Data Loading...


















CONTENT Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..1 – 2 Purpose and History of Swimming……………………………………………………..2 – 4 Water Safety…………………………………………………………………………….4 – 5 Equipment and Attire……………………………………………………………………5 – 6 Additional Equipment…………………………………………………………………...7 – 8 Front crawl / Freestyle technique………………………………………………………..8 – 13 Backstroke technique…………………………………………………………………...13 – 17 Breaststroke technique………………………………………………………………….17 – 19 Types of floating (mushroom, upward, backward)……………………………………..19 – 21 Water Trading…………………………………………………………………………...21 - 24 Underwater Swimming…………………………………………………………………24 – 26 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………27 Reference……………………………………………………………………………………..28 Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………29


INTRODUCTION Swimming is a sport that involves moving the muscles of the entire body through water. This swimming sport can also be performed in a solo or group racing event in a single match. There are also springboard jumping competitions by a metre that has been reset, rhythmic, swimming and others. In addition, swimming also has its own game equipment, which aims to improve and help the performance of players always in a safe condition and away from any accidents to occur. Swimming also has its own style of stroke, including breaststroke, break stroke, freestyle stroke or also known as front crawl, backstroke and butterfly stroke.

Each stroke requires a set of specific techniques, there are also have some regulations concerning the acceptable form for each stroke. Besides, interest and fondness in the sport of swimming also has many benefits, among which can help increase the rate of self metabolism. Swimming is also one of the great sports for anyone who intends to replenish and treat their injured muscles. The sport of swimming also has a background of its own existence in the world of sports. DEFINITION OF SWIMMING Swimming, in recreation and sports, is an activity that moves the whole entire body through the water by moving the combined movements between the arms and legs. In swimming, there are also using the body’s natural flotation techniques. This sport also takes place in pools or somewhere open water, such as sea, lake or river. In swimming, there also involve in some activities such as diving, lifesaving, surfing, synchronized swimming, underwater diving, scuba and water polo. In addition, swimming can also be played by all participants, regardless of gender or all ages because there is no age


limit set of participants to play this sport. So, it is never late for the person who wanted to learn to swim. There also has a certain style stroke that most particularly used by swimmers in the pool. Examples, such as breaststroke, sidestroke, butterfly stroke, backstroke, and front crawl (freestyle stroke). Each stroke requires a set of specific techniques, there are also have some regulations concerning the acceptable form for each stroke. PURPOSE OF SWIMMING ➢ SAVE LIFE OTHER PEOPLE The sport of swimming was created in the world of sports and recreation for the purpose of being a precautionary measure in order to save the lives of others. This is because the depth of a pool or the sea can make a person trapped and take the life of a person. Especially for a small children or people with disabilities who do not have knowledge of skills and ways to swim to save themselves from drowning. ➢ KEEP BODY HEALTHY THROUGHOUT DIET ROUTINE Swimming can help us in the goal of ways to keep our body healthy throughout our diet routine. Swimming is the best method to ensure we continue to maintain a healthy weight. This is because it can help to burn body fat calories if there is a frequency of swimming activities. Activity cannot only burn some fat, but can burn about 500 to 650 calories per hour. Swimming, regardless of stroke, can help burn about 89 percent of the calories released while running, while there are also 97 percent of calories can be burned while doing cycling activities for the same period of time. According to the results of a unique preliminary study on swimming activities and the percentage of calorie production rate from the body is around 11% less compared to jogging activities is only 3% fewer calories than cycling. ➢ TO ADOPT AND MAINTAIN A HEALTHY TO BE SPARED FROM CHRONIC DISEASE Swimming can help our muscles relax and decompress our problems that always keep in our minded, at the same time can help to relieve all stress to prevent depression. Apart from that, it is also very helpful for anyone with respiratory problems such as asthma. This is because, swimming activities may help you expand 2|Page

your lung capacity and gain control over your breathing. There also can teach us how to control breathing well. Besides, it also particularly useful in how maintain the health and muscle strength of our lungs and heart HISTORY OF SWIMMING The sport of swimming also has its own background where it comes into existence in the world of sports. This swimming sport began its existence where it was brought by Stone Age through paintings 7,000 years ago that dated back to 4000 BC in Egyptian ancient. Therefore, from this we can know that the sport of swimming has been known since ancient times. Humans have known how to swim for thousand years ago, but it was not until the 1800s that swimming being developed and getting into a part of competitive sports. For your information, it has been around for a millennium because people used to swim for the purpose as one of a technique to stay above water then move and flow through the water.

