy in the ASEAN Region In January 2016, HSA was invited as a speaker at the Advanced Therapeutics Workshop organised by the Centre of Regulatory Excellence (CoRE) at Duke- NUS Medical School. The objectives were to share and learn evaluation experiences of cell therapy products; to develop a better understanding on the dossier requirements and regulatory expectations; to understand the basis of the various regulatory frameworks, and the upcoming challenges in regulation. Attendees included regulators from ASEAN member states, regulatory professionals from the industry, academia and government agencies. 24

Health Products Regulation Group Review of Change Notification Processes As part of our regular regulatory process review, we examined the key feedback regarding medical device Change Notification (CN) and Field Safety Corrective Action-Change Notification (FSCA-CN) processes. Key industry dialogue sessions were initiated together with the local industry associations where representatives shared and provided feedback on the related processes. Training and focus group discussions were organised with the Association of Medical Device Industry, Singapore (AMDI) in April 2015. A HSA-industry dialogue session was initiated together with the Singapore Manufacturing Federation-Medical Technology Industry Group (SMF-MTIG) in July 2015. The valuable interaction with the stakeholders helped us collate the diverse industry-wide concerns and suggestions for the ongoing CN and FSCA process review. We also invited local industry representatives, including members of the SMF and AMDI to provide feedback and participate in a CN workgroup to maintain relevance and streamline the CN process for the immediate future. The workgroup’s industry inputs and accepted recommendations were implemented in December 2015 for a clearer and simplified CN process. Launching Field Safety Notices Webpage We keep medical professionals up-to-date about the safety of medical devices through Field Safety Notices (FSN). These used to be uploaded to a Ministry of Health Alert website, but this was only available to doctors, dentists and pharmacists using their professional accounts. We initiated the uploading of FSN on HSA’s new medical device FSN webpage in September 2015 to make it more readily available. Now, other stakeholders such as biomedical engineers of healthcare institutions (HCI) can access the information, facilitating timely identification of the affected medical devices and the resolution of corrective actions in their facilities. This complements HSA’s post-market surveillance activities, which include the monitoring of the effective conduct of medical devices FSCA by the companies. Refining the Field Safety Corrective Action Process Medical devices suspected of being potentially harmful to users are subject to a FSCA by their product owners, dealers or manufacturers. The overall FSCA reporting and review processes were simplified to improve the FSCA reporting process and for faster FSCA regulatory decisions which would minimise disruption to the local supply of medical devices. As a result of thorough reviews using Lean Six Sigma methodologies, this refinement has led to quicker processing for both dealers and HSA, and provided greater clarity and predictability to companies when dealing with FSCA. 25

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Allowing the Use of Chinese Herbs Containing Berberine Berberine was prohibited in Singapore since 1978 following concerns that it was among the several causes of severe jaundice and brain damage in glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient infants. Based on reviews conducted, there were no major safety concerns with berberine when used appropriately. The ban was thus lifted in phases. In January 2013, Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) containing berberine were allowed for sale and import. In April 2016, the ban on Chinese herbs containing berberine was also lifted, providing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners with greater options in the use of TCM in their practice. Local CPM manufacturers who want to import such herbs for the manufacturing of CPM are also no longer required to apply for the Form A Poisons Licence from April 2016. Post-market Initiatives Product Risk Management When significant safety concerns associated with medicinal products are identified at the point of market approval or emerge after market authorisation, HSA may require the implementation of risk management plans (RMPs) for these products to minimise the risk and ensure that their benefit-risk profile remains positive. Components of local RMPs may include the issuance of educational materials for physicians and patients to highlight the safety concerns, the submission of periodic benefit-risk evaluation reports, as well as the strengthening of safety warnings in the package inserts. In the year, RMPs for eight medicinal products — Opsumit, Gazyva, Remsima, Keytruda, Lemtrada, Hexaxim, Zydelig, and Entyvio — were implemented. HSA has also been monitoring the number of serious skin reactions since the implementation of an RMP for strontium ranelate in 2013 to mitigate the risk, which includes educating patients for early signs of serious skin reactions. As a result, we have not received any new reports of serious skin reactions with strontium ranelate since 2014. We have also conducted 15 risk assessments in 2015, arising from health products found to contain adulterants or exceeding toxic heavy metal limits, as part of product quality surveillance and post-market surveillance activities. Regulatory actions taken include the seizure of affected products, including S Lion Juice and PUTIH GEBU KEKAL Pati Ibuputih, and the issuance of press releases for these products. Surveillance of Local Product Defects Product defect reports are submitted to HSA by local product registrants, and contain information on possible quality related problems such as deviations from the products’ specifications, issues with packaging, labelling and dosing, product contamination, manufacturing deficiencies, and safety findings. Between April 2015 and March 2016, 58 product defect reports were submitted on chemical pharmaceutical products, biological products, cosmetic products, and health supplements. 26

