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COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM FA Elective Faculty of Architecture

Monsoon 2021

COMING TO TERMS WITH L ANDSCAPE URBANISM The Coming to Terms with Landscape Urbanism document is the intellectual property of the course faculty and CEPT University, and has been created for academic purposes. Its content, in whole or parts, cannot be sold, reproduced, published, used or transmitted without permission.

FA Elective Faculty of Architecture

CEPT University Kasturbhai Lalbhai Campus, University Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380009 +91 79 2630 2470 Prepared and designed by Faculty of Architecture, CEPT University Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Monsoon 2021

Priyanka Kumbhar

Shivani Mehta

Aarohan Dutta

ARCHITECTURE

DESIGN

ARCHITECTURE

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PAD21330

PLA21004

Aditi Dhiresh Patalia

Anu Ajith

Anuja Patil

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PLANNING

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Tutor : CHANDRANI CHAKRABARTI Chandrani Chakrabarti is a landscape architect with over ten years of professional consulting experience in landscape architecture and urban design. Chandrani’s teaching and research interests include landscape ecology, productive landscapes, and landscape urbanism. She has been associated with CEPT University since 2018, and currently serves as Program Coordinator, Master of Landscape Architecture. Previously, Chandrani worked as a Senior Associate at Jerde Partnership Inc. in LosAngeles. There, she led commercial mixed use development projects primarily in the US, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. Chandrani has a Master in Landscape Architecture (MLA) degree from Harvard University, and a Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) degree from Jadavpur University.

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Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Janhavi Tankhiwale

Pinal Dave

Poojitha Reddy

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MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT

PLA21155

PUM21249

PUM21251

Reeyaa Shah

Selvee Pandoriya

Shruthi Mohan

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The Team  

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COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM This document is meant to create a reflective record of how this elective program is taught, which includes not only the intentions outlined at the beginning of the semester by faculty and advisors through learning objectives and syllabi, but also the notes of implementation, with its sucesses and failures, and advice for next year.

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Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Overview Landscape Urbanism, although started as a theory, has become a global trend of urban landscape practice. The portraying of the subject is so strong and vast, many universities now offer landscape urbanism as a full program. This course is an attempt to come to terms with Landscape Urbanism and debating its meaningin Indian context. The history and the ecological design practices that have molded the profession for the last 150 years has a key role in developing this emergingtheory of landscape urbanism. Hence, this course kicks off with extensive readings and reinterpreting selected seminal published writings, from journal articles tobook chapters, on ecological designs and planning. While the first half of the course explores the history, evolution, theory, methods, and exemplary practices ofecological design and planning, the second module thoroughly investigates Landscape Urbanism through reading, reflections, and criticisms of writings and casestudies. In a quest to define Landscape Urbanism in Indian context, the last part of course is through investigation on existing contemporary landscape project as well as potential underutilized sites, culminating in a presentation and term paper.

Learning Outcomes After completing the Courses,the student will be able to : - Learn the history and evolution of environmental movement in landscape practice - Understand the role of landscape planning in ecological design and advent of modern theories of urbanism - Evaluate theories of landscape urbanism from a contextual standpoint by a) Experimenting the translation of concept on a local site, and b) Critic of an existing built project through the lens of landscape urbanism

Overview and Course Outcome  

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COURSE PLAN

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WEEK 01

Introduction to Ecology, Ecological design and planning

WEEK 07

Understanding LU through cases - United States – Reading and Reflections Guest session with Michael Tomas – Landscape Urbanism in Australia and New Zealand

WEEK 02

Brief history of landscape and role of environmentalism – Reading and Reflections

WEEK 08

Criticism of LU - A case of Highline, New York City – Its meaning in Indian context – The need vs The choice

WEEK 03

Older theories on ecological planning and design – Reading and Reflections

WEEK 09

Productive urbanism

WEEK 04

Contemporary theories on ecological planning and design – Reading and Reflections

WEEK 10

The crusaders of New urbanism

WEEK 05

Ecological services and towards landscape urbanism Guest session with Tomas Michael Landscape urbanism in Europe

WEEK 11

Informal urbanism in developing countries Potential underutilized site and vision though LU lens

WEEK 06

Midterm presentation on fragmentation study

WEEK 12

Final presentation/ term paper on landscape urbanism in India

Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Course Plan  

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REFERENCES 1. George Perkins Marsh, “Introduction (excepts), Man and nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (1864) 2. Pattrick Geddes, “The Study of cities”, Cities in evolution: An introduction to the Town planning Movement and the Study of Civics (1940) 3. Ian McHarg, “Man and the Environment”, The Urban condition (1963) 4. Timothy Beatly, “Ethical Duties to the Environment”, Ethical land use: Principles of policy and planning (1994) 5. Sim Van der Ryn and Stuart Cowan, “An introduction to Ecological Design”, Ecological Design (1996) 6. Richard T.T. Forman, “Foundations”, Land mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions (1995) 7. Forster Ndubisi, “The first landscape sustainability approach”, Ecological Planning: A historical and comparative systhesis (2002)

RECOMMENDED READING

9. Arthur H. Johnson, Jonathan Berger, and Ian McHarg, “A case study in Ecological Planning: The woodlands, Texas”, Planning the uses and management ofland (1979) 10. Frederick Steiner, “Landscape Ecological Urbanism: Origins and Trajectories”, Landscape and Urban Planning (2011) 11. Ann Whinston Spirn, “Ecological Urbanism: A framework for the Design of resilient cities” (2014) 12. Shane Graham, “Emergence of Landscape Urbanism”, The Landscape Urbanism reader (2006) 13. Jacqueline Tatom, “Urban highways and reluctant public realm”, The Landscape Urbanism reader (2006) 14. Charles Waldheim, “Landscape as Urbanism”, The Landscapae Urbanism reader (2006) 15. Alan Berger, “Drosscape”, The landscape Urbanism reader (2006)

8. Carl Steinitz, “On Teaching Ecological Principles to Designers”, Ecology and Design: Frameworks for Learning (2002)

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Readng and References  

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01

Reading 1

Readings and Reflections

Ethical Duties to the Environment Ethical Land Use: Principles of Policy and Planning (1994) Timothy Beatley

Part 1

The environmental impacts of land-use actions are substantial, and contemporary land-use practices threaten, in a variety of ways, the ecological integrity of our planet. Land-use practices and patterns can create and induce serious air and water pollution problems. Without significant safeguards, for example, site grading and land development can generate tremendous erosion and sedimentation problems. Urbanization, which usually results in the replacement of natural vegetation with pavement and other impervious surfaces, can create serious storm-water runoff problems as well as modifications to the microclimate. Other land-use practices, such as heavy reliance on septic tanks, lead directly to the degradation of water quality. Sprawling land-use patterns, which encourage the use of automobiles, contribute to urban air quality problems. Numerous metropolitan areas, for example, are in violation of minimum EPA ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide pollution. As population growth and land consumption continue over time, there are fewer and fewer natural areas, areas largely untouched by human hands, and fewer opportunities to connect them through greenways and other green systems. A recent global analysis of existing wilderness areas undertaken by the Sierra Club found that there are, not surprisingly, relatively few places which do not bear human scars (McCloskey and Spalding, 1987). Wilderness and natural areas are increasingly lost to the human pressures to build and develop as if the frontier still exists in perpetuity. Globally, the planet is in the midst

Ecology/landscape ecology Impact of fragmentation Importance of ecological planning

Forster O. Ndubisi, The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, DOI 10.5822/ 978-1-61091-491-8_14, © 2014 Forster O. Ndubisi.

Week 02 August, 17th, 2021

Reading Assignment 1: Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

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  Readings and Reflections 01

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Reading 2

Reading 3 The Study of Cities

Regional Planning and Ecology

Cities in Evolution: An Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics (1915)

Ecological Monographs (1940) Benton MacKaye

Week 03 August, 24th, 2021

This title implies a discussion of the relation of regional planning to ecology, and of the problems going with such relation. Discussion of the relation itself would seem to be a fairly simple matter; it amounts apparently to a few clarifying definitions. What is ecology, and what is regional planning? But these are big questions in themselves. They are questions not of fact nor principle but of mutual understanding. Toward this a start can be made through the dictionary and the encyclopedia. Ecology is defined as the relation of organisms to their environment. Human ecology, then, would be the relation of human organisms to their environment. And from this it would seem to follow that human ecology, when applied to the actual needs and welfare of human organisms, is the search for the optimum relation to environment. Environment is “the sum of the agencies and influences which affect an organism from without; (extrinsic conditioning as opposed to intrinsic).” Regional planning is best defined by splitting the term in two. What is planning?—and what is region? These terms for the purposes at hand, are still in the making. They involve not merely what the dictionary states but what it is that planners really mean. The term planning appears to cover two basic ideas: (1) contriving and (2) recording. Which does the planner have in mind? Let us take the case of the civil engineer in “planning” an efficient railroad

We have seen that many, and in all countries, are awakening to deal with the practical tasks of citizenship. Indeed, never, since the golden times of classic or mediaeval cities, has there been so much interest, so much goodwill as now. Hence the question returns, and more and more frequently, how best can we set about the study of cities? How organise speedily in each, in all, and therefore here and there among ourselves to begin with, a common understanding as to the methods required to make observations orderly, comparisons fruitful and generalisations safe? It is time for sociologists—that is for all who care for the advance of science into the social world—to be bringing order into these growing inquiries, these limitless fields of knowledge. The writer has no finally formulated answer, since his own inquiries are far from concluded; and, since no bureaucrat, he has not a cut-and-dried method to impose meanwhile: nor can he cite this from others: he may best describe his own experience. The problem of city study has occupied his mind for thirty years and more: indeed his personal life, as above all things a wandering student, has been largely determined and spent in restless and renewed endeavours towards searching for the secrets of the evolution of cities, towards making out ways of approach towards their discovery. And his interests and experiences are doubtless those of many. The nature lover’s revolt from city life, even though in youth strengthened and reinforced by the protest of the romantics and the moralists, of the painters

Forster O. Ndubisi, The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, DOI 10.5822/ 978-1-61091-491-8_8, © 2014 Forster O. Ndubisi.

Forster O. Ndubisi, The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, DOI 10.5822/ 978-1-61091-491-8_7, © 2014 Forster O. Ndubisi.