There are also high many visuals that can proof that human used to swim from start that have been found, including the drawing and detailed that had been developed from the painting of swimmers on the walls. Initially, an informal group of sports enthusiasts and trainees was set up by CSC for its own purpose in promoting swimming, water polo and life saving in one purpose for the needs of the Chinese community especially in Penang. It happened when Malaysia which that time known as Tanah Melayu is still under European colonization. At that time, the Europeans also established the Penang Swimming Club in 1903. They also placed the club as a premium swimming club and all sports facilities were exclusively for members of the club only.


The Malayan Chinese Olympic started organizing in Malaysia at the first swimming competition in 1931. Suddenly, it was the continued generation by generation when swimming started popular in Malaysia then the Malayan Amateur Swimming Union had been established in 1955. Nowadays, until today swimming was the third sport that most popular in Malaysia after football and badminton. WATER SAFETY ➢ Get and assigned a lifeguard as a precautionary measure. This needs to be emphasized so that the safety care of other visitors that came to the pool to swim especially children. Although the children were a responsibility under the supervision of their own parents while in the pool, but there are also some tragic cases due to the forgetfulness and the negligence of the parents. In addition, it can also be a priority for the lifeguards themselves to be responsible for the safety of visitors who come to the pool to swim. This is because there are also some cases where one of the visitors experienced muscle cramps while swimming and then drowning in the pool. ➢ Make sure do the examination of the water's purity. This must be done by the pool operator. It is because of if the pool is murky while visitors are using it and there is a tragedy there are visitors who drown. Then, how do lifeguard to detect and know there are visitors who drowned and have drowned in the water, if the water is murky then cannot see anything happening in behind the water. ➢ Do experiment first with going into the water when you don't know how deep it is. When the water is cloudy, we cannot see the penetration in the water as we can see if the water is clean and clear water. So, as a precaution before something tragic happens, we must use existing initiatives such as taking wood or any long tool to be immersed in the pool to measure the depth of the pool water first. 4|Page

This matter must be prioritized because it is very dangerous because the deeper the pool, the higher the pressure in the pool, resulting in less and less oxygen available. If a person does not have the ability to dive the depth of the pool it will result in the person dying of suffocation due to lack of oxygen below the depth of the pool and very high pressure. ➢ Examine the physical condition of the swimmer. This should be pointed out because if the swimmer suffers a serious injury, such as a relatively serious spinal cord injury, it can lead to a causal factor towards a possible accident. This should be applied especially to swimmers, if the athlete suffers a serious injury should be consulted and consult a doctor before continuing training or participating in any competition to avoid something undesirable to happen during the incident. ➢ Discover how to treat water. Pool operators must set rules and precautionary measures that must be followed by visitors who come to the pool to swim. This is for the purpose of maintaining clean, treated water for the comfort and safety of other visitors. Pool operators also need to be alert if the pool has dirt and causes turbidity in the pool. They must take action to stop the operation of opening the pool permit temporarily. So, they can re -treat the dirty pool water by reporting it to certain public department employees to re -perform the operation to treat the pool water until it is clean. Things like this need to be pointed out because murky water can cause some visitors to drown without being noticed by lifeguards to be saved from continuing to drown and drown in the water. EQUIPMENT AND ATTIRE SWIMSUIT ATTIRE

Fabrics designed for swimsuits have minimal resistance through the water as well as not too prone to water absorption, tend to be durable, and resistant to fading even when used 5|Page

repeatedly in chlorinated pools. The fabric of the shirt that has been specifically for swimming has also been studied, so that it does not burden the swimmer to use it while swimming and can cause unwanted accidents. SWIM CAPS

A swimming cap is useful to keep the swimmer's hair from coming out of the cap and reduce traction while the swimmer is performing. The hat is made of latex, silicone, spandex, neoprene or Lycra. Swimming hats also has several purposes of use, where some pool managers require long -haired people to wear hats so that hair does not enter the pool to maintain the cleanliness of the pool to ensure the irrigation of the pool is not clogged which can lead to technical maintenance problems must be done on the pool. GOOGLES

Goggles are useful in swimming in purpose to protect your eyes from chlorine that contained in the water and anything else that may be in the water). They also can be useful to help you keep your eyes open while you swim so that you can see where the direction you wanted to go while you swimming in the water. If you use glasses, you can even obtain prescription swim goggles.