Health Products Regulation Group Receiving Updates on Local Adverse Events As part of its post-marketing risk detection approach to ensure health products and medical devices are safe for consumption or use, HSA receives regular reports on Adverse Events (AE) from healthcare professionals, manufacturers, dealers, and the product registrants. Monitoring of AE reports is one of the most important ways we keep track of the safety of a health product throughout its life cycle. Adverse Event Reports on Health Products Singapore retains its position on the World Health Organization (WHO) global Individual Case Safety Report (ICSR) database, ranking first in terms of the number of active individual case reports submitted per million inhabitants. We have maintained this position since 2011 with the support of vigilant healthcare professionals. HSA received a total of 26,930 local reports of AE suspected to be associated with health products (excluding medical devices) in FY 2015. Of these, 20,921 or approximately 78% of the total number received were captured into the national database as valid reports. Through our close monitoring and reviews of local AE reports, we identified the following significant drug safety signals locally: • Risk of interstitial nephritis with omeprazole • Risk of thrombotic microangiopathy with tacrolimus • Risk of fixed drug eruption with etoricoxib These safety signals were highlighted to healthcare professionals via the HSA Adverse Drug Reaction News Bulletin. 2.7% 40.5% Public hospitals/organisations Polyclinics Private organisations, drug companies 56.8% Source of AE reports for FY 2015 Adverse Event Reports on Medical Devices HSA received 302 local reports of AE suspected to be associated with medical devices. Almost all the reports were contributed by dealers of the medical devices, who receive feedback on AE from hospitals and healthcare professionals. Through our close monitoring of local AE reports and cooperation with device manufacturers and dealers, we are able to identify significant safety signals to be shared, and alert local healthcare professionals when necessary. 27

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Vaccine Vigilance In our efforts to maintain the safety of health products, HSA carries out active surveillance of adverse events (AE) reports from partners and stakeholders. For example, we work closely with KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital in the surveillance of suspected AEs after vaccination to ensure that potential safety signals are quickly detected and addressed. From April 2015 to March 2016, 31,194 children were screened for AEs following vaccinations, and 221 cases of suspected AEs were further reviewed. We assessed the potential safety signals to ensure that the reports were within expected incidences listed in the product package inserts or in literature. Expert opinions were also sought to ensure that the benefit/risk profile of the vaccines remains favourable. Lean Six Sigma Projects Undertaken To improve processes, a number of Lean Six Sigma projects were initiated. These include: • A review of the therapeutic products licence application process • A review of the registration process for high risk medical devices • Improving time taken on the follow-up on Change Notifications and Field Safety Corrective Actions for medical devices • Improving stakeholder engagement and experience at the Health Products Regulation Group Connect Centre 28

Health Products Regulation Group Sharing HSA’s Pharmacogenetics Initiative As part of regulatory innovation, HSA’s Pharmacogenetics (PGx) team is responsible for reviewing safety-related pharmacogenomics associations, recommending necessary product label changes, and communicating important pharmacogenomics associations to healthcare professionals. HSA's PGx initiative has been shared with local and international communities of academia, regulators and researchers on a number of occasions. Some of the key events are featured here. Global Genomic Medicine Collaborative (G2MC) 2015 Symposium Held in Singapore in November 2015, “G2MC 2015 Symposium: Implementing Genomic Medicine into Practice” aimed to identify and discuss regulations and policies that impact the implementation of genomic medicine, and to highlight best practices and lessons to enable others to effectively implement genomic medicine approaches. Dr Mimi Choong, Chief Executive Officer of HSA, spoke about the evolution of genomic medicine and the broad principles of how personalised medicine could be regulated in Singapore. The audience was also updated on the impact of one of the regulatory recommendations to test for the HLA-B*1502 gene in all local patients of Asian ancestry starting on carbamazepine. This has reduced carbamazepine-induced serious skin rash from an average of 15 cases per year to no cases among patients screened since its implementation in April 2013. Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board Guests from the Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB), including its Executive Director, Mr Hugo Hurts, visited HSA in October 2015 to learn about HSA’s pharmacogenetics initiatives. The meeting discussed the assessments of medicines and regulatory science, and emerging areas such as cell, tissue and gene therapy products and food-drug interphase products. Subsequently, MEB extended an invitation to HSA to give a presentation titled “Effective Surveillance through Screening of Patients at Risk for Serious Skin Rash in Singapore” at the Netherlands MEB Regulatory Science Day in Utrecht, Netherlands, in February 2016. National University of Singapore HSA’s pharmacogenetics initiatives were presented to Professor Wolfgang Sadee, Felts Mercer Professor of Medicine, Chair of Department of Pharmacology at College of Medicine, Center for Pharmacogenomics at the Ohio State University. The visit which took place in November 2015 was hosted by the National University of Singapore’s School of Pharmacy. 29