Reading Assignment 2: Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

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Patrick Geddes

Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Week 04 August, 31st, 2021

Reading Assignment 3: Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

  Readings and Reflections 01

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Reading Reflection 01

Reading Reflection 02

We often debate ecology with planning, but, in the end, it is all interrelated. I firmly believe that ecology reciprocates with planning on many levels, and it allows us to realize its true impact when expanded at a larger scale. Similarly, urban expressions are seen as successful when strategically designed at micro-levels.

The reading ‘Ethical Duties to the Environment’ starts with mentioning how land-use interventions often have anthropocentric reasons – revolving around human needs, and what are the ways one could find a balance with environmental obligations. The reading made me aware of various theories and approaches possible for the same.

Moreover, since when was water, land, air, and all things nature begin to segregate us? The world is designed organic, and even more broadly, our happiness is difficult to define and even harder to plan for or design. Perhaps that is why we feel like something is missing from the towns and cities we reside. We are for the community, and we often cannot find it, we yearn to feel valued, understood and connected, yet we often feel the exact opposite. Social connectivity and an ability to play a role in the world around us are essential to feeling happy, and this is precisely where sensible planning plays a vital role.

I related most to the part where the author talks about the role of nature in the modern world. I have grown up in the vicinity of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai. As I grew up, I became aware of the history of the Park. From the Bombay Municipal Corporation, State Forest Department, Department of Parks and Gardens of Bombay State, to private managements, the SGNP came into existence, virtually by piecing together land of varying ownerships. The reconfiguration of the relation the city of Mumbai shared with its forest because of the creation of the SGNP changed our idea of nature, as a contained object that needs to be visited to be seen or experienced, rather than a system very much integral to the city. The city created new relationships with this ‘nature’ within it and continued redefining it, with the introduction and involvement of newer actors in the form of governing agencies. On account of becoming a walled land within the city, the working of the forest eco system altered significantly.

We do not have to clean the rivers; we need to stop polluting them. The river cleans itself. Similarly, we do not have to segregate the population socially, we have to stop making boundaries, and they will backflow when they understand that life is more significant than hustling cities, traffic, and pollution.

Reflection based on reading: Benton MacKaye, “Regional Planning and Ecology”, Ecological Monographs (1940)

Reading about different takes on nature and ethics through the reading has reinforced for me how no built form or action can ever be independent of nature, and that the tremendously damaging effects of human interventions on the natural environment only aggravate day by day. In the current context, ethical land use would mean sincere efforts to restore the environment – which like the author points out needs to be a world vision to see the change.

Reflection based on reading: Timothy Beatley, “Ethical Duties to the Environment”, Ethical Land Use: Principles of Policy and Planning (1994);

Poojitha Reddy PUM21251

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Shivani Mehta PAD21330

Readings and Reflections 01  

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02

Reading 4

Readings and Reflections Part 2

Early landscapes and evolution Birth of environmental design Ian McHarg and others Process based theories

A Case Study in Ecological Planning: The Woodlands, Texas Planning the Uses and Management of Land (1979) Arthur H. Johnson, Jonathan Berger, and Ian L. McHarg

I. Introduction In reviewing the publications and reports in the regional and landscape planning literature and project reports from the profession, one finds a lack of uniformity in methodology, with ad hoc procedures “suited to the particular problem” a common approach. A method is presented in this chapter for determining the inherent suitability of a landscape for assimilating human activities and their artifacts. The approach is suggested in the writings of McHarg (1969) and exemplified by Juneja (1974), and has been applied professionally to a wide array of sites and locations. The method of landscape analysis described here is one part of a more comprehensive planning process which includes the social, legal, and economic factors which must be melded into a comprehensive plan that responds to the needs, desires, and perceptions of the people for whom the planning is being done. In developing an area, one would like to achieve the best fit between each human activity and the portion of the landscape to which that activity is assigned. As a starting point, a landscape may be thought of as being comprised of elements or components which may be labeled geology, physiography, soils, hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, and climate. Each landscape element may provide opportunities for certain land uses, and likewise, there may be constraints to each kind of desired land use imposed by components of the landscape. Areas which are most suitable for a specific use will have the greatest number of opportunities provided by the landscape and the

Forster O. Ndubisi, The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, DOI 10.5822/ 978-1-61091-491-8_37, © 2014 Forster O. Ndubisi.

Week 05 Reading Assignment 4: September, 07th, 2021 Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

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  Readings and Reflections 02

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Reading Reflection 03 The case of woodlands gives me many flashbacks of my city and its planning. I belong to one such area in Gwalior that sits among the low hills and Gwalior fort. The older city is majorly flat, and towards the outskirts, the lower line undulations are present. And these are the problem areas for introducing housing. Due to a lack of observations and critical planning, these areas have suffered the impact of seasons every year. My experience has also been a part of such observation for over ten years. My current location in Gwalior is very close to Gwalior Fort and those low hills, known as Anand Nagar. Anand Nagar is practically a bowl that allows water from almost every side. The only way out is towards the east that is comparatively lower in elevation. This bowl-like formation was a retention ground for a long time. As the city grew, the older portion started to overcrowd, and the availability of water faded. The possible expansion was these areas like Anand Nagar that were abundant in groundwater. But a lot of variables were missed while planning residential colonies in such outskirts. The planning came only post 1985, and during those, flattening of hills took place to provide flatlands for housing. The natural drainage system was uprooted and filled with soil. Once the land was ready and sold, construction started taking place. Eventually, in no time, the area got covered up with houses without a proper drainage layout.

Obviously, this approach from planners and government indicates less interest in the ecology wealth of the land. The turmoil doesn’t end here. The low hills protected the land from water gushing in. Especially the flow of water coming from the higher areas. Now these hills are subjected to stone mining. A large portion of which has gone in a span of merely 15 years. It shows criticality in feasible living for the ecology and the human residing in such urban edges. The issues with the drainage system may have been somewhat rectified through new drainage lines without actually taking care of the older ones. But it doesn’t solve the issue at all. It is an unnecessary waste of money, time, and power. And a risk factor to the groundwater available in the area.

Reflection based on reading: Arthur H. Johnson, Jonathan Berger and Ian L. McHarg, “A Case Study in Ecological Planning: The Woodlands, Texas”, Planning the Uses and Management of Land (1979)

The monsoon came to the dwellers and planners as a reality check. These areas would get waterlogged and ultimately flooded every monsoon. The only exit towards the east got hindered by roadway construction. Now the water had nowhere to go but to remain in the houses. The poor and blind planning worsened because of the soil type. The entire area has rich black cotton soil that expands and contracts as per water percolation. As a result of waterlogging, the foundations started rotting. And over time, almost every house had large cracks in the walls.

Selvee Pandoriya

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Readings and Reflections 02  

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Reading Reflection 04 On reading the case study for the Woodlands, Texas, I got an introduction to understanding of how landscape elements and land use provide both opportunities as well as restrictions for each other. The method of landscape analysis keeping in mind human integration is demonstrated using The Woodlands as an example. As architects, we always question our own intents critically ‐ regarding the approach of our built intervention within the natural setting of a site. Reading further about the flatness of the site for the Woodlands, and water drainage problems, I recall a project with similar concerns I had the opportunity to work on few years back. The site was coastal and low‐lying in nature. Given the rising sea levels, it was highly prone to flooding – a reality which will only aggravate with time. Our design approach started with creating a rainwater harvesting pond on site, intending that it could replenish the otherwise saline ground water with sweet water. The scale of the project and its impact was considerably small as compared to the Woodlands. However small, I now find it to be an effective and powerful gesture. The example of ecological planning through the case study reinforces for me how approaching a natural site through studying its elements, and potentials can help in creating positive architecture with minimal disruption to the original site.

Reflection based on reading: Arthur H. Johnson, Jonathan Berger and Ian L. McHarg, “A Case Study in Ecological Planning: The Woodlands, Texas”, Planning the Uses and Management of Land (1979)

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Readings and Reflections Part 3

Very early times (acknowledging nature) Some seminal writings – Evolution of discipline Synthesis: Planning as Applied Human Ecology - Steinitz Deciphering fragmentation

Shivani Mehta PAD21330

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Readings and Reflections 03  

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Reading 5 Processes Urban Ecological Design: A Process for Regenerative Places (2011) Danilo Palazzo and Frederick Steiner

Urban design connects knowledge to action through a systematic process that adapts to the specific circumstances of the project. The urban designer brings knowledge from previous experience, generates new intelligence about the project, and guides the process through to its realization. We apply a model to urban design to help designers be more effective project managers. In this capacity, the designer glans, controls, and coordinates “a project from conception to completion . . . on behalf of a client [and] is concerned with the identification of the client’s objectives in terms of utility, function, quality, time, and cost and in the establishment of relationships between [available] resources” (Blyth and Worthington, 2001). Sticking to a process does not necessarily guarantee a successful project. However, an organized process can aid in collaboration and can clarify expectations of all involved parties. It can also help to make the best use of available resources, including time and money. In the design and planning literature, several examples of processes and models are useful in considering a specific process for urban design. Michael Brawne (2003) investigates the architectural design process or, to say it in a different way, how architects and designers “proceed from the past and present to a forecast of the future.” Brawne assumes that the way architects proceed can be assimilated to sequence in the same way Karl Popper explained how scientific theories come into being. Popper’s explanation appeared mainly in The Logic of Scientific Discovery, first published in German in 1935 and then in English in Forster O. Ndubisi, The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, DOI 10.5822/ 978-1-61091-491-8_32, © 2014 Forster O. Ndubisi.

