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2016 Â. äºî²Î²Ü ²ì²ðî²Î²Ü ºì ØƲêÜ²Î²Ü øÜÜàôÂÚàôÜܺðÆ ²è²æ²¸ð²ÜøܺðÆ

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ÈáõëÇÝ» ²ÃáÛ³Ý Ø³ñ·³ñÇï³ ²åñ»ëÛ³Ý Ü³Çñ³ ²í³·Û³Ý Æ·áñ γñ³å»ïÛ³Ý ÈÇÉÇ Î³ñ³å»ïÛ³Ý ²Ýáõß Ê³ãÇÏÛ³Ý ²ñáõë سñ·³ñÛ³Ý èáõµÇݳ ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý ²Ý³ÑÇï àëϳÝÛ³Ý Ø»ñÇ Ü³½³ñÛ³Ý

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лÕ. ËáõÙµ`

ISBN978-9939-842-00-4

Ðî¸ 371:51 ¶Ø¸ 74.2+22.1

CONTENTS LEVEL A SECTION 1 ................................................................................................................................... 5 SECTION 2 ................................................................................................................................. 39 SECTION 3 ................................................................................................................................. 55 SECTION 4 ................................................................................................................................. 69 SECTION 5 ............................................................................................................................... 120 SECTION 6 ............................................................................................................................... 134

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SECTION 7 ............................................................................................................................... 145 LEVEL B

SECTION 8 ............................................................................................................................... 153 SECTION 9 ............................................................................................................................... 208

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SECTION 10 ............................................................................................................................. 246

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SECTION 11 ............................................................................................................................. 258

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SECTION 12 ............................................................................................................................. 271

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ANSWER KEY ......................................................................................................................... 290

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ܳ˳µ³Ý ¶Ý³Ñ³ïÙ³Ý ¨ ûëï³íáñÙ³Ý Ï»ÝïñáÝÁ (¶ÂÎ), Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáí ÐРϳé³í³ñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨ ζÜ-Ç ÏñÃ³Ï³Ý ù³Õ³ù³Ï³ÝáõÃÛáõÝÁ, Ý»ñϳ۳óÝáõÙ ¿ ³Ý·É»ñ»ÝÇ å»ï³Ï³Ý ³í³ñï³Ï³Ý ¨ ÙdzëÝ³Ï³Ý ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ã»ëï³ÛÇÝ ³é³ç³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇ ßï»Ù³ñ³ÝÁ: ¶ÂÎ-Ý ï»Õ»Ï³óÝáõÙ ¿, áñ å»ï³Ï³Ý ³í³ñï³Ï³Ý ¨ ÙdzëÝ³Ï³Ý ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ Ã»ëï»ñÁ ϳ½Ùí»Éáõ »Ý ßï»Ù³ñ³ÝÇ ³é³ç³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñÇó: Þï»Ù³ñ³ÝáõÙ Áݹ·ñÏí³Í »Ý ѳÝñ³ÏñÃ³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÇ Íñ³·ñ³ÛÇÝ ÝÛáõÃÇÝ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë˳ÝáÕ ³é³ç³¹ñ³ÝùÝ»ñ: Þï»Ù³ñ³ÝÁ ϳ½Ùí³Í ¿ å»ï³Ï³Ý ³í³ñï³Ï³Ý ¨ ÙdzëÝ³Ï³Ý ùÝÝáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇ §àõÕ»óáõÛó¦-ÇÝ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë˳Ý: Ò»éݳñÏÁ ѳëó»³·ñí³Í ¿ ѳÝñ³ÏñÃ³Ï³Ý ¹åñáóÇ ßñç³Ý³í³ñïÝ»ñÇÝ ¨ áõëáõóÇãÝ»ñÇÝ:

¶ÂÎ ³Ý·É»ñ»ÝÇ Ù³ëݳ·»ï ºäÐ, µ.·.Ã, åñáý»ëáñ ºäÐ ¹áó»Ýï Ù.·.¹., åñáý»ëáñ ºäÐ ³ëÇëï»Ýï Î²Æ ³Ý·É»ñ»ÝÇ Ù³ëݳ·»ï, áõëáõóãáõÑÇ ºäÐ ¹áó»Ýï MA-TEFL вРºäÐ ¹³ë³Ëáë ºäÐ ¹³ë³Ëáë

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ÈáõëÇÝ» ²ÃáÛ³Ý Ø³ñ·³ñÇï³ ²åñ»ëÛ³Ý Ü³Çñ³ ²í³·Û³Ý Æ·áñ γñ³å»ïÛ³Ý ÈÇÉÇ Î³ñ³å»ïÛ³Ý ²Ýáõß Ê³ãÇÏÛ³Ý ²ñáõë سñ·³ñÛ³Ý èáõµÇݳ ¶³ëå³ñÛ³Ý ²Ý³ÑÇï àëϳÝÛ³Ý Ø»ñÇ Ü³½³ñÛ³Ý

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Ðñ³ï³ñ³ÏãáõÃÛáõÝÁ ѳïáõÏ ßÝáñѳϳÉáõÃÛáõÝ ¿ ѳÛïÝáõÙ ßï»Ù³ñ³ÝÁ ϳ½ÙáÕ ËÙµÇ ³Ý¹³ÙÝ»ñÇÝ:

4

LEVEL A

Section 1

LEVEL A SECTION 1 γñ¹³É ï»ùëïÁ ¨ å³ï³ëË³Ý»É Ñ³ñó»ñÇÝ` ÁÝïñ»Éáí ×Çßï ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ: Read the text and answer the questions choosing the right answer. Text 1 Line number

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Walt Disney was born in 1901 in Chicago, but soon moved to a small farm near Marceline, Missouri. From this rural and rather humble beginning, he later became one of the most famous and beloved motion-picture producers in history. Although he died in 1966, his name and artistic legacy continue to influence the lives of millions of people throughout the world. After several years of barely making ends meet as a cartoon artist operating from his Los Angeles garage, Disney had his first success in 1928, with his release of Mickey Mouse cartoon. Throughout the next decade, he continued to produce a number of cartoons, and developed more of his highly profitable and enduring creations, such as Donald Duck and Pluto. In the late 1930s, he issued the first full-length cartoon film. Snow White became an instant commercial and critical success. This was only the first of many films, both animated and not, produced by Disney and his studio. But as renowned as Disney name is for cartoons and movies, it is probably best known for a string of spectacular amusement and theme parks. Starting with California‟s Disneyland in 1955 and culminating with the fantastically successful Disney World and EPCOT Center in Florida, Disney became a household name. In recent years, the theme park concept has become international, with openings in Tokyo and Paris. With the continuing success of Disney, the creation of future theme parks is under discussion.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

1. Which of the following best states the topic of the text? a) b) c) d)

Walt Disney and his Legacy. The history of Disney World and Disneyland. Walt Disney‟s Boyhood Years. Walt Disney and Animated Cartoons. 5

LEVEL A

Section 1

2. According to the text a) b) c) d)

Disney first achieved success after his death Mickey Mouse was Disney‟s only cartoon creation. Snow White was the first full-length cartoon film. Disney‟s first concern was always profit.

3. The word enduring in line 11 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

difficult suffering famous lasting

4. In future years it‟s most likely that the remaining theme parks will also close. Disney will produce only cartoons. the Paris theme park will become successful. the Disney name will stay well-known.

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a) b) c) d)

5. According to the text

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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Line number

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Snow White was Disney‟s most successful film Disney created cartoon movies and “noncartoon” movies the Tokyo theme park is in financial difficulty the California theme park is now closed

Text 2

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a) b) c) d)

London Bridge isn‟t actually in London anymore, but it used to be there. When it was in London, the bridge crossed the Thames River, which is in the middle of London. London Bridge is made of granite, and it‟s an arch bridge; you can see the five curved arches in the bridge. London Bridge was built in the first half of the nineteenth century. When it was built, it was a very difficult project. It took 800 men seven years to build the bridge. In 1968, the city of London decided that it needed a new bridge. London Bridge was too narrow; a wider bridge with six lanes was needed. The city didn‟t tear the bridge down and throw it away. Instead , the city found a buyer and sold the bridge. The company that bought London Bridge paid a lot of money for it. The company paid two and a half million dollars for London Bridge. Then the company took the bridge apart stone by stone, put it 6

LEVEL A

14. into crates, transported it across the Atlantic, and rebuilt it in its new home. 15. London Bridge is now far from its original home, on a lake in Arizona in 16. the southwest of the United States. 1.This text is mainly about a bridge that a) b) c) d)

is still in London. was originally built in Arizona. moved from Arizona to London. moved from London to Arizona.

2. How many arches does London Bridge have? one three five seven

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a) b) c) d)

3. When was London Bridge originally built?

At the end of the eighteenth century In the last half of the eighteenth century In the first half of the nineteenth century In the last half of the nineteenth century

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a) b) c) d)

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The city of London did not want a bridge. The city of London wanted a wider bridge. The city of London thought that the bridge was too old. The city of London wanted a heavier bridge.

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a) b) c) d)

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4. Why was London Bridge replaced?

5. How much money was paid for the bridge? a) b) c) d)

half a million dollars one and a half million dollars two million dollars two and a half million dollars

7

Section 1

LEVEL A

Text 3 Line number

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Aspirin‟s origin goes back at least as early as 1758. In that year, an Englishman Edward Stone noticed a distinctive bitter flavor in the bark of the willow tree. To Stone, this particular bark seemed to have much in common with “Peruvian Bark”, which had been used medicinally since the 1640s to bring down fevers and to treat malaria. Stone decided to test the effectiveness of the willow bark. He obtained some, pulverized it into tiny pieces, and conducted experiments on its properties. His tests demonstrated that this pulverized willow bark was effective both in reducing high temperatures and in relieving aches and pains. In 1763, Stone presented his findings to the British Royal Society. Several decades later, further studies on the medicinal value of the willow bark were being conducted by two Italian scientists. These chemists, Brugnatelli and Fontana, determined that the active chemical that was responsible for the medicinal characteristics in the willow bark was chemical salicin, which is the active ingredient of today‟s aspirin. The name “aspirin” is the trade name of the drug based on the chemical salicin, properly known as acetylsalicylic acid. The trade name “aspirin” was invented for the drug in the 1890s by the Bayer Drug Company in Germany. The first bottles of aspirin actually went on sale to the public just prior to the turn of the century, in 1899.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

a) b) c) d)

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1. According to the text, aspirin originated not later than 1758 some time after 1758 definitely some time in 1758 later than 1758

2. The pronoun it in line 7 refers to a) b) c) d)

malaria the willow bark effectiveness fever

3. The word properties in line 8 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

ownership body characteristics materials 8

Section 1

LEVEL A

Section 1

4. According to the text, Brugnatelli and Fontana a) b) c) d)

were not from Italy. added a chemical to the willow bark. conducted studies on the willow bark. were medical doctors.

5. Where in the text does the author name the scientific compound that makes up aspirin? a) b) c) d)

Lines 2-5 Lines 6-8 Lines 9-11 Lines 12-16

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Text 4

Line number

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Alpha Centauri is a triple-star system. One of the three stars in Alpha Centauri is Proxima Centauri, which is the nearest star to the Earth, except, of Course, for the Sun. The name “Proxima” comes from a Latin word which means “close”. Even though Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Earth outside of our solar system, it is not really close. Interstellar distances are so large that they are almost impossible to imagine. A person traveling in a modern spacecraft would not arrive at Proxima Centauri within this lifetime, or the next, or even ten lifetimes because the distance is so great. Light travels at a speed of 186000 miles per second, and it still takes light more than four years to travel from Proxima Centauri to the Earth. Alpha Centauri can be easily seen in the night sky without a telescope from certain parts of the Earth. It is the third brightest star in the sky, out of approximately 6000 visible stars. It cannot be seen from most parts of the United States because most of the United States is too far north; however, it can be seen from the southern parts of the southernmost states.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

1. The main subject of the text is a) b) c) d)

the closest stars to the Earth modern space travel the speed of light interstellar distances

9

LEVEL A

Section 1

2. According to the text, which of the following is NOT true? a) b) c) d)

Alpha Centauri is composed of three stars. Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Earth. Proxima Centauri is one of the stars in Alpha Centauri. It is possible to see Alpha Centauri from the Earth.

3. The word comes in line 3 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

travels is derived is directed visits

4. The expression interstellar distances in line 6 is distances between stars distances between the Earth and various stars distances measured by the speed of light distances from the Sun to each of the planets, including the Earth

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a) b) c) d)

5. It can be inferred from the text that if a person is left in one of today‟s spacecrafts, he or she would arrive at Alpha Centauri

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within this lifetime within the next lifetime within ten lifetimes after more than ten lifetimes

Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

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a) b) c) d)

Text 5

In the 1930s, Carlson was working in the patents department of a large electronics firm in New York City. One of the major problems in his work was the length of time and expense involved in getting patents copied; patents were lengthy legal documents, and the only way to get them copied was to take them to a typist or to a photographer. Either way of copying patents took a lot of time and cost a lot of money. Carlson came up with the idea for a machine that would copy documents quickly and efficiently. He researched the idea in the library and then worked over a three-year period on developing a machine that used a light, an electro statically charged plate, and powder to duplicate images on paper. The result of this work was a machine that produced the first xerographic copy on October 22,1938. He named the process “Xerox”, which means “dry writing”. 10

LEVEL A

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Section 1

Carlson felt that he had a good idea, one that would be extremely helpful in the business world. He tried to sell his idea to a number of large corporations, but they were not terribly interested in his machine. He was able to get some help in developing the machine from a non-profit institute, and a few years later he sold the process to a small family-owned company. This small company grew into the giant Xerox Corporation, and both Carlson and Xerox became rather wealthy in the process.

1. This text is mainly about Carlson‟s job in a patent office how the Xerox machine works Carlson‟s success in business the development of the Xerox machine

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a) b) c) d)

2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a problem that Carlson encountered in getting patents copied? The time needed for copying. The expense of the copying. The length of the patents. The availability of money.

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a) b) c) d)

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cost difficulty legality payment

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a) b) c) d)

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3. The word expense in line 3 is closest in meaning to

4. The word researched in line 8 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

searched for came up with looked for information about returned to his idea

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a component of the machine that Carlson developed? a) b) c) d)

A light A charged plate Powder A typewriter

11

LEVEL A

Section 1

Text 6 Line number

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Sometimes, when mail arrives at the post office it is impossible to deliver it. Perhaps, there is an inadequate or illegible address and no return address. The post office cannot just throw this mail away, so this becomes “dead mail”. This “dead mail” is sent to one of the U.S. Postal Service‟s dead mail offices in Atlanta, New York, Philadelphia, St. Paul, or San Francisco. Seventy five million pieces of mail can end up in the dead mail office in one year. The staff of the dead mail offices have a variety of ways to deal with all of these pieces of dead mail. First of all, they look for clues that can help them deliver the mail: they open packages in the hope that something inside will show where the package came from or is going to. Dead mail will also be listed on a computer so that people can call in and check to see if a missing item is there. However, all of this mail cannot simply be stored forever; there is just too much of it. When a lot of dead mail has piled up, the dead mail offices hold public auctions. Every three months, the public is invited in and bins containing items found in dead mail packages are sold to the highest bidder.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

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The U.S. Postal Service Staff responsibilities at the U.S. Postal Service Why mail is undeliverable Dead mail offices

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a) b) c) d)

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1. The best title for this passage is

2. The word staff in line 8 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

rules machines workers pieces of furniture

3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a way that post office staff members deal with dead mail? a) b) c) d)

They search for clues. They throw the dead mail away. They open dead mail. They list dead mail on a computer.

12

LEVEL A

Section 1

4. The word auctions in line 16 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

sales deliveries meetings demonstrations

5. Where in the text does the author explain why the post office cannot store dead mail forever? a) b) c) d)

Lines 2-3 Lines 4-5 Lines 7-8 Lines 14-16

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Text 7 Line number

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The Grand Canyon, a long, narrow gorge in Arizona, is rich in geological history. Its record of past plant and animal life also makes it an exciting and invaluable object of study for biologists. Using samples from the two hundred and seventeen miles of the canyon‟s walls, scientists analyze the building materials that form the earth‟ s surface and study the natural processes which have affected the canyon over its four-billion-year history. These processes include the eruption of volcanoes, which were active as recently as one thousand years ago, and gradual decomposition by erosion. Scientists also study a great variety of fossils that can be found in the canyon. These imprints of past forms of life are preserved in rock. The lower levels of canyon rock contain fossils of seashells and primitive algae, while the upper levels contain fossils of such creatures as dinosaurs and other prehistoric land animals. All of these discoveries provide scientists with information both on the earth‟s history in general and on the area around the Grand Canyon in particular.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

1. The Grand Canyon is of particular interest as a) b) c) d)

its walls can be used as building materials in construction. it contains a wealth of information in its walls. modern plant and animal life there is varied and exciting. there is great potential mineral wealth in the canyon.

13

LEVEL A

Section 1

2. The word its in line 2 refers to a) b) c) d)

the Grand Canyon Arizona animal life object of study

3. According to the text, the Grand Canyon is of special importance to geologists because a) b) c) d)

it reveals much of the earth‟s past. it is longer and deeper than any other canyon. it has suffered little destruction over the years. it is completely dry all year long.

a) b) c) d)

217 1,000 4,000,000 4,000,000,000

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4. The oldest parts of the canyon date back __________ years.

5. Scientists can learn about previous life in the area by studying

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

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current animal life. imprints in rocks. feeding habits of dinosaurs. construction materials.

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a) b) c) d)

Text 8

Beware of those who use the truth to deceive. When someone tells you something that is true, but leaves out important information that should be included, he can create a false impression. For example, someone might say, “I just won a hundred dollars in the lottery. It was great. I took that dollar ticket back to the store and turned it in for one hundred dollars!” This guy‟s a winner, right? Maybe, maybe not. We then discover that he bought two hundred tickets, and only one was a winner. He‟s really a big loser! He didn‟t say anything that was false, but he deliberately omitted important information. That‟s called a half-truth. Half-truths are not technically lies, but they are just as dishonest. Unfortunately candidates in political campaigns often use this tactic. A political campaign, like politics, has its foundation in persuasion; their goal is to motivate the masses to stand behind a particular message or group of 14

LEVEL A

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Section 1

messages. Advertisers will sometimes use half-truths. It‟s against the law to make false claims so they try to mislead you with the truth. An ad might boast, “Nine out of ten doctors recommend Aspirin Pills to cure nose pimples.” It fails to mention that they only asked ten doctors and nine of them work for the Aspirin Corporation. This kind of deception happens too often. It‟s a sad fact of life: lies are lies, and sometimes the truth can lie.

1. Which statement is true according to the text? Whenever people tell the truth, they are really lying. You can avoid false impressions all the time. All governors help their states and never tell a lie. The truth can be used in dishonest ways as well.

2. The word deceive in line 1 means a) b) c) d)

escape ignore fool repair

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a) b) c) d)

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asked for left out told about looked for

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a) b) c) d)

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3. The word omitted in line 9 could best be replaced by

a) b) c) d)

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4. The author clearly wants people to think carefully about what they read and hear. refrain from buying aspirin and other pills. never trust anyone and be ready for the worst. learn how to cheat people and get the right answers.

5. An appropriate title for this text would be: a) b) c) d)

Learn How to Tell a Lie Everyone Lies these Days Lying With the Truth Nose Pimples and Aspirin

15

LEVEL A

Section 1

Text 9 Line number

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The most famous painter in Victoria's history is Emily Carr. She was born in 1871 and, as a child, she discovered that walking in the woods appealed more to her than playing with other children. She discovered that she was more interested in roaming the streets of old Victoria than playing at home with dolls. Emily was a plump little girl who spent much of her childhood in Hill Park, which was very close to her family home. Drawing fascinated her, and she also liked to play with the animals she kept as pets. She had ducks and chickens, and even domesticated a crow. She was particularly interested in the Chinese people she saw in Victoria's Chinatown. Their culture and way of dressing seemed so distinct from her own. At the age of sixteen she began to study drawing seriously. As she became a young, strong and independent woman Emily began to go on longer and longer trips into the uncharted forests to paint and draw what she saw. In the summer of 1895 she went on an expedition with two other women to explore the wilderness along the Cowichan River. Some time later she travelled up the coast by boat to visit and draw the native villages along the way. This required great daring and strength. When you look at her paintings, you can sense the atmosphere of these dark, mysterious forests. Her paintings are now very famous and, although the dark colours may not be attractive to some people, they evoke the beauty and mystery of the deep woods and the skill of a great artist.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

a) b) c) d)

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1. According to the text,

Emily Carr was the only painter in Victoria's history. Emily Carr was an outstanding painter in Victoria‟s history. In Victoria‟s period the English art developed and flourished. Nature was the main subject to be painted in Victoria‟s period.

2. The word roaming in line 4 means

a) b) c) d)

cleaning drawing wandering avoiding

3. Paragraph 1 (lines 1-9) implies that a) b) c) d)

the Chinese were very interested in Emily‟s art. Emily Carr was particularly attracted to Chinese culture. Chinese culture seemed to be unfamiliar to Victorian period. toys and animals were the main topics for Emily to paint. 16

LEVEL A

Section 1

4. The word uncharted in line 13 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

not included on maps dangerously far well-known to many different from others

5. The text mostly discusses a) b) c) d)

Victoria's Chinatown Wild life of Victorian painters Victoria's history Emily Carr‟s love for the wild life Text 10

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Michelangelo was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. He was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese, near Arezzo. For several generations, his family had been small-scale bankers in Florence, but his father failed to maintain the bank's financial status, and held occasional government positions Several months after Michelangelo's birth, the family returned to Florence, where Michelangelo was raised. At later times when Michelangelo was six years old, he lived with a stonecutter and his wife. He had a knack for handling chisel and hammer, with which he made small figures. At thirteen, Michelangelo was apprenticed to the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. From 1490 to 1492, Michelangelo attended the Humanist academy. At the academy, both Michelangelo's outlook and his art were subject to the influence of many of the most prominent philosophers and writers of the day. Michelangelo was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime, and since then he has been held to be one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of his works in painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

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Line number

1. According to the text , a) b) c) d)

Michelangelo was a French sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer. After Michelangelo's birth, the family never moved anywhere. When he was just six, Michelangelo lived with a stonecutter and his wife. Ghirlandaio's works in painting, sculpture, and architecture were among the most famous in existence. 17

LEVEL A

Section 1

2. The word maintain in line 5 is NOT synonymous to a) b) c) d)

keep up preserve assert retain

3. The word prominent in line 15 means a) b) c) d)

wonderful distinguished clever wise

4. Which of the statements is NOT true?

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a) Michelangelo was a Spanish Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer. b) Michelangelo exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. c) Michelangelo attended the Humanist academy for two years. d) At the academy, both Michelangelo's outlook and his art were subject to the influence of many of the most prominent philosophers and writers of the day.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

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Domenico Ghirlandaio. Stone-cutting. Michelangelo‟s life. Michelangelo‟s death.

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a) b) c) d)

.a

5. The text is mainly about

Text 11

Great Britain has always been the cradle of industrial innovations and unexpected solutions especially in architecture. British engineers and designers were eager to put in life sometimes most unusual ideas. XIX century was marked with such kind of constructions which seemed rather strange on the customary surroundings of the British landscape. Perhaps the most extraordinary building of the XIX century was the Crystal Palace, built in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Crystal Palace was different from all other buildings in the world. The construction was quite different from what the British were used to see, for it was made from iron and glass. It was one of the biggest buildings of all time, and a lot of people from many countries came to see it. A great many goods were sent to the exhibition from various parts of the world. 18

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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Section 1

There was also a great deal of machinery on display. The most wonderful piece of machinery on show was Nasmyth‟s steam hammer. Though in those days travelling was not easy as it is today steam boats carried thousands of visitors across the Channel from Europe. On arriving in England, they were taken to the Crystal Palace by train. There were six million visitors in all, and the profits from the exhibition were used to build museums and colleges. Later, the Crystal Palace was moved to South London. It remained one of the most famous buildings in the world until it was burnt down in 1936.

1. The Crystal Palace differed from all other buildings at the time because it was very big. it was in an exhibition. it was made of unusual materials. it was in Hyde Park.

a) b) c) d)

a failure. highly successful. not very profitable. spoilt by fire.

.a

2. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was

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a) b) c) d)

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the iron the glass the world the palace

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a) b) c) d)

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3. The pronoun it in line 10 stands for

4. The word machinery in line 13 may probably be replaced by a) b) c) d)

cars and vans equipment and apparatus computers and scanners tools and clothes

5. The text most likely discusses a) b) c) d)

the great fire which destroyed the palace. the crystal out of which the extraordinary palace was built. the history of the once famous exhibition hall in the UK. the machinery display in the South of London.

19

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Text 12 Line number

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It is well known that Brazil is one of the most interesting and fascinating countries in the world. It has great historical past full of mysteries and dramatic events. Besides, the country is extremely rich with natural resources and especially with the famous forests which are considered to be the lungs of our mother planet Earth. Still, much of it has not been developed yet. It was mainly for this reason that the Brazilian government decided to have a new city built 600 miles north-west of Rio de Janeiro. They hope that this step will help them to solve several problems. One of them is to make the areas far from the coast develop and attract more of their citizens to settle down there. Designed by the great architect Lucio Costa, the new city, Brazilia, replaced Rio de Janeiro as the capital of Brazil in 1960. Indeed, Brasilia has been carefully planned for modern living. Everything has been taken into account. The city is designed to serve its inhabitants as a pleasant place to live and work. Its wide roads, which can take fourteen lanes of traffic, are kept away from living areas. Children do not have to cross busy streets to go to school. Housewives can visit shopping centres on foot for in these specially designed living areas cars are unnecessary. At first, the government faced great difficulty in persuading people to leave Rio and settle in Brasilia. Yet, the city has quickly established itself as the capital of the country, and the population has been increasing all the time. The idea to have the capital so far inland, which at first seemed simply unsuitable, will have a great effect on the future of Brazil.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

a) b) c) d)

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1. The new capital, Brasilia, was built inland because Rio was not suitable any more. because Lucio Costa suggested doing so. because it was necessary to speed up the progress of the country. because Brazil is one of the richest countries in the world.

2. Brazilia must be a wonderful city to live in because a) b) c) d)

it is new with a lot of shops. it is out of danger as it is 600 miles inland. it is well thought out and designed for modern living. it has wide roads which can room a lot of cars.

3. Children do not have to cross busy streets which are full of a) b) c) d)

circulation movement traffic people 20

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Section 1

4. According to the text, a) Brazilia was replaced by Rio de Janeiro because the population increased very rapidly. b) Brazilia very soon began to correspond to the status of the capital city with rapidly increasing population. c) Brazilia, situated not far from Rio, became a paradise for housewives. d) Brazilia is one of the ancient capitals of Brazil and was established by the Brazilian government. 5. The word unsuitable in line 22 can best be replaced by inappropriate indifferent irregular incomplete

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a) b) c) d)

Text 13

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.a

Thomas Adams, an American inventor, is the father of modern bubble gum. During the 1870s, Adams discovered by accident a new way to make chewing gum, while he was trying to find out a use of chicle. Chicle is a Spanish word for the sap that comes from one kind of Mexican tree. Mr. Adams wanted to make rubber from chicle. Mr. Adams worked for a long time trying to make rubber from chicle. His eldest son ,Thomas Junior, also helped him now and then. But they never discovered a way to make it work. One day, Thomas Adams Senior was in a store when he heard a young girl ask for some chewing gum. Adams and his son had been chewing chicle while they were working on the rubber, so he decided to give up trying to make rubber from the chicle and make gum instead. At that time, chewing gum was made from sap from spruce trees. This chewing gum had a strong taste. Adams thought chewing gum from chicle tasted better. He and his son wrapped small pieces of chicle in colored paper and sold it. In no time, people everywhere began chewing his gum. People could blow bubbles with chicle chewing gum, but the bubbles were very sticky. It was not until 1928 that Walter Diemer found a way to improve chewing gum by making bubbles that were not sticky.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

1. Where was Thomas Adams from? a) b) c) d)

Chile Spain America Mexico 21

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Section 1

2. Who helped Mr. Adams in trying to make rubber? a) b) c) d)

a girl in a store Walter Diemer his best friend a family member

3. The word chicle in line 3 means a) b) c) d)

fluid tree rubber gum

4. Which of these sentences is NOT true? Thomas Junior helped his father. Mr. Adams was the first person to sell gum. Mr. Adams thought spruce gum did not taste as good as gum from chicle. Mr. Adams never found a way to make rubber from chicle.

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a) b) c) d)

5. How was Mr.Diemer‟s gum different from other gums?

.a

It was less sticky It was sold in colored paper. It made bubbles. It was made from tree sap.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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Line number

Text 14

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a) b) c) d)

There are many unique hotels around the world. In Greenland, there is a hotel made out of ice, open between December and April every year. In Turkey, there is a cave hotel with television,furniture, and a bathroom in each room. And in Bolivia, there is the Salt Palace Hotel. Thousands of years ago, the area around the Salt Palace Hotel was a large lake. But overtime, all the water disappeared. Today, the area has only two small lakes and two small deserts. The larger of the two deserts, the Uyuni salt desert, is 12,000 square kilometers. During the day, the desert is bright white because of the salt. There are no roads across the Uyuni desert, so local people must show guests the way to the hotel. In the early 1990s, a man named Juan Quesada built the hotel. He cut big blocks of salt from the desert and used the blocks to build it. Everything in the hotel is made out of salt: the walls, the roof, the tables, the chairs, the beds, and the hotel‟s bar. The sun heats the walls and roof during the day. At night the desert is very 22

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16. cold, but the rooms stay warm. The hotel has twelve rooms. A single room 17. costs $40 a night, and a double room costs $60. 18. A sign on the hotel‟s wall tells guests, “Please don‟t lick the walls.” 1. What is unique about the Salt Palace Hotel? a) b) c) d)

Its long history The price of the rooms The guests that stay there The substance it is made of

2. Which sentence about the area around the Salt Palace Hotel is NOT true? There was a lake in its place many years ago. It is white during the day. There are several roads to the hotel. It is more than 10,000 square kilometres.

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a) b) c) d)

3. Where did the salt used for the hotel come from? a salt factory the ground Turkey the walls of the hotel

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a hotel guest a guide the hotel owner an expert on salt

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a) b) c) d)

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4. Who is Juan Quesada?

.a

a) b) c) d)

5. What keeps the rooms warm at night? a) b) c) d)

heat from the walls the desert air the bathroom the furniture

Text 15 Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

An old saying says, “Laughter is the best medicine.” One person who certainly would have agreed with this is Norman Cousins. Norman Cousins was the editor of a magazine called Saturday Review for almost forty years. He also wrote and spoke about world peace and antinuclear and anti-war issues,travelling to many different countries to share his 23

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.a

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ideas. In the 1960s, after returning to the United States from a busy and tiring trip to Europe, Mr. Cousins got sick. He discovered he had a rare disease, known as ankylosing spondylitis, that caused the joints between his bones to become stiff. In less than a week after he got back, he could not stand. Every move that he made was painful. He was not able to sleep at night. The doctors told Mr. Cousins that they did not know how to cure his problem and he might never get over the illness. Mr. Cousins, however, refused to give up hope. Mr. Cousins thought that the illness could be caused by unhappy thoughts. He did not want to take medicine to cure himself. Instead, he felt that happy thoughts or laughter might cure his illness. He began to experiment on himself while still in the hospital by watching Comedy shows on television. Mr. Cousins quickly found that ten minutes of real laughter during the day gave him two hours of pain-free sleep at night. Deciding that the doctors could not help him, Mr. Cousins left the hospital and checked into a hotel room where he could continue his experiments with laughter. For eight weeks, Mr. Cousins rested in the hotel room watching comedy shows on television, reading amusing books, and sleeping whenever he felt tired. Within three weeks, he felt well enough to take vacation to Puerto Rico where he began running on the beach for exercise. After a few months, Mr. Cousins was able to carry on his work. He had laughed himself back to health.

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Section 1

a funny story an interesting cure an amazing life why people laugh

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a) b) c) d)

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1. What is the main topic of the text?

2. What is NOT true about ankylosing spondylitis? a) b) c) d)

It is uncommon. It makes walking difficult. It is easily cured. It is painful.

3. What did the doctors think about Mr. Cousin‟s disease? a) b) c) d)

It could be cured if he slept more. It might never be cured. It could be cured by taking medicine. It would take a week to get over it. 24

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Section 1

4. What did Mr. Cousins think cured him? a) b) c) d)

laughter running on the beach medicine taking a vacation

5. What did Mr. Cousins do after he got better? a) b) c) d)

He went back to the hospital. He continued his job. He wrote amusing books. The passage doesn‟t say. Text 16

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What is the American Dream? President Franklin Roosevelt explained the American Dream as freedom of speech and freedom of religion. For the early immigrants the American Dream was a better life not with material goods, but by freedom. Norman Rockwell was a famous artist during the 1930‟s. Rockwell drew pictures of the American dream during his time. His art of the American dream consisted of families having a great time, or of a happily married couple. Before World War II the American Dream was happiness with a family or a loved one. The ending of the war caused the American Dream to change. Now the American Dream is to become rich. Everyone‟s dream is to become just like Bill Gates.People no longer do their work because they enjoy it. They do their work because of the money. A perfect example of this is baseball. When Major League Baseball first started the players did it because they loved the game and loved playing in front of the huge audiences. They got paid low wages but still played the game because they loved it. Major League players these days complain because they‟re not getting paid enough when they are making millions of dollars a year. Many American kids set their goal to become a baseball player so that they can earn millions of dollars too. Americans who hope to use their popularity and luck for hard work are likely to fail at achieving the American Dream. While those who find work they love to do and work hard to do it will continue to find their American Dream.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

1. The main idea of the text is that the American dream a) b) c) d)

has changed over time. has brought freedom. has lost its popularity. has found its goal. 25

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Section 1

2. The word huge in line 15 is synonymous to a) b) c) d)

endless enormous numerous hopeless

3. The pronoun they in line 15 stands for a) b) c) d)

players audiences wages games

4. It is stated in Paragraph 4 (lines 10-12) that nowadays people do their work for enjoyment pleasure money popularity

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a) b) c) d)

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text?

.a

Everyone‟s dream is to be like Bill Gates. Franklin Roosevelt was the President of the USA. Major League Baseball team played because they loved the game. Americans don‟t work hard to find their dream.

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a) b) c) d)

Line number

People in many different countries celebrate Valentine's Day. Each year on February 14, friends and lovers exchange candy, flowers, love notes and greeting cards. These gifts are used as special messages of friendship and love. This tradition, as we know it today, has grown from two basic roots: the Roman festival of Lupercalia and the sad story of a Christian doctor named Valentine. Many years ago, the Romans celebrated the festival of Lupercalia on February 15. At first, the festival honoured the Roman god Lupercus, keeper of the crops and farm animals. However, as time passed, the Romans began to honour a different god during the festival. Her name was Juno, queen of the Roman gods and guardian of women and marriage. At the festival, all unmarried people played a special game. All the females wrote their names on pieces of paper and dropped them into a big jar. Then, all the males drew names from the jar and spent the festival dancing with the person whose name they had selected.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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Text 17

26

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Celebrations of fun and love are still a part of today's Valentine tradition. More than 2,000 years ago in Rome, there was a Christian doctor named Valentine. According to the legend, Valentine had special abilities that allowed him to cure many diseases. However, a Roman emperor named Claudius did not like Valentine's Christian beliefs. At that time, most Romans believed in different gods and goddesses. Claudius sent Valentine to jail, where he was sentenced to death for his unpopular beliefs. While he was imprisoned, Valentine became friends with the jailer's blind daughter and he used his special abilities to cure her blindness. Valentine was killed on February 14, but before he died, he sent a special note to the girl and signed it “From Your Valentine”. This note of friendship was the world's first Valentine message. Eventually, the Christians became more powerful in Rome. They wanted people to stop the festival of Lupercalia because it honoured gods that were not Christian. However, the people loved their festival and did not want it to end. So, the Christian leaders encouraged people to honor St. Valentine at the festival because they viewed him as a hero of their religion. Since then, the traditions of Valentine's Day have changed and grown, but millions of people still take part in this old celebration of love and friendship.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

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god Lupercus. dancing men. unmarried females. different gods.

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a) b) c) d)

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1. Lupercalia was a Roman festival which was devoted to

2. Juno was a Roman goddess who was a) b) c) d)

the keeper of crops and farm animals. the guardian of women and marriage. the keeper of unmarried men. the queen of Roman females.

3. The word roots in line 5 is synonymous to a) b) c) d)

copies sources reasons ideas

27

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Section 1

4. Valentine was sentenced to death because he a) b) c) d)

loved the sick and the blind. had Christian beliefs. was a doctor for the Romans. wrote a love letter.