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 uilding Creating the HSA Online Medical Device Risk Classification Tool Infrastructure To help the trade identify the risk classification of a medical device, HSA has for created the Medical Device Risk Classification Tool. This is a self-help query tool that allows users to quickly navigate the risk classification considerations Advancement electronically by answering a few questions, when trying to determine the risk classification of a medical device. This enables the enquirer to get immediate risk classification, compared to filling up the hardcopy enquiry form previously, thus saving time and resources. It has won the Pro-enterprise Award, presented HSA constantly pushes for by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, for its direct and positive impact on technological advancements industry stakeholders. and improvements to infrastructure to enhance its role as a regulator. With these advancements, we are able to provide timely and accurate delivery of information about the risk-benefit profile of health products, and have the knowledge to make sound regulatory decisions. 30

Health Products Regulation Group ood Interacting with the Industry Governance We meet regularly with industry stakeholders to share knowledge and expertise, so as to enhance their awareness in the regulatory processes, to assist in their and regulatory submissions and post-market obligations. The interactions also help us to better understand their business models and obtain feedback to further Stewardship enhance our regulatory policies and framework to reduce regulatory costs and burden, where possible, while safeguarding public health. Having good governance HSA Medical Device Regulatory Forum in our regulatory processes International and local experts were invited to share innovative strategies and operations is absolutely and best practices in the medical device arena at the HSA Medical Device crucial. This encompasses Regulatory Forum in September 2015. The forum aimed to create a platform for stakeholders to share the latest trends and technology for medical devices, being fair in dealings, and share perspectives, and exchange ideas on how the industry and regulators can having transparency and co-create solutions to further enhance the medical device regulatory framework, clarity in our regulatory resulting in the advancement of public health. International medical device decisions. We work to be good expert, Dr Michael Drues, from Vascular Sciences in the USA, explored the stewards, ensuring judicious emerging trends, opportunities, and challenges of the future of the global use of resources. medical device sector. Medical Device Workshop In February 2016, the medical device workshop “The Use of Standards in Medical Devices” was jointly organised by HSA, the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan, and the Singapore Manufacturing Federation Standards Development Organisation. It was held to facilitate understanding of the current regulations on the use of standards, and provided a platform for regional regulators and regulatory affairs professionals to share recent developments in the regulatory frameworks in the ASEAN region. TechInnovation and TechVenture 2015 TechInnovation and TechVenture 2015 brought together Singapore-based start- ups and introduced them to the global investment community. As part of the event, in September 2015, HSA conducted a sharing session for the technology accelerators, incubators, and participants to give them an overview of medical device regulatory controls and framework. This session was held to improve the awareness of regulatory strategic considerations necessary for budding innovators when navigating the local or international regulatory systems. 31

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Trade Engagement Session with Tobacco Retailers A ban on displaying tobacco products in the public’s line of sight, or tobacco point-of-sale displays (POSD) — was passed by Parliament in March 2016. Prior to that in December 2015, in order to help retailers get on board with the new measures, HSA, the Ministry of Health, and the Health Promotion Board held a trade engagement session with tobacco retailers that was chaired by Dr Amy Khor, Senior Minister of State for Health, and Environment and Water Resources. Brochures of the implementation guidelines were distributed to tobacco retailers to assist them in complying with the POSD ban. HSA officers also explained the measures to retailers during visits to tobacco retail outlets, and shared the possible ways to store tobacco products away from the public’s line of sight. Eradicating Polio with WHO Polio is a crippling disease that the World Health Organization (WHO) has worked to eradicate worldwide. A phased withdrawal of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) is needed to achieve this because of the risk of outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses. As part of the WHO’s Polio Eradication Plan, a globally synchronised withdrawal of tOPV and a switch to bivalent OPV (bOPV) began in April 2016, removing the type 2 poliovirus component from immunisation programmes. In support of this plan, HSA worked closely with medical companies to expedite the submission and approval process of the vaccine to ensure the availability of the bOPV vaccine for our local population. The vaccine was approved in February 2016, within a relatively short period of four months. 32