Kickboards are floaty devices made of foam or other materials that come in a wide range of forms and sizes. The key goal is hanging on and stay afloat while your legs do the heavy lifting. It's an excellent way to improve kicking coordination while also giving your arms a break. When they get tired, grab the kickboard and do a lap or two with it until their arm strength returns, then drop the kickboard off at the end of the pool and swim until they need the kickboard again. Kickboards are available to try out at several pools. PULL BUOYS

Pull buoys, like kickboards, are flotation devices that come in a variety of shapes and sizes. However, unlike a kickboard, which allows you to use your upper body, pull buoys are placed between the legs to keep the legs afloat without kicking. Pull buoys are a great way to improve upper-body strength, endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness because may swim slowly and deliberately without sinking, they can also help you improve your form. FINS


Fins are attached to your feet and increase the propulsion of your kicks. They’re great workouts that will help you swim faster. Long fins are best for novices who want to focus on their stroke while simultaneously building leg strength and ankle flexibility, while short fins are best for individuals who want to go faster without overworking their legs. Fins should be snug, but not so tight that they cut into your foot. HAND PADDLES

Hand paddles are paddles that hold in hands and use to propel arm stroke by moving more water. Because of the resistance in the water, they can be strenuous on the arms and shoulders, which is why they're used in water aerobics classes to simulate resistance exercises done with dumbbells on land for example, biceps curls. Because hand paddles make a water workout more difficult, should warm up in the water without them first, then gradually increase time in the water, just like you would with any resistance exercise session, to prevent overworking arms and shoulder joints. FRONT CRAWL

Front crawl is the fastest and most efficient stoke of all. The streamlined body posture and constant propulsion from the arms and legs are primarily responsible for this. Besides that, the most common and easiest stroke to master for beginners. It's just a simple flutter kick and windmill arm action on your tummy, similar to the backstroke. Because your face is in the water for the most of the time, the most challenging element is regulating your breathing. 8|Page

Front crawl was introduced to the western world in 1844, when Native North Americans competed in a swimming event in London, handily defeating the British breaststroke swimmers. During a tour to Argentina, John Trudgen learned the stroke from Native South Americans, but executed it in Great Britain using a scissors kick rather than a flutter kick about 1873. FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING TECHNIQUE ARM MOVEMENT 1. Catch phase The hand entrance point should be somewhere between the line of the shoulder and the centre of the head. The hand enters the water and 'catches' it, thumb side down, fingers closed. The hand then stretches forward under the water without overextending until the arm is completely extended just beneath the water's surface.

2. Propulsive phase As the arm pulls beneath the body, towards the hip, the hand sweeps through the water. The elbow bends and leads the rearward movement, remaining high throughout the propulsive phase. The hand reaches through to the thigh and then upwards to the water's top.

3. Recovery phase The elbow is the first to bend and escape the water. The hand and fingers follow, exiting the water completely and following a straight line along the body line


above the water surface. During the recovery phase, the elbow is bent and raised, and the arm is completely relaxed.

LEG MOVEMENT 1. Downswing of the leg, the movement should come from your hips and not from your knee

2. Continue the downward kick from the hips. All the way to your feet

3. The knee will bend themselves naturally to response the movement from the hips

4. Keep your leg in horizontal close to the surface but not completely out of the water

10 | P a g e

5. Keep your ankle loose and orientate your foot towards the bottom of pool

6. Upswing the leg in front crawl and both legs have to work as hard as each other but as much force into the descending

BREATHING TECHNIQUE 1. In order to inhale air, keep your ear against the arm that is outstretched and rotate your body naturally with the movement.

2. Slowly turn your head and inhale the mouth by keeping half of your face submerged

11 | P a g e

3. Then put your face back in the water.

4. Once in the water exhale all you breathe through your nose and mouth

5. Reposition your head that face the bottom of the pool. Keep it while extending your body

6. If your head is slightly raised, the lower part of body will tend to sink, which in turn

slowly down

12 | P a g e

7. The part of inhaling your head has to stay perfectly still, despite the rotation of your body

8. For beginner will take breathe in every 2 strokes while the experience swimmer will breathe every 3 strokes BACKSTROKE

The backstroke is easier than the butterfly or breaststroke and, like the crawl, combines an alternative windmill arm stroke and flutter kick. Your arms must move with equal force or you would swim to one side, and your body must roll from side to side so that your arms collect enough water to drive you ahead. Backstroke is one of the four swimming styles used in competitive events regulated by FINA and the only one of these styles swum on the back. Backstroke is the only competitive swimming technique that the swimmer starts in the water. In accordance backstroke rules at the FINA from 1960s to 2005, swimmer gripped the handgrips and put their fully submerged feet against the wall. Gripping one’s toes on the pool gutter was not permitted.