Week 07 September, 21st, 2021

Reading Assignment 5: Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

Reading Reflection 05 The article throws light on the evolution of planning process with time and experience. Ecological planning is a process where we use the knowledge of the past and apply it, considering the clients requirement. Different frameworks and also the advancement of these theories are studied to urge to a particular design process which can be used for planning. I believe, the foremost essential in any planning is “Survey” and the way we interpret that information while designing. The article strikes the chord in my memory of one of the project Lakaki Lake- located within the urban context of Pune. It was a 6-acre abandoned quarry site where the annual rainwater use to get accumulated. In 1985 Pune Municipal Committee put forward a proposal of converting the lake into an education complex. This decision provoked the residents that the lake should not be modified in any manner. So the team appointed decided to figure on various issues and redefined the function of the area. Process was organised and based on the scientific observations and field tests; proposal of natural science garden was kept forward as the site supports a well-balanced eco-system. This shows that the knowledge of the site was synthesised and interpreted in terms of initial concepts to final outcome After interpreting from the article and the personal experience, I believe that the planning is a continuous and interactive process considering the environmental constraints and opportunities. Urban design is a repetition of process with strategy, in which solution can be attained through a series of creative concepts. There are other important factors as well, which needs to be looked after- clients requirement, time and resources available. The basic idea is to envision the end result without getting stuck into a firm solution, one should be open minded to accept the alteration at any stage.

Reflection based on reading: Danilo Palazzo and Frederick Steiner, “Processes”, Urban Ecological Design: A Process for Regenerative Places (2011) Priyanka Kumbhar PLA212265

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Readings and Reflections 03  

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Reading Reflection 06 “It is not really necessary to destroy nature in order to gain God’s favor or even his undivided attention.” – Ian McHarg We all know about some or the other book we read, be it factual or fictional, that left on an unending note. A void which only the reader can fill with his or her imagination or experiences. Urban Planning and designing can be related on some scale and left to a point where further inventions can be introduced. Before calling it vague, it provides a scope for the ever so changing and unpredictable environment where reside and share relation with. Find and creating a fixed solution will not always provide a definite solution but an intuitive and webbed process that links one aspect of planning to another aspect of designing and so on. Many famous Planners, Botanists, Conservationists, Designers or involved architects have put their experience and understanding into projects in harmony with their clients, to bring out the best opportunities possible. More so they have gone beyond as to form an alliance with the respective professionals in serving their legal backgrounds as well as focusing on neglected yet alarming issues. This requires a solid network and process to develop an area on an urban scale with its respective issues, opportunities and proposals for future growth.

Danish Architecture and Design Review (September 13th, 2017)

Each designer or planner has a certain way of providing a solution for a space, be it ‘radical’ or ‘incremental’. A certain strategy to devise hoe the implementation will be done for a certain area. But the most important factors are the ecological and socio-cultural ones which are often misguided and open ended on a solution scale. This in turn provides a specific integration into the implementation and administration program. It fluctuates on a scale that the mother goal tends to morph into its attributes and further accentuates into a wholesome design. All these on the ground of framework and legality backed up by cohesive professionals.

Considering a populous city such as Copenhagen, Urban and Town planners Peter Bredsdorff and Stein Eiler proposed a new vision where an environment needs to be created where the carbon footprint would be considerably less and more efficient for pedestrians and cyclists. What they put forth was the “Finger Plan”, which basically meant the palm would contain the City’s center and the fingers be the areas for radial and future development. This brought forth their “Goal” in the process of Design and development on an urban scale. Ecological factors were also taken into consideration with easy access to green spaces for pedestrians and for further living in a cohesive area which included forests and natural lakes. The design intervention introduced by them sought to ease traffic and easy mobility to surrounding areas while being in close proximity to the center (Figure 01). All the aspects that require a city to function on a large scale such as, transportation, education, infrastructure and ecological factors were put forth and developed on further. Most of the socio and cultural areas were also in sync with the vision which gave an upliftment to the professional residing in the area. Taking the example of Architects, they designed the area and structures in such a way that the City came to be known as “The City of Spires”. Thus summarizing on this note we can say that Planners and designers provide a further larger scope for future developments and processes that lead to a harmony which is fluctuating yet in sync with its ecology and inhabitants. A system which helps us understand that though they may have a unique Goal or an idea for implementation, which may not be similar but may after careful screening can create boundless possibilities.

Reflection based on reading: Danilo Palazzo and Frederick Steiner, “Processes”, Urban Ecological Design: A Process for Regenerative Places (2011)

Selvee Pandoriya

PLA20314

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Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Readings and Reflections 03  

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04

Reading 6

Readings and Reflections Part 4

Research Advancement in Ecological Planning Landscape Urbanism – Meaning and examples Brownfield sites

Basic Principles for Molding Land Mosaics Urban Regions: Ecology and Planning Beyond the City (2008) Richard T. T. Forman

An artist can translate a compelling inspiration into a painting or object that inspires the public, and even pleases the artist. In addition to inspiration and materials, skill is a key to success. Skill might be thought of as a set of principles, knowing what works and what doesn’t—color mixtures, composition, types of lines, and much more. The artist has a palette of principles. When mixed with imagination and experimentation, they greatly increase the chance of a successful or inspiring result. If one were designing wheels, using the known principles of wheel design greatly decreases the chance of producing square, oval, or one-spoked wheels. No matter how beautiful or well-made they are, such wheels do not work. If the land or an urban region is being planned or changed, we do not start from scratch. We use principles, subconsciously or specified. Water flows downward so streams are not designed flowing to hilltops. Trees require oxygen for their roots so we do not plant trees in water. People need security when asleep at night, so they are surrounded by shelter. Using known principles helps protect society from poor quality, and unethical, work. Rather than simply ideas or hypotheses or even concepts, principles can be thought of as solid rigorous guidelines, a basis or foundation for planning and action. They do not apply everywhere anytime as we expect a universal law to do, but the often-considerable direct or indirect evidence supporting them is a basis for their widespread application (Dramstad et al., 1996; Forman, 2004a).

Forster O. Ndubisi, The Ecological Design and Planning Reader, DOI 10.5822/ 978-1-61091-491-8_26, © 2014 Forster O. Ndubisi.

Week 08 Reading Assignment 6: September, 28th, 2021 Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

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  Readings and Reflections 04

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Reading Reflection 07 The world is an undulating canvas with scope of creation of multiple masterpieces. This is applicable from micro to macro level in the fields of art, architecture, literature, planning and sociology. But there is creation set of rules or rather guidelines that draw a line between reality and fantasy. There are many concepts and hypothesis that revolve around in creating a utopian idea and there needs to the be the reality check for analysing the practical needs. But blindly following the principles would mean repetition that would lead to boredom. So there needs to be a balance and harmony with the usage of imagination and creativity while following guidelines to produce optimal design or planning solutions. The principles are conveniently classified into five major categories: “(1) patch sizes, edges, and habitats; (2) natural processes, corridors, and networks; (3) transportation modes; (4) communities and development; and (5) land mosaics and landscape change, though there is clearly much overlap among the categories (Richard T. T. Forman).” Considering these categories, it is evident that they cover a wide range of issues and sometimes these principles overlap with each other. The first group of principles emphasizes on the land’s geographical distribution or organization, particularly regarding environment or green areas and it aims in the overall protection of environment or its natural patterns rather than the need for protecting the individual organisms. It is further classified into sub points depending upon the dimensions and expanse of the natural land strip. This can be best explained with the ‘Sholas’ of Nilgiris. Sholas are the small patches of evergreen forest that are found isolated from its surroundings. They are usually surrounded by meadows and is an endangered ecosystem endemic to the Nilgiris. They can be large to small patches each serving its own functions. The large patches acts are rain cloud creators with increased humidity over the area and reduces the land erosion with the heavy rains while acting as natural rain water harvesters. Since they form isolated

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patches, they have their own variety of fauna, flora and miniecosystem. Because they initially start as smaller patches which grow over years to form larger patches under favourable conditions, they act as separate and temporary shelters for animals improving species mobility, and potentially boosting diversity of species and mobility when with the large patches. These forms a distinct boundary with its surroundings. Human interactions are endangering this fragile ecosystem and it is now found in the reserved forest areas. They usually have small water bodies within them and the deep vegetation allows ground water storage thereby allowing water table recharging. The size of sholas is very important in determining and sustaining all the native flora and fauna. Some can be as large as small forests and can sustain an ecosystem, while smaller patches are unable to do the same as the resources gets exhausted easily. These sholas are also sources of livelihood for native people and there is an urgent need for its conservation. It is also important to take care of the fact that the sholas need to be saved or protected from invasive species which would destroy its balance. The second set of principles focuses on purpose, and whether the land or region operates in respect of flows and actions across area. The focus is on ecological processes and movement. This is explained with the case Thenmala – a reserved forest in Kerala. Thenmala borders between Kerala and Tamil Nadu and is the lowermost part of western Ghats. There is wildlife and well as regular human transit between the states via this route It has some major water bodies and hydrological projects that supply to the demands of population and wildlife. Being an evergreen forest, it acts as natural air and water purifier and catchment area of rainfall. The human settlement over the years have subdivided the areas into several patches in terms of sociology and natural vegetation. Species spread widely from a big patch, giving gene pool and minimising local extinction in surrounding small patches; nevertheless, species that vanish from a tiny patch are less likely to return or recolonize if the pattern is secluded or bordered by an unfriendly environment.

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Reading Reflection 08 Another important factor is land mosaics – the pattern of interaction between human and natural environment. It is very important and several of its sub parameters coincide with the above two factors too. It also deals with the process of change influenced by or influencing the interactions over the period of time. There is huge impact on the micro, macro and meso scale in these interactions. It can be explained further with the above case of Thenmala. How being a major tourism spot and major interstate transportation node had influenced the fragile ecosystem badly. The changing activities means more strain on the natural resources and thereby negatively impacting the ecology.

Reflection based on reading: Richard T. T. Forman, “Basic Principles for Molding Land Mosaics”, Urban Regions: Ecology and Planning Beyond the City (2008)

Principles alone, however, cause customary solutions. Monotonous, out-of-date, or lack-of-creativity may describe designs and plans using the best ideas on our palette. Planning or movement is likewise primarily based totally on traits of the land. But, unfortunately, the land isn’t a clean canvas or a homogenous space. “Connectivity” may be damaged down into “structural connectivity” and “useful connectivity.” Structural connectivity refers back to the bodily courting among panorama factors. The ecological community idea embodies numerous key factors: connectivity on the panorama scale, that’s performed via conservation regions and corridors; permeability on the panorama scale, that’s accomplished via buffer zones and sustainable use of the matrix; and incorporation of human cultural and/or socioeconomic elements with flora and fauna needs. Thus, we aptly experience described ecological networks as coherent structures of herbal or semi-herbal panorama factors. They are configured and controlled to retain or restore ecological features to hold biodiversity whilst also supplying suitable possibilities for the sustainable use of herbal resources. The present ‘green’ flora of Chennai, ruled through bushes locally, results from enrichment within the current beyond about 50 years. Examples of such enriched flora encompass the Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT-M) campuses, the Guindy National Park, the Madras Christian College, the Theosophical Society, and the Adyar Poonga. The hypothesis that Chennai’s panorama turned into a rule using the Palmyra palm within the beyond is supported by animals’ patience, just like the Blackbuck, fan-throated lizard, saw-scaled viper a handful of birds, inclusive of the giggling dove and the Indian stone curlew. These animals, excellently tailored to existence in semi-desert-like habitats, are surviving inside small fragments of appropriate habitats internal Chennai.