5. Today Valentine‟s Day is a celebration of a) b) c) d)

unmarried girls who want to get married. crops and farm animals after the harvest. Roman gods who protected unmarried girls. love and friendship among people. Text 18

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.a

Franklin D. Roosevelt, the thirty-second president of the United States, was from a wealthy, well-known family. As a child, he attended private school, had private tutors, and traveled with his parents to Europe. He attended Harvard University and afterwards studied law. At age 39, Roosevelt suddenly developed polio, a disease that left him without the full use of his legs for the rest of his life. Even through the worst of his illness, however, he continued his life in politics. In 1924, he appeared at the Democratic National Convention to nominate Al Smith for president, and eight years after that he himself was nominated for the same office. Roosevelt was elected to the presidency during the Great Depression of the 1930s, at a time when more than 5,000 banks had failed and thousands of people were out of work. Roosevelt took action. First he declared a bank holiday that closed all the banks so that no more could fail; then he reopened the banks little by little with government support. Roosevelt believed in using the full power of government to help what he called the "forgotten people." And it was these workers, the wage earners, who felt the strongest affection toward Roosevelt. There were others, however, who felt that Roosevelt's politics were destroying the American system of government, and they opposed him in the same intense way that others admired him. In 1940, the Democrats nominated Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term. No president in American history had ever served three terms, but Roosevelt felt an obligation not to quit while the United States' entry into World War II was looming in the future. He accepted the nomination and went on to an easy victory.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

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Line number

28

LEVEL A

Section 1

1. What does the text mainly discuss? a) b) c) d)

Political aspects of Roosevelt's life Problems during the Great Depression Roosevelt's upbringing Criticism of Roosevelt's actions

2. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the text? a) b) c) d)

Roosevelt was elected during the Great Depression. Roosevelt refused to nominate Al Smith. Roosevelt had difficulty walking during his presidency. Roosevelt supported strong government powers.

3. The phrase little by little in line 14 means that Roosevelt opened the smaller banks first. the banks for minimal services. the banks a few at a time. the bank for a short time.

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a) b) c) d)

Lines 1-4 Lines 5-9 Lines 10-16 Lines 18-26

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a) b) c) d)

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4. Where in the text does the author discuss Roosevelt's response to the Great Depression?

poor people. bankers. rich people. average workers.

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a) b) c) d)

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5. It can be concluded from the text that the people who mostly liked Roosevelt best were

Text 19 Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Through the centuries, many people have confused whales with fish. Whales are mammals, not fish. They breathe air and give birth to their young. Orca whales, which are black and white, are highly trainable. They are also called “killer whales,” but trainers tell us that these whales are intelligent and sensitive. One time, a newly captured male orca refused to eat for a long time. Finally, he took a fish from the trainer. However, he didn‟t eat the fish immediately; he took it to another recently 29

LEVEL A

captured whale, a female who had also refused to eat, and shared it with her. Some species of whales dive deeply beneath the surface of the ocean in order to feed and can stay under the water for more than an hour. All whales, however, must come to the surface for air. Whales make the longest migrations known among mammals. Gray whales swim from the Pacific coast of Mexico to the icy arctic for the summer. Whales do not have vocal cords, but they can communicate with each other. They have a wide range of clicks, whistles, and songs. When a whale is captured in a net, other whales gather around it and communicate through the net. They follow the captured whale for long distances.

1. The text mainly discusses a) b) c) d)

types of whales and their features. “killer whales” and their dangerous customs. orca whales and their eating habits. whales in captivity.

.a

2. The word confuse in line 1 means

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mess mix up take after resemble

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a) b) c) d)

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

a) b) c) d)

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3. The fact that the male orca shared the fish with another whale proves that whales are highly trainable. the male orca was not hungry at all. whales refuse to eat in captivity. whales are clever and sensitive creatures.

4. Whales dive deep to a) b) c) d)

breathe air. stay under the water. eat something. spend an hour there.

5. The word it in line 19 refers to a) b) c) d)

the net vocal cords a whale the distance 30

Section 1

LEVEL A

Text 20 Line number

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John James Audubon, a nineteenth-century artist and naturalist, is known as one of the foremost authorities on North American birds. Born in Les Cayes, Haiti, in 1785, Audubon was raised in France and studied art under French artist Jacques-Louis David. After settling on his father‟s Pennsylvania estate at the age of eighteen, he first began to study and paint birds. In his young adulthood, Audubon undertook numerous enterprises, generally without a tremendous amount of success; at various times during his life he was involved in a mercantile business, a taxidermy business and a school. His general mode of operating a business was to leave it either unattended or in the hands of a partner and take off on excursions through the wilds to paint the natural life that he saw. His business career came to an end in 1819 when he was imprisoned for debt and forced to file for bankruptcy. It was at that time that Audubon began to seriously pursue the dream of publishing a collection of his paintings of birds. For the next six years he painted birds in their natural habitats while his wife worked as a teacher to support the family. His Birds of America, which included engravings of 435 of his colorful and lifelike watercolors, was published in parts during the period from 1826 to 1838 in England. After the success of the English editions, American editions of his work were published in 1839, and his fame and fortune were ensured.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

a) b) c) d)

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1. The text is mainly about

North American birds Audubon‟s route to success as a painter of birds mercantile business Audubon‟s preference for travel in natural habitats

2. In paragraph 2 (lines 7-14), the author mainly discusses a) b) c) d)

how Audubon developed his painting style Audubon‟s involvement in a mercantile business where Audubon went on his excursions Audubon‟s unsuccessful business practices

31

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Section 1

3. The word mode in line 10 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

method vogue average trend

4. Audubon decided not to continue to pursue business when he a) b) c) d)

was injured in an accident decided to study art in France was put in prison because he owed money made enough money from his paintings

5. It can be inferred from the text that after 1839 Audubon unsuccessfully tried to develop new business. continued to be supported by his wife. traveled to Europe. became wealthy.

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a) b) c) d)

Text 21

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One day Fleming, a poor Scottish farmer, was working in the fields. Suddenly he heard a cry for help coming from a nearby swamp. He dropped his tools and ran to the swamp. There, stuck to his waist in black mud, was a terrified boy, screaming and struggling to free himself. Farmer Fleming saved the lad from a slow and terrifying death. The next day, a fancy carriage pulled up to the Scotsman‟s poor hut. An elegantly dressed nobleman stepped out and introduced himself as the father of the boy Farmer Fleming had saved. “I want to repay you,” said the nobleman. “You saved my son‟s life.” “No, I can‟t accept payment for what I did,” the Scottish farmer replied, waving off the offer. At that moment the farmer‟s own son came in. “Is that your son?” the nobleman asked. “Yes,” the farmer replied proudly. “I‟ll make you a deal. Let me take him and give him a good education. If the lad is anything like his father, he‟ll grow to be a man you can be proud of.” And that he did. In time, Fleming‟s son graduated from St. Mary‟s Hospital Medical School in London, and became known throughout the world as the noted Sir Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of Penicillin. Some years later, the nobleman‟s son was stricken with pneumonia. What saved him? Penicillin. The nobleman was Lord Randolph Churchill. And his son was Sir Winston Churchill.

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Line number

32

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Section 1

1. If Farmer Fleming hadn‟t saved him, the boy a) b) c) d)

would scream and save himself would have died slowly would have asked somebody else to do it would free himself easily

2. The father of the boy Fleming had saved a) b) c) d)

was an ungrateful person was a wealthy nobleman never even thanked Fleming introduced himself as an elegantly dressed nobleman

a) b) c) d)

noticed famous notorious mentioned

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Lord Churchill fell ill with pneumonia. The boy Farmer Fleming had saved was Winston Churchill. Farmer Fleming got a good education with Lord Churchill‟s help. Alexander Fleming saved Randolph Churchill from death in the swamp.

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a) b) c) d)

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4. Which of the statements is true?

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3. The word noted in line 15 may best be replaced by

a) b) c) d)

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5. According to the text,

Farmer Fleming discovered Penicillin Sir Churchill gave Farmer Fleming a large sum of money both Fleming and Churchill graduated from London medical school the medicine the farmer‟s son discovered saved Winston Churchill‟s life

Text 22 Line number

1. 2. 3. 4.

Before the 17th century, fairies, also known as elves, goblins, pixies, „the little people‟ or „the hidden people‟, were feared and thought to be cruel and dangerous. But after that they were thought of as tiny, cute, lovable, angel-like creatures with wings. 33

LEVEL A

Some thought they were spirits of wood and water, others – that they were restless ghosts of non-christened babies, yet others thought they were a separate creation like humans and animals. They were smaller than ordinary people – the size of children, about four feet. Their dress was green or brown. Occasionally they were naked. They lived in lonely places and were nocturnal by nature. Fairies generally hated humans and stole their babies, tools, saucepans, food and clothing. At night they raided the fruit trees and milked the cows. Sometimes they were friendly. They did household jobs and mended things on the farm in return for food and old clothes. The first thing we notice about these people is that their needs were not at all supernatural. They wanted food and were ready to work or steal in order to get it. Surely these were not ghosts or spirits. Who were they then? We will never know the truth about the fairies.

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Section 1

1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–4, fairies

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a) have always feared people b) are cruel and dangerous creatures c) were afraid of people before the 17th century d) have been treated more positively since the 17th century

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2. According to the text, some people thought that fairies were

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a) spirits of animals b) creatures made of water c) small non-christened babies d) ghosts of non-baptized babies 3. The word raided in line 12 means a) climbed b) planted c) watered d) attacked 4. Which of the statements is true?

a) People served fairies and got food and clothes in return. b) Fairies were kind and farmers helped them with their work. c) Sometimes fairies did some jobs and were given food and clothes instead. d) Fairies did some jobs on the farm and in return the farmers mended their things. 34

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5. The author thinks that a) fairies were supernatural creatures b) the needs of the fairies were unnatural c) we have revealed the mystery of the fairies d) we shall never reveal the mystery of the fairies

Text 23 Line number

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September 11, 2001 was the day on which a series of major terrorist attacks took place in New York and other places in the US. The terrorists carried out the attacks using four passenger planes that they hijacked on flights from the east coast of the US. At 8.46 a.m. the first plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York. At 9.03 a.m. the second plane crashed into the south tower. Less than 90 minutes later both towers fell down. The third plane crashed into the Pentagon and the fourth into a field in Pennsylvania. Approximately 3000 people died in the attacks, a greater number than were killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor in the Second World War. The place where the World Trade Center once stood is now known as „Ground Zero‟. The attacks were seen as the work of Al Quaeda, a terrorist organization led by Osama Bin Laden. They resulted in strong anti-terrorist laws being passed in many countries and a US-led war in Afghanistan, where Osama Bin Laden was thought to be hiding.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

1. According to the text, a) b) c) d)

all the attacks took place in New York all the four passenger planes had been hijacked the four passenger planes were hijacked at 8.46 a.m. the first plane crashed into the Pentagon

2. The number of the victims was a) b) c) d)

far more than 3000 people about three thousand people greater than in the Second World War the same as in the attack on Pearl Harbor

35

LEVEL A

Section 1

3. According to the text, the World Trade Center a) was called „Ground Zero‟ b) was known as „Ground Zero‟ c) stood in a place once called „Ground Zero‟ d) stood in a place now called „Ground Zero‟ 4. According to the text, the attacks were recognized as the work of a) a terrorist b) Al Quaeda, a terrorist c) a terrorist led by Osama Bin Laden d) an organization led by Osama Bin Laden

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5. As a result of the attacks a) Afghanistan began a war against the US b) Al Quaeda led Osama Bin Laden to Afghanistan c) many countries passed strong anti-terrorist laws d) Afghanistan passed strong anti-terrorist laws

.a

Text 24

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Near the end of the 1950s, the USSR was preparing to send a dog into orbit above Earth. Scientists in the Soviet Union were sure that organisms from Earth could live in space. To show that, they sent the world‟s second artificial space satellite – Sputnik 2 on November 3, 1957. On board was a live dog named Laika. She had been a street dog, around three years old. She was taken from the streets and trained for space flight. Sputnik 2 was equipped with life-support systems but was not designed for recovery. The dog could move about to get food and water. Electrodes reported its heartbeat, blood pressure and breathing rate. People around the world sadly watched as the batteries that operated Laika‟s life-support system ran down and the air on Sputnik 2 ran out. Life slipped away from her. Later, Sputnik 2 fell into the atmosphere and burned.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

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Line number

1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–6, Sputnik 2 was sent into orbit a) b) c) d)

to show how a dog could control a spaceship to demonstrate that it was an artificial satellite to prove that living organisms could survive in space to show how street dogs can be trained for space flight 36

LEVEL A

Section 1

2. It is stated in the text that Sputnik 2 a) b) c) d)

had no recovery system was sent to space in 1950 was the world‟s first artificial satellite disappeared in the space at once

3. According to Paragraph 2, lines 7–9, a) b) c) d)

Sputnik 2 had no life-support systems the dog was motionless on board the spaceship electrodes provided the dog with food and water the dog could move on board the spaceship

a) b) c) d)

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4. According to the text, people around the world sympathized with Laika watched the satellite burn operated Laika‟s life-support system watched Sputnik 2 fall into the atmosphere

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there was no food on board there was no more air for her to breathe Sputnik 2 fell into the atmosphere and burned she couldn‟t operate her life-support system well

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a) b) c) d)

.a

5. Laika died because

Text 25

Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Can dogs see television? We often think they can. But animals do not see as much as we do. They don‟t see the many colours that we see, for they are colourblind. You can see a brown rabbit in a green field. Your dog cannot. All he sees is in grey. When the rabbit moves, your dog sees it as a moving grey thing in a big grey world. On television he sees moving grey shadows but cannot understand what he sees. But your dog has a good sense of smell and hearing, and he can tell by the smells from your body and the sounds you make if you are happy or angry. When you get excited by the pictures you see on television, your dog smells and hears this, and 37

LEVEL A

Section 1

11. he may get excited, too. When this happens, you may think it is the picture on 12. television which is making him excited but this is not really so. 1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–3, animals a) b) c) d)

are blind don‟t see any colours can see many colours don‟t distinguish all colours

2. According to Paragraph 2, lines 4–6, dogs can‟t see the brown rabbit can see the brown rabbit in grey can‟t see the rabbit in a green field can see the rabbit only when it moves

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a) b) c) d)

3. The word shadows in line 7 may best be replaced by

.a

sounds shows figures movies

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a) b) c) d)

4. According to the text, your dog

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can smell the pictures on TV gets excited by the pictures he sees on TV gets excited by the sounds he hears on TV can smell that you are excited and may get excited too

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a) b) c) d)

5. The text mainly discusses a) b) c) d)

the behavior of wild animals the problem of animation the meaning of colours the dog‟s perception of colours

38

LEVEL A

Section 2

SECTION 2 ÀÝïñ»É ×Çßï ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ: Choose the right option. 1. Yesterday we had a houseful of children for my son‟s sixth birthday party. In the middle of the party the phone (1)__________, so I (2)__________ leave the children alone for a moment. When I came back into the room, most of the children still (3)__________ together nicely. Only Annie (4)__________ Bobby‟s car and now didn‟t want to give it back to him. I quickly ran over because they (5)__________ harm each other. a) rang a) must a) were playing a) took a) can

b) was ringing b) was obliged b) had been playing b) was taking b) were able to

c) had rung c) had to c) have played c) had been taking c) had to

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

d) has rung d) was able to d) played d) had taken d) might

.a

2. –Hi. Where are you going in such a hurry? -I (1)__________ post a letter and after that I (2)__________get something to eat before my driving lesson. I am starving. -I did not know you (3)__________ to drive. How is it going? -Fine. b) could b) had to b) were learning

c) am able to c) must c) would learn

d) have to d) am able to d) had learnt

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1. a) may 2. a) ought 3. a) learnt

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3. Scientists (1) __________ that organic and non-organic food contain pretty much the same amounts and kinds of vitamins and other nutrients. This (2) __________ be surprising news for those of us who choose to buy organic food believing it to be healthier. Researchers from America‟s Stanford University concluded that there might not be any extra health benefits to buying organic food, thus people might be better off saving their money and buying non-organic produce. Lead researcher Dr. Crystal SmithSpangle said there (3) __________ no difference in the vitamin content in fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products in organically- and conventionally-produced food. She said the only difference was slightly more phosphorus in the organic products. Dr. Smith-Spangle‟s review of over 200 different reports on organic food (4) __________people (5) __________perhaps revise their shopping choices, based on the levels of pesticides. 1. a) were revealing 2. a) is to 3 . a) will be 4. a) had suggested 5. a) could

b) had revealed b) might b) has been b) will suggest b) might

c) would reveal c) has to c) would be c) would suggest c) should 39

d) have revealed d) ought to d) was d) suggests d) are able to

LEVEL A

Section 2

4. A mayor in a small Spanish town (1) __________ a hero after helping steal food from supermarkets to give to the poor. The modern-day Robin Hood is Juan Manuel Sanchez Gordillo, 59, the elected leader of the southern town of Marinaleda in Andalusia. Mayor Gordillo has immunity from prosecution under Andalusian law and so (2)__________ break the law without being arrested. He has so far orchestrated several raids on supermarkets to hand out the stolen food to poor families. Unfortunately, those helping him are not immune from prosecution and seven have been arrested for theft. Gordillo (3)__________ mayor for 30 years and his recent exploits have seen his popularity skyrocket, with crowds gathering to see his food grabs. Many Spaniards (4)__________ severe economic conditions. A quarter of Spain‟s workforce is jobless and many now live in poverty. Things are even worse in Andalusia where unemployment (5)__________ over 30 per cent. Mr.Gordillo defended his role in stealing food for the less well-off. b) would become b) can b) will be b) would be facing b) had been

c) was becoming c) should c) would be c) were facing c) was

d) has become d) must d) has been d) are facing d) would have been

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1. a) had become 2. a) is able to 3. a) is 4. a) had faced 5. a) is

b) has to b) had covered b) is b) will have changed

c) should c) has covered c) was c) would be changing

b) was

c) had been

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1. a) must 2. a) covered 3. a) would 4. a) have changed

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.a

5. Scientists have announced that the layer of ice covering the Arctic Ocean has shrunk to an all-time low record. What‟s more, they say the ice (1) __________ disappear altogether in future summers. The area of ice recorded on August 26 (2) __________ just over four million square kilometers, which is 70,000 square kilometers less than the previous low in 2007. Experts said that record was a one-off and (3) __________ not be repeated. However, conditions (4) __________ quickly. The USA‟s National Snow and Ice Data Center said: “The ice cover (5) __________ now just so thin and weak in the springtime that large parts of it can‟t survive the melt season.

5. a) is

d) can d) covers d) will d) would have changed d) will be

6. I arrived over an hour late at the office and everyone (1)__________. Actually, they (2)__________ for over two hours on the new project and I (3)__________ really guilty. 1. a) is working 2. a) had been working 3. a) have felt

b) was working b) were worked b) feel

c) worked c) worked c) felt

40

d) had worked d) have worked d) had felt

LEVEL A

Section 2

7. Don‟t you hate it when people say things like “Let‟s be careful, (1) __________ we? It always seems to me as if two of us (2) __________ to do something together, but in fact the other person (3) __________ anything. I would prefer it if they just (4) __________,” “You should be careful”, because that‟s what they really mean. 1. a) shall 2. a) are going 3. a) wasn‟t doing 4. a) said

b) should b) will b) won‟t be doing b) are saying

c) would c) will be c) won‟t do c) have said

d) will d) would d) didn‟t do d) will say

8. When I was ten I (1) __________ to stay with my grandparents for a few weeks. At that time they (2) __________ in the country. I (3) __________ to climb trees and run around with their dog. I (4) __________ go near the lake by myself, but my grandfather sometimes took me fishing there. b) have gone b) live b) must b) wasn‟t allowed to

c) go c) have lived c) could c) might not

d) would go d) will live d) should d) may not

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1. a) went 2. a) were living 3. a) was able 4. a) can‟t

9. Tommy, you had better slow down and wait for the rest of us. I‟m sure we (1)__________ lots of time, so we (2) __________ to run. c) had c) mustn‟t

.a

b) will have b) don‟t need

d) are having d) couldn‟t

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1. a) have 2. a) shouldn‟t

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10. Today , bicycles are so common that it‟s hard to believe they haven‟t always been around. But two hundred years ago bicycles didn‟t even exist, and the first bicycle (1)__________in Germany in 1818,was nothing like our bicycles today. It (2)_____of wood and didn‟t even have pedals. Since then, however, numerous innovations and improvements in design (3)__________the bicycle one of the most popular means of transportation around the world. 1. a) invented 2. a) was made 3. a) have made

b) was invented b) is being made b) had made

c) was inventing c) made c) is made

d) had invented d) is made d) makes

11. The university president (1)_____to make sure that it is perfectly clear to all university professors, administrators, students, and any other members of the university community that university policy (2)__________ that no pets (3)__________on campus. 1. a) would like 2. a) requires 3. a) be allowed

b) likes b) require b) aren‟t allowed

c) is liked c) is required c) not allowed 41

d) looked like d) requiring d) mightn‟t allowed

LEVEL A

Section 2

12. Now modern jets (1)__________air travel possible for all people. No place in the world is more than 24 hours away by jet. Further improvements have lowered the cost of flying, and they (2)__________ air travel much safer than it used to be. A modern 707 (3)__________ carry 170 people and can fly at 600 miles per hour. 1. a) make 2. a) have made 3. a) can

c) are made c) are made c) is able

b) makes b) made b) ought

d) has made d) will make d) might

13. People (1) __________of having a personal means of communication for a long time. In the late 1960s, the idea (2) __________ so far in the future that it (3) __________ in the science fiction series. Since the 1980s, however, mobiles (4)__________ a part of everyday life. Although they initially (5)__________ as a status symbol for successful business people, mobile use has spread to include practically everyone in the developed world, old and young alike. b) will have dreamt b) seemed b) included b) have become b) saw

c) are dreaming c) would seem c) had included c) would become c) have seen

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1. a) have been dreaming 2.a) had seemed 3. a) was included 4. a) became 5. a) were seen

d) dream d) were seeming d) was including d) becoming d) have been seen

a) had to a) are used a) had been found a) are erased a) were eager

b) ought b) used b) have found b) are erasing b) will be eager

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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.a

14. Like other products of human ingenuity, pencils (1)__________ be invented. Before the first half of the 16th century, people (2)__________ pens to write with and brushes to paint with. It was also possible to use a metal stick to make faint marks on paper. However, up to that point no one (3)__________ an easy way to make marks that (4)__________. Then, some time before 1565, a large deposit of the chemical graphite was found in England. Soon, tales of this unusual soft substance spread to artists around the world, who (5)__________ to use it to produce works of art. c) couldn‟t c) were using c) had found c) have erased c) have been eager

d) shouldn‟t d) have used d) would find d) could be erased d) had been eager

15. In two weeks, Ted and his wife Sally (1)__________ Sun City to look for a place to live. If they (2)__________ time, Sally will be looking for a job there, too. 1. a) will be visiting b) visit 2. a) had had b) will have

c) would have visited d) were visiting c) have had d) have

16. Change, movement and transition (1)__________our lives as we grow and (2)__________. In addition to our own personal growth and change, we frequently (3)__________ with global changes in technology, culture, religion, economics, and politics. 1. a) characterize 2. a) age 3. a) faced

b) characterizes b) aged b) are faced

c) is characterizing c) were aging c) have faced 42

d) is characterized d) are aging d) had been faced

LEVEL A

Section 2

17. Janet takes the bus to work every day. She usually (1)__________ for the bus at the corner of Fifth Avenue and Pine Street. This morning it (2)__________ . I can see Janet from my window holding her umbrella over her head. She looks angry. She (3)__________ for the bus for about 20 minutes. b) was waiting c) waits 1. a) is waiting 2. a) has been raining b) was raining c) has rained 3. a) is waiting b) has waited c) waited

d) has been waiting d) rains d) has been waiting

1. 2. 3. 4.

a) have been reducing a) will be used a) has discovered a) design

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18. In the twentieth century, architects in large cities designed structures in a way that (1)__________noise. They used such techniques as making walls hollow and filling this wall space with materials that hide noise. Thick carpets and heavy curtains (2)__________to cover floors and windows. However, after much time and effort spent in making buildings less noisy, it (3)__________ that people also reacted in an unfriendly way to the lack of sound. Now architects (4)__________ structures that reduce undesirable noise but keep the kind of noise that people seem to need. b) had reduced b) were used b) discovered b) designed

c) reduced d) were reducing c) would be used d) have been using c) will be discovered d) was discovered c) will design d) had designed

b) will be travelling b) has flown b) is born b) were living b) would read

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1. a) will travel 2. a) flew 3. a) has born 4. a) lived 5. a) was reading

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19. John (1)__________ a lot. In fact, he was only two years old when he first (2)__________to the US. His mother is Italian and his father is American. John (3)__________ in France, but his parents had met in Cologne, Germany after they (4)__________there for five years. They met one day while John's father (5)__________ a book in the library and his mother sat down beside him. Anyway, John travels a lot because his parents also travel a lot. c) had travelled c) was flying c) was born c) had been living c) is reading

d) has travelled d) had been flown d) has been born d) have lived d) had read

20. Turner almost wished that he (1)__________to the radio. He went to the closet and grabbed his umbrella. He (2)__________silly carrying it to the bus stop on such a sunny morning when there still was no rain. Though it (3)__________the day before and the ground still was wet people (4)__________ lightly and the sky was clear. Anyhow, he knew that by the afternoon everybody (5)__________ wet because the rain was unavoidable. 1. a) didn‟t listen 2. a) felt 3. a) had rained 4. a) were dressed 5. a) got

b) hadn‟t listened c) listened b) is feeling c) has been felt b) has been raining c) were raining b) dressed c) were dressing b) would get c) will get 43

d) were listened d) would feel d) was raining d) had dressed d) had got

LEVEL A

Section 2

21. "I'm so tired of Christmas I wish there was never another one!" exclaimed a little girl, as she (1)__________idly watching her mother arrange a pile of gifts two days before they were to be given. "Why, Effie, what a dreadful thing to say! You are as bad as old Scrooge; and I'm afraid something (2)__________ to you, as it did to him, if you don't care for dear Christmas," answered the mother, almost dropping the silver horn she (3)__________with delicious candies. 1. a) would sit 2. a) happens 3. a) had filled

b) had sat b) happened b) has been filled

c) sat c) had happened c) was filled

d) has sat d) was happening d) will have filled

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a) had chosen a) wasn‟t trembled a) was nervous a) will publish a) was awarding

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22. I felt surprised, then happy, then doubtful all in one split second when I found out I (1)__________to be a star in the school play. My voice (2)__________, so I looked full of confidence, but, in fact, I (3)__________very __________. When the notice (4)__________, everyone congratulated me. I knew I (5)__________the golden star I had dreamed about for years. b) would choose b) didn‟t tremble b) am nervous b) are published b) had awarded

c) have chosen c) hasn‟t trembled c) had been nervous c) was published c) would be awarded

d) had been chosen d) isn‟t trembling d) would be nervous d) had published d) will be awarded

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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23. Since computers first (1)__________ to the public in the early 1980s, technology (2)__________a great deal. The first computers (3)__________ simple machines designed for important tasks. Times have changed and computers (4)__________ powerful machines. Programmers created a large selection of useful programs which do everything from teaching foreign languages to book-keeping. We still (5)__________video games, but today‟s games are faster, more exciting. In short, the simple individual machines of the past (6)__________into an international World Wide Web of knowledge. a) had introduced a) would have changed a) have been a) became a) are playing a) have developed

b) were introduced b) have been changed b) were b) had become b) have played b) is developing

44

c) have introduced c) has changed c) would be c) would become c) were played c) would develop

d) introduced d) change d) was been d) have become d) are being played d) were developing

LEVEL A

Section 2

24. When I reached Victoria Station, I (1)__________ straight to the Lost Property Office. But the suitcase I had lost (2)__________. The original train in which I (3)__________had now gone back to London Bridge Station. I (4)__________ because the lost suitcase contained important papers which I needed the next day. While I (5)__________home, I felt very depressed because I (6)__________ the whole evening looking unsuccessfully for my suitcase. 1. a) went 2. a) didn‟t find

b) have gone b) was not found

c) will go d) was gone c) have not been found d) wouldn‟t have found 3. a) had been travelling b) have been travelling c) have travelled d) would travel 4. a) was upset b) have been upset c) will be upset d) had been upset b) was travelling c) had travelled d) am travelling 5. a) would travel 6. a) had wasted b) was wasted c) would waste d) was wasting

.a

a) were fascinating b) have been fascinated c) fascinated d) have fascinated b) has hoped c) had hoped d) would hope a) hoped a) were b) are c) have been d) has been a) have been watching b) have watched c) were watched d) watch

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1. 2. 3. 4.

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25. Humans always (1)__________ by the sky, the wind, and the stars. Through the years, some of the greatest inventions - telescopes, airplanes, satellites have come from people who (2)__________to master the sky. There (3)__________people who enjoy simply looking at the sky. For them, it‟s relaxing to sit quietly and look. They particularly (4)__________a sunset or cloud formations.

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26. The train ground on the halt at a small station and it (1)__________ apparent that the engine (2)__________ down .Everyone (3)__________ their cases down from the luggage racks, and we (4)__________ on the platform in the freezing wind for hours until the next train turned up. 1. a) becomes 2. a) has broken 3. a) got 4. a) are waiting

b) has become b) is breaking b) would get b) waited

c) had become c) will break c) gets c) have waited

d) became d) had broken d) has got d) will be waiting

27. Reporter Philip Taggart visits a farm where the sheep are super fit. Farmers as you may (1)__________, (2)__________ a hard time of it in Britain lately, and have turned to new ways of earning income from their land. This (3)__________ not only planting new kinds of crops, but also some strange ways of making money, the most unusual of which has got to be sheep racing. 1. a) know 2. a) had had 3. a) involved

b) knew b) have had b) had involved

c) had known c) would have c) involves

45

d) would know d) have d) have involved

LEVEL A

Section 2

28. Ask hundreds of people what they are planning to do on a certain day in August next year, or the year after, and there (1)__________ only one reply. Provided of course that the people you (2)__________, belong to the Elvis Presley Fan Club. Although the king of Rock and Roll (3)__________ nearly two decades ago, his fans have been meeting every year since then. 1.a) would be 2.a) would ask 3.a) was dying

c) has been c) ask c) died

b) will be b) have been asking b) dies

d) had been d) asked d) has died

29. I (1)__________ home from my work and was surprised that my wife was not there. “She must have gone shopping.” I thought, but after waiting for ten minutes, I (2)__________ her mother. “I (3)__________ her all day”, she said. “I wish I knew where she is,” I said.

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1.a) was arrived b) have arrived c) was arriving 2.a) was telephoning b) have telephoned c) will telephone 3.a) haven‟t been seeing b) haven‟t seen c) don‟t see

d) arrived d) telephoned d) am not seeing

c) had sold c) has been bought c) is looking c) had been sold

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b) sold b) had been bought b) has looked b) has been sold

d) was selling d) was bought d) was looking d) had been selling

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1. a) was sold 2. a) bought 3. a) has been looking 4. a) had sold

.a

30. Two days ago I put an ad in the classified section of the newspaper so I could find a buyer for my old car. Yesterday I (1)__________ it. It (2)__________ by a teenager who (3)__________ for an old car to fix up himself. Today, a friend of mine told me he would like to buy my old car, but by the time he talked to me, the car (4)_____ already ____ to the teenager.

31. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia (1) __________ no remains. We know what it looked like, because it (2)__________ on coins and travelers said that it was made of gold and ivory. It (3)__________ to celebrate the Olympic Games, and (4)__________ for 1000 years before it was destroyed in a fire in the fifth century AD. The sculptor (5)__________ the famous Phidias who made some of the finest statues on the Parthenon. 1. a) left 2. a) was shown 3. a) is built 4. a) stands 5. a) is

b) has left b) has been shown b) is being built b) stood b) was

c) is leaving c) had shown c) was built c) has stood c) will be

46

d) leaves d) will be shown d) has been built d) is standing d) is being

LEVEL A

Section 2

32. Justin (1) __________ currently a book about his adventures in Tibet, I hope he (2)__________ find a good publisher when he is finished. 1.a) writes 2.a) will be able to

b) had been writing b) could

c) was writing c) was able to

d) is writing d) could have

33. Libraries today (1)__________ different from those in the 1800s. For example, the contents of libraries (2) __________ greatly through the years. In the 1800s libraries (3)__________ simply collections of books. 1. a) have been 2. a) have changed 3. a) had been

b) were b) had changed b) have been

c) are c) changed c) are

d) will be d) were changing d) were

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34. We (1)__________ three major snow storms so far this winter. I wonder how many more we (2)__________. 1.a) are having 2.a) shall have

b) had b) would have

c) have had c) have

d) have d) have had

b) emigrated b) travelled

c) had emigrated c) travel

d) have emigrated d) were travelling

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1.a) would emigrate 2.a) had travelled

.a

35. In 1980 my parents (1)__________ to the USA from China. They never (2)__________ outside of China and were, of course, excited by the challenge of relocating in a foreign country.

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36. Last night I read an interesting article about New York City. According to the article, more people (1) __________ to New York these days from foreign countries than from other parts of the United States. And now people who live in New York (2) __________ and going to other parts of the country. As a result, the population of New York (3) __________ over the past ten years. 1. a) have moved 2. a) have left 3. a) had declined

d) have been moving b) will move c) will have moved b) are leaving c) left d) leave b) declined c) has been declining d) declines

37. People have much greater freedom in choosing a job than people (1) __________ one hundred years ago. It also (2) __________ more common for people in the United States to make major career changes at some time during their lives. In fact, by the time the average person retires, it is not unlikely that he or she (3) __________ careers at least once. 1. a) have 2. a) became 3. a) changes

b) had b) is becoming b) will be changing

c) have had c) will have become c) is changing 47

d) had had d) had become d) will have changed

LEVEL A

Section 2

38. An accountant and a sports coach (1)__________ a small shoe company called Blue Ribbons in 1964. In 1971 it changed its name to Nike, and since then it (2)__________ one of the world‟s most successful brands. Originally Nike was only associated with basketball but recently it (3)__________ into new markets like football. Now Nike has started buying other fashion brands that are not even connected with sport. 1. a) started 2. a) had become 3. a) is expanding

b) has started b) became b) had expanded

c) was starting c) has become c) expands

d) had started d) becomes d) has expanded

39. I have just come back from Vietnam. It (1) __________ fascinating. Over recent years the Japanese have invested a lot of money in the country - we saw the factories all along the coast. But I‟m really tired now-my flight arrived yesterday and I (2) __________ from the trip yet. And I got a shock this morning when I (3) __________ on my computer- I never (4)__________ so many emails in my box! b) will be b) haven‟t recovered b) have turned b) saw

c) was c) wasn‟t recovering c) turned c) will have seen

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1. a) has been 2. a) hadn‟t recovered 3. a) had turned 4. a) will see

d) is being d) didn‟t recover d) turn d) have seen

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b) blamed b) are reporting b) is being found

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1. a) are being blamed 2. a) are reported 3. a) has been found

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40. The Star Tree hotel chain is in financial trouble and some of their smaller hotels are going to be sold. Rising costs (1) __________ for recent losses and many smaller hotels (2) __________ to have been losing money for many years. No buyer (3) __________ yet for the properties. c) have blamed c) will report c) found

d) had blamed d) have reported d) would be found

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41. I know you‟re anxiously waiting to find out if I passed my exams, but I haven‟t heard anything yet. Perhaps I‟ll get the news today when the post (1) __________. I promise I (2) __________ you as soon as I get the news. It‟s three weeks since I (3) __________ the exams, but my teacher warned me that they sometimes don‟t announce the results until more than a month (4) __________. 1. a) comes 2. a) call 3. a) will take 4. a) has passed

b) came b) called b) took b) is passing

c) is coming c) will call c) had taken c) passed

48

d) will come d) am calling d) was taking d) will pass

LEVEL A

Section 2

42. In 1859, a man Waterman S. Bodey by name, found gold in California. Shortly after, people (1) __________ to pour into the area, and a town grew up near the spot where gold (2) __________ . The people called the town Bodie, but they (3)__________ that spelling of Bodey‟s name. 1. a) began b) have begun c) will begin d) had begun 2. a) will be discovered b) is discovered c) had been discovered d) has been discovered 3. a) have preferred b) preferred c) will prefer d) had preferred 43. Acupuncture is a Chinese method of treating illnesses by inserting needles into certain points of the body. The idea (1) __________that this restores the natural balance of energy which is disturbed when a person is ill. The origins of this therapy (2) __________ marked out over five hundred years, but it only (3) __________ to be admitted in the West in the 1970s. b) will be b) were b) have begun

c) will have been c) was c) began

tc .a m

1. a) had been 2. a) has been 3. a) will have begun

d) is d) are being d) are beginning

44. I arrived at the station just in time to catch the train. Now I (1)__________ that I (2) __________ for my interview. I smiled happily at an elderly lady who (3) __________ at my hat and (4) __________ to the platform. c) had been sure c) wouldn‟t be late c) was staring c) had been going

.a

b) was sure b) won‟t be late b) was stared b) was going

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1. a) am sure 2. a) wasn‟t late 3. a) has been staring 4. a) went

d) would be sure d) haven‟t been late d) would be staring d) would go

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45. In future, astronauts (1) __________ to leave the spaceship while it is still in space and to return to it. The spaceship „Astra‟ which (2) __________ the Earth a short time ago (3) __________ three hundred miles into space. The first message is expected to arrive at 7 o‟clock this evening. By that time, the „Astra‟ (4) __________ through the space for seventeen hours and will have circled the earth a great many times. 1. a) are required 2. a) has left 3. a) will be travelling 4. a) has been circling

b) are requiring b) left b) would be travelling b) will be circling

c) will be required c) had left c) had travelled c) will have circled

d) will be requiring d) was leaving d) was travelling d) will circle

46. Firemen (1) __________ the forest fire for nearly three weeks before they could get it under control. A short time before, great trees (2) __________ the countryside for miles around. 1. a) had been fighting 2. a) were covering

b) were fighting

d) have been fighting b) were being covered c) have been covering d) have covered 49

c) had fought

LEVEL A

Section 2

47. Late at night a young man who was going home from the railway station felt he (1) __________. He got very nervous, turned round and asked: “What (2) __________? Why are you following me?” “I want to find Mr. Smith. I know if I follow you I (3) __________ his place. He (4) __________ next to you,” answered the other man with a smile. 1. a) was following 2. a) are you wanting 3. a) will find 4. a) was living

b) has been following b) have you wanted b) will have found b) will be living

c) had been followed c) do you want c) will be found c) lives

d) was being followed d) did you want d) would find d) lived

48. “I wonder if you know the short plump woman who (1) __________ out just now.” “She is a bank manager. And the most amazing thing about her is the fact that she (2) __________ in the same bank for thirty years this autumn.” b) had gone b) will work

c) will be going c) has worked

d) went d) will have worked

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1. a) has gone 2. a) is working

49. After Howard Carter (1) __________ Tutankhamen‟s tomb, strange reports appeared in the newspapers. Three of the people who had taken part in the discovery (2) __________ soon afterwards. Fortunately nothing terrible happened to Carter. Archaeologists (3) __________ the valley of Kings for years, but until Carter‟s discovery nothing was found.