13 | P a g e

ARM MOVEMENT 1. Lie on your back looking directly upwards and your body is a horizontal

2. Your right arm will enter the water straight and in line with shoulder out of the water and your palm facing downwards and extend your arms as far as possible

3. Your arm enters the water, body will rotate towards the entering arm. The arm will start to bend so that the palm and forearm are facing towards feet. When the elbow gets to 90degree bend and push the water towards hip.

4. Position of head which must remain completely straight and in a horizontal position as you can do

5. Bring your arm towards the surface in the direction of legs

14 | P a g e


The backstroke using a flutter kick. The legs are performing alternating and opposite movements. While one leg moves up and the other leg moves down. Here the steps: 1. The upbeat begins as the lower leg continues to move downward from the preceding kick. The hip and leg flex, and the upper leg begins to rise. 2. The lower leg is now pointing upward instead of upward and backward, and it no longer provides propulsion. Even though the swimmer's ankles are flexible, the foot is still pointing backward and pushing water backward. 3. The water's pressure on the rear of the leg will maintain it stretched until the next upbeat. The pressure of the water on the foot causes it to remain in a neutral posture. BREATHING TECHNIQUE

15 | P a g e

1. Breathing should be coordinated with each arm's recovery above the water's surface, inhaling with one arm's recovery and expelling with the other. 2. Inhalation occurs when one arm pulls through the water to the side, followed by expiration when the other arm pulls through the water to the side.

BACKSTROKE START TECHNIQUE The swimmer is in the water close to the wall, in the backstroke start position, with his hands on the handle, his legs bent beneath the water's surface, and his toe tips on the wall. The feet may be side by side or athwart. To the call of ‘ready’, the swimmer pulls himself to the wall, bends his elbows, bows his head and raises his hips. When the ‘go’ sign goes off, starts the push-off. The swimmer begins the motion by swinging head and arms backwards.

The arm swings up and back, the torso rises up and back, and the legs deliver a strong push. The torso bends rearward, and the arms, which are slightly bent, extend out and are positioned over the head. The swimmer begins the flight phase in this position.

16 | P a g e

The two arms are the first to enter the water, followed by the head, shoulders, trunk, and lastly the feet. As soon as the feet enter, the head lifts, and a strong dolphin kick is done to minimise resistance and shift direction from the bottom upwards and ahead.

BREASTSTOKE Breaststroke is a swimming style in which the swimmer lies on their chest and does not rotate their body. It is the most well-known leisure style due to the swimmer's head being out of the water for an extended period of time, and it can be swum successfully at modest rates. The stroke is the slowest of any competitive stroke and is said to be the oldest of all swimming strokes.

The breaststroke is one of the most popular swimming strokes. However, experienced and competitive swimmers dip their heads underwater during the glide portion, which improves their position in the water and reduces drag. BODY MOVEMENT

1. Your body is in a straight line, your legs and arms are stretched, and your body is prone. 2. Take a deep breath and submerge your face in water.

17 | P a g e


1. Keep your arms as thin as possible on the pull in order to disrupt as little as possible. 2. You draw back in a small scooping motion, your elbows tucked into your side. 3. A large, broad actuation circle might slow you down and cause a lot of drag. 4. On extension, stay as calm as possible and let yourself to glide and draw back just before slowing down. LEG MOVEMENT

1. Push away from the pool with one foot, keeping your chin on the water's surface. 2. Draw your knees up beneath you, keeping your legs and feet together, and turn feet out, exposing the soles to the water behind you. 3. Kick your feet out, around, and back together, trying to keep your knees as close together as possible. 4. Increase the force and acceleration of the movement such that it resembles a whip action. BREATHING TECHNIQUE