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Reflection based on reading: Richard T. T. Forman, “Basic Principles for Molding Land Mosaics”, Urban Regions: Ecology and Planning Beyond the City (2008) Poojitha Reddy

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05

KOTTAYAM CITY LOCATION AND CONTEXT

Mid Term Presentations Week 06 September, 14th, 2021

Shruthi Mohan PLA21340

Location

Presentation and discussion individual fragmentation study

on

Tomas Micael’s session on LU – Cases of Europe and China – Cases of New Zealand and Australia

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Pixel Study Matrix of the city in 2011

Site Conditions Encroachments on the Meenachils river bank is degrading the water quality and also causing it to shrink. Excessive Sand mining near Meenachil river bed, to feed the construction mania in the state, has led to reduction in the water absorption/retention capacity of the river beds.

Urbanisation of agricultural land for new developmental projects has led human interventions into the low lands for agriculture practice degrading. Acres of paddy polders in Kodimatha in the heart of the Kottayam town, had been lying fallow for 27.

Matrix of the city in 2021

Settlements over recharging lowlands of Kuttanad: water logging is a prolonged issue after raising these recharging lowlands. These rivers meets the big backwater system , Vembanad lake. But the lake is shrinking, thereby losing half of the drainage area of six tributary rivers.

100 x 100 grid overlay 36

Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Mid Term Presentations  

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Predicted Growth Kottarakara-kottayam MC Rd connecting two major cities creating ribbon. development in a north -south axis.

Settlements over recharging lowlands of Kuttanad:

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Suitability Map Outgrowth is formed along the Meenachil River in the east west direction.

Settlement outgrowths in the lowlands, through the smaller river channels must be stopped. The alluvial property of the soil must be preserved to allow easy water penetration.

Existing agricultural land pockets are at higher risk to being converted into a brownfield.

CONSERVE: Low lands of Kuttanad should not be flattened. These marshy land allows to maintain the rise in water levels creating recharging lands.

Agricultural lands are not only reducing in the city areas but these spaces invade into the recharging low lands .Thus making the low lands susceptible to the excessive farming techniques.

Invasion into these lands will be submerged under water every year for the monsoon season.

RECREATIONAL: Degrading Meenachil river banks at the city points. As to allow increase water rentention capacity of the soil. River must be stoped from complete encroachment, to maintain the natural inlet of the rivers that meet the Vembanad lake.

Restoring farming in the area, which once served as a water harvesting ground for the whole Kottayam town, is crucial in reviving the water resources and maintaining the ground water-table

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1202

SURAT CITY

Growth and Urban Development

LOCATION AND CONTEXT

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(M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

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SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

(M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

(M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

Growth and Urban Development (M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

5074AL )12M( ET OT GNIMOC

1991 to 2004 AD Source: Wikipedia

Diagram showing the growth of the Surat city, starting from a core at the bank of the Tapi river, and expanding radially in all directions. Post independence, the city saw an increase in its growth given the textile industry.

Shivani Mehta

(M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

PAD21330

705 TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

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Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

Mid Term Presentations  

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Pixel Study A 5 x 5km area is selected, with a grid of 100x100m

2003

1202 Area of Intervention

Green matrix

24%

2003

24%

24%

Green matrix (M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

(M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

A 5 x 5km area is selected, with a grid of 100x100m

(M21) LA4705 (M21) COMING TOLA4705 TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVA

Green matrix Green matrix

2003 2003 2003

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

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COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

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SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330 Green matrix

5074AL )12M( ET OT GNIMOC

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Green matrix (M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

(M21) LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

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Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

(M21) LA4705 (M21) COMING TOLA4705 TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

SHIVA

Green matrix Green matrix

2021 2021 2021

SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330 SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

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SHIVANI MEHTA PAD21330

Map showing predicted growth

Suitability Map 1 1 1 1

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Suitability Map

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Map showing predicted growth (M21)Predicted LA4705growth COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM SHIVANI MEHTA

PAD21330 1. The north west side of the city, the residential area develop radially, 4. From the city centre, the city developed towards the airport. With the (M21)can LA4705 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM and along the Tapi river. potential Surat airport extension, development can happen on both sides one as Dumas, another towads the east and southwards. 2. Areas around the existing industrial area of Limla can see further growth of (M21) LA4705 industries towards the direction of HaziraTO and its port. 5. Diamond Research and Mercantile (DREAM) city, with the Surat Diamond COMING TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM Bourse, along the Kankra creek can grow westwards - towards the direction of 3. The city has grown in the southwest from the core, towards the airport. the airport, and along the Outer Ring Road. More growth in Dumas (area between the Tapi river and airport) is predicted based on its proximity to Surat city centre, airport and the Hazira port. Existing 6. Development to the north of DREAM city towards the direction of the city industries and Magdalla Port encourages further industrial development in centre can take place. this area. The proposed jetty for the National Waterways (passenger ferry till Singanpor) 7. Development has already followed a pattern growing southwards from city and proximity to airport, and Dumas beach increases scope of residential and centre, it can continue to follow the same and develop. development for tourist attractions in this area.

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Suitability Map SHIVANI (M21) MEHTA LA4705 PAD21330 COMING TO TERMS WITH LANDSCAPE URBANISM

1. Area near the Tapi river within a flood prone zone MEHTA is conserved, its edges SHIVANI PAD21330 imagined as recreational zone, so as to avoid affecting the working of the city. 2. Linear conservation zones are proposed SHIVANI MEHTA along the Tapi river on both sides to create buffer between the urban fabric and river, with both edges imagined PAD21330 as a recreational corridor for public. 3. Area around the existing Kankra creek biodiversity garden has been extended into a conservation zone, again creating a buffer with the creek as the city grows towards it. 4. Small lakes in the Dumas area are added to the conservation plan, and some areas are given as recreational areas for the city. This allows for different

scales and experiences of recreational spaces - one as a linear stretch along the Tapi riverfront, and others as scattered spaces throughout the urban fabric of Dumas. 5. The Gavier wetland and expanded area around needs to be conserved, as it holds potential for a biodiversity hotspot within the city. 6. The Hazira mangroves on the Kidiabet island will be conserved. 7. The Hazira industrial area has grown due to the port, available workforce and road connectivity, and will continue to grow given these parameters. A conservation along the coast is proposed to create a much needed buffer. Residential/mixed use zones also require a buffer with the industrial zone.

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06

Reading 7

Readings and Reflections Part 5

ECOLOGICAL URBANISM: A FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN OF RESILIENT CITIES1 Anne Whiston Spirn

Human survival as a species depends upon adapting ourselves and our

settlements in new,

life-sustaining ways, shaping contexts that acknowledge connections to air, earth, water, life, and to each other, and that help us feel and understand these connections, landscapes that are functional, sustainable, meaningful, and artful (Spirn 1998, 26). Ecological urbanism aims to advance this goal. It weds the theory and practice of city design and planning, as a means of adaptation, with the insights of ecology

the study of the relationships between

living organisms and their environment and the processes that shape both

and other environmental

disciplines, such as climatology, hydrology, geography, psychology, history, and art. Ecological urbanism has an aesthetic dimension, but it is not a style; the works of its practitioners may be radically different in appearance even though based on the same principles. An ecological approach to urban design is not new; it is grounded in a tradition of basic concepts and principles. Ecological urbanism is critical to the future of the city and its design: it provides a framework for addressing challenges that threaten humanity, such as global warming, rising sea level,

New urbanism - Cases from North America

declining oil reserves, rising energy demands, and environmental justice, while fulfilling human needs for health, safety, and welfare, meaning and delight. This chapter describes the roots of ecological urbanism, with an emphasis on the AngloAmerican tradition, and identifies fundamental concepts and principles with brief reference to ideas in related fields. The literature is vast, and a detailed review is not possible here. This overview provides historical context and a framework to guide more focused research and more comprehensive reviews of

Revitalization vs urbanism movement Hypocrisy?

the literature and to advance the practice of ecological urbanism as a means to achieve cities that are more life-sustaining and more resilient, and less costly to build and maintain.

©Anne Whiston Spirn 2012. All rights reserved. This essay was written for publication as a chapter in Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design, edited by Steward Pickett, Mary Cadenasso, and Brian McGrath (Springer, 2013). I withdrew it from that book after the publishers and I were unable to reach agreement on the publishing contract.

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Reading Assignment 7: Week 09 October, 05th, 2021

Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

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Readings and Reflections 05  

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Reading Reflection 09 Ecological urbanism indicates that cities are part of the natural world, they are habitats, ecosystems with a deep, enduring context and these urban ecosystems are dynamic and interconnected. Cities are habitats for humans and other urban species that sustains life and nourishes growth, both personal and collective; yet they also have some ill-adapted spaces. Cities are ecosystems that consist of all the organisms and their interactions. They consist of smaller ecosystems such as ponds and river corridors (in the larger ecosystem of its watershed), parks, buildings and neighborhoods; all of which needs to be maintained over time. City has a deeper structure or enduring context - a landscape structure that is formed over very long time scales, than a landscape structure in which change is manifest over a much shorter time span. It suggests interaction between natural processes and human purpose over time. These structures cannot be erased, but conditions like burying a river in a sewer opposes a city’s deep structure. The argument here would be that even if a city is a habitat, an ecosystem, it is not a part of the natural ecosystem yet. Its byproducts are threatening the natural ecosystem that it is trying to become a part of. Hence, using biophilic design that resonates with the natural and cultural rhythms of a place, it can echo, amplify, clarify, or extend them, contributing to a sense of rootedness in place and time. This shifts the perspective from an egocentric to a more bio-centric perspective, for example a natural drainage system to reduce stormwater runoff, and to recharge the aquifer, or redesign of open parking lots to block away high winds at the base of tall buildings. It should create closed ecological systems to import and consume fewer resources, produce fewer wastes, and to recycle wastes as resources. Wastes - the byproducts of one activity may be a resource for another, for example home composting or combining leaf litter and sewage sludge to produce new soil.