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1. a) has discovered b) was discovered c) had discovered d) would have discovered b) were died c) died d) have died 2. a) had died 3. a) would have searched b) were searching c) have been searching d) had been searching

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50. It was a cold stormy night. A traveler was riding his horse along the muddy road. It (1) __________ heavily and he (2) __________ to his skin. He (3) __________ for a few hours before he could find an inn. 1. a) has been raining b) was raining 2. a) had been soaked b) was being soaked 3. a) rides b) was riding

c) would be raining c) would be soaked c) had been riding

d) rained d) was soaked d) had been ridden

51. I have just received a letter from my old school, informing me, that my former headmaster, Mr. Page, (1) __________ next week. To mark the occasion, a present will be sent to him by his old and new pupils of the school. All those who (2) __________ towards the gift will sign their names in a large album. It is interesting to mention that the day before his retirement, Mr. Page (3) __________ for a total of forty years. 1. a) retires b) would retire c) will be retiring 2. a) had contributed b) will contribute c) has contributed 3. a) will have taught b) will be teaching c) is teaching 50

d) was retiring d) were contributing d) had taught

LEVEL A

Section 2

52. The Great St. Bernard Pass (1) __________ Switzerland to Italy. The famous monastery of St. Bernard, which (2) __________ in the eleventh century lies about a mile away. For hundreds of years St. Bernard dogs (3) __________ the lives of travelers crossing the dangerous pass. Despite the new tunnel the number of the people who rashly attempt to cross the pass continually (4) __________ . 1. a) is connected 2. a) has been founded 3. a) have saved 4. a) will increase

b) has connected c) will be connecting b)was founded c) were founded b) had saved c) saved b) is increasing c) was increasing

d) connects d) was founding d) are saving d) would have increased

53. Charles Dickens (1) __________ school when he was fifteen. When he was twenty, he was already a writer. He (2) __________ a great number of novels. People all over England liked every novel he (3) __________. Now all over the world people (4) __________ all his books with great pleasure. b) is left b) writes b) had written b) had read

c) was leaving c) has written c) would write c) are read

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1. a) left 2. a) wrote 3. a) was writing 4. a) read

d) would leave d) is written d) was written d) has read

.a

54. “My dear sir, it is useless to talk. I (1) __________ anything against you. But I can‟t let my daughter marry a starving artist. I (2) __________you have nothing to offer her.” “Sir, I am poor, but my new statue of America (3) __________ famous one day.” b) hadn‟t b) shall believe b) has become

c) have had c) had believed c) became

d) don‟t have d) was believed d) was becoming

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1. a) have 2. a) believe 3. a) will become

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55. At the beginning of the War of Independence, George Washington (1) __________ Commander of the young American Army. He (2) __________ the English forces at Yorktown in 1781. America became independent and Washington (3) __________ the first President of the new State. 1. a) was appointed 2. a) defeated 3. a) was electing

b) was appointing b) has defeated b) was elected

c) appointed c) defeats c) had elected

d) had appointed d) is defeating d) would elect

Everyone 56. Mary was afraid when her exam fell on Friday the 13th. (1)__________that this is a bad luck day. She studied hard. When she (2)__________ in the morning on the 13th a black bird flew into her window. The bird hit the glass and fell to the ground. Mary told her mother, “I can‟t go to school today. I‟m sick.” Her mother said, “I know you (3)__________ about your exam but a black bird is not a black cat. You must go and take your exam.” 1. a) knows 2. a) woke up 3. a) would worry

b) is known b) wakes up b) are worried

c) had known c) has woken up c) had worried 51

d) was known d) will wake up d) had been worried

LEVEL A

Section 2

57. A software company (1) __________ to have invented a program which allows your computer to talk to your pet. They say the computer (2) __________ your pet barking, chirping or meowing. Then after processing the sounds through the pet talk program it gives you a read out of what your pet (3) __________. 1. a) has claimed 2. a) records 3. a) is said

b) will claim b) was recording b) has said

c) was claiming c) had recorded c) would say

d) is claimed d) is recorded d) is saying

58. There was once a great artist in Belgium who said that his daughter never (1)_____ anyone but an artist. But the girl loved a blacksmith and the blacksmith was in love with her. So he (2)_____ his trade and studied hard to become a painter. He was certainly a man of great talent, as in a short time he (3)_____ become a good painter. b) would marry b) had left b) should

c) has married c) was leaving c) might

d) had been married d) has left d) had to

tc .a m

1. a) will marry 2. a) left 3. a) was able to

59. The expression „a white elephant‟ (1)_____ when people want to say that something costs more to keep or operate than it‟s worth. It comes from what a certain king of Siam is supposed to have done. He (2)_____ make a present of a white elephant to members of his court whom he (3)_____ to ruin, knowing that they (4)_____ afford to keep the white elephant in the proper style.

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b) was used b) can‟t b) wanted b) couldn‟t

c) is using c) used to c) wants c) can

d) uses d) mustn‟t d) would want d) are able to

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1. a) is used 2. a) has to 3. a) will want 4. a) mustn‟t

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60. In 1870 Mark Twain (1)_____ along the streets of Boston when he noticed in a shop window a machine he (2)_____ before. He entered the shop, asked the shop-assistant how the „monster‟ functioned and (3)_____ it for 125 dollars. 1. a) was walking 2. a) didn‟t see 3. a) bought

b) walked b) wasn‟t seen b) was buying

c) had walked c) hadn‟t seen c) was bought

d) has walked d) hasn‟t seen d) had bought

61. As you (1)_____ see from this letter, I (2)_____ my address and live in Croydon now. I decided that I wanted a change from central London because it (3)_____ so expensive. A friend of mine told me about this flat, and I (4)_____ here about two months ago. 1. a) mustn‟t 2. a) am changing 3. a) will become 4. a) was moving

b) have to b) had changed b) becomes b) have moved

c) couldn‟t c) will change c) has become c) had moved

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d) can d) have changed d) will have become d) moved

LEVEL A

Section 2

62. One of the greatest advances in modern technology (1)_____ the invention of computers. They are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning and (2)_____be put to varied uses. For instance, they (3)_____ provide information on the best way to prevent traffic accidents or count the number of times the word „and‟ (4)_____ in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speeds, they (5)_____ research workers years of hard work. This whole process is called automation. 1. a) was being 2. a) are able 3. a) mustn‟t 4. a) has been used 5. a) saved

b) has been b) can b) are not allowed to b) had been using b) are saved

c) had been c) ought c) might not c) had been used c) would save

d) will be d) dared not d) can d) has used d) save

b) Were you b) means b) is said b) were used

c) Have you been c) is meant c) was said c) are used

d) Had you been d) has meant d) says d) are using

.a

1. a) Are you 2. a) meant 3. a) is saying 4. a) use

tc .a m

63. There are various ways of using sound to communicate. (1)_____ ever on a ship when they practise for an emergency? The international signal for this is three short blasts on a whistle. This sound (2)_____ “Stop whatever you are doing! Go to the special meeting place!” The sound of the whistle (3)_____ all this. In the same way, bells or sirens (4)_____ in buildings to signal a fire alarm.

b) has occupied c) was occupied b) came c) was coming up b) isn‟t sleeping c) hadn‟t slept

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1. a) occupied 2. a) comes 3. a) didn‟t sleep

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64. During the rush-hour a woman got on a London bus, but every seat (1)_____. There was an old man sitting by the window with his eyes closed. Thinking that the man was asleep, the conductor (2)_____ up to him and pushed him. The man opened his eyes and said that he (3)_____. d) had occupied d) had come up d) wasn‟t sleeping

65. Years ago, I arrived one day at Salamanca near New York, where I (1)_____ change trains and take the sleeper. There were crowds of people on the platform, and they all (2)_____ to get into the long sleeper train which already (3)_____. I asked the young man in the booking-office if I (4)_____ have two tickets, and he answered “No!”. Then he shut the window in my face. 1. a) have to 2. a) were trying 3. a) has been packed 4. a) should

b) was to b) have tried b) packed b) could

c) ought c) are trying c) had packed c) must

53

d) might d) have been trying d) was packed d) had to

LEVEL A

Section 2

66. English people (1)_____ Guy Fawkes Night on November 5 every year since 1605. Guy Fawkes was an English Catholic who (2)_____ to kill King James I. He tried to destroy the Houses of Parliament with a bomb. His plan failed and he (3)_____. 1. a) celebrate 2. a) wanted 3. a) arrested

b) are celebrating b) wants b) was arrested

c) celebrated c) has wanted c) would be arrested

d) have celebrated d) would want d) had arrested

67. Sara and Polly planned to play ball in the park. Mom told Polly she couldn‟t go until she (1)_____ her room. “If I can‟t go to the park,” Polly said, “then Sara can‟t use my ball and bat!” Polly went into her room and shut the door. Sara knocked on Polly‟s door and told her she (2)_____ her clean her room. Then they could go to the park together. After the girls finished, they were ready to go to the park. Mom said they (3)_____ eat lunch first. b) cleans b) will help b) should

c) would clean c) would help c) ought

d) had cleaned d) had helped d) have to

tc .a m

1. a) was cleaning 2. a) was helping 3. a) can

c) are considered c) aren‟t knowing c) had differed c) has included

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b) are considering b) haven‟t known b) are differing b) is included

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1. a) is considered 2. a) aren‟t known 3. a) differ 4. a) includes

.a

68. The British (1)_____ to be among the worst tippers in the world. But is that because they simply (2)_____ the rules? Customs (3)_____ between countries, so it is not surprising that in Tokyo they do things differently from London. In British restaurants, for example, a tip (4)_____ in the bill and this is the case in most Northern European countries. d) consider d) don‟t know d) differed d) is including

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69. The island of Janitzio is famous for its Day of the Dead celebrations, and (1)_____ a major tourist attraction. Just before midnight on November 1, the lake which surrounds Janitzio (2)_____ up with hundreds of torches. These show the route of the small boats which (3)_____ the families to the island. 1. a) is become 2. a) has lit 3. a) carry

b) became b) is lit b) are carried

c) has become c) is lighting c) were carried

d) was becoming d) has been lit d) carried

70. My dentist had just pulled out one of my teeth. I (1)_____ to say something, but my mouth was full of cotton-wool. When the dentist at last (2)_____ the cotton-wool from my mouth, I (3)_____ to tell him that he (4)_____ out the wrong tooth. 1. a) was tried 2. a) will remove 3. a) was able 4. a) pulled

b) tried b) was removed b) could b) was pulling

c) have tried c) removed c) need c) was pulled 54

d) have been trying d) was removing d) might d) had pulled

LEVEL A

Section 3

SECTION 3 ÀÝïñ»É ѳٳï»ùëïÇÝ Ñ³Ù³å³ï³ë˳ÝáÕ ËáëùÇÙ³ë³ÛÇÝ Ó¨Á: Fill in the blanks with the word form that best fits each space. Text 1

a) conquest a) descendants a) responsibly a) commitment a) defeatism

b) conquering b) descendible b) responsibility b) committing b) defeat

c) conqueror c) descend c) responsive c) commit c) defeating

d) conquered d) descending d) responsible d) committed d) defeated

.a

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

tc .a m

In 332 BC Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, (1) __________ Egypt. In 305 BC Alexander‟s general Ptolemy of Egypt, and his (2) __________, the Ptolemies, for almost 300 years ruled Egypt. Although Ptolemy was Macedonian by birth and the Ptolemians remained tied to Greek culture, they were (3) __________ for one of the greatest periods of building and decorating temples in Egypt. The Ptolemies did so to win acceptance for their (4) __________ from their Egyptian subjects. The Ptolemaic dynasty ended when Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, committed suicide after the Romans (5) __________ her forces at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.

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Text 2

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A number of (1)__________ diamonds have become (2)__________ because of the size. The largest of all known diamonds is the Cullinan, which was discovered in South Africa in 1905 and was presented to Edward VII, king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, by the government of the Transvaal. The Cullinan weighed 3, 106 carats before cutting and was pronounced by crystallographers to be a fragment of a (3)__________ larger stone. When the stone was cut, a total of 105 gems were produced, weighing 1, 063 carats in all. The largest of these was a stone called the Star of Africa, the biggest cut diamond in (4)__________ , and now set in the British (5)__________ scepter. 1. a) individuality 2. a) famed 3. a) considerably 4. a) exist 5. a) royally

b) individum b) famous b) considerable b) existing b) royal

c) individual c) famously c) considering c) existed c) royalty

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d) individually d) fame d) considered d) existence d) royals

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 3 Quebec has several problems with (1) __________. Because of its location at the northeast corner of North America, winds from the southwest carry pollution to the (2) __________. Acid rain has (3)__________damaged (4) __________ lakes and some forestlands, with maple trees the hardest hit. About half of the sulfur compounds that cause acid rain originate at power plants and industrial sites in the United States, a quarter originate in Ontario, and a quarter originate within Quebec. In (5) __________, large parts of the St. Lawrence River are polluted by fertilizer runoff and toxic industrial discharges. b) polluted b) provincial b) serious b) numerate b) addition

c) polluter c) province c) seriousness c) numerous c) add

d) pollution d) provincially d) seriosity d) numerated d) added

tc .a m

1.a) pollute 2.a) provincialism 3.a) seriously 4.a) numerously 5.a) additional

Text 4

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The Great Depression in the United States, the worst and longest (1) __________ collapse in the history of the modern industrial world, lasted from the end of 1929 until the early 1940s. Beginning in the United States, the depression spread to most of the world‟s industrial countries, which in the 20th century had become economically (2) __________on one another. The Great Depression saw rapid declines in the production and sale of goods and a sudden, severe rise in (3) __________. Businesses and banks closed their doors, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and many depended on (4)__________to (5) __________. b) economy b) dependent b) unemployed b) charitably b) survived

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1.a) economize 2. a) depend 3. a) unemployment 4. a) charitable 5. a) survival

c) economically c) dependence c) employ c) charity c) survive

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d) economic d) dependably d) employee d) uncharitable d) surviving

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 5 Periodicals are publications released on a (1)__________ basis that feature articles, poems, stories, and other types of writing. Many periodicals also (2)__________ photographs and drawings. Periodicals that are aimed at a general audience, such as weekly news roundups, are also called magazines. Those with a (3)__________ audience, such as publications of scholarly (4)__________, can be termed journals. (5)__________, the difference between periodicals and newspapers has been a matter of format and content. b) regular b) inclusive b) narrowing b) organize b) historically

c) regularly c) including c) narrowly c) organized c) historic

d) regulate d) include d) narrowness d) organizations d) historical

tc .a m

1. a) regularity 2 a) inclusion 3 a) narrow 4 a) unorganized 5 a) history

Text 6

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b) growing b) developed b) similarly b) flexible b) distinguishing

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1.a) growth 2.a) developing 3.a) similarity 4.a) flex 5.a) distinguish

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In the 1990s, with the (1)__________ of the Internet, publishers began to release newspapers and periodicals online. This (2) __________blurred the line between the two forms because the general format of online newspapers and periodicals is (3)__________, and the publication schedule of both forms became more (4)__________. For example, many newspaper publishers update their online versions throughout the day, and some online periodicals do the same. Despite these technological changes, the two forms‟ differing emphasis in choice of content remains a (5)__________ factor. c) grow c) develop c) similar c) flexibility c) undistinguished

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d) grown d) development d) dissimilarly d) flexibly d) distinguisher

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 7 A new painting was hanging in the Mills Art Gallery. Throughout the day, visitors stood before the new (1)__________and speculated as to what it represented. “I think it‟s a (2)__________picture,” said Misty. “There‟s no name on it, but I‟m sure it was drawn by a famous artist.” Miss Culture, the local art critic for the Hemlock Weekly News, made the announcement. “This is (3)__________a masterpiece created by an artist who wishes to be anonymous at this stage of his or her career. The (4)__________mixture of colors symbolizes a person who is looking back at an exciting lifetime of (5)__________!” At that moment, Mr. Lightman, the gallery curator, entered the room. “Isn‟t it great?” he asked with a big smile on his face. “My three -year -old son did that this morning. He says it‟s a maze. I think it‟s amazing!” b) exhibiting b) delightful b) clear b) brilliantly b) accomplishment

c) exhibition c) delight c) clearly c) brilliance c) accomplishing

d) exhibit d) delightedly d) clearing d) brilliancy d) accomplished

tc .a m

1. a) exhibited 2. a) delighted 3. a) cleared 4. a) brilliant 5. a) accomplish

Text 8

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Robin Hood is a legendary hero who lived in Nottingham, with his band of (1)__________.Stories about him and his adventures began to appear in the 14th century, but the facts about the legend are uncertain. Everyone knows that Robin robbed the rich to give to the poor, but he had his own ideas of right and wrong. He fought against injustice, and tried to give ordinary people a (2)__________of the riches owned by people in authority and the Church. He was a brave fighter and was very (3)__________with his bow and arrow. Some stories say that the Sheriff of Nottingham killed Robin by poisoning him. When he was about to die he shot a final arrow from his famous bow (4)__________ and asked his friend to bury him where the arrow landed. The legend of Robin Hood is many things to many people. That's what keeps it alive to this day and for centuries to come. Fact or (5)__________, the Robin Hood legend remains a part of people's lives across the world. 1. a) follow 2. a) share 3. a) well 4. a) braving 5. a) fictional

b) followed b) unshared b) good b) brave b) fiction

c) following c) shared c) better c) bravely c) fictionist

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d) followers d) sharer d) best d) braver d) fictionally

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 9 Money causes teenagers to feel stress. It makes them (1)__________other people. My friend, for instance, lives with her family and has to share a room with her younger sister. This girl wishes she could have her own room, but she cannot have these things because her family doesn‟t have much money. Her family‟s income is (2)__________low because her father is old and doesn‟t go to work. Her elder sister is the only one who works. Because her family cannot buy the things she wants, she feels a lot of (3)__________ and gets angry sometimes. Once, she wanted a beautiful dress to wear to a sweetheart dance. She asked her sister for some money but she refused. She was (4)__________because her sister did not have money to give her. Not having money has caused this girl to think negatively about herself and her family. She said her friends got anything they wanted but she did not. Then she felt sorry for herself and asked why she was born into a poor family. She sat in (5)__________for a little while and then started complaining. It has caused a lot of stress in her life. a) envious a) consider a) stressfully a) disappoint a) silence

b) envy b) considerably b) stressing b) disappointing b) silent

c) envier c) considering c) stressful c) disappointed c) silently

d) enviously d) considered d) stress d) disappointer d) silencer

tc .a m

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

.a

Text 10

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Robert Edwards was blinded in an automobile accident nine years ago. He was also (1) __________ deaf because of old age. Last week, he was walking near his home when a thunderstorm approached. He hid under a tree and was struck by (2) __________. He was knocked to the ground and when he woke up later he clearly understood he could see and hear again. Doctors confirm he has regained his sight and hearing, apparently from the flash of the lightning. They are (3) __________ to explain the (4) __________. One of the doctors has offered the only (5) __________ explanation. Another trauma was needed to restore Edward‟s sight. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a) part a) lightning a) able a) occurrence a) possibility

b) partial b) lights b) ability b) occur b) possible

c) impartiality c) lightly c) unable c) occurring c) possibly

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d) partially d) lightness d) enable d) occurred d) impossibility

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 11 What characterizes almost all the Hollywood pictures is their inner (1)__________. This is compensated for by an outer impressiveness. Such impressiveness usually takes the form of a true realism. Nothing is spared to make it look as (2) __________ as possible and all the surface details correct. These efforts help to mask the (3)__________ emptiness of the characterization and the absurdities of the plots. The houses look like houses; the streets look like streets; the people look and talk like people; but they are empty of (4)__________, credibility and motivation. In addition to this impressiveness of the settings, there is the use of the camera which at times seems (5)__________. b) empty b) unreal b) unessentially b) humanly b) magical

c) emptily c) realistic c) essentiality c) humanity c) magician

d) emptying d) really d) essential d) humanities d) magics

tc .a m

1. a) emptiness 2. a) realism 3. a) essentially 4. a) human 5. a) magically

Text 12

b) variously b) community b) similar b) scientifically b) proof

c) vary c) communication c) similarly c) scientist c) improve

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1. a) variety 2. a) communicative 3. a) similarity 4. a) science 5. a) prove

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Chimps use different sounds. These sounds may have (1)__________ meanings, and chimps use them as a means of (2) __________. This is one (3) __________ between chimps, whales and dolphins. There has been a great deal of (4) __________ research into this matter recently. However, this research has not produced (5) __________ that these animals really have a language.

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d) various d) communicate d) similarness d) scientific d) improvement

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 13 Madame Tussaud‟s is one of the most popular attractions in London and as it is very crowded in summer, make sure you get there early. This famous and highly (1) __________ museum contains life-like wax figures which are (2) __________ brought up to date. On display are realistic models of famous people, from the latest pop stars to (3) __________ figures. You can also see today‟s politicians and the most well-known TV (4) __________ . You can buy a combined ticket which will allow you admission to both the Museum and the Planetarium next door. The Planetarium is open daily from 10.00 am to 5.30 pm and (5) __________ are given every hour. Baker Street is the nearest underground station for both attractions. b) entertainer b) continuity b) historically b) personalities b) presently

c) entertaining c) continuous c) historical c) impersonal c) presentations

d) entertainment d) continually d) historicism d) personally d) presenting

tc .a m

1. a) entertain 2. a) continue 3. a) history 4. a) personal 5. a) presented

Text 14

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A recent report on the eating habits of children in Britain suggests that children from the age of three to sixteen show a strong dislike for vegetables and only eat (1) __________ amounts of fruit and vegetables at Christmas. One researcher says not eating properly may have serious (2) __________ on a child‟s speech and physical development, resulting in poorer performance at school. One (3) __________ is to give children extra iron and vitamins but in the long run it is more (4) __________ if children get the right ingredients in their daily diet. Unfortunately, parents choose food for their children that is quick and (5) __________ to prepare, rather than food which is fresh and healthy. Consequently, it is difficult later to get children to change their habits. 1. a) suffice 2. a) consequent 3. a) solved 4. a) effectively 5. a) convenience

b) sufficiency b) consequently b) solve b) effective b) conveniently

c) sufficient c) consequential c) solution c) effectiveness c) convenient

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d) sufficiently d) consequences d) solving d) ineffective d) inconvenient

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 15 Mountaineering is an almost unique sport as the climber is in competition with nature itself rather than with other humans. For this reason it is an extremely dangerous activity. Nature does not follow any rules or (1) __________, and can often play very (2) __________. Professional mountaineers are quite aware of the risks involved in their sport. Although they are (3) __________ spirits at heart, they have a full understanding of the vital safety measures (4) __________ to keep them alive, and never knowingly put themselves in needless danger. On the other hand, they say that the sense of (5) __________ at the end of the climb is directly proportional to the risks involved. a) regulate a) fairly a) adventure a) necessarily a) achievable

b) regulators b) unfair b) adventurously b) necessary b) achiever

c) regulations c) fairness c) adventurous c) necessitate c) achievement

d) regulating d) unfairly d) adventurer d) necessaries d) achieved

tc .a m

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Text 16

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b) painter b) educative b) unusual b) religious b) classics

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1. a) paint 2. a) education 3. a) usual 4. a) religion 5. a) classical

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.a

Salvador Dali (1904-1989) was a Spanish (1)__________ and a member of the Surrealist Movement. He was born in Figueras in Catalonia and completed his (2) __________at the School of Fine Arts in Madrid. After 1929 he became a Surrealist. Dali's paintings are famous for their brilliant colours. His paintings from the 1920's and 30's use dream imagery and present them in an (3)__________ way. In 1940, Dali migrated to the United States, where he stayed until 1948. His later paintings often have a (4)__________ theme and are more (5) __________ in style. c) painting c) educated c) usually c) religiously c) classically

d) paintwork d) educate d) unusually d) religiousness d) classicism

Text 17 The world‟s (1) __________ is not only growing, it is also becoming more urbanized. An (2) __________number of people are moving to cities in the (3) __________ of having a better life. The cities promise steady work and higher salaries. With more money , people think they can (4) __________ for their families more easily. (5) We cannot get rid of megacities- they are here to stay. What we should __________ on, however, is building “villages” inside the cities. 1. a) population 2. a) increasingly 3. a) hopeful 4. a) provider 5. a) concentrate

b) populated b) increasing b) hopeless b) providing b) concentration

c) popular c) increase c) hope c) provided c) concentrating 62

d) popularly d) increasable d) hoping d) provide d) concentrator

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 18 People live longer in the cities. Medical (1)__________ is better there. And of course, (2)__________ opportunities can be found everywhere in the city. We should continue to develop city services so that people can (3)__________ their lives in the world‟s urban centers. Rather than limiting development, we should encourage it. Public transportation systems need to be developed so that people can travel to and from work and school easily. Carpooling should be encouraged to cut down on (4)__________ . The more we clean up and (5)__________ our megacities, the more life will improve for the residents of those cities. b) careful b) employment b) enjoyable b) polluted b) developed

c) carefully c) employing c) enjoy c) polluting c) development

d) carless d) employer d) enjoyed d) pollution d) developing

tc .a m

1. a) care 2. a) employ 3. a) enjoying 4. a) pollute 5. a) develop

Text 19

b) accuse b) law b) punish b) guiltless b) artificer

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1. a) accused 2. a) lawyer 3. a) punishment 4. a) guiltily 5. a) artificial

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.a

A man in Washington, DC who was (1) __________ of housebreaking went to court. He had stolen some money from a house. His (2) __________ argued that the thief was the man‟s arm and not the man himself. „You cannot (3) __________ a man for what his arm has done,‟ said the lawyer. The judge found the arm (4) __________ and told the man, „You can go to jail with your arm or not, as you choose.‟ What the judge didn‟t know was that the man had an (5) __________ arm. He took it off and gave it to the judge. c) accuser c) lawful c) punishable c) guilt c) artifice

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d) accusing d) law-maker d) punishing d) guilty d) artificially

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 20 Recently, I was walking home from work late at night when I heard someone walking behind me. I looked back, but it was too(1)__________ to see (2)__________. Until then, I had felt very relaxed because it was Friday evening - I had the whole weekend to look forward to. As soon as I heard the footsteps, however, I started to feel nervous. I began to walk more (3)__________. Just then, I could hear the person behind me walking faster. I was being followed. I got scared and had to run. Until that moment, I hadn‟t (4)__________noticed that a woman carrying a shopping bag was walking slowly in front of me. The moment I began to run, she screamed, dropped her shopping bag, and turned to face me with a (5)__________ of terror on her face. She thought I was chasing her. b) darkness b) clearly b) quicker b) unreal b) looking

c) darken c) unclear c) quickly c) reality c) unlooked

d) darkly d) clearing d) quickie d) really d) lookout

tc .a m

1. a) dark 2. a) clear 3. a) quick 4. a) real 5. a) look

Text 21

b) true b) worthless b) attention b) technical b) persistently

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1. a) truthfully 2. a) worth 3. a) attentive 4. a) technique 5. a) persistence

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.a

The old saying „It‟s never too late to learn‟ is as (1)_____ of making music – even learning to play an instrument – as of any other (2)_____ occupation. I know a lady in her seventies who is making great progress with her piano playing. Another in her forties didn‟t get very far on the piano as a child, but now that her children need less of her (3)_____, all her spare time is spent practising her (4)_____ and playing some quite advanced Chopin. She is (5)_____ improving all the time. c) truly c) worthily c) attentively c) technician c) persistent

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d) truth d) worthwhile d) inattentive d) technology d) persisting

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 22 It was George Walker and Col Landmann who planned and built the first railway line into London. The railway, nearly four miles long, was to be placed on a brick bridge (1)_____ of 878 arches. This (2)_____ way to build a railway had several advantages. It would get round the problem created by the (3)_____ roads and lanes that intersected the route and would require less land. The first brick was laid on April 4, 1834. At the same time the company purchased a plot of (4)_____ near London Bridge for Ł7500. A huge army of labourers, engineers and builders moved in to begin the (5)_____ task of building the bridge and laying the track. Across the fields little townships of huts sprang up to house the railway workers. b) consistently b) insensible b) numeral b) land b) enormously

c) consistent c) sensational c) numerous c) landmark c) enormity

d) consisting d) sensation d) innumerate d) landing d) enormousness

tc .a m

1. a) consist 2. a) sensitive 3. a) numeric 4. a) landscape 5. a) enormous

Text 23

b) characteristic b) novels b) specialist b) able b) dangerously

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1. a) character 2. a) novelties 3. a) specially 4. a) disability 5. a) danger

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.a

Superman is the best-known hero of US comic books. He was created by the writer Jerry Siegel and the artist Joseph Shuster, and first appeared in 1938. The (1)_____ began in newspapers a year later and has been used for (2)_____, radio and television programmes and several films. Superman has (3)_____ powers, including great strength and the (4)_____ to fly. He uses these powers to fight evil and (5)_____. He only appears when he is needed. For the rest of the time he is Clark Kent, a rather dull and timid journalist. c) characterized c) novelists c) special c) ability c) dangerous

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d) characterless d) novelistic d) especially d) disabled d) endanger

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 24 Stonehenge is Britain‟s most famous (1)_____ monument. It consists of two circles of large standing stones, one inside the other. The inner circle consisted of arches made by laying one stone across the tops of two others. Some of these have fallen, but some are still in (2)_____. Stonehenge was built between 3000 and 1500 BC. Nobody knows why it was built, but many people think it was to study the stars and planets or to worship the sun, because a line through its centre would point (3)_____ to the position of the rising sun on Midsummer‟s Day. Since the 1980s young people have been going there for their own midsummer (4)_____, but the police (5)_____ prevent them from getting near the stones. Stonehenge was made a World Heritage Site in 1986. b) history b) positionally b) directly b) celebrators b) unusual

c) prehistoric c) postpositional c) direction c) celebrities c) usually

d) prehistory d) position d) directive d) celebratory d) unusually

tc .a m

1. a) historically 2. a) preposition 3. a) indirect 4. a) celebrations 5. a) usual

Text 25

b) specially b) clothing b) technical b) uncommonly b) frequently

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1. a) especially 2. a) cloth 3. a) technically 4. a) uncommon 5. a) infrequently

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.a

Fashion forms a key part of many of our important industries, (1)_____ those involving design, such as cars, computer printers and (2)_____. In the world of machines, changes in design often accompany (3)_____ improvements. However, new design in clothing is more (4)_____ motivated by fashion. Differences in the climate from season to season and the tendency to connect each new year with a new look provide textiles companies with (5)_____ opportunities to renew their sales. c) specialist c) unclothed c) technician c) commoner c) frequent

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d) specialty d) clothe d) technique d) commonly d) frequency

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 26 Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began to be filled very early with (1)_____ about travelling. My father, who was very aged, had given me a (2)_____ share of learning, as far as house (3)_____ and a country free school can (4)_____ give, and wanted me to study law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me strongly against the (5)_____ of my father, and against all the persuasions of my mother. 1. a) thoughtful 2. a) incompetent 3. a) educational 4. a) general 5. a) willful

b) thoughtless b) competence b) educative b) generally b) unwilling

c) thoughts c) competently c) education c) generality c) willing

d) thoughtfully d) competent d) educator d) generalization d) will

tc .a m

Text 27

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b) fortunes b) frightfully b) inexpressibly b) terrifically b) just

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1. a) misfortunes 2. a) fright 3. a) unexpressed 4. a) terrific 5. a) justly

.a

On the first of September I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer‟s (1)_____ began at an earlier age or continued longer than mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the port than the wind began to blow in the most (2)_____ manner. I was most (3)_____ sick in body and (4)_____ in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done and how (5)_____ I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father‟s house. c) fortunately c) frightened c) expressive c) terrified c) justified

d) unfortunate d) frightful d) express d) terrifying d) injustice

Text 28

A research by psychologists suggests that our name can have a direct (1)_____ on our (2)_____ happiness. Having a (3)_____ name, it seems, can make other people think you are (4)_____ and attractive even before they have met you. This is because people associate a particular name with a certain (5)_____. However, having an unpopular name can have the opposite effect. As a result, people with less attractive names tend to work harder to get on in life. 1. a) effective 2. a) personally 3. a) popular 4. a) intelligence 5. a) imagination

b) effect b) personage b) popularly b) unintelligent b) image

c) effectively c) personal c) popularity c) intelligently c) imaginative 67

d) effectual d) personality d) unpopular d) intelligent d) imaginary

LEVEL A

Section 3

Text 29 At the age of ten Barbara was different from her family. She gave you the (1)_____ of being (2)_____. So she went to the local grammar school. This year is quite an (3)_____ one for Barbara. She‟s taking her O-levels in nine subjects. She chose these subjects last year when she and her parents went to the school for an interview with some of her teachers – three, to be (4)_____. It was quite a shock for Barbara‟s parents that the teachers thought their daughter was „university material‟. The teachers meant that Barbara could pass the entrance exams. But of course, this doesn‟t mean that she is (5)_____ going to university. b) impression b) thoughtfulness b) importance b) precision b) definitely

c) impressive c) thoughtful c) important c) precisely c) definition

d) impressionable d) thought d) importantly d) imprecisely d) indefinite

tc .a m

1. a) unimpressed 2. a) thoughtlessly 3. a) unimportance 4. a) precise 5. a) definite

Text 30

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b) tour b) financier b) participant b) performer b) payment

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1. a) touring 2. a) finance 3. a) partner 4. a) performance 5. a) paid

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.a

In the old days of (1)_____ theatrical companies, a travelling company had experienced a bad (2)_____ week, and there was no money to pay the actors. When the actor, who played the (3)_____ of the Ghost in „Hamlet‟ heard this, he promptly told the manager: “Then the ghost won‟t walk tonight!” As that meant that there could be no (4)_____ that night, he was immediately paid. Ever since the (5)_____ of salaries in the theatre is known as “the ghost is walking.” c) tourist c) financially c) part c) perform c) payable

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d) tourism d) financial d) participation d) performative d) unpaid

LEVEL A

Section 4

SECTION 4 ÀÝïñ»É ݳ˳¹³ëáõÃÛ³Ý µáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳٳå³ï³ë˳ÝáÕ ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ: Choose the appropriate option. 1. When population is not checked by artificial means, __________ increases, putting more strain on limited natural resources. a) b) c) d)

they them its it

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

2. The portion of a mountain __________ trees cannot grow is called the tree line. there that so where

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provide provided to have provided to provide

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a) b) c) d)

.a

3. In 1892, Dr. James Naismith invented the game of basketball __________college students with exercise during the winter months.