Health Products Regulation Group Our Enforcement Efforts HSA partners with law enforcement agencies regularly in various joint operations to address the peddling of illegal health products and tobacco products. Sexual Enhancement Drugs Wipeout Joint operations between the Singapore Police Force (SPF) and HSA were conducted at Geylang, where more than 94,000 units of sexual enhancement drugs comprising 80 different types of illegal health products were seized. The seizure had an estimated street value of more than $200,000. Operation White Rabbit SPF and HSA launched Operation White Rabbit to target illegal peddlers of sex drugs in the red light district. During the operation, more than 60,000 units of drugs with a street value of more than $180,000 were seized and 17 people were arrested and repatriated. Illegal Supply of Codeine Halted Six doctors were among 10 individuals investigated for the illegal supply of codeine cough syrup to underground drug syndicates. Joint operations by HSA and SPF also led to the seizure of products with an estimated street value of over $200,000. The accused persons were charged and those found guilty were punished with fines and/or jail time. Annual Operation Pangea VIII The eighth instalment of Operation Pangea, a week of Internet-based enforcement operations coordinated by INTERPOL, was conducted internationally from 9 to 16 June 2015. During this operation, HSA seized more than 11,000 units of illegal health products with a total street value of more than $20,000. These illegal health products comprised Western medicines, slimming products, and contact lenses. 12 people are currently assisting HSA in investigations. Vaporiser Offences Two Singaporean males were prosecuted in August 2015 for the illegal online sale of vaporisers. They purchased the vaporisers illegally from overseas suppliers in Thailand and the United States on two websites. Both peddlers were convicted and fined a total of $31,000. In another case, HSA shut down the operations of two peddlers selling vaporisers and vaporiser accessories after raiding their premises at Pasir Ris and Geylang in February 2016. More than 1,000 vaporiser supplies, with an estimated value of around $23,000 were seized. Both peddlers had sold their products on social media platforms. 33

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Crackdown on Tobacco Offences HSA coordinated with the Singapore Customs to jointly prosecute a recalcitrant tobacco wholesaler. The wholesaler was subsequently sentenced by the State Courts on 9 December 2015 to a fine of $63,900 for the unlicensed wholesaling of ang hoon tobacco or loose tobacco leaves, an offence under the Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) Act. He was also fined $955,000 and eight months’ imprisonment for duty evasion, an offence under the Customs Act and the Goods and Services Tax Act. In support of the national tobacco control policy against illegal sales of tobacco products to under-18 minors, a total of nine tobacco retail licences were suspended for 6 months and two tobacco retail licences were revoked for selling tobacco products to under-18 minors. Additionally, five tobacco retail licences were revoked for breaching licensing terms and conditions. Developing an Educational Approach to the Sale of Medicinal Products HSA regulates the sale of medicinal products in Singapore, ensuring that only registered products are sold at licensed retailers. When we received feedback about the sale of medicinal products at shops located at Peninsula Plaza, we carried out compliance checks and found that several stores styled as toiletry shops were selling products labelled to contain poisons such as ibuprofen, metronidazole and chlorpheniramine. These products included antibiotic tablets and creams, paracetamol tablets, ibuprofen tablets and antifungal creams. 14 shop owners were informed of regulations surrounding the sale of medicinal products and the offence of selling unregistered medicinal products, and these products were removed from the shelves. The shop owners were very receptive to this educational approach as it enabled them to learn more about the regulations governing medicinal products. Ongoing Public Education on Dangers of Illegal Health Products To educate the public on the dangers of illegal health products, HSA distributes a consumer advisory booklet on illegal health products at polyclinics and related events, and works with the Health Promotion Board to put up informative consumer articles on the HealthHub website. Engaging Healthcare Professionals HSA maintains close communication with healthcare professionals, keeping them up-to-date on the latest safety issues and regulatory decisions related to health products. As part of this effort, four Dear Healthcare Professional Letters (DHCPL) were issued from April 2015 to March 2016, and 47 DHCPLs issued by industry were vetted by HSA within the same period. The HSA ADR News Bulletin continued to receive accolades from healthcare professionals who view it as a staple source of safety information. Additionally, HSA communicated important safety issues to the public via 11 press releases. This included alerts on illegal, adulterated health products and harmful cosmetic products. 34