An urban design project should enhance the quality of the urban habitat for humans and other species. It is an art of time as well as space: What is this place in the process of becoming? Is it a decisive influence, or merely artifacts of the past? Can it change or resist? How a place evolved & sustained impact? Every city is prone to specific natural hazards. Urban designers should anticipate future redesign - how to design cities that can adapt well to change. Urban ecosystems should ask what every city should do to cater to the urban natural environment? The Bishan - AMK Park at Singapore is an example of a biophilic design where human habitat is merged with the natural environment to enhance the processes & quality of lives for all organisms. It provides a new model for tropical urban hydrology. Since the Kallang River flows between the 2 major cities, it was treated as a concrete drain earlier. But, it was redesigned to accommodate the dynamic processes of a river system, cater water supply & flood mitigation and increase ecological, social & biophilic value. Instead of just a park it became a river park with the concept of more river, more park. This was done by changing the 2.7 km straight concrete monsoon drainage channel to a 3 km long sinuous natural river. This dividing utilitarian concrete channel was inadequate for huge storm events. Hence after redesigning it to a river, it boasts 40% increase in capacity, 30% increase in biodiversity and 12% increase in recreational space. Instead of the old approach of fencing; the new river landscape brings water closer to the people. It is their place, their park, their river. The River embraces the extremes of disastrous flooding by swelling and retaining large bodies of water then slowly discharging it downstream. After a few hours, river banks are once again open for play to the community. Thus it caters to human as well as natural ecosystems & makes the human ecosystem part of the larger natural ecosystem. It has become a model for water sensitive urban design and shows how ecological urbanism can help in forming dynamic and interconnected ecosystems. Reflection based on reading: Anne Whiston Spirn, “Ecological Urbanism: A Framework for the design of Resilient Citites”, Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design (2013) Withdrawn

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Anuja Patil PLA20054

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Reading Reflection 10 Today, as we experience, pressures on the natural surroundings to accommodate our daily needs for food, work, shelter, and recreation are greatly escalated due to rapid global urbanization. Human survival has a direct connection with how he adapts himself to the surrounding using life sustaining ways. Ecological approach provides a framework that satisfies human needs as well as address environmental challenges. The practice and study of ecological design and planning provide a optimistic way to manage change in the landscape so that human actions are more in tune with natural processes also controlled manipulation of the environment. These ecological urbanism concepts act as a foundation for ecological approach. The main principle for the resilient city design is that cities are a part of natural world, ecosystem, they are habitats for various organisms which share a connection with each other. Despite this, cities are not considered as a part of the nature and treated as a different entity, hence face a lot of environmental issues like global warming, poor air and water quality, depleted resources. The traditional ecology was based on classification and entities while contemporary ecology offers more based on to change and process. Pune is considered as one of the most progressing cities in India. The city has transformed from educational hub to auto industries to IT industries. These transformations have resulted in population growth, migration and expanded city limits. The city faces a lot of challenges such as uncontrolled growth, continuous migration, also goes through issues like heavy rainfall, flooding, water pollution, solid waste management. The city’s Resilience Strategy focuses on development pattern and its expected growth in terms of mobility, urban environment which includes conservation of biodiversity, water body management, economy. Solidified efforts to balance human use with ecological concerns are needed now more than ever. The collection provides, with a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between human systems and our natural environment.” Priyanka Kumbhar PLA_21265

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Readings and Reflections Part 6

LU as a movement – Case of Detroit The urban agriculture movement – By need or by choice? – Case of Cuba and Kolkata Extending productive landscape as public space – Case of China Informal urbanism – Cases from South America and Africa

Reflection based on reading: Anne Whiston Spirn, “Ecological Urbanism: A Framework for the design of Resilient Citites”, Resilience in Ecology and Urban Design (2013)

Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

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Reading 8

Landscape and Urban Planning 100 (2011) 333–337

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Landscape and Urban Planning journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/landurbplan

Reading Reflection 11

Landscape ecological urbanism: Origins and trajectories Frederick Steiner School of Architecture, The University of Texas at Austin, 2.308 Goldsmith Hall, University Station, Austin, TX 78712-1160, United States

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history: Available online 24 February 2011 Keywords: Landscape ecology Urban ecology Landscape urbanism

a b s t r a c t Landscape offers a complex way of seeing, understanding, and shaping environments. In its Dutch origin, landschap meant to adapt cultural and natural processes to create new territory. As the word moved into English and other languages, it took on visual meaning as well. In several ways, landscape ecology helped return the word to its root meaning. Developments in urban ecology and landscape urbanism open new possibilities to restructure ecosystem understanding and city design. This essay will explore the concepts and evolution of landscape urbanism and urban ecology, as well as a possible synthesis—landscape ecological urbanism. Such a synthesis is important, given global trends in urbanization, population growth, climate change, energy use, and water availability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction City design and planning are especially important in what has been called the “first urban century,” with a majority of people on the planet living in city-regions for the first time in history. Since the mid-1990s, two ideas emerged with implications for how we design and plan cities in the twenty-first century: landscape urbanism and urban ecology. Landscape urbanism evolved from design theory within both architecture and landscape architecture. It melds high-style design and ecology. More traditional ecological design is perceived as messier (some detractors call ecological design practitioners ‘weedies’) and, as a result, less appealing to international design elites. Thus far, landscape urbanism is largely theoretical, with a few, highly visible actual projects. Urban ecology evolved from science-based research. Scholars apply ecological methods, largely developed in non-urban places, to metropolitan regions. To date, urban ecology exists primarily within the world of academic journals and books. Policy and design implications have been suggested but not yet implemented. Landscape ecological urbanism offers a potential strategy to bring ideas from landscape urbanism and urban ecology together to create new territories that reflect cultural and natural processes. This synthesis also suggests some possible research directions. 2. Landscape urbanism The basic premise of landscape urbanism holds that landscape should be the fundamental building block for city design. In traditional urbanism, some structure—a wall, roads, or buildings—led

E-mail address: [email protected]

development. Green spaces were relegated to left-over areas, unsuited for building, or were used for ornament. Through landscape urbanism, cultural and natural processes help the designer to organize urban form. Landscape urbanism is largely the invention of Charles Waldheim, who coined the term (Waldheim, 2006, see also Almy, 2007). As a student of architecture at the University of Pennsylvania in the 1980s, Waldheim was influenced by both James Corner and Ian McHarg, who were at the time engaged in a vigorous debate about the future of landscape architecture. Waldheim identified common ground, integrating McHarg’s ecological advocacy with Corner’s urban design vision. Landscape urbanism remains a relatively new concept with few realized works. The plan for New York City’s Fresh Kills provides an example of a project moving toward realization (Fig. 1). A key innovation is that James Corner and his Field Operations colleagues embraced long-term change in their design, eschewing a set end state for a more dynamic, flexible framework of possibilities grounded in an initial “seeding.” Located in Staten Island, Fresh Kills covers some 2200 acres (890 ha) and was formerly the largest landfill in the world. Much of the debris resulting from the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center was deposited there. The Field Operations plan suggests how the landfill can be converted into a park three times larger than Central Park. The 30year plan involves the restoration of a large landscape and includes reclaiming much of the toxic wetlands that surround and penetrate the former landfill. Another recent landscape urbanist example is the High Line Project in Manhattan (Figs. 2 and 3). The Regional Plan Association and the Friends of the High Line advocated that an abandoned rail line weaving through 22 blocks in New York City be converted into a 6.7-acre (2.7-ha) park. They promote the 1.45-mile (2.33km) long corridor as a recreational amenity, a tourist attraction,

0169-2046/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.01.020

Reading Assignment 8: Week 10 October, 12th, 2021

Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

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Landscape has been an important part of our civilisations and planning from time immemorable. But landscaping as a tool for better understanding, visualisation and understanding is a rather new concept. It helps in better understanding of our undulating natural environment and better planning strategies. Scientific researching and inclusion for better understanding of landscaping and ecology in planning context led to the idea of urban ecology and urban landscaping. Though urban landscaping is more of a concept and designing approach, urban ecology has more of scientific research for planning. These are different from the orthodox methods of planning. They are more comprehensive and detailed and tries to be part of existing conditions than introducing a new concept. Landscape urbanism takes into context the natural characters of an area along with proper commutation pathways and circulation pathways, while trying to serve a purpose. One of the finest examples is High Line In New York City and another is Gardens by Bay, Singapore. Gardens by Bay, Singapore is an urban jungle creating an urban ecology. It serves as a major public space and tourist attraction while hosting magnitude of plant species. It provides a much needed green space in an urbanised city like Singapore. It also doubles as a scenic gathering space. The huge tree like structures gives an eerie feeling of the vascular structure of the trees and these are interconnected over space by walkways. These walkways give a better view of the city. While they emphasised on the aesthetically and functional and circulation pathways they have also taken into consideration other important factors like water harvesting and enhanced storm water drainage while providing abundant seating spaces. Because urbanisation offers enormous social and environmental constraints, new concepts regarding city planning and management are required. As the world’s population grows in this first urban century, the percentage of people living in big city-regions is anticipated to rise as well. The UN Habitat estimates that two-thirds of the world’s population by 2030, will live in urban areas. Due to the immense human and ecological limitations imposed by urbanisation, innovative methods to city design and administration are necessary. The implications of continuing to

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Reading Reflection 12 grow as we have in the previous are evident: levels of greenhouse gas footprints for structures and transit systems rise, pollution increase, irreplaceable ecosystem and prime agriculture lands are lost and social concerns such as violence and poverty, inequality gap widens. Landscape urbanism also emphasises on general human interactions and interactions with nature to be a basic unit. There is need in better emphasis on proper scientific analysis before planning interventions so that the fragile balance in nature is destroyed. One objective of landscape ecological urbanism is to build and organise cities in such a way that ecosystem services are increased rather than decreased. There also arises the need for sustainable developmental approaches for the designing at micro to macro level. Sustainability and energy efficiency and environmental impact assessments shouldn’t be confined to only larger scale projects, but also need to be analysed, if not implemented at micro level too.