4. __________Mary Ann Shadd famous for helping escaped slaves, she was also the first African Canadian woman to establish a newspaper. a) b) c) d)

Was only not Not only was Was not only Not only

5. Everest being the highest, K2 is __________ mountain peak in the world. a) b) c) d)

the second of the of the second highest the second highest of the level the second highest

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LEVEL A

Section 4

6. “It is not very cold. I don‟t think we need these big jackets.” “I don‟t think so, __________.” a) b) c) d)

anyway either neither too

7. __________ Nebraska nor Iowa has any coastline. a) b) c) d)

Either Neither Both Together

That birds A bird The bird Birds

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

8. __________owe much of their success as a group to their unusual powers of migration.

9. The house sparrow, __________ in NY city, was first seen in the city in 1850.

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now a common bird bird in common a bird now in common which a common bird

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a) b) c) d)

10. During the early period of Ocean navigation __________ any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques. a) b) c) d)

was so hardly so that hardly when there hardly was there was hardly

11. It was difficult at first, but Mike __________ at night. a) b) c) d)

be used to working were used to working got used to working is used to working

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LEVEL A

Section 4

12. The legal systems of most countries can be classified __________ common law or civil law. a) b) c) d)

as either either as either to to either

13. __________ is your own business. a) b) c) d)

Who you work for Whose you work for Who for you work You work for whom

Do Make Making Doing

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

14.__________ an aerobic exercise for 20 minutes a day will strengthen your heart and you will get rid of excess fat.

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The height of Mount Everest How high Mount Everest is Mount Everest is high So high is Mount Everest

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a) b) c) d)

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15.__________that climbers can take only a couple of steps per minute as they near the summit.

16. Eight ounces of skim milk contain __________ the same volume of regular milk. a) b) c) d)

more than protein as more protein than more protein as as more protein

17. In 1983 astronaut Sally Ride became __________ from the USA to travel into space. a) b) c) d)

of the first woman the first woman was the first woman she was the first woman 71

LEVEL A

Section 4

18. The accordion, a musical instrument, consisting of a rectangular bellows expanded and contracted __________, is frequently used in folk music. a) b) c) d)

the hands that between them them between the hands by between the hands between the hands

19. Mason bees are solitary bees, which means __________ in colonies like honey bees or bumble bees. a) b) c) d)

do not live when they do not live that they do not live that do not live

was writing fiction that she wrote fiction that of fiction writer who wrote fiction

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

20. Zora Hurtson first undertook fieldwork in anthropology, but eventually settled into her most cherished calling, __________.

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that it leaves it leaves leaves it does it leave

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a) b) c) d)

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21. Not until a frog develops lungs __________ the water and live on the land.

22. The mass of insects on Earth is __________ all other land animals combined. a) b) c) d)

greater than that of as large more greater broader than the one of

23. Many people hate to eat in restaurants by __________. a) b) c) d)

themselves theirselves himself ourselves

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LEVEL A

Section 4

24. Actor Paul Newman received an Academy Award for Lifetime Achievement__________dozens of popular movies over several decades. a) b) c) d)

because acting for acting in with acting in in his acting in

25. The American and the Soviet space exploration programs, even though they are reputedly opposites, are very much __________ in their empirical goals. a) b) c) d)

unlike alike not alike like

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

26. I don‟t __________ staying home today. feel unlike feel alike feel like feel likely

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From All All of Of all

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a) b) c) d)

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.a

27. “What did you think of the book?” “__________the books I‟ve read, it was the most interesting.”

28. “Is your husband a good dancer?” “Yes. He dances __________.” a) b) c) d)

exceptional good exceptionally good exceptionally well exceptional well

29. “Is Marsha still here?” “No. She was the first __________.” a) b) c) d)

leaving leave to leave in leaving 73

LEVEL A

30. “I took the TOEFL. It was __________.” “Had you studied a lot before you took it?” a) b) c) d)

real hardly real hard really hard really hardly

31. “Did you meet Ann here at the university?” “No, we had __________ met when I started college.” a) b) c) d)

still already till yet

to replace replacing replaced by replace

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

32. “What‟s wrong with your car?” “The rear mirror needs __________.”

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attend to attend attending have attended

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a) b) c) d)

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33. “How about going to the theater?” “O.K., but I would rather __________ a concert.”

34. “What is that book about?” “It concerns__________ your money.” a) b) c) d)

investing to invest about investing with investing

35. “Are you __________employed at the post office?” “Yes, I have been working there since 1982.” a) b) c) d)

yet almost already still 74

Section 4

LEVEL A

36. “Mrs. Williams is always beautifully dressed.” “She wears __________ nice clothes.” a) b) c) d)

so such a such so much

37. “When you were living in the country, were there a lot of deer?” “Yes, but hardly ever __________ any.” a) b) c) d)

did we saw we did see did we see we saw

the more talented the most talent more talent most talented

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

38. “John and Jack both get good grades.” “Nonetheless, John is __________of the two.”

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definitely interested definite interested definitely interesting interesting definitely

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a) b) c) d)

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39. “Did you sell your car?” “ No, but there‟s a woman who is __________ in buying it.”

40. “Is your dog afraid of me?” “A little. It‟s not used to __________.” a) b) c) d)

be petted petting being petted pet

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Section 4

LEVEL A

41. “How old are you?” “ I am __________ you are.” a) b) c) d)

the same old as as same age as the same age as as same old as

42. “Can I help__________?” “Yes, do you know when the bus comes ?” a) b) c) d)

us yourself you ourselves

saw seen see to see

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

43. “ There was an eclipse yesterday.” “ Unfortunately, I didn‟t even __________ it.”

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so tired that such a tired too tired that very tired that

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a) b) c) d)

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44. “You look tired.” “ I am__________ I can‟t keep my eyes open.”

45. “Tom didn‟t tell the truth about the accident.” “ Never __________ him again.” a) b) c) d)

will believe I I will believe will I believe I won‟t believe

46. “Christine is moving to Los Angeles.” “I think__________ will make everyone sad.” a) b) c) d)

her leaving she leaves she leaving her to leave 76

Section 4

LEVEL A

47. “ Some teenagers own cars when they‟re still in high school.” “ Our sons‟ friend __________one.” a) b) c) d)

drive have do has

48. “ When are you leaving for South Carolina?” “ I think I‟ll go __________ June 11.” a) b) c) d)

at in between on

at the last at last the last the least

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

49. “ Did you go to Hawaii for vacation?” “I had been planning to go, but I got sick __________ minute.”

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the drinks some drink a drink drink

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a) b) c) d)

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50. “ Do we need more drinks for the party?” “ No, __________ have already been bought.”

51. “Would you prefer jazz or rock music?” “I dislike __________ music in general.” a) b) c) d)

listening to to listen listening at listen to

52. “Do you like living alone?” “Yes, and now I__________ for myself.” a) b) c) d)

used to cook used to cooking am used to cooking am used to cook 77

Section 4

LEVEL A

53. “ Would you like to go to the movies tomorrow?” “Sure. __________I will have finished my exam.” a) b) c) d)

And than After then By then By that

54. “Do you think Barbara speaks __________ well?” “She should. She has been studying it since she was in high school.” a) b) c) d)

Spanish language a Spanish language Spanish the Spanish

a lot of a lot lots lot

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

55. “I passed the admission test!” “Congratulations. Had you studied __________ before you took it?”

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twice as much as twice more times twice as much twice as many as

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a) b) c) d)

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56. “ Bob, I am not going to buy this encyclopedia”. “I know, because it costs __________ the other one.”

57. “Mom, this is __________tasty ice cream that I‟ll have another helping” “Of course, if you like”. a) b) c) d)

such so such an so much

58. “Are you all here dear students, can we start our lesson?” “Yes, everyone __________ Virginia.” a) b) c) d)

but except to from beside 78

Section 4

LEVEL A

Section 4

59. “__________ fish are there in the basket near you?” “Quite a lot.” a) b) c) d)

How much number of Do you know how much How many What is the number of

60. “Which football team do you support?” “ We‟d like __________.” a) b) c) d)

the Monsters will win the Monsters to win that the Monsters win the Monsters win

Ask Make Have Let

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

61. “I don‟t understand the instructions of the document because of my poor English.” “ __________ your English teacher to help you.”

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for seeing for to see because to see to see

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a) b) c) d)

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62. “Jane said you telephoned me last night.” “Yes. I called __________ if you would like to come to dinner tomorrow.”

63. “Ann looks like a smart student.” “Oh, yes, she is always the first __________ her homework.” a) b) c) d)

to be finished with to being finished with to finish finishing

64. “I have observed that you don‟t pay attention to the rules when crossing the street.” “The point is that I __________ the rules of it, I have just arrived in this country.” a) b) c) d)

do not accustomed to keeping am not accustomed to keeping am not accustomed to keep do not accustomed keeping 79

LEVEL A

Section 4

65. “You know that doctors are trying to find out __________ there is a risk to get the virus.” “ No. I haven‟t heard about it yet.” a) b) c) d)

whether if if not whether not whether

66. According to the economic laws, the greater the demand __________the price. a) b) c) d)

higher the high the higher high

highest than higher than the highest that higher that

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

67. The observation deck at the World Trade center was __________ any other one in New York.

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other another else the another

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a) b) c) d)

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68. Let‟s listen for more information about the storm on __________ radio stations.

69. The classroom equipment usually includes__________ chalk. a) b) c) d)

few several a few some

70. “Have the workers __________ the kitchen cupboard and then let them go.” a) b) c) d)

to bring in brought in bring in bringing in

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LEVEL A

Section 4

71. “Did you order __________cakes for your birthday party?” “I only ordered one, but I wish I had ordered three.” a) b) c) d)

a little any little no

72. My English teacher said we should write another composition for tomorrow related __________our experience at last week‟s excursion. a) b) c) d)

to for into from

needed be was needed needed to needed to be

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

73. The president‟s advisor studied the case carefully and reported that it __________ improved.

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for me to swim swimming to swim swim

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a) b) c) d)

w

74. “Don‟t you think the trip to the Black Sea would be fantastic?” “To tell the truth I dislike __________ in salt water”.

75. “Why does the detective want to meet you today as soon as possible?” “Surprisingly enough, I am the only person who saw the money __________ last night”. a) b) c) d)

to steal been stolen being stolen stealing

81

LEVEL A

Section 4

76. __________ was said about the war, and people thought it was planned secretly by some authorities to confuse them. a) b) c) d)

A few Few Little Some

77. “Is Angelina still single?” “No, she is married __________ a lawyer and they are really happy to have each other.” to of with for

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

dangerously so dangerous dangerous very dangerously

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

78. “I spend more than 10 dollars on cigarettes, I am not used to smoking cheap ones.” “Really, it is a __________habit you know, and I wish I would stop smoking.”

Enough surprising Surprised enough Enough surprisingly Surprisingly enough

w

a) b) c) d)

w

79. “__________ Bob‟s winter holidays in Scotland led to his marrying a Scotswoman.”

80. “Mom, please, can you make Dad__________us to London at Christmas “I will try, though I know he is very busy these days.” a) b) c) d)

taking his taking take to take

82

time?”

LEVEL A

81. “To be frank, I am against borrowing books from the library and then not them back in time because I think that other students may need it.” “Yes, you are right__________.” a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

so nervous so nervously very nervously such a nervous

w

a nice one nicer the nicer the nicest

w

w

84. “Hi Nick, I hear you were in New York, did you like it?” “ __________ all the cities I have visited, I like New York the best!” a) b) c) d)

For From In Of

85. “Miss Erica, these flowers are for you.” “Thank you. They have __________ beautiful colours.” a) b) c) d)

too as such a very

83

more

“Christmas

.a

83. “Mike, help me to decide which book to buy: “English Tales” or Tales.” “Of the two, I think the second one is__________.” a) b) c) d)

giving

as usual as usually usual usually

82. “Why are you __________? Didn‟t you sleep well last night?” “You should have told me you weren‟t coming to the cinema. I waited than three hours but you didn‟t come.” a) b) c) d)

Section 4

LEVEL A

Section 4

86. Although there is no evidence of water on Mars, for years the dark lines visible __________ were referred to as canals. a) b) c) d)

in the planets on planets on the planet in planet

87. Because Galileo published a paper supporting Copernicus‟s heliocentric theory of__________, he was charged with heresy by the Inquisition. a) b) c) d)

universe the universe a universe an universe

as if how that

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

88. Building codes and fire laws prevent concert promoters from selling as many tickets __________ they possibly can.

w

go swimming swimming doing a swim to swim

w

a) b) c) d)

w

89. “Have you got any plans for the weekend?” “What about __________ in the lake?”

90. “Would you like some hot coffee or tea?” “I do like them __________, but I‟d rather have something cold.” a) b) c) d)

either neither both too

91. “I was hoping that you‟d wear your new dress. It‟s much __________.” “But this one is more comfortable for hot weather.” a) b) c) d)

pretty more prettier most prettiest prettier 84

LEVEL A

92. “I can‟t stand this class!” “Well, you might as well __________ it.” a) b) c) d)

used to get used to get use to be used

93. “I think that the game starts at eight.” “Good. We have just __________ to get there.” a) b) c) d)

enough time too time so much time very much time

well well enough good enough good

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

94. “The music and the flowers are lovely.” “Yes. I hope that the food is __________,too.”

w

the carefulest carefuler the most careful the more careful

w

a) b) c) d)

w

95. “Henry and Dolores are careful.” “Yes, but Olga is __________ of the three.”

96. “I can‟t stand hot weather!” “__________. Dreadful, isn‟t it?” a) b) c) d)

So can‟t I Neither can I So I can‟t Nor I can

97. “Their son is very bright.” “Yes, he is. When we saw them at graduation I was surprised how__________ he could talk”. a) b) c) d)

clearer clean clearly cleaner 85

Section 4

LEVEL A

98. “Did you go to the museum with your friend?” “No, I went there __________.” a) b) c) d)

by my own on myself with me by myself

99. “I don‟t have to be there until seven.” “The traffic is really bad. __________ leave a few minutes early.” a) b) c) d)

You had rather You had better not You would rather not You had better

yet already still never

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

100. “What time are your friends arriving?” “They have __________ arrived.”

w

nothing anything something everything

w

a) b) c) d)

w

101. “This is a very expensive shop, __________ is cheap here.” “I can‟t believe it!”

102. “This soup is hot!” “The __________, the better.” a) b) c) d)

hot hotter hottest hotly

103. “How old is Susan?” “She is __________as I am.” a) b) c) d)

the same age as same age so old the same 86

Section 4

LEVEL A

104. “If only I had taken your__________!” “Yes. You wouldn‟t have any problem.” a) b) c) d)

advices an advice advice advises

105. “You look__________. You must have received good news!” “You are right. I‟ve got a job in a bank.” a) b) c) d)

happy happily unhappy so happily

little some a little a few

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

106. “Would you like some more coffee?” “Only__________, thank you.”

w

So do I Neither do I So I do Nor I do

w

a) b) c) d)

w

107. “My brother doesn‟t like our Math class.” “__________.”

108. “What‟s the problem?” “Oh, doctor, I‟ve got __________ bad cold.” a) b) c) d)

such a so much a such so many

109. “Have you finished your term paper __________?” “I started to read a novel instead.” a) b) c) d)

just still yet also 87

Section 4

LEVEL A

Section 4

110. “What about bringing John along to the meeting?” “That isn‟t __________ bad idea.” a) b) c) d)

such so such a so as

111. “What time does the bus leave for the airport?” “I don‟t know. It __________leave every half hour, but I think the schedule‟s been changed.” is used to used to get used to uses to

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

112. “Are you coming to the party with me?” “I am sorry, I am too busy and I don‟t want __________.” too also either neither

.a

a) b) c) d)

good best the best well

w

a) b) c) d)

w

w

113. “You will make fewer mistakes if you work hard.” “I‟ll try to do my__________.”

114. “How do you like my article?” “The more I read it __________ I get in it.” a) b) c) d)

the more interesting the more interested more interested more interesting

115. “No sooner __________ everyone started to gossip about her.” “That‟s typical!” a) b) c) d)

had Maria left than did Maria leave when had Maria left when Maria had left then 88

LEVEL A

Section 4

116. “Would you like to go to the zoo or to the circus?” “__________ to the circus.” a) b) c) d)

I‟d prefer to go I‟d rather to go I‟d better to go I‟d rather went

117. “My hat is the same colour __________ yours.” “Yes, but the style is quite different.” a) b) c) d)

as like unlike than

for playing to play playing being played

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

118. “Why did you stop __________tennis?” “I got tired.”

w

At the age of 33 At 33 years At the age of 33 years At the age of 33-year-old

w

a) b) c) d)

w

119. __________ Michelangelo began painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

120. The changes in this city have occurred __________. a) b) c) d)

so fastly rapidly fastly so rapid

121. Mary and her sister have just bought __________ coats at the clearance a) b) c) d)

two new winters new two winter two new winter‟s two new winter 89

sale.

LEVEL A

122. How__________ times did Rick and Jenifer have to do the experiment they got the results they had been expecting? a) b) c) d)

anybody‟s

enough intelligent intelligent enough intelligence enough enough intelligently

tc .a m

124. Nora __________ misses an opportunity to play in the tennis a) b) c) d)

before

many many of the much much of

123. George is not __________ to pass the test in economics without help. a) b) c) d)

Section 4

hardly never ever hardly never hardly hardly ever

tournaments.

w

to have enlarged to have it enlarge to make it enlarged to have it enlarged

w

a) b) c) d)

w

.a

125. “What a nice photograph! I like it so much!” “So do I. Tomorrow I am going __________ .”

126. “Why don‟t you throw these apples away? Can‟t you see they have __________?” a) b) c) d)

gone badly gone bad come worse got better

127. “What do you think about the project I introduced at the meeting yesterday?” “To tell the truth the more I thought about it __________ I liked it. I think I‟ll vote against it.” a) b) c) d)

the more the least less the less 90

LEVEL A

Section 4

128. “Did they go to James‟s party last Saturday?” “Yes, it was a great mistake. No one enjoyed __________.” a) b) c) d)

himself itself themselves them

129. Unfortunately, I‟ve never seen Mary __________. They say she took the first place at the competition last year. a) b) c) d)

to dance dance dances is dancing

a) b) c) d)

fifteen years old girl fifteen-years girl fifteen-year-old girl a fifteen-years-aged girl

tc .a m

130. They want their ________ to become a doctor. They don‟t even can be against it.

132.

w

Nor I could Neither could I So could I I neither

w

a) b) c) d)

__________ Hemingway lived in Cuba where he wrote “The the Sea”. a) b) c) d)

news on TV.”

w

.a

131. “I was so busy last week. I could not even find time to watch the “__________.”

think that she

Old Man and

In his later years In his latter years In his lasted years In his lasting years

133. Nobody likes talking to Bill because he is fond of giving __________ . a) b) c) d)

a useless advice useless advices useless advice some useless advices 91

LEVEL A

134.

__________, London is one of the most interesting and oldest world. a) b) c) d)

cities in the

In my mind For my mind In my opinion By my opinion

135. Our Literature teacher __________ a lot of poems by heart. a) b) c) d)

makes us to learn makes that we learn makes us learning makes us learn

a very fast car one of the most fast the most fastly car one of the fastest cars

tc .a m

136. Alan said that it was __________ he had ever driven. a) b) c) d)

w

w

driving to drive to driving to be driving

.a

137. When Jane came to Britain, she had to get used __________ on the left. a) b) c) d)

w

138. “Where are you planning to spend your holiday?” “To tell the truth, I haven‟t got __________ on holiday at the moment.” a) b) c) d)

money enough to go enough money to go money enough for going enough money for going

139. “Have you got any idea why the children are so strangely quiet? There is absolutely no noise.” “Don‟t worry. There is nothing dangerous. They are simply cutting some __________.” a) b) c) d)

ten pound note a ten-pound note ten-pound notes ten-pounds notes 92

Section 4

LEVEL A

Section 4

140. If you are worried about the problem, you should do __________ it. a) b) c) d)

something about anything for nothing against something at

141. “I am so tired.” “In that case let‟s get a taxi. It‟s __________ to walk.” a) b) c) d)

a quite long way quite a long way so a long way a so long way

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

142. The exam was quite easy,__________ we expected. more easy that more easy than easier as easier than

w

to smoke smoke smoking having smoked

w

a) b) c) d)

ago.

.a

143. My mother is very happy as my father gave up __________ three weeks

w

144. “Did you enjoy the play last night?” “Yes, of course, I did. I just couldn‟t help __________ every single scene of it.” a) b) c) d)

to admire admiring but admiring admire

145. “I see you have a lot of work to do.” “Yes, and, if you don‟t mind I‟d like __________ me.” a) b) c) d)

you to help that you help you are helping you help

93

LEVEL A

Section 4

146. He‟s a fast runner. I cannot run as fast __________. a) b) c) d)

so he could than him he can as him

147. “I hate cleaning fish.” “If you really do why don‟t you __________ at the fishmonger‟s?” a) b) c) d)

clean them have them cleaned have cleaned them to have them cleaned

a) b) c) d)

in the from the on the against the

w

w

early so too early early quietly such an early

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

149. “Have I come __________?” “ No, it‟s quite all right.”

tc .a m

148. “What time will you arrive?‟ „I don‟t know. It depends __________ traffic.”

150. “Why did you refuse to lend Ann money?” “Because I didn‟t want to risk __________.” a) b) c) d)

to lose it to lose them losing it losing them

151. “When are you leaving for South Carolina?” “I think I‟ll go __________.” a) b) c) d)

at June 11 between June 11 in June 11 on June 11 94

LEVEL A

152. Coffee beans are picked by hand and then __________. a) b) c) d)

drying dried which are dried by drying

153. The higher a mountaineer climbs, __________. a) b) c) d)

“Is this your home town?” “No. I‟ve only lived here __________.” a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

154.

the thinner the air will become thinner air will be there there will be thinner air the air will become thinner

a few years ago since a few years for a few years by a few years

w w

of to for with

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

155. “I‟ll buy the cake for David‟s birthday party.” “And I‟ll be responsible __________ the ice cream.”

156. “What musical instrument does Irene play?” “She is famous __________ her piano playing.” a) b) c) d)

by for about to

157. “Did you like the new French movie?” “My wife liked it but I was __________.” a) b) c) d)

some boring a little bored just a bore just boring

95

Section 4

LEVEL A

Section 4

158. “Mrs. Williams is always beautifully dressed” “She wears __________ nice clothes.” a) b) c) d)

a so such such a so much

159. “When do you work now?” “Usually __________ the afternoon.” a) b) c) d)

for to in on

of to with at

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

160. “What was your impression __________ the art exhibition?” “I thought some of the works were uninteresting.”

w

much serious more seriously the most serious much more serious

w

a) b) c) d)

w

161. At the end of the meeting it became obvious that the question being discussed was __________ than they expected.

162. Sorry Tom, I have to return. I remember __________ the front door but I cannot find the key. a) b) c) d)

lock locking to lock to locking

163. My black jeans __________ dirty. I‟ll put on something else and we can go out. a) b) c) d)

was is are aren‟t 96

LEVEL A

Section 4

164. I don‟t like stories __________ have unhappy endings. a) b) c) d)

those they which who

165. “Where are you going?” “I am going to buy __________.” a) b) c) d)

a bread some breads a loaf of bread a loaf of breads

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

166. The bus service is very good. There is a bus __________ ten minutes. each every all either

w

there where wherever here

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

167. We still live in Texas in a house near __________ I work.

a) b) c) d)

w

168. He had to work __________ ; otherwise he‟d have fallen behind the others. more harder hardly hard the hardest

169. I‟d __________ go on foot than travel on that overcrowded bus. a) b) c) d)

rather like prefer love

97

LEVEL A

Section 4

170. “Would you like to eat anything?” “Nothing. I‟ll just have __________ .” a) b) c) d)

a cup of coffee a little of coffee a coffee cup a glass of coffee

171. The girl insisted on __________ to an art school, although her parents were against it. a) b) c) d)

go going to go to going

as soon as possible so soon as possible possible soon soon as possible

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

172. “You look so pale, you‟d better see the doctor __________”, he noticed anxiously.

w

more easy that more easy than easier than easy as

w

a) b) c) d)

w

173. The dictation was quite easy, __________ we expected.

174. Jim and Susan study at the same University. The __________ studies Arts and Jim studies Science. a) b) c) d)

latter late latest later

175. She tried to be serious but she couldn‟t help __________. a) b) c) d)

to laugh laughing that she laughed to laughing 98

LEVEL A

Section 4

176. “Could you tell me where my trousers are?” “Haven‟t you put __________ in the wardrobe?” a) b) c) d)

it them they its

177. Some of my classmates decided to study Electrical Engineering because wanted __________ computers. a) b) c) d)

to build building be built build

its it‟s it itself

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

178. “What‟s the matter with your cat?” “I am taking it to the vet. It has injured __________ tail.”

w

neither either also too

w

a) b) c) d)

w

179. “This coffee isn‟t strong.” “The taste isn‟t good __________.”

180. “The more you read, the __________ you‟ll be.” “Why don‟t you read then?” a) b) c) d)

the clever cleverer the cleverer the cleverest

181. She ate __________. She wasn‟t feeling hungry. a) b) c) d)

hardly anything hard anything anything hardly anything hard 99

they

LEVEL A

Section 4

182. “Who has been planning the dance?” “ Everyone in the club __________.” a) b) c) d)

is have has are

183. I have a terrible headache so I don‟t feel like __________ out for a walk tonight. I‟d better stay at home and watch TV. a) b) c) d)

going to go go gone

Some Every Both Each

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

184. My sisters are all very clever but lazy and naughty girls. __________ of has her own responsibilities which they never carry out.

w

five minutes‟ five minute‟s five minutes five minute

w

a) b) c) d)

w

185. “Do you live far from the Campus?” “No, my house is __________ walk from the College.”

186. “Don‟t you know why Sam did not arrive at work in his car?” “He is __________ at the garage so he has to use his elder brother‟s Ford.” a) b) c) d)

having repaired it having it repaired having it repair having it repairing

187. My new glasses cost me __________ the last pair that I bought. a) b) c) d)

times three three times more three times as much as as much three times as 100

them

LEVEL A

Section 4

188. It was __________ that we went camping in the mountains last weekend. a) b) c) d)

such nice weather so nice a weather too nice weather so nice weather

189. The jury think Annie is the best singer among all the candidates. Have you ever heard her __________? a) b) c) d)

singing sung to sing sang

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

190. “What are the expectations?” “Many of __________ not expect to win.” the participants in the race do participant in the race are participants of the race does the participant in the race has

w

w

Kate and Ann‟s Kate‟s and Ann‟s Kate and Ann Kate‟s and Ann

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

191. Do you know that __________ children are classmates?

192. Very few people know about Jack‟s secret. So, please, don‟t __________. a) b) c) d)

give it in give it up give it away give it

193. Mrs. Simpson is really an excellent teacher. She is __________ her students. a) b) c) d)

highly high higher highest

101

appreciated by

LEVEL A

Section 4

194. If I leave early in the morning I‟ll arrive at about 12 o‟clock in the afternoon, it‟s about __________ to that town from my house. a) b) c) d)

three hour drive three hours‟ drive three hour‟s drive three hours drive

195. When he was young he used __________ every day. a) b) c) d)

to going swimming to go swimming going to swimming to go swim

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

196. He is very punctual. We hope he won‟t keep us __________. to wait wait waiting to waiting

w

worse the worse the worst worst

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

197. This was __________ film I had ever seen.

w

198. “__________ nice weather to go for a walk!” “It is really a nice day.” a) b) c) d)

Such a So Such How

199. I am going to a wedding on Saturday. __________ is getting married. a) b) c) d)

A friend of mine One my friends A friend of me A friend of my

102

LEVEL A

Section 4

200. “Did you hear about that concert?” “There was __________ news about it on TV last night.” a) b) c) d)

many lot a lot of much of

201. “Have you got any plans for the Christmas holidays?” “How about __________ in the mountains?” a) b) c) d)

go skiing skiing do skiing to ski

either neither both too

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

202. “Would you like to go sailing or swimming?” “I like them __________, but I‟d rather have a walk today.”

w

much cheerful more cheerful cheerfully most of cheerful

w

a) b) c) d)

w

203. “I was hoping to meet you in the morning. I‟m usually __________ at that time of day.”

204. “I hate studying for exams!” “__________ it because it‟s the only way to pass.” a) b) c) d)

Used to Get used to Get using to Be used to

205. “I think the movie starts at 8 pm.” “Oh. We don‟t have __________ to get there.” a) b) c) d)

enough time too time little time no time 103

LEVEL A

206. “Can this drug __________ cure my cold?” “Yes, we believe your cold will be cured in three days.” a) b) c) d)

really real a real be really

207. “I‟ve played too much table tennis today.” “You__________ find another partner.” a) b) c) d)

would rather to would better had better had rather to

So don‟t I Neither do I So I don‟t Nor don‟t I

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

208. “I don‟t play tennis very well!” “__________.”

w

well good better best

w

a) b) c) d)

w

209. “Her English is easy to understand.” “Yes, I was surprised how__________ she could talk”.

210. “Did you go on vacation with your family?” “No, I went __________.” a) b) c) d)

alone lonely by alone all lonely

211. “The weather is much __________ today.” “Yes, but the weather reports say that it will rain tomorrow.” a) b) c) d)

better best good well 104

Section 4

LEVEL A

Section 4

212. “Did you know the man who tried __________ your bag?” “No, but I would certainly recognize him if I saw him again.” a) b) c) d)

to steal to stealing of stealing steal

213. “This book is __________ for you to read.” “I don‟t want to read it, I just want to look at the pictures.” a) b) c) d)

too difficult such difficult enough difficult difficulty

used to play using to play get used playing am used playing

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

214. “Do you like to play Scrabble?” “I __________ it a lot but now I‟m tired of it.”

w

a few minutes fewer minutes little minutes a little minutes

w

a) b) c) d)

w

215. “I can‟t wait to see the photos you took of our trip.” “Just give me __________ to download them to my computer.”

216. “The room is too hot. Can you open the window __________ to let in some cool air?” a) b) c) d)

enough wide wide enough widely enough enough widely

217. “I‟ve been accused of stealing money at work.” “You __________ get a lawyer to help you with that.” a) b) c) d)

would rather to would better had better had better to 105

LEVEL A

Section 4

218. “What‟s wrong with the washing machine?” “I tried to use __________, but the clothes were still dirty.” a) b) c) d)

it them its they

219. “I thought you were going to leave work early.” “My boss didn‟t __________.” a) b) c) d)

let me go to let me go let me going let me to go

so busy such busy too busy as busy

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

220. “I‟ve been __________ lately that I haven‟t been able to visit my mother.” “She‟s been unable to leave her house to visit me.”

w

little importance fewer importance in least importance of less importance

w

a) b) c) d)

w

221. It isn‟t a question __________. Let‟s discuss it tomorrow.

222. “Why did you refuse to lend Ann money?” “Because I didn‟t want to risk __________.” a) b) c) d)

to lose it to lose them losing it losing them

223. “Have I come __________ early?” “No, it‟s quite all right.” a) b) c) d)

too such quite rather 106

LEVEL A

224. Don‟t drive__________, there is ice on the road. a) b) c) d)

so fast such fast more fast so faster

225. “Help __________ some caviar.” “Oh, thank you. It‟s delicious.” a) b) c) d)

you to me to yourself to myself to

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

226. “It‟s a pity to stay at home in __________.” “Oh, yes the weather is fine.” such a weather so weather such weather a such weather

w

something any things every things nothing

w

a) b) c) d)

w

.a

227. “Would you like to have __________?” “No thanks, I‟ve already had breakfast.”

228. What nice news! Everyone will be glad __________. a) b) c) d)

to hear them hearing it to hear they to hear it

229. He will be listened to with great interest. His report is __________. a) b) c) d)

the better good of all best the best

107

Section 4

LEVEL A

230. I enjoyed the concert. It was __________ . a) b) c) d)

rather excited quite exciting quite an exciting excited rather

231. “Yesterday it was Mary‟s birthday.” “The children had __________ time, didn‟t they?” a) b) c) d)

well a good good a well

a such such a so a very

w

near the phone on the phone at phone by phone

w

a) b) c) d)

w

233. “Harry is __________.” “Who is he talking to?”

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

232. “He is __________liar.” “Nobody likes to be cheated, do they?

234. “Are we going to be late?” “ No, we are going to arrive __________ the airport in time.” a) b) c) d) 235.

in to at on

“Shall we eat here?” “The food looks __________ to me.” a) b) c) d)

badly well good nicely 108

Section 4

LEVEL A

236. “__________?” “She is tall and slim.” a) b) c) d)

How is she like Who is she What is she What is she like

237. “There must be many bottles of beer in the fridge.” “I can see only __________.” a few bottle many bottles a few bottles a little bottles

238. “Shall I open the window?” “__________” Do please. Please you won‟t. You may please. Please don‟t you.

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

w

at age of at the age by age of at the age of

w

a) b) c) d)

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239. “At what age did he go to school?” “He went to school __________ five.”

240. “What is their new house like?” “It __________.” a) b) c) d)

looks very well looks like an office block likes yours seems like very comfortable

241. “ Was he late?” “When he came two minutes ago everybody __________.” a) b) c) d)

have already been there were there has already arrived had already arrived 109

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242. They got valuable __________ from the night watchman. a) b) c) d)

piece of information informations pieces of informations information

243. “These new trains are fantastic!” “They move __________.” a) b) c) d)

so quick such quickly very quickly too quick

a) b) c) d)

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244. Tell me more about your work, I'm very __________. interested for it interesting in it interesting interested in it

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yourself to you you by yourself

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a) b) c) d)

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245. “Could you help me?” “I don't see why I should help __________.”

246. “Could you help me to solve the problem?” “I'm not good __________ mathematics.” a) b) c) d)

on at in with

247. “__________?” “I have a bad headache.” a) b) c) d)

What does it matter What is matter with you What's the matter with you What matters 110

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248. “Have you ever met Tom?” “Yes, we met __________.” a) b) c) d)

the concert at the concert in the concert in concerts

249. “Have you been to New York?” “__________.” a) b) c) d)

Already not Not still Still not Not yet

pieces of furniture pieces of furnitures furnitures piece of furnitures

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a) b) c) d)

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250. “Have you ever been to their place?” “Their apartment is very modern, but they have some antique __________ in it.”

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rather much not so more

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a) b) c) d)

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251. “Did you like this film?” “This film was __________ interesting than last week's.”

252. “Have you finished __________?” “Nearly.” a) b) c) d)

still yet till until

253. “Have you got books by Dickens?” “ __________ books on this shelf were written by Dickens.”. a) b) c) d)

The all All All the Every 111

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254. “Is it still raining?” “No, it's not raining __________.” a) b) c) d)

more no more some more any more

255. “Is he as intelligent as his sister?” “No, he's __________ intelligent as his sister.” not so much less much fewer least

256. “Who is Janet?” “Janet is __________.” an old my friend an old friend of me a my old friend an old friend of mine

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a) b) c) d)

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a) b) c) d)

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to in with on

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a) b) c) d)

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257. “How did you get there?” “We went by car and the children went __________ foot.”

258. “Shall we go out?” “I don‟t think it‟s a good idea. It looks __________ rain.” a) b) c) d)

for so as like

259. “The players can‟t find their boots.” “ __________ boots are in their place.” a) b) c) d)

The three player's The three players The three players' Three players' their 112

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260. “The car I bought last year has turned out to be just awful.” “I bet you‟ll never buy __________ one of the same make.” a) b) c) d)

the other others other another

261. “Could I borrow fifty dollars from you?” “I am sorry, I don‟t have __________ money.” a) b) c) d)

much a lot many plenty

many a lot of few lots

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a) b) c) d)

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262. “What are the results of the report?” The company has made __________ progress in the last five years.”

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research need researches need researches needs research needs

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a) b) c) d)

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263. “Doing __________ a lot of work!” “You‟d better start working on your paper now.”

264. “Your project __________ the committee.” “That‟s good news.” a) b) c) d)

highly interesting high interested highly interested interested high

265. “Is the final exam required?” “Yes. __________ in the class has to take it.” a) b) c) d)

Each student All the student Every students Each students 113

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266. “Alex took an extended vacation in Northern Europe last summer.” “ I know. Sweden was __________ he visited when he was in Scandinavia.” a) b) c) d)

one of the country one of the countries country one of countries

267. “Did you like the new restaurant?” “They had __________ service ever!” a) b) c) d)

the worse worst the worst worse

to visit visiting to visiting to have visited

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a) b) c) d)

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268. “Do you know that Mary has left for Paris?” She‟s been looking forward __________ Paris for years.”