Health Products Regulation Group artnering Study on Serious Skin Rash Local HSA Pharmacogenetics (PGx) team completed the evaluation on the role of HLA-B*5801 genotyping prior to the initiation of allopurinol. HSA, together Organisations with the Ministry of Health (MOH), jointly issued a Dear Healthcare Professional Letter (DHCPL) in March 2016 to remind healthcare professionals of the risk of allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions, and inform on the role of genotyping prior to the initiation of allopurinol. HSA is constantly developing new partnerships while building Study on Drug-induced Liver Injury on current relationships in When regulatory actions like the withdrawal of marketing approval, post- order to ensure that health marketing withdrawal and restrictions on prescriptions are taken, it is often products in Singapore are safe because the medication in question has been found to cause drug-induced liver for the public. injury (DILI). To help uncover possible genetic associations behind serious adverse drug reactions, HSA embarked on a study with the Singapore General Hospital titled “Pharmacogenetics of Adverse Drug Reactions — Drug-induced Liver Injury (DILI)”. Information from this study aims to help to reduce the incidence of DILI in Singapore. Surveillance and Pharmacogenomics Initiative for Adverse Drug Reactions (SAPhIRE) The SAPhIRE programme is a strategic partnership among the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS), Translational Lab of Genetic Medicine (TLGM) and HSA to improve drug safety. HSA will lead the establishment of a national active surveillance network while GIS, TLGM and physician collaborators will work on discovery and validation of pharmacogenomic biomarkers and development of diagnostic tests of highest relevance to Asian populations in Singapore. Global experts including Dr Dukyoon Yong from Korea’s Ajou University and Professor Jeff Brown from Harvard Pilgrim Health have also lent their expertise in this significant collaboration. 35

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Pre-registration Pharmacist Training Programme HSA conducted a 12-week pre-registration pharmacist training programme for four pre-registration pharmacists from Ng Teng Fong General Hospital from December 2015 to March 2016. The participants learnt about the specific roles and responsibilities of HSA staff in various areas of regulatory work and how we safeguard public health. Graduate Certificate in Medical Devices Regulatory Affairs Programme Established in 2014, this certification programme is a joint collaboration between the National University of Singapore’s Department of Biomedical Engineering, and the Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society. Through an integrated learning approach, this programme provides an invaluable platform for participants, including regulators, to acquire professional knowledge of the regulatory practices and issues. Since its inauguration, four HSA staff members have participated, and graduated as part of the pioneer batch in 2015. 36

Health Products Regulation Group artnerships Study Trip to Australia Beyond A team of five HSA staff visited the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia in November 2015. The study trip allowed the team to gain more in-depth Singapore knowledge of TGA’s regulatory frameworks for medical devices and complementary medicines, the challenges posed by the regulatory regimes, regulatory impact assessments conducted by TGA, stakeholder engagement for their regulatory processes, and the ongoing government level regulatory reform initiative. De veloping work ing partnerships with overseas APEC Harmonisation Centre Pharmacovigilance organisations helps HSA to Workshop and Training stay up-to-date with the HSA supported the APEC Harmonisation Centre Pharmacovigilance Workshop and latest developments in health Training Programme held in Seoul, South Korea, in September 2015. We delivered product regulation and health a presentation at the workshop and conducted training on Risk Communication product industries, to enable — these were rated highly by participants, who gave feedback that they found us to better carry out our role the training very useful. to secure public health and safety. Sharing Learning Experiences HSA was invited by agencies worldwide to speak in numerous international training sessions throughout the year. The subjects we spoke on include: • Gene therapy product development at the International Pharmaceutical Regulators Forum in New Orleans, USA • Cell Therapy in Singapore at the International Forum on Regulation of Cell Therapy in Taipei, Taiwan • Regulatory experiences on plasma quality and plasma-derived medicinal products in Singapore at the International Plasma Fractionation Association Asia Pacific Workshop in Taipei, Taiwan 37