Reflection based on reading: Frederick Steiner, “Landscape ecological urbanism: Origins and trajectories”, Elsevier (2011)

The crux of Landscape Urbanism lies in its variabilities and thus its evolves with each principle and the body that holds true to its nature. Now previously seen as a theatrical aspect, most of the professional crowd considered it as a left-out space of green to be curated or ornamented just for aesthetic purposes and on the other hand they considered these spaces for future development. What was missed in this ideology, was made into a cohesive system by Waldheim incorporating both Corner and McHarg ideologies. This create a new dimension which started attracting new urbanists in the field and helped them understand how the ecology can harmonize with its built form and coexists. It is not surprising that when we talk about a certain ecology on an urban scale a lot of factors correlate and overlap and thus cause a pendulum motion of events, where professionals from various fields are called upon to deduce the variabilities of an urban form. Most importantly find a way to reconnect to its environment. Since the population of the world is growing exponentially it is safe to assume that each grid within the matrix of the world is also growing at a fast rate. And since population growth demands more of space and urban environment, new design and proposals are laid for land being continuously eaten through the years as a form of agglomeration. This in-turn calls forward professionals to develop such areas and hence came in Mohsen with his term, “Landscape ecological urbanism” where he linked landscape urbanism, his forte, to urban ecology as a need of the hour. This brought forth a new dimension where instead of an urban space being eaten up we can create an environment which harmonizes with its ecology and coexist. More and more projects are coming up where this above mentioned term is being given heed to. If we take an example of Pallikaranai Marsh Land in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, we can see that is a part of the Southern Chennai flood plains and the ecological importance it holds. It also forms a large wetland system with small scale wetlands connecting to this large wetland as a whole (Figure 01).

Anu Ajith

This Marsh Land has been facing serious ecological crisis due

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major part of it being a dumping ground for toxic wastes and in-turn burning them from time to time. This has led to its soil toxicity and thus disrupting the wetland ecosystem of the area. Now since the first step conserve and rejuvenate the site is to stop corporation bodies from dumping into the wetland. Second most important factor is the water that resides in the ecosystem. Due to long term toxicity the water and its surrounding soil has also become toxic. First step taken to clean this water, a method or system similar to that of mangroves was introduced where the leaves act as filters for the soil. Hydrology professionals where called upon to introduced new storm water and drain channels laced with synthetic substances to improve the water flow and management around the wetland. This also allowed a fresh way for the rain water to concentrate within the marsh land with toxicity levels from previous years reducing from time to time, in a way recovering steadily. After this factor another factor was taken into consideration, was the built up surrounding the wetland and its encroachment. Professionals used 3d mapping tools to identify which zones were of high density built and low density built surrounding the wetland and demarcate the corridors where these zones could overlap. In this process ecologically sensitive zones where also taken as high priority. This method ensured where the built up needed to stop and not encroach further and also provided scope to understand where the rainwater infiltration tanks needed to be placed according to density mapping. Since this wetland is considered as an ecologically sensitive fresh water swamp, which was previously neglected over the years is now being restored by introducing many waste water disposal systems and sewage plants. This ensures the toxicity to regulate better along the wetland and in turn these plants provide nutrients for the swamp to sustain and recover by itself. So we can say that as a professional body we are getting a clearer picture as how Landscape Urbanism and Urban Ecology are becoming cohesive and developing into a structure which is in need of the hour. Not surprising enough, a set of principles are also being introduced by governing bodies to incorporate sensitive ecological standards to help understand and regulate the ecology of specific zones, in tune with professionals.

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Readings and Reflections Part 7 Highline Design, inspiration and implementation The higline effect Post development impact and criticism Park paradox Discussion on final presentation

Reflection based on reading: Frederick Steiner, “Landscape ecological urbanism: Origins and trajectories”, Elsevier (2011)

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Reading 9 Reading Reflection 13 The article by Morenas mentions the role of the field of landscape urbanism to also understand and account for social, political and ecological implications in a fair way. It uses New York’s High Line project as an example for its success in bringing in numerous tourists and creating a bustling and lively space for the people of the city, creating opportunities for development and a kind of ‘luxury’ architecture. However, it goes on to explain the gentrification the project went on to cause. In class, we understood a view on landscape urbanism to be as a balance between ecology, economy and equity – something that the High Line seems to have failed to do over time. And while the project has gone ahead to become a model for developing or imagining underutilized spaces across the cities of the world (as per examples we saw in class of the Atlanta Beltline, or Bloomingdale Trail in Chicago), the aspect that is missed is understanding whether or not it has been able to accomplish the social, political and ecological roles that the discipline constitutes of.

Reading Assignment 9: Week 11 October, 19th, 2021

Evaluation for readings - (25% each) 1. What came out as surprising 2. Limitations of the research 3. Personal reflection through examples 4. Way forward and questions

Before the start of the course, it had been easy for me to understand the success of the High Line project in terms of the developments and buildings by starchitects. The only strong opinion I had about the project was not identifying with the architecture of the Hudson Yards. The history, intent and deeper implication of the High Line project was not something I had questioned up until now. We have spoken about the understanding of landscape urbanism few times in class, and going through the different readings on the High Line during the last two classes made me realize the complexities of the discipline, and more importantly learning from past models in the world - their successes and failures, to be critical for the Indian context. In class, we have also been pushed to start thinking and questioning what the idea means for India. And since India is in the stage of developing and still expressing the idea of landscape urbanism for itself, it could benefit immensely by understanding and defining what the discipline could mean in our context.

Reflection based on reading: Leon A Morenas, “Critiquing Landscape Urbanism: A View on New York’s High Line ”, Economic and Political Weekly (2012)

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Shivani Mehta PAD21330

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Reading Reflection 14 We live under a heterogeneous and multicultural canvas of social domain. There are many threads in these social constructs. And this complexity makes working together as a community demanding. Socio-cultural aspects require critical and analytical viewpoints to understand the layers. But satisfying the needs of a diverse assemblage of people can be equally challenging. And at this point, dealing with the socioeconomic problems architecturally becom es stimulating in many ways. Urbanization is driving this multicultural society towards linearity. It can become the cause of concern for the stakeholders. Because sometimes urbanism as an output compromises the cultural, ethical, and sentimental values of the society or a part of the society. Various layers and complex chains are most of the time visualized under one umbrella. That is when the conflicts arise. Conflicts lead to clashes. And clashes to crime. If one sector is the most priority, there are chances that the other sectors can feel ignored and unattended. A similar response can be observed in architecture as well. Our Indian context has numerous examples of historically oriented architectural infrastructure. Conflicts within society take the shape of more political and terrorist outrages. That can be a possible reason why an urban approach for a public realm can fail if not taken rationally. There is a probability that introducing an urban project can either bring the society together or divide it. It can also alienate certain groups.

Who is authorized to use the public space? Who can control them? Our public spaces are vividly multifunctional. Community involvement is impactful in shaping such spaces. So consideration of community as a vital driving force is something to weigh. The beauty lies in integrating the different niches to weave a more flexible environment for everyone. Instead of branding a public space by fitting it into the aesthetics of the planning of urban fabric, a community-aligned approach will shape the fluidity. Then, the incorporation of urbanism through means of landscape or architecture will connect the people with public space. Our Indian urban lands have a range of fluctuating communities. Integration and congregation of these wavering dynamics of socio-culture are organic. That is why forcing urbanism into those can be difficult and prone to fail. For example, Mumbai, Delhi, or any metropolitan city cannot be coloured in one shade. There will always be a matrix of colours with different cultural values. And urbanism can be one shade in the palette but might not be the prime.

Reflection based on reading: Leon A Morenas, “Critiquing Landscape Urbanism: A View on New York’s High Line ”, Economic and Political Weekly (2012)

Alienation of society from its space is dangerous, especially when an entirely different community takes advantage. For example, the High Line project has become more of a brand than a service to the community. In India, public spaces are very delicate spaces. An example of a maidan, this congregation space comes with many ethical attachments that value many different strains of culture. These spaces are multifunctional. Thus, channelizing it into one stream under the influence of urbanism can result in the abandonment of such crucial spaces.

Selvee Pandoriya PLA20314

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09

LANDSCAPE AT NEXUS

Revitalization Of An Underutilized Site

Final Presentations

Locating the city - Gwalior Part of Central Highlands The Chambal and Yamuna rivers form the northwestern and northern boundaries of the region. Swarnarekha River flows through Gwalior from North to South. This receives water from Sank river through Tigra Dam.

Selvee Pandoriya PLA20314

One of the Counter-magnet cities. Priority is towards development of land, housing and infrastructure Historical importance - The historic city and its fortress have been ruled by several historic northern Indian kingdoms.

Evaluation for term paper -

Geography Mostly flat topography, surrounded by hills. Average elevation: 197m

The setting and vision (40%)

Aptness of the site in establishing its potential the

PLA20054

About Gwalior Area: 780 sq.km Population: 1,410,000 Forest area: 19200 hectare

Week 12 October, 26th, 2021

Articulating condition

Anuja Patil

site

context

Climate - Sub-tropical, Semi-arid region - extremes in both summer and winter. Lies in rain shadow with Avg. Annual precipitation: 90 Landuse - Changing landuse

and

How does the vision acts as catalyst ?

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About the Site Amidst the mixed, dense, complex urban & social fabric lies a vacant land used for multiple activities. It is in the proximity of various land-uses and is used for recreational, cultural, social, political purposes. It has good road connectivity and is easily accessible. The Swarna Rekha river is a reconstructed part of the Swarna Rekha river which was dried during the British raj. Boat rides run between Padav in central Gwalior to Gwalior Zoo. Activity Analysis Recreational, Social, Commercial, Religious Mostly used during mornings & evenings. Daily - Elderly gathering, children playing, hawkers, pause area for transit user Occasional - Parking, Construction material, Events (Exhibitions, Political rallies, religious events) Annual - Political (Election), Festivals Accessibility The site has limited access, even though it lies in the center.