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admiting admit to admiting to admit

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a) b) c) d)

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269. “Have you apologized to Helen?” “I did, even though it‟s hard for me __________ my mistake.”

270. “Can you hear the rain tapping on the roof?” “Yes. The sound is getting __________ my nerves!” a) b) c) d)

on at in to

271. “How far is the Reading Hall from the main building?” “Have a look __________ the map. It‟ll tell you.” a) b) c) d)

on at to in 114

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272. “Tom is a clever boy.” “True, he's very intelligent but has no interest in __________ school or in learning.” a) b) c) d)

a the these –

273. “Mr. Hill is always making new rules for his children to follow.” “Some of __________ rules are unreasonable, though.” this a the

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a) b) c) d)

274. Coli has proven to be __________ most dangerous bacteria that can be acquired from food and water, even in developed countries. one of the one of one of one

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a) b) c) d)

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the other other another the another

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a) b) c) d)

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275. “Don‟t you want to play with me?” “No, you had better find __________ partner.”

276. In the past six months, the company has already received twice income as it earned in the entire preceding year. a) b) c) d)

__________

as much more as many as more

277. Swimming is a beneficial exercise, __________ aerobic activity and uses a number of muscle groups. a) b) c) d)

not only because it provides because it both provides for provision as result of providing 115

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278. Hardly __________ the office when he realized that he had left his wallet at home. a) b) c) d)

he had entered had entered entered had he entered

279. “Her French is easy to understand.” “Yes, I was surprised how__________ she could talk”. well good better best

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a) b) c) d)

280. The tube worm, __________ stationary plant-like creature that lives at the bottom of the deep sea, can live for hundreds of years. is a it is a a that is a

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a) b) c) d)

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likely like alike a like

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a) b) c) d)

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281. Due to her agility and speed, that runner is __________to be the first one chosen.

282. The man got angry when he discovered that the laundry machine was __________ order. a) b) c) d)

out out of on outside

283. “Why did you stop __________ football?” “We got tired.” a) b) c) d)

for playing to play playing play 116

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284. “You must have received __________news!” “You are right. I‟ve got a job.” a) b) c) d)

well good better a good

285. The BFI poll has taken place once every ten years _____1962. a) b) c) d)

in since during within

a) b) c) d)

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286. The Old Man and the Sea, a novel about __________ harrowing adventure catching a huge fish, is one of Ernest Hemingway‟s most famous books. an old fisherman‟s an old fisherman old fisherman‟s the old fisherman

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in the English language in the English of English on English language

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a) b) c) d)

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287. American Herman Melville became famous by writing one of the greatest adventure novels __________.

288. “What are you doing?” “I am working __________Physics experiment.” a) b) c) d)

on my in mine by myself by my

289. He always insists __________ for everything when we go out for dinner. a) b) c) d)

on the paying for paying on paying to pay 117

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290. “If you take a train, it‟ll be __________.” “I also think so.” a) b) c) d)

much good best much better more well

291. Gerard Jensen is regarded __________of Vanuato‟s major expatriate a) the one b) at first c) as the first d) as one

so talent such talented so talented that very talented that

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292. “Is Mary very talented?” “Yes, she is __________ everyone admires her.”

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there they‟re their they

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a) b) c) d)

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293. Increasing the possibility of a state-wide strike in New Mexico, major supermarket chains said __________ would not agree to an extension of a contract with Albuquerque workers beyond today.

294. “Could I have a word with you, please?” “Sorry, I'm in a hurry. My train leaves __________minutes.” a) b) c) d)

in fifteen in the fifteen at fifteen at the fifteen

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artists.

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295. The best way to treat panic disorder is by simply pulling yourself together __________ things out with someone. a) b) c) d)

or by talking beside talking and to talk or to talk

296. “Who do you think is going to win the game tomorrow?” “I think our team has __________players, so we‟ll win.” a) b) c) d)

better a good a better well

of at with -

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297. “Excuse me. Do you know where the bus terminal is?” “It is opposite __________ the large police station.”

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on the first in a first on first at first

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a) b) c) d)

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298. He will arrive __________ of July.

299. On a trip down to the bottom of __________ Grand Canyon, the equipment will in all probability be carried by burros. a) b) c) d)

the a _ an

300. “Isn‟t Mr. John__________?” “Yes, but he has enough experience.” a) b) c) d)

too young a younger too a youngest young very 119

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SECTION 5 î»Õ³¹ñ»É µ³é»ñÁ ѳٳï»ùëïáõÙ` µáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳٳå³ï³ëË³Ý (ïñí³Í µ³é»ñÇó »ñÏáõëÝ ³í»Éáñ¹ »Ý): Fill in each gap with an appropriate word from the list below (two odd variants are given). Text 1

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Before the _____ of money, people used to get the goods and services they wanted by swapping things with others. The system was entirely _____ on an agreement between both people, each of whom needed to have what the other wanted to exchange. The system of exchange started to work much more _____ with the introduction of money. By using precious metals which had been officially _____ and made into coins, it became possible to sell what you produced in _____ for coins, and then use the coins to buy anything you wanted from a third party. 1.weighed 2.invention 3.smoothly 4.place 5.dependent 6.return 7.fast Text 2

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Interpreting the feelings of other people is not always easy, as we all know, and we _____ as much on what they seem to be telling us, as on the actual words they say. Facial _____ and tone of voice are obvious ways of showing our _____ to something, and it may well be that we _____ express views that we are trying to hide. Body movements in general may also indicate feelings and interviewers often _____ particular attention to the way a candidate for a job walks into the rooms and sits down.

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1.expression 2.deliberately 3.rely 4.pay 5.reaction 6.believe 7.unconsciously Text 3

The experience of going to a football match in Brazil is something which even people who are not fans of the game will really enjoy. You watch the big _____ together with thousands of screaming football enthusiasts accompanied by the beating of drums and waving of flags. It‟s not just that football is great, there is a deep love for the game which can be seen from the way that rival fans _____ peacefully together. In addition to this, Brazil has the most beautiful stadiums in the world. Even small towns frequently have football grounds which _____ to international standards. It won‟t cost you much to see a game and the stadiums are not usually full, so it‟s quite easy to get a ticket at the gate, instead of having to pay in _____. Football is an almost year-round activity in much of Latin America and although many of the best teams in Brazilian cities have some key players _____ from Europe, there are plenty of local stars and certainly enough to provide some very exciting football. 1.advance 2.time 3.beforehand 4.mix 5.correspond 6.event 7.invited 120

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Text 4 Coca-Cola was _____ in 1886 by Atlanta pharmacist John S. Pemberton. The name for the product was _____ proposed by Pemberton‟s assistant, Frank Robinson. The name was taken from the two most _____ ingredients in the drink, the South American coca leaf and the African cola nut. The _____ for today‟s Coca-Cola is very well guarded. Many of the ingredients are known: in addition to coca leaves and cola nut, they include lemon, orange, lime, cinnamon, vanilla, caramel, and sugar. The proportions of the ingredients and the identity of Coke‟s _____ ingredients are known only by a few of the Coca-Cola Company‟s senior corporate officers. 1.invented 2.frequently 3.unusual 4.recipe 5.discovered 6.secret 7.actually Text 5

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When Columbus arrived in America in 1492, there were already an estimated thirty to forty million people living in North and South America. It has therefore been quite easy for some to refute the idea that Columbus _____ America. How and when these inhabitants came to America has been the source of much scientific research and discussion. Most archeologists agree that the first Americans, the true “discoverers” of America, came from northeastern Asia. There is also a _____ amount of proof that inhabitants have been in the Americas for at least 15000 years. To get to the Americas, these people had to cross over the 55-mile-wide Bering Strait that _____ Asia and North America. According to one theory, these people crossed over during periods when a land bridge _____ between the two continents. During Ice Ages, so much of the Earth‟s water was _____ that the sea levels dropped, and it was possible to walk from Asia to North America. 1.existed 2.considerable 3.built 4.plenty 5.separates 6.discovered 7.frozen Text 6 For women of my mother‟s _____, taking care of the home and child raising were viewed as the most important functions for women. The _____ view in society when she was growing up was that women should not work outside the home. This attitude was _____ in my mother at an early age. By the time mother was 25 she had five children. Last year the youngest child left home to go to college. At that time Mom decided that she wanted to be more self-reliant, more independent. Now, she is the manager of a children‟s department in a large store. Her new _____ in management has enabled my mother to assert her independence and _____ skills. 1.develop 2.career 3.do 4.forbidden 5.instilled 6.prevailing 7.age

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Text 7 The problem of homelessness is an international one. In the capital cities of the world, the sight of people begging on the streets is becoming _____ common. But all over the world, homeless people are taking the future into their own _____. By selling „street papers‟ they no longer need to beg for a living. The concept of the street paper is simple. It is sold by homeless and ex-homeless people who buy it at a _____ price of 30p and sell it to the public for 70p, keeping 40p for themselves. If they have no money, then they can get the first ten copies on _____ and pay for them later. Every paper seller receives training and is given a special identity badge. The paper itself contains articles of general and social interest, film and book reviews, cartoons and the occasional celebrity interview. Advertising and sales _____ most of the income, and all profits go back into helping homeless people. 1.provide 2.hands 3.credit 4.unbelievable 5.increasingly 6.shoulders 7.fixed

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Text 8

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Salt is _____ to life. The human body needs so little salt to _____ that it is very easy to consume too much of it. An excess of salt in the diet can lead to high blood pressure, which in turn can _____ the risk of heart disease. Cooking with salt also reduces the nutritional quality of the food. For example, spinach boiled in salted water loses 50% of its iron, compared to 19% when boiled in salt-free water. Many people have the habit of _____ salt to their food when they are at the table. Some even do this before they have tasted the food. This is one of the reasons why the average person in Britain eats two and a half to three teaspoons of salt every day. The _____ recommended dose is one and a half, and the ideal dose is just half a teaspoon.

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1.survive 2.increase 3.rise 4.essential 5.adding 6.maximum 7.pouring Text 9

Napoleon III of France was _____ for the invention of the butter substitute known as margarine. He was looking for a cheap alternative to butter for poorer people of society, and for his army and navy. So, he ____ up a prize competition to see who would come up with the best solution. There was only one entry into this competition, from a man called MegesMouries. He had spent over two years experimenting, and finally found an acceptable butter substitute made from milk and various animal fats. It tasted quite _____, and spread well on bread, but it was pure white. Despite its colour, Meges-Mouries‟ invention was awarded the prize. Yellow colouring was added to it at a later date. Margarine soon went into mass production and was exported all over the world. In Britain it was called „butterine‟, until protests from farmers led to that name being made illegal. Farmers in America were not happy about the new arrival on the market either. They _____ to the yellow colouring, saying that it made it resemble butter so closely that it could deceive consumers. In effect, Napoleon III‟s competition is still going on. The ultimate _____ of 122

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every margarine manufacturer is to produce a product that is impossible to distinguish from butter. And they keep trying. 1.pleasant 2.objected 3.responsible 4.goal 5.set 6.nicely 7.took Text 10

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Emily Dickinson was born in Massachusetts, in 1830. Throughout her life, she seldom left her house and it was very strange. The people with whom she did come in contact, however, had an enormous impact on her thoughts and poetry. By the 1860s, Dickinson lived in isolation from the _____ world, but actively maintained many correspondences and read widely. She spent a great deal of this time with her family. Her father, Edward Dickinson, was actively _____ in state and national politics. Her brother Austin _____ law school and became a lawyer. Dickinson‟s younger sister Lavinia also lived at home for her entire life in _____ isolation. Dickinson‟s poetry reflects her loneliness. Her work was heavily influenced by the metaphysical poets of seventeenth-century England. She _____ the poetry of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, as well as John Keats. The first volume of her work was published in 1890. She died in Amherst in 1886. Upon her death, Dickinson‟s family discovered 40 handwritten volumes of nearly 1800 of her poems. 1.involved 2.admired 3.outside 4.dropped 5.inner 6.similar 7.attended

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Text 11

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Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J.K. Rowling. The books _____ the adventures of the teenager wizard Harry Potter and his best friends, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School. The main story _____ Harry's difficulty involving the evil wizard Lord Voldemort, who killed Harry's parents in his mission to _____ the world of wizards and defeat non-magical people. The books have _____ immense popularity, critical acclaim, and commercial success worldwide, although the series has had its criticism, including the books' dark tones making the series less _____ for children. 1.particular 2.describe 3.relates 4.suitable 5.gained 6.concerns 7.conquer Text 12 A new study suggests that social _____ sites have _____ a new phenomenon known as “Facebook depression”. The American Academy of Pediatrics recently _____ parents about the possible dangers of networking websites on their children‟s mental health. I think that‟s natural, since for some teens and tweens, social media is the primary way they interact socially, _____ than at the mall or a friend‟s house. It is _____ for parents to be aware of how social media sites can affect children and that the Internet is not always a healthy environment for kids. 1.more 2.created 3.useless 4.rather 5.warned 6.essential 7.media 123

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Text 13 A new VR (virtual reality) headset for the home user will be in shops soon. The makers _____ that it will change the way that computer games are played. Unlike the heavy VR headsets that people have been using for the last few years, the new sets will look quite different. A spokesman for the company said: “A lot of people had _____ with the old headsets. They were too heavy and if you wore them for more than an hour or so, they could cause quite a great deal of pain.” Some scientists, however, are _____ about the effects of VR. They are sure that with VR, we will soon have children who are not _____ to playing with other people. _____ your life in a constant battle with aliens and monsters is not really a suitable environment for someone young. 1.spending 2.claim 3.problems 4.used 5.passing 6.made 7.worried Text 14

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The _____ of the custom of April Foolery remains unknown but it seems to resemble a particular festival of ancient Rome and most reference books suggest that it _____ in Europe. Some people feel that the foolery is related to the spring weather, when nature mocks us with sudden changes from warm sunshine to _____ rain; and, of course, April also marks the arrival of the cuckoo  the acknowledged symbol of the gullible. Naturally, superior pranksters would _____ from telephoning a zoo with messages for Mrs C.Lion or Mr L.E.Fant, but such tricks abound in the classroom, and most teachers have endured trials of _____ blackboards and invisible chalk. Many unsuspected apprentices, too, will have been sent out to buy „elbow grease‟ or „pigeon‟s milk‟.

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1.source 2.soaped 3.born 4.originated 5.held 6.keep 7.stormy Text 15

The ideal breakfast, say scientists, is a glass of orange juice, a cup of coffee and a bowl of cereal. People who start the day with a drink of vitamin C, a dose of caffeine and their favorite cereal are happier and perform better _____ the morning. Andy Smith, Professor at the University of Bristol, said, “A study of 600 people who were asked to record their breakfast habits found that those who regularly ate cereal in the morning had a more positive mood compared with those who ate other foods or had no breakfast. Earlier research had shown that people whose _____ performance was measured _____ after eating breakfast of any kind performed 10 percent better on test of remembering, speed of response and _____ to concentrate, as compared with those given only a cup of decaffeinated coffee.” In further research, Professor Smith said that people who drank four cups of coffee a day performed more _____ all day than those who drank less. He suggested that sensible employers should give out free coffee or tea. 1.mental 2.ability 3.immediately 4.efficiently 5.throughout 6.better 7.physical 124

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Text 16 Gaza City zookeepers have found a _____ way of drawing crowds to their zoo by painting their donkeys. The Zoo‟s only two zebras died of _____ when they were neglected during the war. The popular animals were _____ expensive to replace, so the keepers decided to design a pair of donkeys with black and white patterns _____. A professional painter used French-manufactured hair _____ to make the donkeys look like zebras. 1. creative 2.instead 3.coloring 4.hunger 5.too 6.painting 7.much Text 17

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The chili pepper is native to the Americas, but nowadays it is found all over the world. It is an extremely _____ spice in many cultures and is, in fact, the world‟s second favorite spice, after salt. There are more than a hundred _____ of chili peppers, some of which are quite _____ and others are incredibly hot and spicy. Today chili peppers are used to spice a variety of foods, e.g. meat and rice dishes, and even jam and jelly. In the past, chili peppers had some other, more unusual uses. In ancient Mexico, for example, chilies could be used to pay _____. In addition, in Panama, these peppers were used to _____ against sharks.

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1.nicely 2.protect 3.species 4.mild 5.taxes 6.uses 7.popular

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Text 18

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The _____ of Chinese medicine is not the same as that of modern medicine, but it is useful for curing many health problems. Modern medicine _____ on illness. Western doctors usually see illness as an enemy. They use medicines like weapons to fight diseases. Chinese medicine tries to make the patient‟s whole body well again. Their doctors believe that _____ people there are two types of energy. The first type, called „yin‟, is quiet and _____. The other type, „yang‟, is active. When these two energies are in equal balance, a _____ is healthy. 1.Chinese 2.refers 3.passive 4.philosophy 5.person 6.inside 7.focuses Text 19 Until very recently, teenagers have been hooked on television. Parents worry that their children are becoming fat, lazy coach potatoes, and teenagers seem to have _____ watching TV to almost any other activity in the home except sleeping. But no more. Given the choice between TV and the Internet, it‟s clear what most teens prefer. The Internet _____ an interactive, social need that TV doesn‟t. Teenagers at a loose end in their bedrooms can hang out with their mates in cyberspace. As websites such as „My 125

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Space‟ have taken off, teenagers have been only too _____ to join in their millions and spend hours day and night _____. We‟re _____ the birth of the generation of the „keyboard potato‟, for want of a better expression. 1.agreed 2.preferred 3.witnessing 4.eager 5.online 6.willing 7.meets Text 20

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During the 18th century, New York City became one of the fast _____ commercial centers of the British colonies in North America. It subsequently became a center of _____ activities by American patriots. In 1776, American troops were forced to evacuate the city, which remained under British _____ until the end of the American Revolution. From 1785 to 1790 New York was the seat of the US government. With the first stock exchange _____ in 1792 New York soon became the nation‟s _____ financial and commercial center. 1.leading 2.found 3.historical 4.founded 5.revolutionary 6.occupation 7.developing Text 21

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Do you ever wish you were more optimistic, someone who always expected to be successful? Having someone around who always _____ the worst isn‟t really a lot of fun  we all know someone who sees a single cloud on a sunny day and says, “It looks like rain.” But if you catch yourself thinking such things, it‟s important to do something about it. You can change your view of life, according to psychologists. It only takes a little effort, and you‟ll find life more _____ as a result. Optimism, they say, is partly about your self-respect and confidence but it‟s also a more positive way of looking at life and all it has to offer. Optimists are more likely to start new projects and are generally more prepared to take _____. Upbringing is obviously very important for _____ your attitude to the world. Some people are brought up to depend too much on others and grow up forever blaming other people when anything goes wrong. Most optimists, on the_____ hand, have been brought up not to regard failure as the end of the world  they just get on with their lives. 1.rewarding 2.forming 3.other 4.opposite 5.fears 6.risks 7.boring

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Text 22 What does the word “home” mean to us? Although people usually _____ what the word means, it often has no exact translation. It‟s not surprising really, because the idea of home _____ from country to country, and from person to person. A home is more than a roof and four walls. It‟s the cooking, eating, talking, playing and family living that go on inside, which are important as well. And at home you usually feel safe and _____. But it‟s not just that homes look different in different countries, they also contain different things and show different attitudes and needs. For example, in cold northern Europe, there is a fire in the living room or kitchen and all the chairs _____ it. In the south, where the sun shines a lot and it‟s more important to keep the _____ out, there are small windows, cool stone floors and often no carpets. 1.face 2.distressed 3.heat 4.know 5.look 6.relaxed 7.varies

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Text 23

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The Massai people of Kenya normally form relationships with people of their _____ age. However, in marriage a woman is given to a man she does not know, and who is much older than herself. The bride packs all her belongings and is dressed in her finest jewelry. At the marriage _____ the father of the bride blesses her and then she _____ with her husband walking to her new home. She never looks back fearing that she will turn to stone. This can be a very sad experience for the bride, who is 13-16 years old and may walk a long way to _____ to her new house. In order to avoid bad _____ sometimes the women of the groom‟s family will even insult the bride.

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1. accident 2.get 3.leaves 4.luck 5.ceremony 6.own 7.reach Text 24

Some doctors think the airplane is a dangerous place, _____ for the old or the unhealthy. Anyone with a heart disease or a lung problem can notice the difference much sooner. Even healthy people find it difficult to concentrate after hours of breathing less oxygen than usual. So anyone who has had a heart attack should not fly for at least two weeks after the attack. People with bad colds will _____ get earache during take-off and _____. Sitting on a plane for many hours gives everyone aches and pains, so you should take some exercise, especially on long flights. Crowded airports, long queues and _____ cause stress and high blood pressure. So, be careful! Flying is the safest way to _____, but is it the healthiest? 1.interruptions 2.delays 3.especially 4.tour 5.probably 6.travel 7.landing

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Text 25 Joe stepped onto the aeroplane and was met by one of the cabin crew who showed him to his seat. This was his first flight and he was feeling quite nervous. His hands were _____slightly and he was breathing heavily. He walked along the_____ of the plane and found his seat. Joe had spent a lot of time on planning his holiday; this was the first time he had been abroad. Sitting next to him was an eight year-old boy who also _____ to be quite nervous. Joe knew he was quite good with children, so he decided to try to calm the boy. After conversing with the boy for a few minutes, Joe gave him some chocolate. The _____ then became quite cheerful as he explained that he loved chocolate so much. The man and the boy found that they got on well together as they chatted for the whole flight. Joe discovered that they were on the same return flight the following week, which pleased them both. When they disembarked at the terminal, Joe commented about what a very good flight he‟d had. The young boy agreed, saying that he was looking forward to _____ up with Joe again on the return flight.

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1.aisle 2.appeared 3.catching 4.youth 5.trembling 6.keep 7.youngster Text 26

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Michaelangelo, one of the greatest artists of all time, was born on 6 March,1475, in Caprese, where his father, Lodovico Buonarroti, served as a magistrate for six months. Lodovico was not a wealthy man but he claimed he was descended from an aristocratic family and he was very _____ of his connection. Michaelangelo _____ up in Settignano, a little mountain town just outside Florence. One of the first _____ Michaelangelo must have become familiar with was the dome of the beautiful Cathedral in Florence, which dominated the city then as it still does today. At school, Michaelangelo was by no means an outstanding pupil; lessons did not appeal to him at all. The only thing he wanted to do was to draw and “_____ his time” as his elders probably called it, in the workshops of the various painters and sculptors in the city. One can imagine the eager boy, for whom art was the most important thing in his whole life, _____ at the wonderful pictures and statues which filled the beautiful churches of Florence. 1.grew 2.sights 3.waste 4.brought 5.gazing 6.satisfied 7.proud Text 27 A number of prehistoric paintings still survive on the walls of caves in Spain and southern France. They show with amazing accuracy a wide _____ of animals which the cave dwellers hunted, such as bison and deer, and are quite remarkable for their life and power. It is very _____ that the pictures were connected with hunting. There is a very famous example in Lascaux, in which we can just _____ out a man among some animals. There is also a collection of dark dots in the painting. The meaning of the picture is not clear; it does, however, show that the cave _____ were artistic people in many ways. More than 5000 years ago, the Egyptians began painting on the walls of 128

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their tombs everything that went on in their daily lives. They believed that the figures of people, _____ and everyday topics would enter the afterlife with the dead person. 1.look 2.likely 3.dwellers 4.make 5.animals 6.variety 7.possibly Text 28

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When I was almost fifteen I joined a travelling theatre troupe and started going on trips around America. It was on one of these tours that I was offered a _____ in a film, which I accepted. As a result, I went to Hollywood, where I eventually became a director as well as an actor. When I was a child, I could never have predicted my future fame and fortune. My _____ life was a time of great hardship, although my family had started off living quite comfortably. We had even had a maid to help out in the house. Our financial situation, however, gradually got _____ and in the end we lost everything. The family became so poor that at one stage my brothers and I had to take it in turns to _____ the only pair of shoes we had. Years later, a lot of these childhood experiences found their way into my films. I loved being the centre of _____ in films, something which I had never been as a boy. 1.better 2.attention 3.role 4.all 5.wear 6.worse 7.early

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Text 29

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Encyclopaedia Britannica, the world‟s most famous set of _____ books, has decided to stop _____ its 32-volume collection. The company has recently _____ a digital encyclopaedia for iPads and _____ tablet devices. Officials said the end of the physical books had been foreseen for many years, although they played down the impact of Internet sites. If you remember, it was last printed in 2010 and there are still 4,000 sets left, selling for $1,395 each. In many instances doing a keyword_____ in an online resource is simply a lot faster than standing up looking at the index of the Britannica and then finding the appropriate volume. 1.another 2.reference 3. search 4.copying 5.installed 6.other 7.printing Text 30 Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (1813-1901) was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. He was one of the most _____ composers of the 19th century. His works are frequently performed in opera houses throughout the world, transcending the boundaries of the genre. 1813 was also the year of birth of Richard Wagner. The two composers, _____ music and subject matter could not have been more different, revolutionized the opera and continue to influence it even today. Wagner was _____ with myths and gods whereas Verdi was more interested in human beings and their problems. 129

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After his opera Aida, Verdi rearranged Simon Boccanegra and Don Carlos. In their new form, both works _____ the direction Verdi intended to take in order to create a new type of opera. In 1887, he put his ideas into practice with the première of Othello in Milan. Verdi‟s new style was marked by a refined interplay between orchestra and canto. The text accentuated the psychological and musical dimension. For Othello, Verdi has been _____ accused of copying Richard Wagner. 1.influential 2.involved 3.unknown 4.whose 5.unjustly 6.concerned 7.reveal Dialogue 31

Peter:

Jane: Peter: Jane:

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Peter: Jane:

Hello, Peter! What are you doing here in the library? I often come to the reading room, but I have never seen you here before! Hello, Jane. That‟s right – you could not have possibly seen me here. I have come to _____ the newspapers. The exams are coming and I am _____ bit nervous. Have you missed many classes then? Not many, but there is a lot of information which went out of my head. I cannot _____ a single thing. It _____! You will have to spend days and nights with books and your computer. What worries me is the language course. Peter, be more _____! If the teacher sees you have tried to do something he will appreciate it, I am sure.

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Jane:

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Dialogue 32

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1.find out 2.optimistic 3.getting a 4.don‟t worry 5.look through 6.is up to you 7.make out

Could you tell me if you have ever taken a class from Dr. Miller? Yes. Are you going _____from him? Yes, but I have never taken his class before. He is very interesting and _____. Is that what you _____ for? Yes, that's what I need. Are you willing to study hard? Yes, I guess so. What I really liked about him is that he was an _____ and friendly teacher. Do you enjoy that in a teacher? Yes, I had a teacher like that before. Besides he has 20 years of _____.

1.good 2.to take a class 3.challenging 4.understanding 5.teaching experience 6.are looking 7.experize 130

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Dialogue 33 A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

I'd like _____ a hotel room. That should be no problem. May I have your _____, please? My name is John Sandals. Hello, Mr. Sandals. My name is Michelle. What days do you need that reservation, sir? I'm planning to visit New York from Friday, April 14 until April 17. Our room rates recently _____. Is that OK with you? Each night will be $308. That price is perfectly _____. Wonderful! Do you prefer a smoking or nonsmoking room? Nonsmoking, please. That _____.

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1. went up 2.full name 3.sounds fine 4.to reserve 5.acceptable 6.price 7.information Dialogue 34

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A: B: A: B: A:

I would like to make a plane _____. I would be happy to help you. Where do you _____ going? I am going to Hawaii. For that _____, you may leave from Los Angeles or Burbank Airport. Which would you prefer? I think that I would rather leave from Los Angeles Airport. Would you prefer a morning or an afternoon _____? I prefer to leave in the afternoon. I have _____ you on your flight. Here are your tickets. Thank you!

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1.destination 2.plan on 3.flight 4.leave 5.ticket reservation 6.return 7.booked Dialogue 35 A:

B:

Hello, Mr. Smith! This is Mr. Blake from the Information Department of Foreign Affairs. I would like _____ to your attention that the Polish Delegation _____ the Minister of Foreign Trade and Shipping that is due to get to London _____. We have just had a _____ that owing to a dense fog all aircraft bound for London has been diverted to Amsterdam. Thank you for letting us know. I wonder if you _____so kind as to give us a ring when you are sure of the time the plane will be arriving.

1.led by 2.would be 3.leading by 4.message 5.to say 6.to bring 7.is delayed

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Dialogue 36 A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Excuse me, Professor, I'm concerned about my_____. Do you have a minute to listen to me? Of course. How can I help you? I want to know if I am doing OK. Let's _____ your scores so far. Do you think you are doing OK? I am afraid that I might not be doing all well. I see that you are doing OK in some areas, but not so well in others. I think I could take _____ and read a little more. You can greatly improve your grades if you work _____. Just _____ and I am sure that you will see improvement.

1.grades 2.see 3.be doing all 4.harder 5.better notes 6.good 7.do your best

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B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

David, have you thought about where you would like to go for dinner on Friday for _____? I am not sure. I don't know many good restaurants _____. You know, we could look _____ at the local Internet sites. Good. Let's _____! What kind of food would you like for your birthday? I _____ barbeque or Chinese food the best. This one, that‟s to say lazania, looks good. I think that would be a really good choice! Let's call and make a reservation.

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Dialogue 37

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1.your birthday 2.online 3.around here 4.enjoy eating 5.computer 6.take a look 7.looks well Dialogue 38

Sarah: Sorry, you were very rude to Henry when you said he needs _____. Well, it‟s true. Exercise would be good for him. He started jogging and Ann: then _____. Sarah: Yes, but we can‟t all _____ taking physical exercise. Anyone can do a bit of jogging. You don‟t have to be brilliant at it. And Ann: _____ must be bad for you. Sarah: Well, you could have been _____. Sorry, I‟m not very good at saying the right thing. I‟ll try to be nice to him next time I see him. Sarah: In any case my advice is to be always careful while speaking with people. Ann:

1.gave it up 2. to lose weight 3.be good at 4.to be nice to 5.eating so much 6.eating less 7.more polite 132

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Dialogue 39 Mark: Alice: Mark: Alice: Mark: Alice:

I am sorry I was out when _____ yesterday afternoon, Alice. Look, I am free on the fifteenth of March. Can we meet then? I am _____ next week, I‟m afraid. I can‟t see you on Friday. I‟d like to have a meeting this month _____. I‟ll be very busy in April. I am going away at Easter, so ______ a week later? Let‟s meet on Wednesday afternoon at 2.30. OK. I think, we must _____.

1.you called 2.if possible 3.pretty busy 4.keep our promise 5.asked 6.how about 7.agreement Dialogue 40

A: B:

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B: A:

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I have never seen so much stuff. How we‟ll ever pack all this? I would rather _____ all this. Well, I _____ you to throw away anything we don‟t need. But some of this stuff is in such a shape that I suggest we should have a garage sale. A _____ ? Hmm….not a bad idea. We might make some money. Right of course. But we will still have _____ the real junk. I doubt if these magazines will help you. If I were you I would throw them away. What? Throw away my magazine collection? Oh, no. These magazines are so old that they are probably _____ . We had better sell them.

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1.keep telling 2.market 3.to throw away 4.extremely valuable 5.garage sale 6.get rid

133

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SECTION 6 ÀÝïñ»É ù»ñ³Ï³Ýáñ»Ý ×Çßï Ó¨³Ï»ñåí³Í ѳñó³Ï³Ý ݳ˳¹³ëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÁ: Choose the correctly formulated questions. 1. 1. Had you to read all these articles for your graduation work? 2. Are you working still on your report or you finished it? 3. Ted‟s got used to going to bed late, hasn‟t he? 4. What do you think he will do to save the situation? 5. Are you through with your work yet?

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2. 1. You shouldn‟t deliver goods to their company, should you? 2. Has John translated the novel or is he still working on it? 3. What do you think when will he visit them? 4. Can you show me how I have to paint the walls? 5. Since when Jane hasn‟t gone in for swimming?

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3. 1. He had completed the work before I came, hadn‟t he? 2. Do you know where his brother-in-law works? 3. He‟d better accept their proposal, wouldn‟t he? 4. When do you think they will arrive in Holland? 5. Do they have to announce the verdict today?

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4. 1. The girls could hardly carry the suitcases, could they? 2. It‟s time you stopped smoking, isn‟t it? 3. Does your brother or sister go in for basketball? 4. Can you tell me what time does the show begin? 5. When you did see Dr Adams last?

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5. 1. There‟s a bank between the restaurant and the post office, isn‟t it? 2. She couldn‟t remember where she had seen that young man, hadn‟t she? 3. Is Debbie or are you fond of poetry? 4. Can‟t you show me how have I to use this device? 5. Is your brother fond of horror films or westerns? 6. 1. Can we stay here and play a little bit more? 2. It will take them more than three hours to arrange the things, won‟t they? 3. Must we leave right now or have we to wait? 4. Linda‟s going to buy a new computer next year, isn‟t she? 5. It‟s necessary for us to postpone the discussion of the matter, hasn‟t it? 7. 1. Can you tell me where did you put the documents yesterday? 2. She had to work hard to make both ends meet, didn‟t she? 3. Since when has Dr Sandford been your family doctor? 4. Did he tell you where would the tourists be taken? 5. What is the weather like today? 134

LEVEL A

8. 1. When she lived in Paris she used to visit museums, didn‟t she? 2. Does your daughter speak Spanish as fluently as your son does? 3. Did Mary or Susie attend the classes regularly? 4. Since when have people tried to understand natural phenomena? 5. He phoned you after he had received your message, hadn‟t he? 9. 1. I suppose Karen can take up that work, can‟t he? 2. Does he have to go there alone or has he to go with Mike? 3. How long is it since he called you? 4. Do you know why was David angry yesterday? 5. Are you going to spend your vacation in Italy or in France?

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10. 1.Did the delegation arrive in New York by plane or by train? 2. Nancy can hardly cope with such a pile of work, can she? 3. Bob has to take part in the coming elections, doesn‟t he? 4. What time do you think will the train arrive in Boston? 5. Do you have any idea what they are planning for tomorrow?

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11. 1. Can you tell me where have I to register my luggage? 2. They were listening to the news when he came, weren‟t they? 3. They have to receive a long-term loan, haven‟t they? 4. Have they had any problems with their son lately? 5. He ought to help his friends, shouldn‟t he?

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12. 1. Let‟s delay sending the documents, shall we? 2. Do you have any idea where they are having a meeting tonight? 3. Must we paint the fence today or can we do it tomorrow? 4. Don‟t forget to lock the door before you leave, do you? 5. Robert had to earn his living since early childhood, didn‟t he?

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13. 1. It‟s time for you to start a new business, isn‟t it? 2. Will you be able to finish the work in two weeks or not? 3. Do you know when did the trade delegation arrive? 4. Who did help you carry these heavy sacks? 5. He‟s had a lot of trouble with his car since he bought it, didn‟t he? 14. 1. Can you show me where do I have to sign? 2. He went to America with his friends, didn‟t they? 3. What does she look like? 4. You‟d rather go there alone, hadn‟t you? 5. Aren‟t there plenty of flowers in their garden in spring? 15. 1.Don‟t interrupt me while I am speaking, will you? 2. Where does study your younger brother? 3. Will your friends be here next weekend or not? 4. Marianne has to pass that test to get a license, hasn‟t she? 5. Do you know who that man is? 135

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16. 1. When you did go to the art gallery last? 2. Does Jane look like her sister Linda or Lily? 3.Everybody realized the danger, didn‟t they? 4. Did he tell you why he refused to take part in the race? 5. Nobody was ready to take a quiz, weren‟t they? 17. 1. How many tickets do we have to book? 2. Somebody wanted a drink, don‟t they? 3. What kind of salad likes your sister? 4. He had to spend most of his time in the market to earn money, hadn‟t he? 5. Do you know when the next train arrives?

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18. 1. Can you tell me when the Morse code was invented? 2. Let‟s apply for the job, shall we? 3. She‟s read the book which I advised her to take, isn‟t she? 4. How much was the car they wanted to buy? 5. There are no letters in the mailbox, aren‟t there?

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19. 1. Mr. Klein has to deliver a lecture on art, doesn‟t he? 2. Do you know when was Yerevan founded? 3. I am more beautiful now than I was three years ago, aren‟t I? 4. Will you be able to join us tonight or not? 5. What was Lucy doing while Mother was shopping?