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Pharmacovigilance Workshop In collaboration with WHO and Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), HSA jointly organised the WHO-UMC-HSA Inter-Regional Pharmacovigilance (PV) Training Workshop. This was held from September to October 2015 in Singapore, the third collaboration on PV training since the inaugural workshop held in 2010. We hosted over 50 local and international participants from ASEAN and the Asia Pacific region. We were also privileged to have guest speakers from Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sweden and Switzerland. The course received positive feedback from participants, many agreeing that it enabled them to learn useful tools for building a good pharmacovigilance system in their countries. Healthcare Data Analytics Sharing Sessions HSA hosted Professor Jeffrey Stuart Brown, MOH Health Manpower Development Plan Visiting Expert, in November 2015. Professor Brown played a pivotal role in developing the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Mini-Sentinel pilot project with the objective of creating a national public health active surveillance system. This system was created to monitor the safety of regulated medical products, such as drugs, biologics and devices. During his visit, Professor Brown met with participants from various healthcare and academic institutions, sharing his expertise on the details of the operational structure of the Sentinel Operations Centre. He talked about developing the necessary infrastructure, systems and methodologies, as well as collating and using existing healthcare data from various data partners in a distributed network by using a common data model. Professor Brown also gave valuable advice on how HSA could further enhance our current active surveillance system for better drug safety signal detection and verification. 38

Health Products Regulation Group Joint Projects between Malaysia and Singapore The 4 Bilateral Meeting with the National Pharmaceutical th Control Bureau (NPCB), Ministry of Health, Malaysia, and HSA, was held in July 2015. At the meeting, HSA and NPCB provided regulatory updates and progress on various cooperation projects. Another focus of the meeting was to continue with work- sharing initiatives in the area of drug registration of generic products, and a prospective joint review of a generic product submitted to both agencies was carried out to achieve this. We believe this will enhance confidence building, deepen the understanding of each other’s processes, and promote the convergence of technical requirements for product registration. Both agencies have agreed to continue information- and work-sharing initiatives in the various cooperation projects. 1 ASEAN Medical Device Committee Meeting st The ASEAN Medical Device Directive (AMDD) Agreement was signed in 2014 and would pave the way towards reducing economic barriers through establishing common interpretations and aligning definitions and documentation for ASEAN member states, developing pre- and post-market guidelines for medical devices, and more. Following the signing, the ASEAN Medical Device Committee (AMDC) was established in November 2015 to oversee the implementation of AMDD in member states, and held its first meeting in December 2015. HSA is the first ASEAN member state agency to roll out medical device regulations, and we maintain a framework that is aligned with the framework by AMDD. Bilateral Meetings with International Partner Agencies HSA played host to a number of bilateral meetings with international partner agencies throughout the year. Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan Members of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan, including its CEO Dr Tatsuya Kondo, and Associate Executive Director (for International Programs) Dr Toshi Tominaga, visited in October 2015 to exchange regulatory updates and share their future plans and key strategies. Therapeutic Goods Administration, Australia A meeting in February 2016 with the Therapeutic Goods Administration, Australia, including its Deputy Secretary of the Regulatory Services Group at the Department of Health, Adjunct Professor John Skerritt, saw a discussion on a myriad of key topics such as the regulation of various therapeutic goods, and regulatory impact analysis. 39

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Hosting and Sharing with International Guests We were involved in a series of international events and meetings that were held in Singapore. The visits included the following: • May 2015 – Dr Desmond Johns from the Institute for Regulatory Science, National Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa, visited to share regulatory training framework and licensing regimes • May 2015 – Delegates from the Chinese University of Hong Kong visited to share approaches on regulating medical advertisements • July 2015 – Visitors from the Guangxi Food and Drug Authority met with HSA officials on a sharing session on the regulatory framework of drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products in Singapore and Guangxi • July 2015 – Delegates from the Myanmar Food and Drug Administration visited to learn more about HSA's pharmacovigilance framework • August to September 2015 – Members of the Ministry of Health and Sports, Mongolia, visited to share their regulatory practices • December 2015 – Delegates from the Drug Administration of Vietnam visited to share their regulatory practices on Western medicines, cell therapy and gene therapy products, controls of cosmetic products, post-market surveillance for cosmetics, GMP and GDP inspections, and licensing requirements • January 2016 – Cambodian Ministry of Health officials visited to discuss their regulatory practices and technical systems of Western drugs and medical devices • January 2016 – Members of the Yunnan Food and Drug Authority, China, shared regulatory practices of drug evaluation and health products regulation, post- market surveillance, and incident crisis management • February to March 2016 – Delegates from Japan's National Institute of Infectious Diseases visited to find out more about our Adverse Event Following Immunisation monitoring and surveillance system WHO Informal Consultation on Regulatory Risk Assessment for Biotherapeutic Products HSA was the Chair of an informal consultation with the WHO to discuss a new document on Regulatory Risk Assessment. This meeting led to a proposal to amend an existing WHO guideline on the quality, safety and efficacy of bio-therapeutic protein products prepared by recombinant DNA technology, instead of drafting a new WHO guideline. This recommendation was then made to the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization for consideration. 40