Site Context The site is surrounded by diverse land uses attracting public into the space. The parks have an ecological as well as historical connections and are still being used by the locals as well as the travelers. They form one of the major attraction near the site. The religious areas also have an historical connection & attract diverse groups of people. There proximity with the parks enriches the experience. The historical areas have being given new meaning to establish a new connection. All these sights have a defined function, whereas the site acts as an extension for these activities as well as other activities. Most of these areas function well on their own, while some are activated because of the presence of other. The site lies in the center of these varying spaces and can help in forming connection between these spaces.

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Final Presentations  

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Site Transformation Historically, it might be used as a congregation area because of its proximity with the horse stable. The site lies in proximity of the various landuses, yet is highly neglected on days other than any event. The site use hasn’t changed for nearly 20 years. It is being used as a multipurpose space. As the city needs space for huge public gatherimng, this space is used for hosting public events. On days other than public gathering, the site is used as an extented space for parking, dumping waste, storing construction material. Over the years the usage has remained the same, instead it has degraded in in terms of garbage dumping & neglecting the site situated in the centre. The channel of water has changed from natural to embanked.

Why underutilized?

Strategies

• The site ignores its context of river, fort and parks in its vicinity. It is secluded from its surrounding.

The site is currently being used for various activities. Revival of this site can act as a central binding site between the various land uses.Reviving this landscape can define spaces for various uses - temporary & permanent activities.

• Being in the city center it is one of the least utilized site. • Ecologically, it is disconnected from the river & does not respond to it.

It is connected to the road from 3 sides. Hence, opening up the site by reducing physical barriers in public areas can make it more accessible. This can make it safer for public use. It can add to economic & social benefits A site for anyone at anytime for resting & recreational activities. Why ecological revival is beneficial? It can act as an continuation of the surrounding green pockets and create an ecological buffer from the river. Creating more shaded spaces in this vacant land can enhance the user’s experience.

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Space Transformation The movement through th pathway direct one towards the fort creating a visual connection. The shaded spaces make the space usable throughout the day. It also creates space for different users at different point of time.

Space Transformation The site can be used for multiple activities - temporary as well as permanent. This provides flexibility in usage. The vegetation flows from the surrounding landscapes creating a single space. The journey takes one from city towards the river. It provides multiple niches for varied user groups. The plan showcases loose structure in planning, flexible areas for playing, exhibitions, etc and transversing the site in meaningful way to reach from the city center till the river

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Final Presentations  

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Existing Site Condition

Existing Site Condition

LANDSCAPE URBANISM

Revitalization Of An Underutilized Site

SITE SiteLOCATION Location

EXISTING SITE CONDITIONS Existing Site Condition

Janhavi Tankhiwale

Aditi Patalia

PLA21155 PLA21010 TheThe site is located in Dhantoli , Nagpur and runs parallel to site is located in Dhantoli, Nagpur and runs parallel to Nagpur- Chandrapur Highway. The area is highly populated, surrounded by hospitals and Nagpur Chandrapur Highway. The area is highly populated, other establishments. surrounded by hospitals and other establishments.

Site context

Existing Site Condition

Existing Site Condition Existing Site Condition

Underutilized

People started avoiding morning walks as one part of the si

Site Proposal Site Proposal Agricultural land

Site Proposal - A trail through the trees SITE PROPOSAL - A TRAIL THROUGH THE TREES

SITE PROPOSAL

Site

• Vacant land behind the site Vacant land behind sit Vacant landthebehi will be design as a public park as connect a design public park to brinp as a public to bring back design the social social connect past an us social connect and past use as the people were and were using were the site fo people using using the site people for morning walks and jogging. walks and jogging. walks and jogging.

• A trail withA the trailfolded with the folded stri A strip trail with the will be designdesign cateringcatering different different acti design catering di activities and passing through passing through thethrough trees. th passing the trees.

In between space will be use between space • In between space will beInused space, area, area,zon as yoga space, park park area,space, kid’s parkplay play zone etc.

Front stretch of stretch footpathofbe Front f

• Front stretch of footpath vehicular road will be vehicular roaddesig wi besides the vehicular road market street which will wh als market street will be designed as a market seating open cafeteria, street which open will also cafeteria, include vegetable garden beltgarden etc. b vegetable open cafeteria, seating spaces, vegetable garden belt etc.

Site

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Pathway

Coming to terms with Landscape Urbanism

Folded activity Strip

Final Presentations  

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Site Proposal For Market place Site Proposal - For Market place at frontat front

Proposal Proposal view View

/ Food street

Proposal

Proposal

Vegetable market

Proposal

/ Furniture market

Proposal Before

Proposal

After

Proposal

Before

After

Proposal

Before

After

Before

Before

After

Before

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After

Before

After

After

Final Presentations  

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10

Term Papers Week 14 November, 08th, 2021

Evaluation for term paper The setting and vision (40%) 1. Aptness of the site in establishing its potential 2. Articulating the site context and condition 3. How does the vision acts as catalyst Post- development scenario (40%) 4. Adaptability of the site with time and changing fabric 5. How does the vision impact the social, economic and ecological connections on the site 6. Candidly stating the limitation and criticism (if any) The writing structure (30%) 7. Clarity of communication 8. Plagiarism check 9. References

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Landscape at Nexus

Revitalisation Of An Under-utilised Site Every space has its own potential with which it caters to its inhabitants & the surrounding systems. Certain spaces that are altered by humans have either been over-utilised or under utilised. This project looks at one such under-utilised site in the city of Gwalior that has the potential of binding the surrounding areas & creating a flexible multipurpose open space. Gwalior is one of the counter magnet cities, which means that it prioritises development of land, housing and infrastructure. This is because it has established its own roots, has potential of growth, and also it is not a centre for either religious, strategic or environmental importance. But it still has historical & ecological importance that has been overlooked. The land use is changing, increasing pressure on the city core as well as its neighbouring areas. Hence, the selected open space & open spaces similar to these are at a risk of such development. The city needs open spaces as a breathing space between the different build forms and as a respite to its dwellers. Amidst the mixed, dense, complex urban & social fabric lies this vacant land that is used for multiple activities. This site sits between the river & the hillock on which lies the fort, surrounded by other open areas (roads, parks, river) & diverse land uses that attract the public into the space. These spaces cater to specific functions. The park has ecological as well as historical connections and is used as a recreational space by the locals as well as the traveler, the commercial areas that cater to the public’s needs & the economy, while the road is used for mobility. It is surrounded by historical structures which are one of the prime attractions and the various religious places that have a historical connection & attract diverse groups of people. Their proximity with the parks enriches the experience. The river is a reconstructed part of the Swarna Rekha river which was dried during the British raj. Its channel has changed from natural to embanked. Currently, it does not serve any function. But during monsoon certain recreational activities were introduced to activate it. The city needs open spaces as a breathing space between the different build forms and as a respite to its dwellers. Amidst the mixed, dense, complex urban & social fabric lies this vacant land that is used for multiple activities. This site sits between the river & the hillock on which lies the fort, surrounded by other open areas (roads, parks, river) & diverse land uses that attract the public into the space. These spaces cater to specific functions. The park has ecological as well as historical connections and is used as a recreational space by the locals as well as the traveler, the commercial areas that cater to the public’s needs &

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& the economy, while the road is used for mobility. It is surrounded by historical structures which are one of the prime attractions and the various religious places that have a historical connection & attract diverse groups of people. Their proximity with the parks enriches the experience. The river is a reconstructed part of the Swarna Rekha river which was dried during the British raj. Its channel has changed from natural to embanked. Currently, it does not serve any function. But during monsoon certain recreational activities were introduced to activate it. The city also needs certain multifunctional spaces for gathering huge crowds. And hence this empty void acts as a spillover space for these activities. Despite being in the proximity of various land-uses that have defined functions, the site acts as an extension for these as well as other activities and is still used for recreational, cultural, social and political purposes. Most of these areas function well on their own, while some are activated because of the presence of others. The site lies in the centre of these varying spaces and can help in forming connections between these spaces. The site has good road connectivity and is easily accessible. It is surrounded by roads on three sides but has boundary walls on two sides which makes it accessible only through specific entrances. The compound walls create a physical barrier which can be catered in a different way and open up the site to the public from commercial and recreational fronts towards the river. Over the years (nearly 20 years), the site being used as a multipurpose space hasn’t changed much. Historically, it might have been used as a congregation area because of its proximity with the horse stable. As the city needs space for huge public gatherings, this space is used for hosting public events. On days other than public gathering, the site is used as an extended space and is mostly used during mornings & evenings by daily users such as elderly people that gather, local children that come for playing, hawkers and transit users that stop for a pause. Occasionally, it is used for parking, storing construction material, events (exhibitions, religious events) whereas annually, it is used for political rallies, festivals, etc. The site is under-utilised because it ignores its context of river, fort and parks in its vicinity. It is secluded from its surroundings. Being in the city centre it is one of the least utilised sites. The site lies in proximity to the various land uses, yet is highly neglected on days other than the events. Over the years the usage has remained the same, rather it has degraded in terms of garbage dumping & neglecting that the site is situated in the centre. Ecologically, it is disconnected from the river & does not respond to it. Ecological revival is beneficial because it can act as a continuation of the surrounding green pockets and create an ecological buffer from the river. Creating more shaded spaces in this vacant land can enhance the user’s experience. Climatologically, such open spaces can prove to be more useful. And the historical areas can be given new meaning to establish a new connection.