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20. 1. Can you tell me why couldn‟t Mark come yesterday? 2. Help me overcome educational challenges, will you? 3. He‟d been away from his family for a long time, didn‟t he? 4. Do you think my English has improved or not? 5. It was the first time he had ridden in an elevator, wasn‟t he? 21. 1. Who did take the boy from the streets and enabled him to learn painting? 2. Let‟s organize a trip to the capital of Great Britain, shall we? 3. You‟d like to have another helping, wouldn‟t you? 4. What time do you think the train arrives in Manchester? 5. Did Mark a new apartment buy or didn‟t? 22. 1. It‟s been raining hard since yesterday morning, hasn‟t it? 2. Who do you think he wanted to speak to yesterday? 3. Have you had to read all these books for your exam? 4. Please, book me a seat in a non-smoker compartment, don‟t you? 5. He‟d answered all the letters before we came, hadn‟t he? 23. 1. It‟s time you reconstructed your house, hasn‟t it? 2. Did you have any idea how did the accident happen? 3. Need I take the parcel to him now or can I do it later? 4. Was the passage very difficult to translate or was easy? 5. How long will it take us to reach that place? 136

Section 6

LEVEL A

Section 6

24. 1. Help me plant these trees, will you? 2. Do you know where they went after classes? 3. He ought to make a note of it, shouldn‟t he? 4. How long have been the students writing that test? 5. He‟d signed all the documents by that time, wouldn‟t he? 25. 1. Let‟s take a taxi to that library, will we? 2. How did the US delegation arrive in Yerevan? 3. Did he accept the invitation yesterday or refused it? 4. Can you show me where you put the dictionary? 5. It‟s the first time you have driven a car, isn‟t it?

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26. 1. The golf match was postponed because of the heavy rain, wasn‟t it? 2.Are you through with your term paper or not? 3. How many hours do you spend watching television? 4. Do you remember how many reporters were there at the meeting? 5. He visited you after he had received a note, didn‟t he? 27. 1. The flight‟s postponed because of unfavorable weather conditions, hasn‟t it? 2. When does arrive your cousin in Amsterdam? 3. Who told you that news yesterday? 4. Did he show you how to do that work or not? 5. Would you rather take this bag with you or leave it here?

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28. 1. Nobody wanted to speak first, did they? 2. I‟m sure Ben will invite me to that party, aren‟t I? 3. Which of these two pictures do you best like? 4. When is Linda going to buy a new laptop? 5. Did they tell you what are they planning for tomorrow?

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29. 1. Where went Mira before classes yesterday morning? 2. He used to live in a house before he moved into this flat, didn‟t he? 3. Are you a baseball player or your brother ? 4. It‟s fifty years since they built this church, isn‟t it? 5. Did it take them an hour to decorate the birthday cake? 30. 1. How did you like the new performance? 2. It‟s time for you to make a decision, hasn‟t it? 3. What did she use to do when she lived in Greece? 4. Everybody wanted to be present at that meeting, weren‟t they? 5. Where will be going the Browns tonight? 31. 1. She couldn‟t remember where she had seen that young man, hadn‟t she? 2. Had the agreement been signed before I arrived in town? 3. Have you to finish the work today or can you do it tomorrow? 4. Do we have to go there by taxi or on foot? 5. Will they be able to arrange the things in three hours or not? 137

LEVEL A

Section 6

32. 1. There‟s enough salt in the salad, isn‟t it? 2. Did she join the drama club or did he? 3. What kind of performance was it: interesting or boring? 4. How long did it take them to decorate the Christmas tree? 5. Let‟s have lunch on the grass, shall we? 33. 1.Their twins cry all night, don‟t they? 2. Why did without permission you take my laptop? 3. Do you know how often does he attend the lectures? 4. You can hardly understand the meaning of this poem, can you? 5. What did he do after he phoned you?

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34. 1. She‟d better discuss it with her parents, hadn‟t she? 2. He‟s going to spend his summer holidays in France, hasn‟t he? 3. Did you notice that the boots he was wearing weren‟t a pair? 4. Can you show me where did you find a treasure last month? 5. Did she accept or reject your proposal yesterday? 35. 1. Is the roast beef overdone or it‟s underdone this time? 2. Mr Rochester had to spend a weekend in London, didn‟the? 3. Remember to buy a bottle of whisky, will you? 4. Did the football match take place yesterday or not? 5. How many guests at the party there were last night?

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36. 1. She‟d never been there before, had she? 2. How long did Sally have to stay in hospital? 3. Was the concert interesting or was it boring? 4. Was the golf match postponed because of the rain or was the fog? 5. The travellers could hardly find a shelter, could they?

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37. 1. What did he use to do when he lived in St Petersburg? 2. What you think which is older: Yerevan or Moscow? 3. How did arrive the New York delegation in Helsinki? 4. The secretary was typing the letter when I came in, didn‟t I? 5. Was he surprised or angry to see her in the hotel? 38. 1. Were the explorers surprised to see the results of the experiment or weren‟t? 2. Do we need to have a deep knowledge of this subject? 3. Do you know when President Richards arrived in Dublin? 4. The picnickers didn‟t have to start at dawn, had they? 5. Do you remember how many books did he borrow from me last week? 39. 1. How old were you when began you to walk? 2. Did he tell you where the prisoners would be taken? 3. Did the boss shout at you when were you late? 4. You have your windows cleaned every month, don‟t you? 5. Let‟s have a swim in the lake, shall we? 138

LEVEL A

Section 6

40. 1. Do you remember how many invitations we sent out yesterday? 2. Can you show me what colour will you paint the fence tomorrow? 3. I think I am a good candidate for that job, don‟t I? 4. Who explained the Math problems to you? 5. She couldn‟t remember where she had put the keys, hadn‟t she? 41. 1. Samuel has to conceal the facts, doesn‟t he? 2. Since when have they worked for this corporation or not? 3. Nobody was aware that the deadline had passed, were they? 4. Can you tell me what assignments I missed when I was absent from your class? 5. Has the firm presented Mr. Peterson with a gold watch?

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42. 1. Why do you have to realize the importance of sleep? 2. Did they interview Donald Trump on CNN last week? 3. What did show further research? 4. When did Ben go with his friends to the pub? 5. Brandon and Lucy share the same room, don‟t they?

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43. 1. Do you know how many students flunked the exam yesterday? 2. Since when has Dr Jackson been our solicitor? 3. Has Rick bought a cottage in the country or not yet? 4. How did you like Jeremy‟s latest novel? 5. Ricky had to get up early this morning, hadn‟t he?

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44. 1. How long had been he waiting for the bus when it started to rain? 2. When she worked in that canteen she learnt to cook tasty dishes, didn‟t she? 3. What are popular holiday destinations for people from your country? 4. When do you think they will arrive in Washington? 5. The wounded man could hardly drag himself along, could he?

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45. 1. Everybody was eager to take part in the discussion, wasn‟t he? 2. Can you tell me where can I find Dr Mortimer? 3. Do you agree that the destruction of that system is really inevitable? 4. Does your sister dance as gracefully as you are? 5. There‟s nothing in that box, is there? 46. 1. Did he tell you why he signed the agreement? 2. What time will you go to the restaurant tonight? 3. I am a quick study, aren‟t I? 4. How often has erupted the volcano recently? 5. The meeting‟s been cancelled because of some problems, isn‟t it? 47. 1.The police could not arrest the criminals, could they? 2. Can you tell me why were you quarrelling yesterday? 3. When will you complete your research work? 4. It took them two hours to find his new address, didn‟t it? 5. Did you get used to the cold climate soon or you didn‟t? 139

LEVEL A

Section 6

48. 1. Where did work your friend before he came here? 2. He does not believe in what he cannot see, can he? 3. Do you know what at the summit they will discuss? 4. Your wife‟s fond of flowers, isn‟t she? 5. Do you know which is longer: the Nile or the Thames? 49. 1. Do you know where are the Galapagos Islands located? 2. Why isn‟t your research carried out yet? 3. They have worked for this corporation for ten years, don‟t they? 4. Which of these paintings appeals to you? 5. What do you think defines people from your country?

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50. 1. Have you told them the whole truth yet? 2. Oliver had to work from morning till night, didn‟t he? 3. What did she learn to do when she worked there? 4. It‟s the second time you have made a terrible mistake, didn‟t you? 5. Do you know where lives the oldest man in the world?

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51. 1. It‟s time you had a holiday, isn‟t it? 2. What were you doing when was your sister watching TV? 3. You ought to help him with that work, shouldn‟t you? 4. How do the scientists involved in this project cooperate? 5. Can you tell me what do you know about stress?

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52. 1. What do you understand by the term „déjà vu‟? 2. I think Tom will win the race, won‟t he? 3. What is doing the child in the street at this time? 4. How long has Gregory worked for this corporation? 5. Sheila has to go to the dentist today, hasn‟t she? 53. 1. Do you think there is a connection between health and happiness? 2. You‟d rather cancel the meeting, wouldn‟t you? 3. Does further research show that the structure of the atom is very complex? 4. What does mean the phrase „environmental ambassador‟? 5. Where lives your brother-in-law? 54. 1. Do they have to book tickets tomorrow or next week? 2. When brought the students their works? 3. He‟s got some problems at the office, doesn‟t he? 4. What do you do that is good for your physical health? 5. It‟s time you made a final decision, didn‟t you? 55. 1. Was it you who broke the kitchen window? 2. I think your younger sister‟s very talented, hasn‟t she? 3. Have technological advances had a positive effect on people‟s lives? 4. Do you know which animal runs fastest? 5. The chief judge can delay the court case, can‟t he? 140

LEVEL A

Section 6

56. 1. What do you think do we rely on technology too much? 2. The leading candidates ought to be here by now, shouldn‟t they? 3. Mike‟s got used to swimming in cold water, isn‟t he? 4. Do they have to book accommodation tomorrow or can they do it later? 5. Are you going to Italy or stay in town? 57. 1. He‟s working on his graduation paper for Master‟s degree, isn‟t he? 2. Did you accept their invitation or refused it? 3. Must we book tickets in advance or to buy them tomorrow? 4. Don‟t forget to buy a gift for Emmy, will you? 5. What time you think the bus will arrive at the bus stop?

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58. 1. Does further research show that this disease is incurable? 2. He‟d sent out all the invitation cards by then, didn‟t he? 3. He‟s been working on that report since Monday, isn‟t he? 4. Are you going to spend your vacation in Italy or in France? 5. Do you know where the conference will be held?

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59. 1. There are no people in the hall, are they? 2. They‟d never been to Moscow before, had they? 3. How long have they been discussing the new project? 4. Do you know how long did it take her to solve the puzzle? 5. Could she remember where had she put the keys?

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60. 1. They have got a small house on the outskirts of London, don‟t they? 2. They established a rule that everyone must share the expenses, didn‟t they? 3. Do you have any idea when the competition will be held? 4. What is your sister-in-law interested in? 5. Did Bruce have the window repaired or did he repair it himself? 61. 1. When did go Kevin to the shop to buy a gift for Mother? 2. He‟s going to spend his summer holidays in France, hasn‟t he? 3. They‟ve heard very little of him lately, have they? 4. What do you think about these rules? 5. Do you know is he going to Palm Springs or to Palm Beach? 62. 1. Help me take these three boxes upstairs, will you? 2. What makes the Galapagos Islands unique? 3. He had the mansard roof repaired, hadn‟t he? 4. Since when has he had much trouble with his car engine? 5. Who did they go to the pictures with? 63. 1. Fred‟s been working on that project for two years, is he? 2. What it should be the responsibilities of nurses? 3. It‟s been raining hard since yesterday morning, isn‟t it? 4. Have the students handed in the essays yet? 5. How have advances in technology affected your studying and social life? 141

LEVEL A

64. 1. Sheila had to stay in hospital till the end of the week, didn‟t she? 2. What do you think is there a connection between wealth and happiness? 3. How long have been you working on that project? 4. The police could not find the burglars, could he? 5. Did he tell you why he had signed that agreement? 65. 1. Do you have any idea about tomorrow‟s party? 2. It was the most interesting concert we have ever attended, wasn‟t it? 3. Why did Greg a new computer buy yesterday? 4. Help your sister wash the dishes, will you? 5. Do you know is the delegation arriving tonight or tomorrow?

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66. 1. You never say what you‟re thinking, are you? 2. Do you know how many guests there were at the festival last night? 3. Don‟t forget to take your passport, do you? 4. I guess you‟ll be ready for the trip in an hour, won‟t you? 5. Must the students from the library borrow these books?

.a

67. 1. Do you know did they arrive at the station on time? 2. It‟s hardly rained this summer, has it? 3. They had never travelled by ship before, did they? 4. Was it you who planned a new exploration project? 5. People know little about this phenomenon, doesn‟t he?

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68. 1. It will take her half an hour to get ready, won‟t she? 2. Do you know where the tallest man in the world lives? 3. Why did without permission you take my car? 4. Did he help you rearrange the furniture or did she? 5. Everybody was ready for the test, weren‟t they?

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69. 1. I suppose everybody likes chocolate, don‟t they? 2. What do you think will she get ready in half an hour? 3. Do you know how long they have worked at this project? 4. It‟s three years since you came to our class, hasn‟t it? 5. How long do you think will it take the children to get ready? 70. 1. Do you know the date when do we have to hand in the essay? 2. Where do you think can I find the head of the department? 3. They‟d no time to finish their discussion, did they? 4. Did he have the tyre pressure checked or he checked himself? 5. Nobody was late for the meeting, were they? 71. 1. Who does have to take a test today? 2. What‟s the weather forecast for today? 3. Can you guess why were the explorers surprised? 4. The talk show ought to start at 7 sharp, oughtn‟t it? 5. It‟s necessary for the patient to see the doctor, isn‟t it? 142

Section 6

LEVEL A

72. 1. There are some general rules to observe, aren‟t they? 2. Can you tell me why you returned the cheque to Mr. Wallis? 3. Are you going to Palm Springs next week or go tomorrow? 4. Their family is small, aren‟t they? 5. When do you think the tourists will be taken to Garni? 73. 1. Would you stay with us and to watch the talk show on TV? 2. Where did you use to go in the evenings when you lived in Vienna? 3. Do you know what problem did an American inventor run into? 4. You have to get up early tomorrow, haven‟t you? 5. Do you know when Mr. Smith arrived at work?

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74. 1. Do you know what time the plane takes off? 2. Please help me download this program, will you? 3. How long had been you waiting for Ken when he arrived? 4. You ought to apologize to them, shouldn‟t you? 5. Who did he go to South America with?

.a

75. 1. What do you think is Steven an interesting or a dull speaker? 2. How long do you think it will take them to study the case? 3. He‟d changed greatly after the accident, hadn‟t he? 4. They had little time to carry out the experiment, hadn‟t they? 5. Was it very difficult for you to translate the article?

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76. 1. Who does usually shopping do in your family? 2. Would you like to stay with us or would you like to go out with them? 3. Linda has to brush up her French, doesn‟t she? 4. Can you guess where I‟m going to spend my vacation? 5. He‟s got used to living in cold climate, doesn‟t he? 77. 1. We had a terrible weekend, didn‟t we? 2. Do you remember since when have they worked for this corporation? 3. What do you think they will do next? 4. Your sister‟s fond of historical novels, doesn‟t she? 5. I suppose it was difficult for you to translate that poem, wasn‟t it? 78. 1. Do you think Mr. Jackson‟s lecture was interesting? 2. What places of interest visited Maggie in Madrid? 3. Helen never goes to parties, does she? 4. He won‟t be able to persuade his father into lending us the car, will he? 5. I hope it‟s the last time you are lying to me, aren‟t you?

143

Section 6

LEVEL A

79. 1. Fred‟s never been to Egypt, is he? 2. Are they to hold a seminar on ecology or are you? 3. Do you know why was he shocked? 4. Did he tell you why he refused our help? 5. Jane had to overcome a lot of obstacles, hadn‟t she?

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80. 1. Do you think they will be able to settle the problem tomorrow? 2. The Greens have to repair their holiday cottage, don‟t they? 3. Are you going to bring up details or not? 4. It‟s twenty years since they got married, aren‟t they? 5. When do you think will they finish the operation?

144

Section 6

LEVEL A

Section 7

SECTION 7 гٳå³ï³ë˳ݻóÝ»É µ³é»ñÁ ¨ ë³ÑÙ³ÝáõÙÝ»ñÁ: Match the words and their definitions. 1. A) B) C) D)

Leisure Entertainment Opportunity Occupation

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

2. A) B) C) D)

Calm Intelligent Brave Independent

1) able to think, understand, and learn things quickly and well 2) not excited, nervous or troubled 3) willing to do things which are difficult or dangerous 4) free from outside control 5) feeling or showing love

3. A) B) C) D)

Miniature Signature Adventure Gesture

1) the name of a person or a sign representing his name, marked by himself 2) an exciting or dangerous experience 3) a verbal, written, or recorded message 4) a movement of part of the body to express an idea or meaning 5) a model or copy of something on a very small scale

4. A) B) C) D)

Tornado Flood Snowstorm Breeze

5. A) B) C) D)

Request Refusal Advice Response

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a favourable position or chance a job or profession something that serves for amusement free or unoccupied time hard physical work

1) 2) 3) 4)

a violent storm with very strong winds a heavy fall of snow, especially with a high wind something that is dangerous for children an overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits 5) a gentle wind 1) 2) 3) 4)

a spoken or written answer an act of asking politely or formally for something an act of punishment a suggestion about what somebody should do in a particular situation 5) an act of saying „no‟ to an invitation, offer, etc.

145

LEVEL A

Section 7

6. A) B) C) D)

Service Catalogue Brand Purchase

1) a book that contains pictures of things that are on sale 2) a product or group of products that has its own name 3) the money owed to somebody 4) something that you buy 5) the action of helping or doing work for someone

7. A) B) C) D)

Lie Compliment Flattery Prize

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

8. A) B) C) D)

Contract Quarrel Discussion Trial

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

9. A) B) C) D)

Conversation Exclamation Utterance Argument

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a polite expression of praise or admiration an award given to the winner something based on a fact a statement that is not true a false insincere praise

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a pleasurable surprise hearing and judging a person or case in a court the process of talking something over an angry argument a written legal agreement between two people or organizations

10. A) Ordinary B) Strange C) Human D) Hostile

1) an exchange of opposite views, typically an angry one 2) the act or process of speaking or expressing in words 3) an emphatic or excited cry 4) an informal talk between people 5) an element of written language

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

odd, unusual, or extraordinary showing strong dislike relating to or characterizing people easy to understand of common or established type, usual

146

LEVEL A

12. A) B) C) D)

Production Amount Equivalence Substance

15. A) B) C) D)

Dispute Peace Treaty Battle

16. A) Elegant B) Lively C) Vital D) Lovely

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

a kind of matter with particular properties equality in value, amount, meaning, etc. a subject or situation under consideration a sum of money the process of growing or making goods or materials

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

careful thought, typically over a period of time a reason for doing something the action or process of moving or being moved an order given to a person or an animal the restriction of an activity, tendency, or phenomenon

1) 2) 3) 4)

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good in quality or performance; able to be trusted not likely to move or change always behaving or occurring in the way expected able to make changes or deal with a situation that is changing 5) of undisputed origin and not a copy; genuine

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14. A) Flexible B) Reliable C) Predictable D) Authentic

a game in which individuals or teams compete an event or occurrence an act of presenting a play, concert, etc. a set of circumstances a set of rules

.a

13. A) Consideration B) Motive C) Motion D) Command

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

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11. A) Match B) Situation C) Incident D) Performance

Section 7

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

social equality the state existing during the absence of war a fight between large armed forces a formal agreement between countries an argument or a disagreement

graceful or attractive in appearance or manner beautiful, enjoyable and pleasant full of energy inessential or unimportant very important, necessary

147

LEVEL A

18. A) External B) Internal C) Round D) Square

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

of the inner nature of a thing having four equal sides and four angles of 90o shaped like a cone shaped like a circle or a ball belonging to or forming the outer surface or structure of something

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

the action of putting something in order the parts or elements of which something is made a border of wood in which a picture is set a tool made of wood a drawing or an outline from which something may be made

.a

19. A) Design B) Arrangement C) Composition D) Frame

1) right or appropriate for a particular person, purpose, or situation 2) being or located inside 3) able to be used or obtained 4) typical or normal; ordinary 5) difficult to understand

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17. A) Inner B) Average C) Complicated D) Available

Section 7

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20. A) Branch B) Stem C) Body D) Skin

the outer covering of something the long, thin part of a plant above the ground the whole physical structure of a human being a part of a tree on which leaves, flowers and fruit grow 5) a tree growing at the riverside

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1) 2) 3) 4)

21. A) Carriage B) Helicopter C) Lorry D) Ship

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

an aircraft without wings a separate section of a train a large vehicle that is used to transport goods by road a railroad engine a large boat for transporting people or goods by sea

148

LEVEL A

Section 7

22. A) B) C) D)

Price Discount Prize Coin

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

reduction of prices a small flat piece of metal used as money a paper banknote an award given to the winner the amount of money that you pay for something

Pedestrian Driver Hiker Cyclist

1) a person who drives a vehicle 2) a person who rides a bicycle 3) a person who goes for long walks in the country for pleasure 4) a person walking rather than travelling in a vehicle 5) a person who rides a horse

A) B) C) D)

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23.

24. A) Traveler B) Beggar C) Robber D) Tutor

26. A) Masterpiece B) Portrait C) Landscape D) Photo

1) a group of people ruling a country or state 2) a number of people who watch, read or listen to the same thing 3) people of the same age 4) a large number of people gathered together 5) a group of people working together at a particular job

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25. A) Crowd B) Government C) Audience D) Team

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1) a person with an excessive appetite for food 2) a person who robs people 3) a person, typically a homeless one, who lives by asking for money or food 4) a private teacher 5) a person who is traveling or who often travels

1) a work of outstanding creativity and skill 2) a painting, drawing, or photograph of a person 3) a picture or diagram made with a pencil or pen rather than paint 4) a picture taken with a camera 5) a picture representing an area of countryside

149

LEVEL A

Section 7

27. Tourist Photographer Researcher Guide

1) a person who is travelling or visiting a place for pleasure 2) a person who takes pictures 3) a person invited to visit someone's home 4) a person exploring new facts or information 5) a person who shows tourists around interesting places

28. A) Chef B) Chief C) Instructor D) Manager

1) 2) 3) 4)

a professional cook a leader or ruler of a people a person or organization that employs people someone whose job is to organize and control the work of a company, business, etc. 5) a person whose job is teaching

29. 1) 2) 3) 4)

a small computer that you can carry with you a machine controlled from a distance a room where people do scientific research the programs and other operating information used by a computer 5) computer equipment

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30. A) Fascinate B) Imagine C) Desire D) Worship

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A) Laptop B) Laboratory C) Hardware D) Software

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A) B) C) D)

1) form a mental image or concept of 2) love and admire somebody very much, especially so much that you cannot see their faults 3) attract the strong attention and interest of someone 4) strongly wish for or want 5) have a strong feeling of dislike for

31. A) B) C) D)

Designer Assistant Customer Sculptor

1) 2) 3) 4)

a person who sells goods at a shop the amount of money you need to buy something a person or company that buys goods or services a person who plans constructions, works of art and other things 5) a person who makes statues 150

LEVEL A

32. A) Sociable B) Confident C) Caring D) Shy

Section 7

1) certain about your abilities 2) having a strong sense of humour 3) willing to talk and engage in activities with other people 4) displaying kindness and concern for others 5) embarrassed in the company of other people

33. 1) a worried or nervous feeling that makes you unable to relax 2) aggressive behaviour towards people or ideas 3) complete trust or confidence in someone or something 4) the act of imagining impossible or improbable things 5) a feeling of satisfaction

34. A) Ambulance B) Fire engine C) Excavator D) Truck

a small aircraft a large vehicle that is used to transport goods by road a large machine used for digging and moving earth a large vehicle which carries fire fighters and equipment for putting out fires 5) a vehicle for taking people to and from hospital.

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35. A) Online B) Social C) Digital D) Automatic

1) 2) 3) 4)

36. A) Image B) Courage C) Mood D) Pleasure

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Stress Hostility Faith Fantasy

.a

A) B) C) D)

1) 2) 3) 4)

connected to or available through the internet relating to society and to people‟s lives in general not interesting or special storing information such as sound or pictures as numbers or electronic signals 5) working by itself without being operated by people

1) the impression that a person, an organization or a product, etc. gives to the public 2) the way that someone is feeling 3) the ability to do things which one finds frightening 4) an action designed to achieve efficiency 5) a feeling of happiness and enjoyment

151

LEVEL A

37. A) Convert B) Compensate C) Prevent D) Invent

Section 7

1) pay someone money because they have suffered damage, loss, injury, etc. 2) be the cause of (a problem or difficulty) 3) keep (something) from happening 4) change the form, character, or function of something 5) make up; produce or design something that has not existed before

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

make it possible for somebody to do something publicize information or an event put someone or something at risk give somebody support or hope improve the quality or value of something, often by adding something to it

tc .a m

win against someone encourage or arouse interest or enthusiasm behave dishonestly be unsuccessful in something say things to support someone or something

40.

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A) Construction B) Injury C) Treatment D) Destruction

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39. A) Encourage B) Enable C) Endanger D) Enrich

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

.a

38. A) Defeat B) Cheat C) Fail D) Defend

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

a physical harm a psychological disorder the process of providing medical care the action of building something the action of causing so much damage to something that it no longer exists

152

LEVEL B

Section 8

LEVEL B SECTION 8 γñ¹³É ï»ùëïÁ ¨ å³ï³ëË³Ý»É Ñ³ñó»ñÇÝ` ÁÝïñ»Éáí ×Çßï ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ: Read the text and answer the questions choosing the right answer. Text 1 Line number

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Elizabeth “Betsy” Ross (1752-1836) was a Philadelphia seamstress, and, according to legend, the designer of the first American flag, the “Stars and Stripes”, a rectangle of red and white stripes with a circle of stars in one corner. The legend of her role began in 1870, when her grandson William J. Canby presented a paper about Ross at a meeting of the Historical Society of Pensilvania. According to Canby‟s paper, General George Washington visited Ross‟s home frequently, and Ross sewed clothes for him. One day, George Washington came to her house and asked that she design a flag for the soon-to-be independent American nation. Ross made alterations to the rough sketch that Washington gave her and created the first American flag. Canby‟s story has become part of American folklore, but there are doubts about its accuracy. To begin with, his story was recorded 94 years after the events it describes and was told to him when he was a small boy. Canby says Ross and Washington‟s meeting took place in June of 1776, but historians have found no mention of meetings about a flag in government records, or in Washington‟s personal diaries and writings. Finally, Canby asserted that the Betsy Ross Flag was in use soon after the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, but Congress did not officially adopt national colors until 1777. Ross may not have designed the Stars and Stripes, but she definitely made flags of some kind for the new American State. The minutes of the State Navy Board of Pennsylvania for May 29, 1777, refer to “an order on William Webb to Elizabeth Ross for fourteen pounds twelve shillings, and two pence, for making ship‟s colors.”

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

1. Paragraph 1 (lines 1-4) of the text most likely discusses a) b) c) d)

Elizabeth Ross‟s life the first American flag the sights of Philadelphia the rectangles and circles of the flag 153

LEVEL B

Section 8

2. According to the text, what was the relationship between George Washington and Betsy Ross? a) b) c) d)

They were friends. They were romantically involved. Betsy Ross did work for him George Washington was her landlord.

3. The word rough in line 12 is closest in meaning to which of the following? a) b) c) d)

unfinished inappropriate bumpy hard

4. According to the author, Canby‟s story is extremely accurate cannot be verified has been forgotten is definitely false

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a) b) c) d)

5. The author implies that Canby‟s story may be inaccurate because

.a

Canby hadn‟t witnessed. he deliberately falsified historical documents. George Washington was uninterested in flag design. Betsy Ross never made clothes for George Washington.

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a) b) c) d)

nation Congress flag shade

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a) b) c) d)

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6. The term colors in line 22 is closest in meaning to

7. The word it in line 15 refers to a) b) c) d)

years story events 94

8. Which of the following conclusions about Betsy Ross could best be drawn from this passage? a) b) c) d)

Ross wanted to be remembered for her work on America‟s first flag. Ross made flags, but she may not have designed the Stars and Stripes. Ross was well paid for her work as a flag designer. Ross met several times with George Washington, but he never gave her a sketch of the Stars and Stripes. 154

LEVEL B

Section 8

9. Where in the text does the author tell when the Congress officially adopted the new flag? a) b) c) d)

Lines 16-17 Lines 1-3 Lines 6-7 Lines 20-22

10. The word minutes in line 25 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

time record payment script

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Text 2 Line number

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The organization that today is known as the Bank of America did start out in America, but under quite a different name. Italian American A. P. Giannini established this bank on October 17, 1904, in a renovated saloon in San Francisco‟s Italian community of North Beach under the name Bank of Italy, with immigrants and first-time bank customers comprising the majority of his first customers. During its development, Giannini‟s bank survived major crises in the form of a natural disaster and a major economic upheaval that not all other banks were able to overcome. One major test for Giannini‟s bank occurred on April 18, 1906, when a massive earthquake struck San Francisco followed by a raging fire that destroyed much of the city. Giannini obtained two wagons and teams of horses, filled the wagons with the bank‟s reserves, mostly in the form of gold, covered the reserves with crates of oranges and escaped from the chaos of the city with his clients‟ funds protected. In the aftermath of the disaster Giannini‟s bank was the first to resume operations. Unable to install the bank in a proper office setting, Giannini opened up a shop on the Washington Street Wharf on a makeshift desk created from boards and barrels. In the period following the 1906 fire the Bank of Italy continued to prosper and expand. By 1918 there were twenty-four branches of the Bank of Italy, and by 1928 Giannini had acquired numerous other banks, including a Bank of America located in New York City. In 1930 he consolidated all the branches of the Bank of Italy, the Bank of America in New York City, and another Bank of America that he had formed in California into the Bank of America, National Trust and Savings Association. A second major crisis for the bank occurred during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Although Giannini had already retired prior to

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

155

LEVEL B

30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Section 8

the darkest days of the Depression, he became incensed when his successor began selling off banks during the bad economic times. Giannini resumed leadership of the bank at the age of 62. Under Giannini‟s leadership the bank weathered the storm of the Depression and moved into a phase of overseas development.

1. According to the text, Giannini a) b) c) d)

opened the Bank of America in 1904 worked in a bank in Italy set up the Bank of America prior to setting up the Bank of Italy later changed the name of the Bank of Italy

2. Where did Giannini open his first bank? In New York City. In what used to be a bar until October 1904. On Washington street Wharf. On a makeshift desk.

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

3. According to the text, which of the following is NOT true about the San Francisco earthquake?

.a

It happened in 1906. It occurred in the aftermath of a fire. It caused problems for Giannini‟s bank. It was a tremendous earthquake.

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a) b) c) d)

to hide the gold. to fill up the wagons. to provide nourishment for his customers. to protect the gold from the fire.

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a) b) c) d)

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4. It can be inferred from the text that Giannini used crates of oranges after the earthquake

5. The word chaos in line 15 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

legal system extreme heat overdevelopment total confusion

6. The word consolidated in line 24 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

hardened merged moved sold 156

LEVEL B

7. The passage states that after his retirement, Giannini a) b) c) d)

began selling off banks caused economic misfortune to occur supported the bank‟s new management returned to work

8. The expression weathered the storm of in line 33 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

found a cure for rained on the parade of survived the ordeal of blew its stack at

9. Where in the text does the author describe Giannini‟s first banking clients? Lines 2-4 Lines 5-6 Lines 12-13 Lines 14-16

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a) b) c) d)

10. How is the information in the text presented?

.a

In chronological order In order of importance A cause followed by an effect Classifications with examples

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Text 3

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Line number

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a) b) c) d)

Harvard University, today recognized as part of the top echelon of the world‟s universities, came from very inauspicious and humble beginnings. This oldest of American universities was founded in 1636, just sixteen years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. Included in the Puritan emigrants to the Massachusetts colony during this period were more than 100 graduates of England‟s prestigious Oxford and Cambridge universities, and these university graduates in the New World were determined that their sons would have the same educational opportunities that they themselves had had. Because of this support in the colony for an institution of higher learning, the General Court of Massachusetts appropriated 400 pounds for a college in October of 1636 and early the following year decided on a parcel of land for the school; this land was in an area called Newetowne, which was later renamed Cambridge after its English cousin and is the site of the present-day university. 157

Section 8

LEVEL B

When a young minister named John Harvard, who came from the neighboring town of Charlestowne, died from tuberculosis in 1638, he willed half of his estate of 1700 pounds to the fledgling college. In spite of the fact that only half of the bequest was actually paid, the General Court named the college after the minister in appreciation for what he had done. The amount of the bequest may not have been large, particularly by today‟s standards, but it was more than the General Court had found it necessary to appropriate in order to open the college. Henry Dunster was appointed the first president of Harvard in 1640, and it should be noted that in addition to serving as president, he was also the entire faculty, with an entering freshman class of four students. Although the staff did expand somewhat, for the first century of its existence the entire teaching staff consisted of the president and three or four tutors.

1. The main idea of this text is that

Harvard is one of the world‟s most prestigious universities. what is today a great university started out small. John Harvard was key to the development of a great university. Harvard University developed under the auspices of the General Court of Massachusetts.

.a

a) b) c) d)

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Section 8

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one of the oldest universities in the world. the oldest university in the world. one of the oldest universities in America. the oldest university in America.

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a) b) c) d)

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2. The text indicates that Harvard is

3. The pronoun they in line 10 refers to a) b) c) d)

Oxford and Cambridge universities university graduates sons educational opportunities

4. The expression English cousin in line 15 refers to a) b) c) d)

a city a relative a person a court

158

LEVEL B

Section 8

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned about John Harvard? a) b) c) d)

What he died of. Where he came from. Where he was buried. How much he bequeathed to Harvard.

6. The text implies that a) Henry Dunster was an ineffective president b) someone else really served as president of Harvard before Henry Dunster c) Henry Dunster spent much of his time as president managing the Harvard faculty. d) the position of president of Harvard was not merely an administrative position in the early years.

a) b) c) d)

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7. The word somewhat in line 29 could best be replaced by back and forth to and fro side by side more or less

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Lines 3-7 Lines 7-11 Lines 12-15 Lines 17-22

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a) b) c) d)

.a

8. Where in the text is it indicated how much money Minister Harvard was really responsible for giving to the university?

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9. It can be inferred from the text that the Puritans who traveled to the colony were a) b) c) d)

rather well educated rather rich rather supportive of the English government rather undemocratic

10. The word pounds in line 12 probably means a) b) c) d)

types of books college students units of money school campuses

159

Massachusetts

LEVEL B

Text 4 Line number

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It was the first photograph that I had ever seen, and it fascinated me. I can remember holding it at every angle in order to catch the flickering light from the oil lamp on the dresser. The man in the photograph was unsmiling, but his eyes were kind. I had never met him, but I felt that I knew him. One evening when I was looking at the photograph, as I always did before I went to sleep, I noticed a shadow across the man‟s thin face. I moved the photograph so that the shadow lay perfectly around his hollow cheeks. How different he looked! That night I could not sleep, thinking about the letter that I would write. First, I would tell him that I was 11 years old, and that if he had a little girl my age, she could write to me instead of him. I knew that he was a very busy man. Then I would explain to him the real purpose of my letter. I would tell him how wonderful he looked with the shadow that I had seen across his photograph, and I would most carefully suggest that he grow whiskers. Four months later when I met him at the train station near my home in Westfield, New York, he was wearing a full beard. He was so much taller than I had imagined from my tiny photograph. “Ladies and gentlemen”, he said, “I have no speech to make and no time to make it in. I appear before you that I may see you and that you may see me.” Then he picked me right up and kissed me on both cheeks. The whiskers scratched. “Do you think I look better, my little friend?” he asked me. My name is Grace Bedell, and the man in the photograph was Abraham Lincoln.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

a) b) c) d)

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1. The author wants to explain

how Grace Bedell took a photograph of Abraham Lincoln. why Abraham Lincoln wore a beard. why the first photographs were significant in American life. why Westfield is an important city.

2. The word fascinated in line 1 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

interested frightened confused disgusted

3. The word flickering in line 3 could best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

burning constantly burning unsteadily burning very dimly burning brightly 160

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4. The man in the photograph a) b) c) d)

was smiling had a beard had a round, fat face looked kind

5.What did Grace Bedell do every night before she went to sleep? a) b) c) d)

She wrote letters. She looked at the photograph. She made shadow figures on the wall. She read stories.

6. The little girl could not sleep because she was sick excited lonely sad

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a) b) c) d)

7. Why did the little girl write the man a letter?

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She was lonely. She wanted his daughter to write to her. She wanted him to grow a beard. She wanted him to visit her.