1. Push away from the wall, keeping your face submerged and arms straight out in front of you. 18 | P a g e

2. Exhale slowly via your lips while gliding, blowing little controlled bubbles. 3. Begin the arm pull movement by cupping your hands over your shoulders and raising your head to gaze ahead as you do so. 4. Begin inhaling and taking in a new breath when your mouth clears the water's surface. 5. Allow your face to submerge and breath again as your arms finish their journey and begin to extend forward. 6. With each arm pull, repeat this breathing movement. TYPE OF FLOATING IN SWIMMING

Beginners who lack swimming skills would assume that as soon as their feet leave the ground, they will sink. Water, in fact, is more than capable of supporting our bodies. As a result, as long as we maintain air in our lungs, it is very easy for novices to float without moving our limbs. There are three types of floating in swimming, mushroom float, upward float and backward or dead man float. MUSHROOM FLOAT

Mushroom float also known as tucked float that includes pulling the knees to the chest, submerging the face, and hugging the legs. It's a requirement for somersaulting, and it's also helpful for confidence development because a mushroom float position feels shaky and can make you feel like you're going to fall over.

19 | P a g e

Here are the steps to do mushroom float: 1) Take a seat at the shallow part of the pool. 2) Inhale deeply and hold your breath. 3) Immerse yourself in water. 4) Roll into a ball, pull your knees to your chest, and hold them there with your hand (hug) 5) If you need to take a breather, unroll and re-stand. UPWARD FLOAT

When you are trapped in deep water and are unable to swim to the poolside or do not have a swimming floating gadget to assist you in floating, floating on your back or upward allows you to rest with your face out of the water. Leaning upward makes you feel like you're falling, and if you go underwater, there's nothing to hold onto to keep you from sinking. Here are the steps to do the upward floating: 1) Feel at ease in the water. 2) Squat down. 3) Extend your arms to balance. 4) Tilt your head back. 5) Lift your feet off the floor and relax. 6) Use a support; do not attempt to float upward on your own for the first time. 7) Consider utilising a floating gadget to assist you in staying afloat.

20 | P a g e


A floating position in which a person lies face down in water with their arms spread or extended forward and their legs extended backward. Knowing how to float is essential for swimming. Here is the step to do the backward float: 1) Take off in a streamlined stance, face in the water. 2) Move forward, producing a large letter 'X'. 3) Hold your breath for around five seconds before quietly exhaling. 4) As you breathe out, your body will sink to the bottom. 5) To stand up and recover, raise your knees to your chest. 6) Exit the deceased man's floating posture by putting your feet on the ground. 7) When floating in the dead man's or backward posture, make sure your body is directly on the surface of the water. 8) A good method is to hold your breath for a few seconds to gain buoyancy. 9) If you are out of breath, you can exhale your bubbles within the water to help your body recover and stand up straight after floating. WATER TRADING

21 | P a g e

Swimming technique that allows a swimmer to stay upright position and essentially stationary with their head above surface water. Treading water is an essential life skill, its ability to float in one place while the head above the water. It’s useful skill for swimming situations, especially in deep water. The arms and legs are moving to keep afloat, although can tread temporarily with just arms or legs. Water treading is one of the most important skills that required for survival. This skill is essential not only for advanced athletes and water polo players but is also for basic water safety to everyone that involve in water. It is critical to be able to swim in place without expending too much energy if need to arises. TECHNIQUE FOR WATER TREADING BODY POSITION The proper body position for water treading is similar to ride a bicycle or sit on the edge of a chair and leaning forward as if you talking to someone intently. To keep your legs directly under your torso, your back should be sloped forward and wrist bent slightly. Your face should be facing straight ahead with the waterline just below your chain. The important thing is your body should be vertical not horizontal.

ARM MOVEMENT This motion begins with your arms out to the sides as like airplane wings and your palm pitched downward and slightly toward the front. Make a horizontal movement with your arms. If move up and down, you will move up and then down because you must pull them back up. Move arms forward and back by keeping your hands closed and facing the direction they’re moving. It will help you to keep your upper body up.

22 | P a g e

KICK MOVEMENT There are a lot of ways that you could kick your legs while treading water. While all of these methods will work to propel your body upwards, the wrong technique can waste energy unnecessarily. The kick movement such as flutter kick, rotary kick or eggbeater kick, frog kick and

➢ FLUTTER KICK The flutter kick involves by keeping legs straight and alternating one in front of the other as if you were walking. The flutter kick is an efficient propulsion method that used on horizontal axis. To perform a flutter kick, point your toes downward and kick one leg forward while kicking the other leg back. Maintain a consistent back and forth.