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Economically, it can provide space for local vendors, the informal & seemingly unstructured network that plays an important role. This can be seen in the city of Surat where the newly developing areas have high end residential & commercial areas in the high rise buildings, but the streets still cater to the street vendors & a different culture is formed for socializing. This can also increase tourism in the site & the neighbouring areas, increasing the economy. Socially, the space is open to anyone irrespective of gender, class or age to mingle in groups or have a space for solace. The open space creates opportunities for various random events instead of closed enclosures that are restrictive in certain aspects. The site caters to existing stakeholders such as the local children who come for recreation & social activities, the local & city dwellers such as shoppers, religious & transit users and the nearby elderly who gather to socialize. It can also add to future stakeholders such as the city dwellers, tourists, nature enthusiasts, and government bodies. Permanent spaces need to be incorporated such as utility areas like public toilets, drinking water areas, seating areas and stalls for eateries, and temporary spaces for vendors and other events. This requires creation of flexible spaces. The primary programs should cater to recreational activities - play area for the local kids, commercial area for local shopping, eating and resting space for nearby shoppers to halt. Hence, the vision for the site is to create a space that acts as a common ground connecting different spaces, users & green pockets. The journey is from the city towards the river to give a holistic experience. The site will connect the different landmarks & form a continuation from the existing native vegetation. It will provide fluidity in movement & activities. Creating physical, visual & notional connection. The plan showcases loose structure in planning, flexible shaded open space to protect from the climate & cater to the multiple functions such as playing, gathering, exhibitions, etc and traversing the site in a meaningful way to reach from the city center till the river. It has opened up the edges for people to walk across different land uses freely and engage in different activities. The pathway is designed to provide a direction & sense of enclosure in the open landscape for certain activities. The planting also provides a sense of direction and enclosure, and creates shaded spaces that are required for the cities with harsh climatic conditions. The river edge is transformed into a natural edge that can cater to the seasonality. The site transformation can be visualized in terms of the movement through the pathway that directs one towards the fort creating a visual connection. The shaded spaces make the space usable throughout the day. It also creates space for different users at different points of time. The site can be used for multiple activities - temporary as well as permanent. This provides flexibility in usage. The vegetation flows from the surrounding landscapes creating a single space. The journey takes one from the city towards the river. It provides multiple niches for varied user groups. Since it caters to various users and uses most of the pockets of the site, it leaves less chances for negative

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activities. Critically thinking it might reduce the vastness of the open space but increase in terms of usability & flexibility. It creates a hierarchy of spaces from smaller pockets to larger ones and reduces the rigidity of spaces. The site has potential for becoming a city center & serving as a meaningful bridge between the different land uses, users, the city and the river. With minimal landscape intervention it can provide flexibility in terms of programs or spatial organization and temporality. At an urban level, such pockets can create a network and provide social, ecological & economical benefits and help maintain a balance between human altered landscape & natural landscape. ---

Vision for Gorai Manori, Mumbai

The city of Mumbai has been known for its high real estate prices given unavailability of space to build. However, Mumbai does not really lack open spaces. Mumbai holds the record of the biggest national park within city limits. The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is a huge 50 sqm green space engulfed by the city. The west coast line of the city has been developed through the Bandra Promenade, Nariman Point to name a few as scattered places to visit. The eastern waterfront remains unutilized. These spaces that Mumbai does have to offer eventually witness developers taking over to build luxury housing – the experience, views and use of the rich spaces the city has to offer end up being utilized only for the city elite. Unfortunately, the open spaces also get developed as elements specifically to cater to them. If the same areas are envisioned to be opened up as public spaces for the whole of the city, the vision becomes that much more inclusive and holds the potential to create impact on a larger scale, ultimately benefitting the city. There have been many proposals aimed at creating and executing a vision for the city of Mumbai to integrate underutilized sites within the city fabric. Surprisingly, there is no dearth of natural elements and open spaces in Mumbai that can potentially lead to feasible landscape urbanism projects. Beaches, mangroves, sea-fronts, wetlands, marshy lands, forests, water bodies are scattered generously across the city. This paper identifies one such underutilized area of Gorai-Manori and explores its potential in terms of a landscape urbanism intervention. Gorai and Manori are neighbouring villages, located on the western coast of North Mumbai. Separated from the main suburbs of the city by the Manori creek, the way to reach the villages is either taking a detour by road from Bhayander (further north of Gorai) or by a ferry from the Gorai jetty. Given the coastal and agrarian nature of the areas, the major population of the areas comprises of the fishing or the koli community, and the farming community. Manori’s has a lot of resorts and hotels, its primary reason for attracting tourists is its beaches. Amusement parks of Essel World and Water Kingdom and the Global Vipassana Pagoda make for tourist attractions in Gorai. Interestingly, these attractions of beaches and amusement parks only make up a minor percentage of what the area has to offer. An article in the Mumbai Mirror mentions - According to the tourism department, around 850 acres in the Manori-Gorai belt are mangrove lands.

Anuja Patil PLA20054

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The Gorai wetlands, mangroves, and cultivable agrarian lands make up for a large area of the region, and are surprisingly and unknowingly passed through, to reach other tourist destinations. An example of this would be the

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Amusement park of Essel world which sits in very close proximity to the Gorai wetlands and bird park. However, the latter areas remain highly unfrequented due to not being developed to their potential, to connect to the people of the city. The city of Mumbai fails to have a response to the context of mangroves, wetlands and its interrelated ecological systems. Given innumerable natural elements of hillocks, mangroves, beaches, creek, wetlands, water bodies and agricultural fields – there is an incredibly high scope of eco-tourism, which currently is limited to a comparatively small percentage of parks, garden and beach resorts. However, these natural elements have a plight of their own. Gorai and Manori have been facing ecological degradation over the years. The Gorai dump yard sitting alongside the Manori creek was used for dumping municipal solid waste since 1972 by the BM, with 2,200 tons of garbage dumped on a daily basis. Due to the toxic contamination the waste dumping caused to the creek, the ground was scientifically closed down in 2006. Further, the temperature rise in water and rising sea level have also led to dropping of the annual fish count in the region. Several studies also show deteriorating condition of the mangroves. In spite of the research and studies done to indicate the deteriorating conditions of the ecological elements in the region, the Government of Maharashtra seems to overlook reviving the same in their future plans and exploring the site in terms of its landscape potential. The new MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority) plans to develop Manori-Gorai-Uttan area as Recreation and Tourism Development Zone (RTDZ), their proposals comprise of converting agricultural fields and creating green zones to house swimming pools, bungalows, farmhouses. Instead of methods to revive and regenerate the depleting mangroves, more resorts and gardens are being constructed. This brings an opportunity to envision a scenario for the site, using conservation to drive eco-tourism. Apart from the ecological features, the site also has abundant history and social features. The villages have a strong Portuguese history. In addition to churches, their houses in the villages or gaothans, also have a Portuguese influence. Heritage tourism becomes part of the vision for the site, to also conserve the architecture and the east Indian culture of the built environment as well as of the local community. The vision is to create a cohesive ecological system with integrated agriculture, knowledge and learning spots of mangroves and wetlands, local and tourist interactions and monetary give-and-take. Like the Chengtoushan Archaeological Park by Turenscape takes people through paddy fields to see the farmers at work and learn about where their food comes from. This “outdoor rice museum” has a significant educational nature to it. A similar learning and educational component is proposed for the site through knowledge or information centres, boat rides, tours or walks to educate visitors and locals both about existing ecological systems as also better procedures to protect, invite and understand the ground level systems

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of the area. This also helps them engage with the site through participation and involvement. This involvement can also extend into the fishing and agricultural activities by the locals on site. From considering a larger context of Gorai-Manori for a vision proposal, The Gorai dump yard mentioned earlier is chosen as another site, to understand the vision in its microscale. Closed down since over a decade now, innumerable proposals have been made for the 19-hectare site. Located on the road leading to the Gorai jetty to the amusement parks across, the road id highly frequented. Its location seems promising, inviting more visitors. However, the site has not been put to major use and remains underutilized. While micro forests have been proposed to create a buffer along the site edges, an organic market is imagined as a platform for locals, koli community and adivasis in the Manori and Gorai villages to sell their produce and products. A recycling centre is also proposed for locals/residents in the area or city folk to bring in their waste/used products (for eg. plastic) - to recycle and produce different plastic products to be sold in the market on site. This part of the vision emerges as a response to the original function of the site as waste collection. For both the micro and macro scales, the vision stems from concerns about ecology and connecting the same to the city; and the interventions and proposals would work successfully if maintained well. The vision uses the example of the Maharashtra Nature Park in Mahim as a base, which has a similar story of being developed on land used for garbage disposal. The success of the Park in the city is a result of consistent maintenance of the forests, tourist activities in the park. However, an addition of any new and proposed intervention or infrastructure can cause a significant impact on the adaptability of the site, especially at the scale of the Gorai and Manori areas. In the city of Mumbai, infrastructure has always happened in a rather haphazard manner, having both positive and negative consequences. One of the most recent plans of the city is the coastal road and extension of the Bandra-Worli sea link. After innumerable oppositions and proposals, work on the coastal road has taken off. The proposal for the northern part of the original coastal road is still under consideration. This part is an extension of the sea-link from Versova to Kandivali – passing along the Manori and Gorai coast. A feasibility study done by the BMC (brought a halt due to environmental clearances. Developments in the city have taken place in spite of environmental clearance issues in the past (eg. Aarey forest, Sanjay Gandhi National Park) There are high chances the permissions for this road might be able to get past the clearances, making it a real possibility. The proposed vision gives another reason for pushing for the coastal road, which while improves connectivity, also causes incredible damage to the water and aquatic life. If the road were to get built in the future, the clear view of the coast from the site also would get obstructed due the presence of the road. While the vision could be a success in terms of creating social, economic and ecological connections to the city through the diverse interventions in idea &

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Notes

scale, inevitable infrastructure could damage further its chances of revival. And while it is not possible to foresee all future proposals and executions that could impact the vision, the more possible ones of the coastal road or bridge across the creek could have been considered to inform the vision better. The vision attempts to also explore the realities of driving a development proposal through the lens of ecological revival and integrating tourism along with it, rather than let only revenue generation and tourism take centre stage. It attempts to see what interventions could create a balance between the two. In the context of India, a vision at this scale and of this nature might not necessarily have precedence. Landscape urbanism, its successes and failures, consequences remains unexplored and possibly unaddressed in the country. India is in the stage of developing and still expressing the idea of landscape urbanism for itself, and hopefully the vision could help in understanding and defining what the discipline could mean in the Indian context. ---

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Shivani Mehta PAD21330

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Notes

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CREDITS : Editing Chandrani Chakrabarti Compilation Chandrani Chakrabarti Twinkle Elizabeth John

Kasturbhai Lalbhai Campus, University Road, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380009 +91 79 2630 2470 84

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Guided by  Tutor Chandrani Chakrabarti FA Elective Monsoon 2021 Faculty of Architecture