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a) b) c) d)

time speech photograph station

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a) b) c) d)

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8. The word it in line 21 stands for

9. It can be inferred from the text that a) Grace Bedell was the only one at the train station when Lincoln stopped at Westfield b) there were many people waiting for Lincoln to arrive on the train c) Lincoln made a long speech at the station in Westfield d) Lincoln was offended by the letter 10. Why did the author wait until the last line to reveal the identity of the man in the photograph? a) b) c) d)

The author did not know it. The author wanted to make the reader feel foolish. The author wanted to build the interest and curiosity of the reader. The author was just a little girl. 161

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Text 5 Line number

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Scientists have developed a new bionic computer chip that can be mated with human cells to combat disease. The tiny device, smaller and thinner than a strand of hair, combines a healthy human cell with an electronic circuitry chip. Doctors can control the activity of the cell by controlling the chip with a computer. It has long been established that cell membranes become permeable when exposed to electrical impulses. Researchers have conducted genetic research for years with a trial-and-error process of bombarding cells with electricity in an attempt to introduce foreign substances such as new drug treatments or genetic material. They were unable to apply a particular level of voltage for a particular purpose. With the new invention, the computer sends electrical impulses to the chip, which triggers the cell‟s membrane pores to open and activate the cell in order to correct diseased tissues. It permits physicians to open a cell‟s pores with control. Researchers hope that eventually they will be able to develop more advanced chips whereby they can choose a particular voltage to activate particular tissues, whether they be muscle, bone, brain, or others. They believe that they will be able to implant multiple chips into a person to deal with one problem or more than one problem.

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it is less expensive than current techniques. it allows them to be able to shock cells for the first time. it is more precise than previous techniques. it is possible to kill cancer with a single jolt.

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a) b) c) d)

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1. The author implies that scientists are excited about the new technology because

2. The word mated in line 2 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

avoided combined introduced developed

3. The word strand in line 3 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

type thread chip color

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4. The author states that scientists previously were aware that a) b) c) d)

they could control cells with a separate computer. electronic impulses could affect cells. electric charges could harm a person. cells interact with each other through electrical charges.

5. The author implies that up to now, the point of applying electric impulse to cells was to a) b) c) d)

kill them. open their walls to introduce medication. stop growth. combine cells.

a) b) c) d)

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6. The word triggers in line 13 is closest in meaning to damages causes shoots assists

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researchers chips voltages tissues

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a) b) c) d)

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7. The word others in line 19 refers to other

8. The word eventually in line 16 is closest in meaning to finally lately possibly especially

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a) b) c) d)

9. The word particular in line 17 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

huge slight specific controlled

10. The author indicates that it is expected doctors will be able to a) b) c) d)

place one large chip in a person to control multiple problems. place more than one chip in a single person. place a chip directly inside a cell. place a chip inside a strand of hair. 163

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Bees, classified into over 10000 species, are insects found in almost every part of the world except the northernmost and southernmost regions. One commonly known species is the honeybee, the only bee that produces honey and wax. Humans use the wax in making candles, lipsticks, and other products, and use the honey as a food. While gathering the nectar and pollen with which they make honey, bees are simultaneously helping to fertilize the flowers on which they land. Many fruits and vegetables would not survive if bees did not carry the pollen from blossom to blossom. Bees live in a structured environment and social structure within a hive, which is a nest with storage space for the honey. The different types of bees each perform a unique function. The worker bee carries nectar to the hive in a special stomach called a honey stomach. Other workers make beeswax and shape it into a honeycomb, which is a waterproof mass of six-sided compartments, or cells. The queen lays eggs in completed cells. As the workers build more cells, the queen lays more eggs. All workers, like the queen, are female, but the workers are smaller than the queen. The male honeybees are called drones; they do not work and cannot sting. They are developed from unfertilized eggs, and their only job is to impregnate a queen. The queen must be fertilized in order to lay worker eggs. During the season when less honey is available and the drone is of no further use, the workers block the drones from eating the honey so that they will starve to death.

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a) b) c) d)

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1. Which of the following is the best title for this text? The many species of bees The Honeybee. Its characteristics and usefulness The useless drone Making honey

2. The word species in line 1 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

mates varieties killers enemies

3. The word which in line 6 stands for a) b) c) d)

fertilizer nectar and pollen honey bees 164

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4. The word simultaneously in line 7 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

stubbornly concurrently skillfully diligently

5. According to the text, a hive is a) b) c) d)

a type of honey a nest a type of bee a hole

6. According to the text, the drone collects less honey than the workers mates with the queen and has no other purpose comes from eggs fertilized by other drones can be male or female

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a) b) c) d)

7. The author implies that

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bees are unnecessary in the food chain drones are completely dispensable the queen can be a worker drones are never females

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a) b) c) d)

workers queens drones males

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a) b) c) d)

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8. According to the text, honey is carried to the hive in a honey stomach by the

9. In what way does the reading imply that bees are useful in nature? a) b) c) d)

They pollinate fruit and vegetable plants. They kill the dangerous drones. They make marvelous creations from wax. They create storage spaces.

10. All of the following are characteristic of a honeycomb except a) b) c) d)

it contains hexagonal sections. it is made of wax. it is made of honey. it is waterproof. 165

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Text 7 Line number

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What is superstition? According to dictionaries it is the traditional belief in the power of the supernatural; fear of the unknown; any blindly accepted belief. All of us to a more or less extent believe in some signs and it‟s quite natural. We inherited these beliefs from primitive religions. They are based on human psychology and closely connected with man‟s fear of bad luck and his wish to succeed. Education is unable to save us from superstitions and only by understanding their nature we may overcome our fears. It has become a part of any culture today, although it was more alive a hundred years ago. Some people though claim not to be superstitious it is still a part of them. Superstition has grown for something, as there is no smoke without fire. Religions, diseases, and fire might have been the most essential reasons for them. But no one knows who was the first man to decide that opening an umbrella in a house is bad luck. For example, salt which itself never spoils and provides long life for other foods was the symbol of immortality. Therefore, it was used in all sacred rituals and served as a defense against evil. The avoidance of number 13 goes back to Scandinavian mythology and it is not surprising that in most hotels all over the world you will not find a room with this number. There are no people, no culture, no nation without at least a few superstitions, many of which others might consider odd, eccentric or even childish. Some of them may seem strange today, but they can be better understood by studying their psychological, social and entertainment value to those who believe in them.

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a) b) c) d)

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1. What is the main topic of the text? Customs and traditions are undoubtedly based on superstition. The belief of supernatural goes back to Scandinavian mythology. Superstitions are part of any culture and still are observed. Diseases and fires are caused by superstition for some people.

2. It can be implied from the text that a) b) c) d)

a century ago superstitions were more widely spread. people inherited superstitions from religious education. superstitions are meant to help people to succeed. all of us unquestionably believe in some signs and it‟s natural.

3. The word they in line 6 refers to a) b) c) d)

signs beliefs superstitions religions 166

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4. The word immortality in line 17 could most easily be replaced by a) b) c) d)

holiness abundance fertility eternity

5. The word odd in line 23 means a) b) c) d)

strange frightening childish special

6. According to the text, salt served to treat people from being wicked. as a means to frighten and escape from evil. for cultures to bring about great amount of soil. as a special symbol to make somebody‟s life endless.

7. The author states that number 13

.a

is a common number in Scandinavian mythology brings good luck to many hotels all over the world frightens evil and brings wealth to many families is an unfavorable symbol in many cultures

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a) b) c) d)

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a) b) c) d)

a belief which gives rise to doubt no facts call the belief into question a worshipped idol to rely on a belief under suspicion

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a) b) c) d)

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8. Which of the following reflects the idea of blindly accepted belief

9. The text claims that a) b) c) d)

there are few nations devoid of superstition. cultures tend to avoid strange superstition. every culture has at least some superstition. people aren‟t confined to believe in magic.

10. Where in the text does the author bring examples of common superstitions? a) b) c) d)

Lines 1-5 Lines 11-14 Lines 16-21 Lines 22-26

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Text 8 Line number

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Graphology is the study of handwriting. Often the term refers to the analysis of handwriting to discover the personality traits of the writer. Handwriting has interested observers for many centuries. In the Orient, Chinese called attention to the relationship between handwriting and personality as early as the 11th century. It has been found that handwriting changes as a result of age, illness, and emotional stress. The handwriting of adults is so characteristic of them that it has been estimated that there is less than one chance in 68 billion that 2 individuals will be found to have identical handwriting. It must be mentioned that it is not always possible to determine age and sex from writing. It is also not always possible to recognize resemblance in the handwriting of blood relatives, although there is considerable similarity between the handwriting of identical twins. However, this similarity is not as great as other characteristics such as height, weight and intelligence. Graphologists claim that each of the handwriting elements has specific meaning. Thus, usually large handwriting is said to characterize the ambitious, imaginative person; very small writing the critical person. However, one should not forget that there may be more than one cause for the same effect. Very small writing may be caused by myopia: magnification of script may be the reason of the loss of motor control. Handwriting analysis helps to advise people on what jobs they should choose and they can even select a suitable marriage partner by scrutinizing his or her character. Our handwriting continues to change until our late teens. Then it settles into a certain style. Handwriting often makes its final changes during adulthood. All these changes indicate our feelings and characteristics.

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1. What is the main topic of the text? a) b) c) d)

Magnification of scripts at some age. Handwriting as a means of investigation. The history of graphology and its restrictions. How to improve one‟s handwriting in adulthood.

2. The text implies that a) b) c) d)

Handwriting changes mostly as a result of illness and sometimes marriage. Handwriting interested only Japanese researchers and Chinese investigators. The handwriting of adults is more or less a representative of their character. Graphology is a study of handwriting as well as an analysis of physiology.

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3. The author of the text states that a) b) c) d)

it is not always workable to verify age and sex from one‟s handwriting. each of the handwriting elements cannot have a definite meaning. emotional stress can be caused by the age and sex of an individual. large handwriting characterizes a person as a serious individual.

4. The word resemblance in line 12 can best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

witness trustworthiness capability likeness

5. According to the text magnification of script isn‟t an indicator of feelings and control. changes in handwriting indicate our intelligence and mood. handwriting transformation shows our feelings and characteristics. beautiful handwriting changes into bad when still in teens.

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a) b) c) d)

6. The word scrutinizing in line 24 means

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examining driving out trying

.a

covering

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a) b) c) d)

7. Which of the following is mentioned in the text about twins?

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a) No matter how similar twins may be, their handwriting may differ. b) Twins usually don‟t have identical handwriting as ordinary people have in their adulthood. c) The handwriting of twins is a subject for scientists to be investigated in the near future. d) The analysis of twins‟ handwriting helps to advise people on what jobs they should choose. 8. The word myopia in line 21 is probably a) b) c) d)

loss of motor control a type of disease some kind of water a type of writing

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9. The author claims that a) b) c) d)

Teenagers‟ handwriting almost always tends to remain the same. Adulthood is the only period for handwriting change. Changes in our handwriting occur almost never. Handwriting usually changes when we are still teenagers.

10. Where in the text does the author describe handwriting similarities among relatives? a) b) c) d)

Lines 1-5 Lines 6-10 Lines 11-13 Lines 16-20 Text 9

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There are four basic stages that human beings pass through when they enter and live in a new culture. This process is called culture shock which is the way our brain and our personality reacts to the strange new things we encounter when we move from one culture to another. Culture begins with the "honeymoon stage". This is the period of time when we first arrive in which everything about the new culture is strange and exciting. We may be suffering from "jet lag" but we are thrilled to be in the new environment, seeing new sights, eating new kinds of food. The second stage can be more difficult. After we have settled down into our new life, working or studying, buying groceries, we can become very tired and begin to miss our homeland and our family, girlfriend/boyfriend, pets. All the little problems seem to be much bigger and more disturbing when you face them in a foreign culture. The third stage is called the "adjustment stage". This is when you realize that things are not so bad in the host culture. You realize that you are becoming stronger by learning to take care of yourself in the new place. Things are still intractable but you are now a survivor! The fourth stage can be called "at ease at last". Now you feel quite comfortable in your new surroundings. You can cope with most problems that occur. You may still have problems with the language, but you know you are strong enough to deal with them. If you meet someone from your country who has just arrived, you can be the expert on life in the new culture and help them to deal with their culture shock.

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Line number

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1. When does culture shock happen? a) b) c) d)

when you move to a big city when you meet foreign people for the first time when you go to live in a foreign culture when you reach your teens

2. According to the text how do you feel during the first stage of culture shock? a) b) c) d)

lonely and depressed bored and homesick happy and excited angry and frustrated

3. The word encounter in line 4 means meet hesitate disgust cooperate

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a) b) c) d)

4. How could the third stage be described?

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enthusiasm rejection anger adaptation

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a) b) c) d)

interesting difficult solvable habitual

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a) b) c) d)

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5. The word intractable in line 19 may best be replaced by

6. The author states that the forth stage of culture shock is a) b) c) d)

tense but positive negative and stressful relaxed full of fear

7. The word cope with in line 22 is most likely a) b) c) d)

create estimate experience manage 171

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8. The text implies that a) b) c) d)

culture shock starts still in teens culture shock is a psychological process usually adults experience culture shock culture shock is a process of maturing

9. The best title for the text would be a) b) c) d)

The four basic stages that human beings pass through. Suffering from "jet lag" and its consequences. Culture shock and its consequences. Problems seem to be much bigger and more disturbing.

10. Where in the text does the author give the definition of culture shock? Lines 2-5 Lines 6-9 Lines 11-16 Lines 12-15

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a) b) c) d)

Text 10

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The „unknown‟ world has always been around us. We have begun to investigate the universe, the ocean, the planet we live on. Yet, one of the greatest mysteries – the man himself and his unbelievable abilities – remains unsolved. In Russia several cases have been reported recently of people who can read and detect colours with their fingers, and even see through solid doors and walls. One case concerns an eleven-year-old schoolgirl, Vera Petrova, who has normal vision but who can also perceive things with different parts of her skin, and through solid walls. This ability was first noticed by her father. One day she came to his office and happened to put her hands on the door of a locked safe. Her father and an employee of his were busy discussing a certain business problem. Suddenly she asked her father why he kept so many old newspapers locked away there. Moreover, she described the way they were done up in bundles. Vera‟s curious talent was brought to the notice of scientific research institute in the town of Ulyanovsk, near where she lives. In April she was given a series of tests by a special commission which consisted of very distinguished scientists and doctors of different spheres. During these tests she was able to read a newspaper through a vague screen. What‟s more, by moving her elbow over a child‟s game of Lotto she was able to describe the figures and colours printed on it, and in another instance, wearing stockings and slippers, to make out with her 172

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

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foot the outlines and colours of a picture hidden under a carpet. That was really fantastic. So the commission was to accept that the girl did have extraordinary abilities. Other experiments, carried out by another scientific group, showed that her knees and shoulders had a similar sensitivity. During all these tests Vera was blindfold. Indeed, except when blindfold, she lacked the ability to perceive things with her skin. It was also found out that although she could perceive things with her fingers this ability ceased the moment her hands were wet.

1. What is the main idea of the text? Some people have the ability to „see‟ through different obstacles. Some people can read and detect colours with closed eyes. Most people can „see‟ not only with their eyes but also with their skin. There are very few people who can describe the figures and colours with their bare feet.

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a) b) c) d)

2. The text implies that

.a

nowadays science can explain everything. most people are well aware of the talents a human being can have. there are people whose abilities can puzzle the scientists. experiments, held by the special commission, proved that some people have normal vision.

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a) b) c) d)

3. The word perceive in line 8 means

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catch distinguish take miss

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a) b) c) d)

4. Vera‟s father accidentally discovered that his daughter possessed unusual powers of perception when a) b) c) d)

she entered his office and saw the old newspapers in bundles on the safe. she touched the unlocked safe in his office. she suddenly described the unlocked safe and asked what there was. she said that there were packs of old newspapers in the locked safe.

5. The pronoun they in line 14 stands for a) b) c) d)

bundles newspapers hands walls 173

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6. Which of the options is NOT synonymous to the word outlines in line 24? a) b) c) d)

shapes forms contours volumes

7. Vera was unable to perceive objects with her skin when a) b) c) d)

she was blindfold. she was not blindfold. she was wearing stockings and slippers. she was to read through an unclear screen.

8. The word curious in line 16 can best be replaced by

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a) ordinary b) inquiring c) peculiar d) mystic

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Lines 24-29 Lines 1- 5 Lines 20-32 Lines 6-10

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a) b) c) d)

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9. Where in the text does the author describe the tests given to Vera by the special commission?

10. Which statement is true according to the text?

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a) Vera lost her ability to perceive objects with her fingers when it rained suddenly. b) Vera never had any difficulty in perceiving things with her fingers. c) Vera became incapable of perceiveing things when she moved her elbow over a game of Lotto. d) Vera lost the ability to perceive objects with her fingers whenever her fingers got wet.

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Text 11 Line number

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An Italian explorer, Verrazano, about whom little is known, would never even dream or imagine that one day his name will forever be connected with a place which did not seem so noteworthy and relevant at first sight. He sailed into New York Harbour in 1524. Being inspired with the new discoveries of his time, he was eager to find new and not investigated unknown lands which would bring wealth and prosperity to his motherland and - why not - to his own family, too. In his diary he made another ordinary note and described the harbor as “a very agreeable situation located within two small hills in the midst of which flowed a great river”. Though Verrazano is by no means considered to be an outstanding explorer, his name will probably remain immortal, for in 1965, one of the greatest bridges in the world was named after him. The Verrazano Bridge, which was designed by Othmar Amman, joins Brooklyn to Staten Island. It has a span of 4260 feet. The bridge is so long that the shape of the earth had to be taken into account by its designer. Four huge cables are supported by two great towers. They are built on immense underwater platforms made of steel and concrete. The platforms extend to a depth of over 100 feet under the sea. These alone took sixteen months to build. Above the surface of the water, the towers rise to a height of about 700 feet. They support the cables from which the bridge has been suspended. Each of the four cables contains 26,108 lengths of wire. It has been estimated that if the bridge were packed with cars, it would still only be carrying a third of its total capacity. However, size and strength are not the only important things about this bridge. It is not only considered to be a notable achievement in engineering but is also believed to have a great aesthetic effect. It is not surprising that this gigantic construction has become one of the famous attractions in New York. Yet, we cannot but confess that despite its immensity, it is both simple and elegant, fulfilling its designer‟s dream to create „an enormous object drawn as faintly as possible‟.

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1. What is the main topic of the text? a) b) c) d)

Verrazano was an outstanding Italian explorer. Verrazano has designed the greatest bridge in the world with huge capacity. Verrazano is a platform the length of which is 100 feet. Verrazano is one of the well-designed and faintly-drawn bridges in the world.

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2. According to the text a) the surface of the water has been taken into account while the bridge was being built. b) the whole bridge is built from steel and concrete. c) the designer of the bridge was to take into account the earth‟s shape while making the necessary calculations. d) the size and the strength are the only important things about this bridge. 3. The word agreeable in line 9 does NOT mean a) b) c) d)

pleasant comfortable suitable respectful

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4. The following statement probably implies Though Verrazano is by no means considered to be an outstanding explorer , his name will probably remain immortal…

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a) In spite of being immortal, Verrazano will be an outstanding explorer. b) Although Verrazano was a famous explorer his name will never be forgotten. c) Despite the fact that Verrazano was not a well-known explorer his name will perhaps be remembered for ever. d) Even though Verrazano was not an explorer at all he will be called immortal.

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large gigantic tiny insignificant

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a) b) c) d)

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5. The word immense in line 19 may best be replaced by

6. Which of the following mentioned in the text is about the platforms? a) b) c) d)

These alone took sixteen months to build. They support the cables from which the bridge has been suspended. Two great towers support four huge cables. Each of the four cables contains 26,108 lengths of wire.

7. The word about in line 22 means a) b) c) d)

concerning regarded approximately nearby

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8. Where in the text does the author describe the structure of the bridge? a) b) c) d)

Lines 15 – 26 Lines 7 – 9 Lines 1 – 6 Lines 28 – 33

9. It is stated in the text that a) b) c) d)

the bridge is unable to hold a lot of cars. the bridge is able to hold only a third of the packed cars on it. the bridge is ill-designed and it will collapse as soon as possible. the bridge is designed to carry even more cars than it can actually hold.

10. It was the designer‟s dream

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a) to build immense underwater platforms supported by huge towers. b) to join Brooklyn to Staten Island. c) to create something immortal, impossibly faint and pleasing to everybody‟s taste. d) to construct a really huge object which would seem graceful and not so heavy. Text 12

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In recent decades, scientific and technological developments have dramatically changed human life on our planet, as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals and of the universe as a whole. The desire to find some hints of any life in our Solar System and to get more precise information on other planets, has always moved us forward. Of the six outer planets, Mars, commonly called the Red Planet, is the closest to Earth. Mars, 42000 miles in diameter and 55 percent of the size of Earth, is 34 600 000 miles from Earth and 141 000 000 miles from the Sun. It takes this planet, along with its two moons, Phobos and Deimos, 1.88 years to circle the Sun, compared to 365 days for the Earth. For many years, Mars had been thought of as the planet with the man-made canals, supposedly discovered by an Italian astronomer, Schiaparelly, in 1877. For many years we were quite certain that other intelligent life exists in universe. Moreover, these so-called „man-made canals‟ made us think that the Red Planet was the planet to host intelligent life. Yet, with the United States spacecraft Viking I‟s landing on Mars in 1976, the man-made canal theory was proven to be only a myth and the expectation to meet there something or somebody intelligent, disappointed us greatly. Viking I, after landing on the soil of Mars, performed many

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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

scientific experiments and took numerous pictures. The pictures showed that the red colour of the planet is due to the reddish, rocky Martian soil. No biological life was found, though it had been speculated by many scientists. The Viking also monitored many weather changes including violent dust storms. Some water vapor, polar ice, and frost below the surface were found, indicating that at one time there were significant quantities of water on this distant planet. Evidence collected by the spacecraft shows some present volcanic action, though the volcanoes are believed to be inactive, if not dead.

1. Which statement is NOT true according to the text? Mars has two moons. It takes longer for Mars to circle the Sun than it takes Earth. Martian soil is rocky. Mars is larger than Earth.

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a) b) c) d)

2. The planet was thought to have man-made canals until

Schiaparelli discovered them in 1877. Vikings conquered the planet with the help of an Italian astronomer. Viking I took down on the planet and picked the necessary information. Phobos and Mars sent the necessary information to Earth.

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a) b) c) d)

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actually certainly unquestionably presumably

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a) b) c) d)

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3. The word supposedly in line 14 could best be replaced by

4. Mars has been nicknamed a) b) c) d)

Viking I the Red Planet Deimos Martian

5. The word myth in line 20 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

fact event legend mystery

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6. According to the text, after the spacecraft had landed on Mars a) b) c) d)

it became obvious that there did not exist any life. the soil of Mars became red. many weather changes occurred in its atmosphere. many scientists began to speculate on violent dust storms.

7. What is the main idea of the text? a) Very little of Martian landscape has changed over the years. b) Scientists are no longer interested in the planet as there is no life on it. c) The recent landing of the spacecraft provided the scientists with more realistic information. d) Evidence collected by Viking shows the rocky Martian soil in action. 8. The word distant in line 30 is NOT synonymous to far-away remote far-off nearby

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a) b) c) d)

9. The text describes Martian volcanoes as

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constantly erupting though no one knew about it. having significant qualities. possessing certain activity. motionless and boring.

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a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

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10. Where in the text does the author speak about the existence of water on the planet in remote times? Lines 28 – 30 Lines 16 – 20 Lines 11 – 16 Lines 1 – 3

Text 13 Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Although both Luther Burbank and George Washington Carver drastically changed American agriculture and were close friends, besides, their methods of working could hardly have been more dissimilar. Burbank‟s formal education ended with high school, but he was inspired by the works of Charles Darwin. In 1872, on his farm near Lunenberg, Massachusetts, he produced his first “plant creation”- a 179

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superior potato developed from the Early Rose variety. It still bears his name. After moving to Santa Rosa, California, in 1875, Burbank created a stream of creations, earning the nickname “the plant wizard.” He developed new varieties of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and other plants, many of which are still economically important. He began his work some thirty years before the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel‟s work on heredity, and while he did not participate in the developing science of plant genetics, his work opened the country‟s eyes to the productive possibilities of plant breeding. However, the value of his contributions was diminished by his methods. He relied on his keen memory and power of observation and kept records only for his own use. He thus dissatisfied attempts by other scientists to study his achievements. Carver, on the other hand, was a careful researcher who took thorough notes. Born a slave, he attended high school in Kansas, Simpson College in Iowa, and Iowa State College, which awarded him a master‟s degree. When the eminent black educator Booker T. Washington offered him a position at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama he accepted. While Burbank concentrated on developing new plants, Carver found new uses for existing ones. He produced hundreds of synthetic products made from the soybean, the sweet potato, and especially the peanut, helping to free Southern agriculture from the tyranny of cotton.

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Section 8

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To compare the products created by two agricultural scientists To demonstrate how Carver and Burbank influenced American agriculture To contrast the careers and methods of two scientists To explain how Charles Darwin inspired both Carver and Burbank

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a) b) c) d)

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1. What is the author‟s main purpose in writing the text?

2. The word drastically in line 2 means a) b) c) d)

dramatically primarily accidentally possibly

3. According to the text, which of the following best describes the relationship between Burbank and Carver? a) b) c) d)

They were competitors. Carver was one of Burbank‟s teachers. Burbank invited Carver to work with him. They were close friends. 180

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4. It can be inferred that Burbank‟s first plant creation is known as the a) b) c) d)

Early Rose potato Burbank potato Lunenberg potato Wizard potato

5. The word his in line 16 refers to a) b) c) d)

George Washington Carver Gregor Mendel Luther Burbank Charles Darwin

6. The word thorough in line 23 could be best replaced by complete general puzzling confusing

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a) b) c) d)

7. The author implies that a significant difference between the techniques of Burbank and those of Carver is that

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a) while Carver kept careful research records, Burbank did not b) Carver popularized his achievements, but those of Burbank were relatively unknown c) Unlike Burbank, Carver concentrated mainly on developing new varieties of plants d) Burbank bred both plants and animals, but Carver worked only with plants 8. According to the text, which school awarded Carver a master‟s degree? Simpson College Iowa State College Tuskegee Institute The University of Alabama

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a) b) c) d)

9. Carver developed new uses for all of the following crops EXCEPT a) b) c) d)

cotton soybeans peanuts sweet potatoes

10. At what point in the text does the author focus on Burbank‟s weaknesses as a researcher? a) b) c) d)

Lines 4–7 Lines 5–9 Lines14–16 Lines19–21 181

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Text 14 Line number

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Certain animals have an intuitive awareness of quantities. They know, without analysis, the difference between a number of objects and a smaller number. In his book The Natural History of Selbourne (1786), the naturalist Gilbert White tells how he cautiously removed one egg a day from a plover‟s nest, and how the mother laid another egg each day to make up for the missing one. He noted that other species of birds ignore the absence of a single egg but abandon their nests if more than one egg has been removed. It has also been noted by naturalists that a certain type of wasp always provides five–never four, never sixcaterpillars for each of their young to have something to eat when the eggs hatch. Research has also shown that both mice and pigeons can be taught to distinguish between odd and even numbers of food pieces. These and similar accounts have led some people to infer that creatures, other than humans can actually count. They also point to dogs that have been taught to respond to numerical questions with the correct number of barks, or to horses that seem to solve arithmetic problems by stamping their hooves the proper number of times. Animals respond to quantities only when they are connected to survival as a species-as in the case of the eggs–or survival as individuals–as in the case of food. There is no transfer to other situations or from concrete reality to the abstract notion of numbers. Animals can “count” only when the objects are present and only when the numbers involved are small-no more than seven or eight. In lab experiments animals trained to “count” one kind of object were unable to count any other type. The objects, not the numbers, are what interest them. Animals‟ admittedly remarkable achievements simply do not amount to evidence of counting, nor do they reveal more than inborn instincts, refined by the genes of following generations, or the results of clever, careful conditioning by trainers.

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1. What is the main idea of this text? a) Careful training is required to teach animals to perform tricks involving numbers. b) Animals cannot “count” more than one kind of object. c) Of all animals, dogs and horses can count best d) Although some animals may be aware of quantities, they cannot actually count.

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2. Why does the author refer to Gilbert White‟s book in line 3? a) b) c) d)

To show how attitudes have changed since 1786 To contradict the idea that animals can count To provide evidence that some birds are aware of quantities To indicate that more research is needed in this field

3. The word cautiously in line 4 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

quickly secretly occasionally stubbornly

a) b) c) d)

leave rebuild watch guard

unusual numbers numbers such as 1,3,5 lucky numbers numbers such as 2,4,6

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a) b) c) d)

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5. The word odd in line 12 refers to

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4. The word abandon in line 7 could best be replaced by

plovers mice caterpillars wasps

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a) b) c) d)

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6. The author mentions that all of the following are aware of quantities in some way EXCEPT

7 . How would the author probably characterize the people who are mentioned in lines 13-14? a) b) c) d)

As mistaken As demanding As clever As foolish

8. The word admittedly in line 28 means a) b) c) d)

improbably arguably apparently undeniably 183

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9. The word they in line 29 refers to a) b) c) d)

numbers animals achievements genes

10. Where in the passage does the author mention research that supports his own view of animals‟ inability to count? a) b) c) d)

Lines 3-6 Lines 9-12 Lines 13-16 Lines 18-26

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Text 15 Line number

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Over the past 600 years, English has grown from a language of few speakers to become the dominant language of international communication. English as we know it today emerged around 1350, after having incorporated many elements of French that were introduced following the Norman invasion of 1066. Until the 1600s, English was, for the most part, spoken only in England and had not extended even as far as Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. However, during the course of the next two centuries, English began to spread around the globe as a result of exploration, trade (including slave trade), colonization, and missionary work. Thus, small enclaves of English speakers became established and grew in various parts of the world. As these communities expanded, English gradually became the primary language of international business, banking, and diplomacy. Currently, about 80 percent of the information stored on computer systems worldwide is in English. Two-thirds of the world‟s science writing is in English, and English is the main language of technology, advertising, media, international airports, and air traffic controllers. Today there are more than 700 million English users in the world, and over half of these are non-native speakers, constituting a larger number of non-native users than any other language in the world.

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1. What is the main topic of this text? a) b) c) d)

The number of non-native users of English The French influence on the English language. The expansion of English as an international language. The use of English for science and technology.

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2. The word elements in line 4 means a) b) c) d)

declaration features curiosities customs

3. Which lines in the passage best summarize how English was initially extended to many areas of the world? a) b) c) d)

Lines 1-3 Lines 3-6 Lines 7-13 Lines 15-17

4. Approximately when did English begin to be used beyond England? in 1066 around 1350 before 1600 after 1600

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a) b) c) d)

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the slave trade the Norman invasion missionaries colonization

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a) b) c) d)

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5. According to the text, all of the following contributed to the spread of English around the world EXCEPT

6. The word course in line 8 means subject policy time track

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a) b) c) d)

7. The word expanded in line 12 could be best replaced by a) b) c) d)

prospered organized separated enlarged

8. According to the text, approximately how many non-native users of English are there in the world today? a) b) c) d)

a quarter million half a million 350 million 700 million 185

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9. The word these in line 19 refers to a) b) c) d)

controllers users native speakers non-native speakers

10. According to the text, which of the following is NOT true? a) b) c) d)

French rather than English is the most common language on the globe. Most of the information installed in the computers is in English Most scientific documents in the world are written in English English became the most widely used language under some circumstances. Text 16

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Most Americans and British people would agree that it is good manners to be punctual for an appointment. Arriving on time for formal events such as a business meeting or an interview is considered important. Many people try to arrive a few minutes early for an appointment to avoid the risk of rushing in at the last minute. Even in less formal situations people are generally expected to think about the person they are meeting and not to keep them waiting unnecessarily. People are also expected to arrive on time for social events, especially weddings. Traditionally, only the bride is allowed to be late. People are generally more relaxed about the time when arriving for more informal social occasions. When meeting a friend for lunch at a restaurant, people try to arrive at the time arranged, or no more than five minutes late. If they are later than this, the person they are meeting will start to think they are not going to come at all. However, when invited to dinner in somebody‟s home it is actually considered polite to arrive a few minutes late. Under no circumstances should guests arrive early. Some formal invitations to dinner may say „seven for seven-thirty‟, meaning that guests should arrive any time after 7 p.m. in order to be at table at 7.30 p.m. At a party, however, people may arrive an hour or more after the start time written on the invitation. If somebody arrives later, they are expected to apologize. Depending on the circumstances and how late they are, people may say, „Sorry to have kept you waiting‟. If they are very late, they may feel obliged to give an explanation as well, e.g. “I‟m sorry I‟m so late, but the traffic was bad.” People expect concerts, plays, etc. to start at the time advertised, and if they are kept waiting a long time they may start a slow handclap to show that they are impatient. But anyone who arrives late for a show may not be allowed in until there is a convenient break in the performance. People also expect public transport to depart and arrive on time and get very frustrated if delays are frequent. Most people do not like being kept waiting without good reason.

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1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–8, a) b) c) d)

many people try to rush in at the last minute traditionally people are allowed to be late only for wedding people must arrive a few minutes early for an appointment it‟s essential to arrive on time for formal events

2. According to the text,

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a) people are generally more concerned about the time arriving for more informal social occasions. b) people don‟t worry much about the time when arriving for more formal social occasions. c) when invited to dinner in somebody‟s home it is considered polite to arrive a few minutes early. d) when meeting a friend for lunch at a restaurant you can arrive no more than five minutes late. 3. According to the text, it is bad manners

to clap before a performance to keep people waiting unnecessarily to arrive early for an appointment to arrive on time for social events

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a) b) c) d)

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casual unusual official awkward

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a) b) c) d)

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4. The word formal in line 5 means

5. The word explanation in line 20 is NOT synonymous to a) b) c) d)

expectation clarification justification reason

6. According to Paragraph 4, lines 22–27, a slow handclap at concerts expresses a) b) c) d)

approval irritation admiration explanation

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7. The sentence „Most people do not like being kept waiting without good reason’ means that a) b) c) d)

being kept waiting, people expect a reasonable explanation people are never kept waiting without good reason most people don‟t keep others waiting without good reason most people have good reason to keep others waiting

8. Frequent delays of public transport a) b) c) d)

irritate people hardly bother anybody never annoy anybody make people patient

9. According to the text, people may arrive a little late for concerts plays formal events informal receptions

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a) b) c) d)

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table manners American traditions punctuality speech etiquette

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Text 17

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a) b) c) d)

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10. The text is mainly about

Video games were first introduced in the 1970s. By the end of that decade they had become a preferred childhood leisure activity. Video game sales rose in the late 1980s. After the introduction of the Nintendo system parents became concerned about the effects on their children. Some research suggested that playing video games affected children's physical functioning. The effects from playing video games for hours at a time ranged from triggering seizures to causing heart rate and blood pressure changes. Serious adverse physical effects, however, seemed to be limited to a small number of players. More recent research has begun to find a connection between children‟s playing of violent video games and aggressive behaviour. Some research studies on the impact of violent video games on normal children reported harmful effects. Performing violent actions in video games may lead children to become more aggressive than passively watching violent acts on television or in movies. The more children practise violent 188

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games, the more likely they are to perform violent acts. Other studies show that in playing video games, normal children can develop a sense of skill which they might not otherwise achieve. Researchers identified benefits associated with creative and pro-social uses of video games. Some educational professionals, while allowing that video games permit children to engage in a somewhat creative dialogue, maintain that this engagement is highly limited compared to other activities, such as creative writing. Another problem seen by critics of video games is that the games stress individual action rather than co-operation. A common game scenario is that of a character performing an aggressive act against an enemy. One study found that each of the top 10 Nintendo video games was based on a theme of an individual working alone against an evil force. The world of video games has little sense of community and few team players. Also, most video games can‟t be played by more than one player at a time. A ban on video games won‟t work. Parents must limit playing time, monitor game selection and allow video game use as a reward.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Section 8

1. It‟s stated in paragraph 1 (lines 1-6) that

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Video games had physical effects on children. Video games had leisure effects on children. Video games had perfect effects on children. Video games had creative effects on children.

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a) b) c) d)

worried afraid astonished frustrated

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a) b) c) d)

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2. The word concerned in line 4 may best be replaced by

3. According to paragraph 3 (lines 12-16) video games a) b) c) d)

teach children to cooperate teach children to be aggressive teach children to watch movies teach children to be players

4. The pronoun they in line 16 stands for a) b) c) d)

children acts games studies

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5. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the text? a) b) c) d)

While playing video games children are engaged in somewhat creative dialogue. While playing video games children can develop a sense of skill. While playing violent video games children become more aggressive. While playing violent video games children become more creative.