Health Products Regulation Group WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization is responsible for establishing recommendations and guidelines for the manufacturing, licensing, and control of blood products, cell regulators, vaccines and related in vitro diagnostic tests. HSA was involved in discussing and finalising recommendations in the areas of: • WHO reports and updates • International guidelines, recommendations and other matters related to the manufacture and quality control of biologicals • International reference materials for virus, vaccines and related substances • International reference materials for biotherapeutics • International reference materials for blood products and related substances • International reference materials for in vitro diagnostic devices and reagents • International reference materials for antibiotics International Pharmaceutical Regulators Forum — WHO Meeting HSA participated in a meeting between the International Pharmaceutical Regulators Forum (IPRF) Biologics Working Group and WHO. The goal of this meeting was to develop a manual for regulatory reviewers on “Analytical tools for comparability of biosimilar monoclonal antibodies”, which would support WHO’s global implementation of training activity on biosimilars. 1 and 2 International Generic Drug Regulators st nd Programme Meeting The International Generic Drug Regulators Programme (IGDRP) was formed in 2015 after a three-year pilot phase, and works to promote collaboration and convergence in generic drug regulatory programmes. This move will help to address the challenges posed by increasing workloads and complexity of scientific issues. HSA participated in the first and second IGDRP Meeting which was held in Pretoria, South Africa in May 2015 and in Seoul, South Korea in November 2015 respectively. 41

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 Discussions on 21 Century Innovative Regulations st In September 2015, Professor Peter J. Pitts, Partner and Director of Global Health Care at Porter Novelli, visited HSA to share insights on the urgency of quality and innovation in 21 century medicine regulation. Professor Pitts had also st served as the US FDA’s Associate Commissioner for External Relations, where he acted as senior communications and policy adviser to the Commissioner. Industry Training from Singapore Manufacturing Federation In March 2016, the Singapore Manufacturing Federation’s Medical Technology Industry Group (SMF-MTIG) assisted to bring overseas experts to help train and enhance the regulatory skills of HSA staff. Some of these trainings included: (i) Implementing Design Control Requirements and Best Practices for Medical Devices, (ii) ISO13485 Lead Auditors Training, and (iii) Workshop on Human Factors Engineering for Medical Devices. Annual Storm Enforcement Network Meeting The Storm Enforcement Network serves as a platform for different enforcement agencies to collaborate and cooperate to fight pharmaceutical crime in the ASEAN region. In June 2015, the Annual Storm Enforcement Network Meeting took place in Singapore. The two-day meeting gathered representatives from the Customs, Police and Drug Regulators from 10 ASEAN countries. HSA’s enforcement officers’ investigations into the illegal supply of codeine cough syrup were showcased at this meeting. Following the meeting, INTERPOL and HSA conducted a two-day training session for participants. This was necessary because of the increasing complexity of pharmaceutical and trans-border crimes, as well as the involvement of drug syndicates and even healthcare professionals in pharmaceutical crime. Participants were taught and equipped with the know-how in combating these new challenges. Sharing Singapore’s Experience in Enforcing Tobacco Control HSA had the opportunity to share its enforcement best practices with a delegation team led by the Philippines Government in July 2015. Delegates were introduced to our enforcement against the use of tobacco by minors under 18 years of age and errant tobacco retailers, and learnt more about the administration of the tobacco licensing system. 42