➢ ROTARY KICK Rotary kick is also known as eggbeater kick. To perform this technique, need to be vertical position in water. Bend your legs that the thigh region is parallel to the floor of the pool and forming in 90-degree angle to the back. Open up the knees as far apart as naturally possible then started circling the lower legs while maintain the position of the rest of body. Next, the legs have to move one moves in clockwise manner and another leg move in an anti-clockwise manner. 23 | P a g e

➢ FROG KICK Frog kick uses frog leg movements to produce upthrust and keep afloat. To do this movement, need to start by pulling your legs together such that you’re in an upright position. The knees should be pulling outwards and away from the body. The feet have come together, need to kick outwards and downwards simultaneously to generate the upthrust needed to keep afloat. At that time, need holding arms on horizontal plane and circling as in the other techniques.

UNDERWATER SWIMMING During the Moscow Olympic (1980), they able to see several swimmers who covered over 25 metres underwater in backstroke events following the start phase. They swam underwater utilising a distinct stroke technique: underwater undulatory swimming (UUS). During the race, a swimmer can swim underwater for up 15 metres after start and each turn. In a 25-meter pool, swimmers can cover 50-60% of the distance precisely in this manner for short distance which is 50m – 200m races. Some swimmers can swim faster in underwater rather than they can do on the surface.

24 | P a g e


DOLPHIN KICK 1. Push off the wall while keeping entire body submerged in water. Stretch your arms out in front of you in streamlined position. Maintain a tight core by keeping your feet and legs straight and together. Begin low in the water so that can maintain your entire body below while performing stroke. You may need to start at a small downward angle to do this. Before starting, need take a deep breathe since you’ll be underwater for a while.

2. Bend your knees slightly and stretch your legs behind you. To propel this action, tilt your pelvis forward somewhat. The backwards kick is component of the stroke that used to get your body into position

3. Bring your legs forward with forcefully. To drive this phase of the stroke, tilt your pelvis backward. This is the front kick which generates momentum for the stroke. During this phase of the kick, your legs should extend in front of your body.

25 | P a g e

4. Extend your feet fully like a dolphin’s fins. Fully extended ankles can minimize this effect. To perform this movement, you must have flexible expended ankles. Trace the letters with feet to strengthen and stretch your ankles. Lie on your back in comfortable posture and use each foot in the water.

5. Keep your body in underwater. Don’t rely on your hips to keep you stay in underwater. Instead, use arms to regulate your depth. You may prevent your body’s inclination to float to the surface by maintaining your arms in streamline posture and directing them slightly towards the bottom of the pool.

HOW TO PERFORM UNDERWATER SWIMMING 1. Stretch your arms as far forward as you can while keeping your hands high over your head 2. Kick from the hips not from knees. This will help to develop a stronger underwater kick 3. Kick in both directions not just down. If you kick upwards as well as downwards with force, you’re likely to see massive improvements. 4. The kick should be small and fast rather than big and long.

26 | P a g e

CONCLUSION Swimming is the best form of exercise. This is because swimming provide a through workout to all part of the body. Aerobic exercise will build endurance by keeping the heart pumping for an extended period of time. Swimming will help to fight the heart disease. Besides that, swimming will build cardiovascular strength. Cardiovascular exercise, often known as cardio, works the heart, lungs, and circulatory system. This sort of exercise will be included in a comprehensive fitness regimen, such as one that includes swimming. In a hadith narrated from Hazrat Ibn Umar (R.A) in which our beloved Prophet Muhammad said: “Teach your children swimming, archery and horse riding.”

27 | P a g e

REFERENCE 1. Richard Weil, Med, CDE. (2020). Swimming: 17 Health Benefits. From 2. Maglischo E.W., Swimming Fastest. Human Kinetics, USA 2003 3. Aquaticglee. (2020). How to Tread Water – Techniques, Benefits & Exercises. From 4. Sikana English. (2017). Swimming Techniques: Arm Movements | Backstroke. (Video). From 5. Sports and Outdoors. (2011). How To Do Underwater Swimming Techniques. (Video). From 6. Swim







From 7. Sikana English. (2016). Swimming Techniques: Leg Movement | Front Crawl. (Video). From 8. Zoggs. (2018). Zoggs | Freestyle (Front Crawl) – How to swim this stroke efficiently. (Video). From 9. Mark Young. (2015). Front Crawl Arm Technique. From 10. Robin






28 | P a g e





29 | P a g e