Health Products Regulation Group ecognition Awards Presented by the Ministry of Home Affairs for High In recognition and appreciation of the role they played in successfully tackling the problem of Romilar and Milam tablets, HSA’s enforcement officers were presented with Certificates of Appreciation by Mr K Shanmugam, Minister for Standards Home Affairs and Law, in November 2015. A total of 16 people were arrested and 10 charged through this operation, and the number of peddling cases of these drugs has been significantly reduced. The joint operation is an excellent HSA has been recognised for example of successful collaboration between different law enforcement agencies its numerous accomplishments in Singapore, and the positive impact it has on deterring illegal activities. through numerous awards ISO 9001:2008 Surveillance Audit on Tobacco and achieving international Regulation Branch accreditations. HSA’s Tobacco Regulation Branch (TRB) has achieved ISO 9001:2008 certification since 2011. TRB passed the external surveillance audit conducted in February 2015 successfully. This was done to assess our administration and enforcement of the Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) Act and its subsidiary legislation, as well as its compliance with the standard(s) requirement under ISO 9001:2008. ISO 9001:2008 Certification for Audit and Licensing The Audit & Licensing Division of HSA was certified to the ISO 9001:2008 standard in October 2015, with no major or minor non-conformities. This accreditation highlights the consistency of our audit, licensing and certification processes which will lead to increased confidence in our stakeholders in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation. Mrs Tan Shook Fong PSS Award for Innovative Scientific Research HSA’s Pharmacogenetics (PGx) Team was awarded the inaugural “Mrs Tan Shook Fong — Pharmaceutical Society of Singapore Innovation & Scientific Research Award 2015”, in recognition for the significant impact their work had on pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical sciences in Singapore. One shining example of the PGx Team’s achievements is its ability to detect an increased risk of serious skin reactions in locals taking the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine. PGx initiated clinical research studies to investigate genetic associations behind such serious drug-induced adverse reactions — this uncovered evidence of a strong association between the HLA-B*1502 gene and carbamazepine-induced serious skin reactions in the local population. As a result, testing for the HLA-B*1502 gene in all new patients of Asian ancestry who are starting on carbamazepine has been established as the standard of care in Singapore, and is subsidised at restructured hospitals and institutions funded by the Ministry of Health. 43


45 We are Bolstering Efforts to Save Lives BLOOD SERVICES GROUP HSA safeguards Singapore’s national blood supply, working hard to ensure that patients always have access to a safe and sustainable blood supply in their time of need. From refining our protocols to ensure the safety of blood supplies; to making blood donation more convenient, we are dedicated to our mission. 45

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 hanking Our Blood Donors The success of the National Celebrating the Achievements of Blood Donors Blood Programme depends on HSA and the Singapore Red Cross recognised over 1,500 blood donors — out of the contributions of donors, which 542 were Champion Blood Donors — for their selfless contributions at the who give their time — and 12 World Blood Donor Day 2015 celebrations on 6 June 2015. The event was th blood — to help others. Every held at the Singapore Discovery Centre and graced by Guest of Honour, Minister year, we honour our blood for Health, Mr Gan Kim Yong. A total of 16,700 visitors attended the event and donors for their precious gift enjoyed fringe activities like band performances, carnival snack stations, and photo-taking sessions with the adorable Blood Buddy mascots. of life. 46

Blood Services Group urturing Charting a More Defined Career Path Talents In line with recommendations made by the National Nursing Taskforce in 2014, HSA has set up a distinct career progression structure for their nurses. One of the more notable changes is the addition of an Assistant Nurse Clinician role — this provides nurses who have the required experience and aptitude with the Our staff play an integral part opportunity to take up leadership roles. in maintaining Singapore’s blood supply, and HSA is dedicated to providing them with attractive career and advancement opportunities. Upgrading Professional Qualifications In a move to train a core of resident doctors with clinical expertise in transfusion medicine, HSA has set up the Staff Registrar Scheme Diploma in Transfusion Medicine. This two-year post-graduate diploma was developed in partnership with the Chapter of Haematologists at the College of Physicians and the Academy of Medicine, and aims to raise the national standard of transfusion medicine and blood components, while raising the professional standing of transfusion medicine in Singapore. 47

HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY ANNUAL REPORT 2015/16 utting Updating Methods Knowledge An evaluation study into alternative methods of freezing red blood cells (RBCs) to extend their shelf life and lower discard rates was carried out in January to Good Use 2016. In the past, RBCs were frozen manually via an open system, limiting the shelf life of thawed RBCs to 24 hours. In January 2016, an evaluation study was performed and completed, where a universal closed system was utilised to freeze RBCs and a red cell additive solution (AS-3) was used, resulting in The Blood Services Group an increased shelf life of 14 days. A longer shelf life allows for more flexibility (BSG) is responsible for the in blood inventory management and a better ability to mitigate shortages in smooth running of HSA's months of low blood collection. The new system was successfully implemented four blood banks and the in March 2016. organisation of mobile blood drives, to encourage regular blood donation. We also put new technology and expertise to use to improve the donor experience, enhance the safety of Singapore’s blood supply, and educate medical professionals. 48