6. The word permit in line 21 is synonymous to a) b) c) d)

consent allow limit agree

7. A common video game scenario is an aggressive act against an enemy. an interesting talk with an enemy. an individual cooperation with an enemy. an important action for an enemy.

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a) b) c) d)

8. The word maintain in line 22 means

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to insist to find to rule to effect

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a) b) c) d)

must limit their children‟s playing time. must select games for their children. must find time to play with their children. must give rewards to their children.

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a) b) c) d)

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9. It is stated in the text that parents

10. We may conclude from the text that banning video games a) b) c) d)

will be good. always works. will never work. will damage our children.

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Text 18 Line number

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In summer 2007 England and Wales experienced some of the wettest weather and worst floods since 1766, the date when weather records began. There were several periods of very heavy rainfall which resulted in the worst flooding in living memory. Almost 50,000 houses and just under 7,000 businesses were flooded. This effect extended to the daily lives of everyone in these areas as transport, schools, power and water supplies were all seriously affected. The problem seems to be that the infrastructures in England and Wales are not prepared for sudden downpours. When a large amount of rain comes in a short time, drains and rivers cannot cope with the volume of water. This can lead to flooding, the location of which is extremely difficult to predict. The situation would have been much worse if the UK‟s Environment Agency had not been well prepared. Flood warnings were sent out to thousands of businesses and homes. Many people managed to leave danger areas as a result of these warnings and travel to safer places. However, these record-breaking floods still caused a huge amount of damage and personal loss for thousands of people. Many people were moved into temporary accommodation, having been forced to leave their homes. Many of those whose homes were saved still lost personal possessions that cannot be replaced. The Environment Agency continues to support these victims of the floods. Part of the successful damage limitation strategy that prevented the effects of the flooding being any worse than they were, was the way that different organizations worked together. This joined-up approach was part of a carefully planned strategy to cope with such flooding. Some examples of the groups who participated in the damage limitation activity were the Met office (weather forecasters); the police (who used their control centres for communication); the fire service (who used equipment to help people); the Royal Air Force (who used helicopters to rescue people from the most dangerous areas); and the local councils (who helped place sand bags in vulnerable areas as well as clean up afterwards).

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1. According to paragraph 1 (lines 1-7), a) b) c) d)

flooding in England and Wales resulted in heavy rainfall. weather was not recorded before 1766. the flood hardly affected the daily lives of the population. periods of very heavy rainfall refer to the year 1766.

2. The word downpour in line 9 means a) b) c) d)

flood water supplies rainfall infrastructures 191

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3. The reason why sudden downpours caused the flooding could be explained by the fact that a) b) c) d)

power and water supplies were badly damaged. the daily busy life of the inhabitants of the area brought to serious problems. it was difficult to predict the location of flooding. it was impossible for drains and rivers to cope with big amounts of water.

4. The word replaced in line 20 stands for a) b) c) d)

recovered misplaced rearranged saved

5. The word they in line 23 refers to different organizations working together damage limitations successful strategies the effects of the flooding

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a) b) c) d)

6. Which of the following is NOT true according to the text?

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All the people who suffered from the flood lost their homes. Many groups participated in the damage limitation activity. Many people were provided with temporary accommodation. Had the UK‟s Environment Agency not been well prepared, the situation would have been much worse.

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a) b) c) d)

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7. Which of the following is true according to the passage? a) The support of the Environment Agency is limited to the prevention of flooding. b) Many people received warnings from the Environment Agency about the upcoming disaster. c) The UK‟s Environment Agency had not been well prepared. d) But for the UK‟s Environment Agency, the flooding could have been worse. 8. The Met office and the Royal Air Force are examples of a) b) c) d)

local councils flood participants damage limitation groups strategy planning groups

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9. According to paragraph 5 (lines 26-31), a) only the local councils placed sand bags in dangerous areas b) the Royal Air Force helicopters were used to remove people from damaged areas. c) the police control centres were used for a variety of purposes. d) weather forecasters provided very little help. 10. The purpose of the text is to congratulate those who worked hard to limit the damage caused by the floods. discuss the increasing problems of flooding caused by global warming. criticise the UK Environment Agency for insufficient preparation work. give information about the flooding in England and Wales in the summer of 2007.

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a) b) c) d)

Text 19

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Any list of the greatest thinkers in history contains the name of the brilliant German physicist Albert Einstein. His theories of relativity led to entirely new ways of thinking about time, space, matter, energy, and gravity. Einstein's work led to such scientific advances as the control of atomic energy, even television as a practical application of Einstein's work. In 1902 Einstein became an examiner in the Swiss patent office at Bern. In 1905, at age 26, he published the first of five major research papers. The first one provided a theory explaining Brownian movement, the zig-zag motion of microscopic particles in suspension. The second paper laid the foundation for the photon, or quantum, theory of light. In it he proposed that light is composed of separate packets of energy, called quanta or photons, that have some of the properties of particles and some of the properties of waves. A third paper contained the "special theory of relativity" which showed that time and motion are relative to the observer, if the speed of light is constant and the natural laws are the same everywhere in the universe. The fourth paper was a mathematical addition to the special theory of relativity. Here Einstein presented his famous formula, E = m(cc), known as the energy mass equivalence. In 1916, Einstein published his general theory of relativity. In it he proposed that gravity is not a force, but a curve in the space-time continuum, created by the presence of mass. Einstein spoke out frequently against nationalism, the exalting of one nation above all others. He opposed war and violence and supported Zionism, the movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they denounced his ideas.

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He then moved to the United States. In 1939 Einstein learned that two German chemists had split the uranium atom. Einstein wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt warning him that this scientific knowledge could lead to Germany developing an atomic bomb. He suggested the United States begin its own atomic bomb research.

1. Einstein's primary work was in the area of a) b) c) d)

chemistry biology physics engineering

a) b) c) d)

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2. Which of the following inventions is mentioned in the text as a practical application of Einstein's discoveries? Radio Automobiles Computers Television

3. According to the text, Einstein supported all of the following except

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the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. nationalism atomic bomb research in the United States. the defeat of the Nazis.

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a) b) c) d)

4. In which country was Einstein born? Switzerland United States Germany Israel

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a) b) c) d)

5. What is "Brownian movement"? a) b) c) d)

The zig-zag motion of microscopic particles in suspension The emission of electrons from solids when struck by light The motion of photons in light The basis of the theory of relativity

6. Einstein was a citizen of all of the following countries EXCEPT a) b) c) d)

Belgium Germany United States Switzerland 194

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7. It is clear from the text that the author feels a) Einstein's work in physics was somewhat tarnished by his conservative political views. b) Albert Einstein was one of the most brilliant thinkers in history. c) Einstein's work in physics, though theoretically impressive, led to few practical applications. d) Einstein's theories have been consistently proven incorrect. 8. According to Einstein's special theory of relativity,

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a) all properties of matter and energy can be explained in a single mathematical formula b) light is composed of separate packets of energy. c) time and motion are relative to the observer. d) some solids emit electrons when struck by light. 9. The word exalting in line 24 means a) b) c) d)

elevation criticism support elimination

Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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electrons photoelectrons quanta gamma rays

Text 20

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a) b) c) d)

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10. According to Einstein, light is composed of separate packets of energy called

He brought an entirely new level of style and sophistication to jazz music. Although a gifted piano player, Duke Ellington used the orchestra as his principal instrument. He considered himself a composer and arranger rather than just a musician, like Jelly Roll Morton before him. It was in 1917 when Duke began playing music professionally in Washington, D.C. Stride piano players like James P. Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith influenced his piano technique. Duke led a band called The Washingtonians, which played at the Hollywood Club in Manhattan (the club was later renamed as the Kentucky Club). This band acquired a style all its own when trumpet player Bubber Miley joined it, bringing with him his unique plunger-mute style of playing. Called the "Jungle Sound," this sound came to be largely responsible for Ellington's early success. A good example of this style of playing is the song East St. Louis Toodle-Oo. In 1924, the group recorded their 195

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first album, Choo Choo (Gotta Hurry Home and Rainy Nights (Rainy Days). However, the band didn't hit the big time until after Irving Mills became their manager and publisher in 1926. In 1927, the band re-recorded versions of East St.Louis Toodle-Oo, then debuted two songs that would be associated with Duke for the rest of his career, Black and Tan Fantasy and Creole Love Call. Ellington's Orchestra, unlike many of its contemporaries, was able to make the transition from hot jazz of the 1920s to 1930s swing music. One song it played, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing), even came to define the era. What kept the Ellington Orchestra a major force in jazz was this very ability to adapt and grow with the times. The fame and influence of Ellington continued to grow throughout the 40s and 50s. His band continued to come up with jazz standards like Take the 'A' Train, Perdido, The 'C' Jam Blues, and Satin Doll. Duke wrote several religious pieces in the 1960s. He also composed The Far East Suite, then also collaborated with a highly diverse group of jazz musicians, among them Charles Mingus and Max Roach with whom he played a trio.

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Section 8

1. What is the main topic of this text?

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the life of Duke Ellington the shift from jazz to swing music the music of Duke Ellington the development of jazz music

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a) b) c) d)

2. The expression this sound in line 13 refers to

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plunger-mute style jazz standards jazz fusion style rock & roll

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a) b) c) d)

3. The expression hit the big time in line 17 can best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

form known fail succeed

4. The word contemporaries in line 22 is closest in meaning to a) b) c) d)

artists peers rivals followers

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5. According to the text, Duke Ellington worked as all of the following EXCEPT as a a) b) c) d)

band leader singer manager composer

6. Which musical band does the text say Duke Ellington helped in forming? a) b) c) d)

Ellington's Orchestra Hollywood Club Kentucky Club The Washingtonians

7. The word diverse in line 31 means varied many few Inverted

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a) b) c) d)

8. When did Duke Ellington compose church music?

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in the 1960s in the 1950s in the 1940s in the 1930s

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a) b) c) d)

Duke Ellington's resistance to change caused the collapse of his musical career. Duke Ellington did most of his jazz compositions in collaboration with others. Duke Ellington's classical compositions are his greatest contribution to music. Duke Ellington‟s sophisticated musical style greatly influenced the jazz genre.

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a) b) c) d)

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9. Which of the following statements would the author most probably agree with?

10. All of the following statements about Duke Ellington are true EXCEPT a) b) c) d)

He was a major influence in jazz music. He had always performed with his own band. He trained several bands to perform his jazz music. He composed many songs that defined a certain period.

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Text 21 Line number

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of California has recently made a scientific study of lying. According to his research, women are better liars than men. They are especially good at telling „white lies‟, such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress, even though she really thinks it is awful. However, this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies, such as making a promise, which they do not intend to keep. This is the kind of lie politicians and some businessmen are supposed to be good at; the kind of lie they can profit from in some way. Some psychologists believe that certain gestures show that one is lying. For example, they may make sudden, unconscious movements when they tell a lie. This suggests that they are thinking: “I wish I were not here.” They may also touch their lips or rub their noses. Perhaps these gestures are caused by mental stress. However, we should remember that they can tragically mislead us in other ways. In Miami a man was recently found guilty of murdering his wife whom he suspected of having a love affair with another man. When denying this, she had rubbed her nose several times. He believed this was proof that she was lying. Her doctor later said that he had seen her the day before she was killed. She had come to him because she was suffering from a rare skin disease. This is just one small example of how gestures can deceive people, often with a tragic end.

.a

1. 2.

w

men are better liars than women men are unlikely to tell serious lies women are good at telling serious lies men are inclined to tell more serious lies

w

a) b) c) d)

w

1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–8,

2. The word research in line 2 is NOT synonymous to a) b) c) d)

study expedition exploration investigation

3. The expression „white lies‟ means a) b) c) d)

cruel lies awful lies innocent lies serious lies

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4. According to the text, some psychologists are sure that a) b) c) d)

liars always touch their lips liars always rub their noses lying is caused by mental stress certain gestures may betray the liar

5. The word unconscious in line 10 may best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

deliberate purposeful unintentional extraordinary

6. The word mislead in line 14 may best be replaced by prove show deceive misunderstand

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a) b) c) d)

7. According to Paragraph 4, lines 15–20, the woman

.a

was not guilty proved to have a love affair had a love affair with her doctor didn‟t suffer from any disease

w

a) b) c) d)

are always true are always false always deceive people can sometimes be deceptive

w

a) b) c) d)

w

8. The example of the murdered woman implies that gestures

9. Some gender peculiarities of lying are discussed in a) b) c) d)

Paragraph 1 (lines 1–8) Paragraph 2 (lines 9–11) Paragraph 3 (lines 12–14) Paragraph 4 (lines 15–20)

10. The text is mainly about a) b) c) d)

a recent case of murder politicians and businessmen researchers and psychologists a recent scientific study of lying

199

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LEVEL B

Section 8

Text 22 Line number

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.a

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Cleve Backster was an expert at cross-examination who was specialized in lie detection. One day, when he was watering the plants in his office, he began to wonder if it would be possible to see how a plant‟s leaf was affected when water was poured on its roots, and how fast any reaction would show. He decided to use a polygraph, a device which he used a lot in his work. Attached to the human skin, a polygraph shows any variation in electrical impulses. The person is asked carefully worded questions and an expert can tell from the electrical impulses recorded when the person is lying. Backster selected one of his plants, and attached the polygraph‟s electrodes to a leaf. When he watered the plant, the reaction on the polygraph was similar to that of a human experiencing a brief emotional stimulus. The questions he had used on people normally involved some kind of threat to the person‟s safety. To produce a similar state, he dipped one of the plant‟s leaves in his cup of coffee. There was no reaction, so he decided to go further. He decided to burn one of the leaves. To his amazement, as soon as he thought of this, a reaction was shown on the polygraph. And yet, he hadn‟t actually done anything! It seemed that the plant must be reacting to his thoughts. Backster decided to expand his experiments. He discovered that the plant was aware of other life forms. He tried putting live crabs into boiling water, and each time one of the crabs was killed, the plant showed a violent reaction on the poly– graph. When he put dead crabs in the water, there was no reaction at all. During his research, Backster also found that there was a special bond between the plant and the keeper. Plants could react to their keeper‟s thoughts, even when the keeper was in another room. He found that his plants could react to his thoughts when he was eighty miles away!

w

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

a) b) c) d)

w

1. The polygraph is a device meant for curing people watering the plants examining the human skin recording electrical impulses

2. Once Backster decided to use the polygraph a) b) c) d)

to see if the person was lying to examine the roots of the plants to see the reaction of the plants to see how fast the plants grow

3. The word device in line 5 is NOT synonymous to a) b) c) d)

material equipment machine mechanism 200

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4. According to Paragraph 2, lines 9–17, Backster a) b) c) d)

began a new experiment on people poured coffee on the device burnt the leaves of the plants held an experiment on a plant

5. The sentence ‘he decided to go further’ means that a) b) c) d)

he intended to go on with the experiment he decided to stop the experiment he decided to go away he quit the work and went far away

6. Backster was surprised to see that the leaves of the plant burnt he had destroyed his laboratory the plant could react to his thoughts the polygraph was out of order

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a) b) c) d)

7. The word expand in line 18 is NOT synonymous to

.a

enlarge increase develop cease

w

a) b) c) d)

the crabs showed a violent reaction on the polygraph the crabs showed no reaction on the polygraph plants feel the existence of other life forms Backster discovered other life forms

w

a) b) c) d)

w

8. According to Paragraph 3, lines 18–21,

9. The word bond in line 22 means a) b) c) d)

connection difference comparison contrast

10. The text is mainly about a) b) c) d)

lie detection growing plants sensitivity of plants experiments on crabs

201

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Section 8

Text 23 Line number

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Readers the world over have lost themselves in her books. These fans are known as “armchair detectives”. Many thought her to have been the world‟s greatest mystery writer. Agatha Christie was encouraged to write by her mother. When sick, she was told to write a story. So putting her thoughts on paper became a habit. Whenever she didn‟t feel well, she wrote. She had studied music and wanted to be a singer. But she soon realized her voice was not as good as it needed to be. She picked up a pen and began to write. She wrote and wrote; a book was the result. One of her friends told her she should keep writing. Marriage to an English army officer was her next step. She wrote detective stories in her free time. The hero was a small fat man, Hercule Poirot. She tried to sell the book. She sent it to many firms but no one wanted it. Finally, it was accepted and printed. It was sold, read and became a success. A. Christie continued to write mystery stories. She created a new character, Miss Jane Marple, another super detective. Meantime, she was not very happy and got a divorce. Her second marriage was to an archeologist. Together, they spent much time in Egypt and around the Nile, and that experience was reflected in many of her best books. Besides books, she wrote short stories and plays. Her works have been printed in most countries in the world. Next to Shakespeare, she is considered to be the second most popular English writer.

.a

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–3,

w

many readers all over the world dislike detective stories readers are attracted by A. Christie‟s books A. Christie‟s books are known as “armchair detectives” many people are thought to be the world‟s greatest mystery writers

w

a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

w

2. The word encourage in line 4 is closest in meaning to force insist compel support

3. A. Christie wrote her first story when a) b) c) d)

she was sick she got married she studied music her friends told her to do that

4. According to the text, A. Christie‟s dream to become a singer a) b) c) d)

was fulfilled never came true was reflected in her books was realized very soon 202

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Section 8

5. According to the text, Christie‟s marriage to an English army officer a) b) c) d)

lasted till the end of her life ended in divorce was a very happy one was the most important step in her life

6. The word accept in line 13 is NOT synonymous to a) b) c) d)

admit allow deny acknowledge

a) b) c) d)

Miss Jane Marple Hercule Poirot an archeologist a national hero

8. The word create in line 14 means

.a

invent discover criticize recognize

w

a) b) c) d)

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7. The hero of A. Christie‟s first detective stories was

9. According to Paragraph 4, lines 14–20, A. Christie

w

got acquainted with Miss Jane Marple married an archeologist wrote a story about an archeologist married a super detective

w

a) b) c) d)

10. The background for many of A. Christie‟s best works was a) b) c) d)

her unhappy life her second marriage Shakespeare‟s plays the time spent in Egypt Text 24

Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Chaplin was born in England in 1889. His mother was so poor that she couldn‟t look after him. He went to an orphanage. But he started acting at the age of five, and was soon a successful comic at the theatre. When he went to America, he got into films and became a star almost immediately. In 1916, Chaplin earned $10,000 a week, and an extra $150,000 per film. 203

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Section 8

His silent films were perfect works of art. He could say everything without words. He created a language with his face and his body. In ‘The Kid’ (1921) Charlie Chaplin is a window repairer. The little boy helps him by breaking windows! In most of his films, Chaplin plays a poor man on the streets. But the actor was a millionaire. In 1929 the age of the silent film came to an end. A new technology made it possible to record sound and picture together. The „talkies‟ arrived. They were very different from silent films. The public loved them, of course. But they were the end of the road for many film-makers. Some old directors just couldn‟t change their style. Some great silent actors had terrible voices. They couldn‟t get parts in the „ talkies‟. Chaplin‟s voice was good but he didn‟t really want to work in the „talkies‟. His love was the silent films. In 1931 he made another classic film, „City Lights’, but again it was silent. Even „Modern Times’, probably his most successful film, made in 1936, had music but no dialogue.

a) b) c) d)

went to an orphanage at the age of five went to an orphanage as he had no parents started his career at the age of five earned $10,000 a week, still a child

.a

2. It is stated in the text that Chaplin

w

started acting in 1916 was poor all his life made a fortune in England became a star in America

w

a) b) c) d)

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1. According to Paragraph 1, lines 1–5, Chaplin

a) b) c) d)

w

3. We may conclude from Paragraph 2, lines 6–10, that Chaplin really achieved success worked as a window repairer created a new language in 1921 earned money on the streets

4. The word perfect in line 6 is NOT synonymous to a) b) c) d)

ideal unreal wonderful great

5. The word created in line 7 may best be replaced by a) b) c) d)

made up discovered studied learnt 204

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Section 8

6. According to Paragraph 3, lines 11–16, a) b) c) d)

the public disliked the „talkies‟ silent actors were not allowed to get parts in the „talkies‟ many film-makers were delighted by the „talkies‟ some great silent actors couldn‟t get parts in the „talkies‟ \

7. The word they in line 13 stands for a) b) c) d)

the silent films the silent actors the public the „talkies‟

8. Chaplin didn‟t act in the „talkies‟ because his voice was not good he hated them he loved the silent films he didn‟t want to work any longer

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a) b) c) d)

9. The conflict between „the new‟ and „the old‟ is represented in

.a

Paragraph 1 (lines 1–5) Paragraph 2 (lines 6–10) Paragraph 3 (lines 11–16) Paragraph 4 (lines 17–20)

w

a) b) c) d)

the last silent film was made in 1929 the first sound films were made in 1929 „City Lights‟ was the last film made by Chaplin „Modern Times‟ wasn‟t a success for it had music but no dialogue

w

a) b) c) d)

w

10. It can be inferred from the text that

Text 25 Line number

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

One of the most influential American behavioural scientists, Professor John Watson states that a certain amount of anxiety or fear is normal. Fear is an emotion necessary for survival. Babies are born with an instinctive fear of loud noises, and little children know instinctively to stay away from the edge of a cliff. The fear of heights is common, but the majority of people do not rush to their doctor for treatment – they just avoid those things that evoke fear, such as ladders and tall buildings. When does fear stop being normal, and become abnormal? Simple – when it starts interfering with your everyday life or makes coping difficult. Doctors recognize three types of anxiety: “state”, “trait” and “phobic”. “State” anxiety arises from 205

LEVEL B

stress and is of short duration: you may feel anxious, even show some physical symptoms like blushing, stammering or hand trembling, but you get through it. Making speeches, meeting people for the first time or starting a conversation can fall into this category. “Trait” anxiety refers to a personality type: some people, either due to genetic nature or because of a trauma in early life, can be natural worriers. They have a slight, vague anxiety about everything. The third type, “phobic” anxiety, is less common. Phobias are very strong fears which may start in childhood. Usually there has been an early experience which started the fear. A person may forget the experience which started the fear, but the fear remains. For example, a person who is afraid of closed rooms has claustrophobia. Perhaps that person had parents who once locked him in a closet as a child. As an adult, he has forgotten the experience in the dark closet, but he fears locked rooms. A person who is afraid of animals has zoophobia. People who are afraid of spiders suffer from arachnophobia. Those who fear open space have agoraphobia. Fearing height is acrophobia. The most common type is microphobia – fearing germs. Microphobic people wash their hands many times a day, and they refuse to be near people who are sick. Fortunately, only about three per cent of the population suffers from phobias.

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Section 8

1. According to the text,

.a

“state” anxiety is the most serious type “state” anxiety is durative a certain amount of fear is normal the feeling of fear is abnormal

w

a) b) c) d)

2. Little children stay away from the edge of a cliff

w

consciously instinctively as they are aware of the danger as they are taught to behave like that

w

a) b) c) d)

3. According to the text, fear stops being normal when a) b) c) d)

it makes coping difficult someone interferes with your life a person overcomes it a person gets physically hurt

4. The sentence ‘They have a slight, vague anxiety about everything’ means a) b) c) d)

they worry greatly about everything they don‟t worry about anything they have an indistinct feeling of anxiety about everything they feel strong anxiety about everything

206

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5. According to Paragraph 3, lines 18–23, claustrophobic people a) b) c) d)

are mainly children fear darkness are afraid of being inside an enclosed space are afraid of open spaces

6. According to Paragraph 4, lines 24–29, microphobic people a) b) c) d)

refuse to wash their hands are not tidy and accurate dislike sick people are afraid of germs

7. The word germs in line 27 may NOT be replaced by microorganisms diseases bacterias microbes

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a) b) c) d)

microphobia agoraphobia zoophobia claustrophobia

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

8. The author thinks that the most common type of phobia is

Paragraph 1 (lines 1–7) Paragraph 2 (lines 8–17) Paragraph 3 (lines 18–23) Paragraph 4 (lines 24–29)

w

a) b) c) d)

w

9. Some types of phobias are enumerated in

10. The text is mainly about a) b) c) d)

incurable diseases personality types American scientists types of anxiety

207

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LEVEL B

Section 9

SECTION 9 ÀÝïñ»É ݳ˳¹³ëáõÃÛ³Ý µáí³Ý¹³ÏáõÃÛ³ÝÁ ѳٳå³ï³ë˳ÝáÕ ï³ñµ»ñ³ÏÁ: Choose the right option. The melting point is the temperature __________ a solid changes to a liquid. a) b) c) d)

Most folk songs are ballads__________have simple words and tell simple stories.

In 1850, Yale University established Sheffield Scientific School, __________. a) b) c) d)

The size and shape of a nail depends primarily on the function __________it is intended.

w

4.

a) b) c) d) 5.

so that for which in spite as if

No one knows what color dinosaurs were __________no sample of their skin has survived. a) b) c) d)

6.

where engineers were educated engineers were educated there in which were engineers educated where were engineers educated

.a

3.

what that when although

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

w

2.

at which when unless while

w

1.

because because of because that it is because

__________ they are tropical birds, parrots can live in temperate or even cold climates. a) b) c) d)

Even though Despite Nevertheless But 208

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__________ added to a liquid, antifreeze lowers the freezing temperature of that liquid. a) b) c) d)

8.

__________ advertizing is so widespread in the United States, it has had an enormous effect on American life. a) b) c) d)

9.

When Even As if In spite

Since In case Unless In spite

__________ people are increasingly linked over long distances by electronic communications, many of them still prefer face-to-face encounters. a) b) c) d)

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7.

Section 9

In spite of Although But Yet

w

w

Whenever living people When people who live When people living Whenever people live

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

10. __________ together in one place, they form a community.

11. __________ managed by an independent governor and board of directors, the Bank of Canada is owned by the Canadian government. a) b) c) d)

Although Due to Even However

12. __________ , the seeds of the Kentucky coffee plant are poisonous. a) b) c) d)

Until they have been cooked Cooking them They have been cooked Cooked until

209

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Section 9

13. Natural silk is still highly prized __________ the availability of similar artificial fabrics. a) b) c) d)

in spite of moreover however nevertheless

14. You'd better do physical exercises __________ you will be fat before your twentieth birthday. a) b) c) d)

or in spite but although

When shines It shines It is shone When shone

.a

a) b) c) d)

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15. __________ through a prism, a beam of white light breaks into all the colors of the rainbow.

w

how even as if in case

w

a) b) c) d)

w

16. One basic question psychologists have tried to answer is__________ people learn.

17. It was in 1875 __________ joined the staff of the astronomical observatory at Harvard University. a) b) c) d)

that Anna Winlock Anna Winlock,who as Anna Winlock Anna Winlock then

18. Heavy industry developed rapidly in Alabama primarily __________ its rich natural resources. a) b) c) d)

so that in spite as if owing to

210

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Section 9

19. In order to grow vegetables properly, gardeners must know __________. a) b) c) d)

that the requirements for each vegetable what are each vegetable‟s requirements what the requirements for each vegetable are that is required by each vegetable

20. For many years people have wondered __________ life exists elsewhere in the universe. a) b) c) d)

whether so that even if though

a) b) c) d)

that he had made than he had made when he had made because he had made

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21. Tom kept none of the promises __________.

22. The children got hungry in the middle of the afternoon __________.

w

.a

even though they had eaten lunch after they had eaten lunch even they had eaten lunch therefore they had eaten lunch

w

a) b) c) d)

23. Whether we are going or not __________. has not been decided yet while has been decided have they decided they haven‟t decided

w

a) b) c) d)

24. The Empire State building, the largest building in New York, __________. a) b) c) d)

it was built in 1933 was built in 1933 that was built in 1933 when built in 1933

25. They follow her__________. a) b) c) d)

wherever she goes whatever she goes however she goes nowhere she goes 211

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26. __________ you're fond of singing foreign songs, why don't you translate these lyrics? a) b) c) d)

Owing to Due to Since As long

27. __________ a lack of time, they couldn't succeed in choosing the most appropriate subject for their report. a) b) c) d)

Because of Although As Despite of

since due to because as

.a

a) b) c) d)

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28. They couldn't raise the wages of their employees __________ the financial position of the company.

w

due to because in spite of even

w

a) b) c) d)

w

29. Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes __________ they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth‟s surface.

30. __________a novelty in the late nineteenth century, photography was limited to the rich. a) b) c) d)

Unless Due Despite Still

31. The President of the U.S. appoints the cabinet members, __________ their appointments are subject to Senate approval. a) b) c) d)

due unless because but

212

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32. Scientists are now beginning to conduct experiments on __________ noise pollution can trigger different sorts of health risks. a) b) c) d)

since still unless how

33. Farce is a __________excite laughter through exaggeration and extravagance rather than by realistic imitation of life. a) b) c) d)

drama intended to form to form intended to drama of drama form of intended to form of drama intended to

a) b) c) d)

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34. In Prehistoric __________of western Utah was covered by Lake Bonneville. times, a large part times, there was a large part part of the time for large parts of time

w

most other large mammals were most other large mammals does most other large mammals the most other large mammals

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

35. Humans reach physical maturity more slowly than__________.

a) b) c) d)

w

36. Though they travel __________Central America, the swallows always make a punctual return to the mission in Capistrano. not far as far as away as far as away as far

37. __________ contained in the chromosomes, and they are thought of as the units of heredity. a) b) c) d)

Genes which are Genes are When genes Because of genes

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38. This evening after he got home, he was scolded by his mother__________the extravagant green dye in his hair. a) b) c) d)

since as because of in spite of

39. When played in certain ways, the bassoon can produce comical sounds, __________ it is sometimes referred to as the clown of the orchestra. a) b) c) d)

or that whether so

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40. It is said he is a man, __________ to have the vision of an eagle and

courage of a lion. which appeared he appeared that appears and appears

.a

a) b) c) d)

w

Although Because Despite of In spite of

w

a) b) c) d)

w

41. __________ he works hard, John is not doing well in his career.

42. The sky is dark. It looks __________ it will start raining soon. a) b) c) d)

even if even though as if if

43. __________ Johnson & Smith reached great heights in the business world,

they encountered many great difficulties in promoting their theories and methods. a) b) c) d)

Before Despite of Due to Still 214

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44. __________getting the highest result in the class, John still had problems

with the teacher. a) b) c) d)

Despite of In spite of Even though Nonetheless

45. __________ photosynthesis were to stop, life would disappear from Earth. a) b) c) d)

For However If Although

a) b) c) d)

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46. __________ is your own business. Who you work for Whose you work for Who for you work You work for whom

w

w

She grows So that she grows As she grows In spite she grows

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

47. __________ older, Liza Minelli looks more and more like her mother, Judy Garland.

48. __________ other cells in the body, nerve cells are not healed or replaced when they are damaged or destroyed. a) b) c) d)

Unlike Despite of Even if But

49. __________ for a few species that live on the ground, most monkeys live in trees. a) b) c) d)

Besides Though Except All but

215

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50. __________ is the biggest city in Michigan , it is not the capital. a) b) c) d)

Unless Detroit If Detroit Although Detroit Despite of Detroit

51. __________black cats are bad luck is considered a superstition rather than a fact. a) b) c) d)

That Though However Even

52. Travelers had better get their reservations well in advance __________ they want to fly during the Christmas holidays. but despite if however

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a) b) c) d)

w

For taxes of income Income taxes that With taxes of income If income taxes

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

53. __________ are not filed by the 15th of April, penalties and interest may be added to the unpaid balance.

54. My grade depends on __________. what I master calculus whether calculus mastered by me whether I master calculus when master calculus

w

a) b) c) d)

55. The cost of shipping a car is related to__________. a) b) c) d)

how much does it weigh how it weighs much that it weighs how much it weighs

56. __________ in many colleges and universities, Latin is no longer spoken as an everyday tongue. a) b) c) d)

Although they are still studied Although he is still studied Although this still studies Although it is still studied 216

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57. __________ similar in appearance, the tangerine and the clementine are unlike each other in taste. a) b) c) d)

Due to Although Despite In spite

58. __________ built as a private home for Elvis Presley, Graceland is now open to the public. a) b) c) d)

Although Despite Nevertheless Due

Although Against Moreover However

.a

a) b) c) d)

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59. __________ her father‟s advice , Sarah Dade chose medicine as her course of studies.

w

he can begin to understand can he begin to understand he begins to understand begins to understand

w

a) b) c) d)

w

60. Not until a student has mastered algebra __________ the principles of geometry, trigonometry, and physics.

61. It would be impossible to say that Spanish __________ Japanese. a) b) c) d)

is like to is exactly like likes is not alike

62. __________ leaves from certain trees, such as the maple and sassafras, turn bright colors. a) b) c) d)

During the fall While the fall The fall comes When comes fall

217

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63. __________the 1930s and 1940s, F.D. Roosevelt was elected to the presidency four times. a) b) c) d)

Since During Until While

64. Although born in Germany, __________ a citizen of the United States in 1940. a) b) c) d)

but Albert Einstein became that Albert Einstein became Albert Einstein became since became Albert Einstein

65. Benjamin West contributed a great deal to American art:__________. painting, teaching, and lecturing painting, as a teacher and lecturer painting, teaching, and as a lecturer painting, a teacher, and a lecturer

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a) b) c) d)

66. Almost everyone fails__________ on the first try.

w

.a

is passing the driver‟s test to pass the driver‟s test to have passed the driver‟s test passing the driver‟s test

w

a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

w

67. __________in space, a rocket has to be powerful enough to break out of the pull of the Earth‟s gravity. It is travel To travel That travel Travel

68. One problem with all languages is __________ they are full of irregularities. a) b) c) d)

when so that yet

69. Here is the report and document__________ for you. a) b) c) d)

that I have prepared I have prepared that who have prepared which have I prepared 218

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70. The knee is __________ other joints in the body as it cannot twist without injury. a) b) c) d)

to be damaged more than likely more likely to be damaged than likely to be more than damaged more than likely to be damaged

71. One of the laws states__________ the greater the distance between galaxies, the greater is the speed of separation. a) b) c) d)

because of despite still that

a) b) c) d)

was founded in was founded which was founded in when it was founded

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72. The Academy of poets __________ the 1930‟s provides financial assistance to working poets.

w

in order therefore so that provided that

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

73. He came as soon as he could __________ to help me to complete the work by midnight.

w

74. __________ we had already improved our English, we couldn‟t understand an Englishman who was trying to ask something. a) b) c) d)

as still while though

75. __________ my neighbour waters the flowers everyday and takes care of them the garden will soon become a pleasant place. a) b) c) d)

Provided that Until Nevertheless Even if

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76. The house was cosy and clean,__________ I didn‟t hesitate to rent it for some weeks. a) b) c) d)

however accordingly in case yet

77. __________ better, the team would have been able to defeat the opponent. a) b) c) d)

If it prepares If prepares Preparing Had it prepared

a) b) c) d)

Believed generally is It is generally believed that Generally believed it is That is generally believed

tc .a m

78. __________ Java Man, who lived before the first Age, is the first manlike animal.

w

It is calcium That calcium Calcium Although calcium

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

79. __________ is necessary for the development of strong bones and teeth.

80. I still cannot get used to __________. while I drive on the left drive on the left when I drive on the left driving on the left

w

a) b) c) d)

81. __________ the snow stopped, the children ran into the yard to make a snowman and ski. a) b) c) d)

However Because of While After

82. He had hardly begun to speak, __________ he was interrupted by a shriek. a) b) c) d)

when than otherwise while 220

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83. She behaves__________ she were the boss of the company and the staff obeys humbly. a) b) c) d)

as though as long as even though because

84. __________ she had never been fired, she felt that the director was going to do it in the following month. a) b) c) d)

Moreover Unless Provided that Even though

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

85. Many minerals break along smooth surfaces called cleavage planes, __________ parallel to internal layers of atoms. which they are which and they which are

w

w

Although In spite Nevertheless Consequently

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

86. __________ exact statistics vary because of political changes, more than two hundred separate nation states are included in the official lists at any one time.

87. __________ Carl Sandburg is also well known for his multivolume biography of Lincoln. a) b) c) d)

He is an eminent American poet The eminent American poet The eminent American poet who is Despite an eminent American poet

88. Before Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, many people died__________. a) b) c) d)

infecting with simple bacteria infections were simple bacteria from simple bacterial infections infecting of simple bacteria

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89. __________ it was late and our children had already gone to bed, we didn‟t feel tired and sleepy. a) b) c) d)

Because Although If As

90. They have lived in our neighbourhood for a long time, __________I know them well. a) b) c) d)

when since therefore while

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

91. She is a good specialist, __________ I didn‟t hesitate to ask her for help. so that although even though that‟s why

w

w

so that if that‟s why in case

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

92. I am working on my English from morning till late at night __________I can enter a university.

93. George showed me some pictures __________ by his father. a) b) c) d)

which were they painted that been painted they were painted that were painted

94. The games children play become increasingly complex__________ they become older. a) b) c) d)

due to as so so that

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95. What‟s the name of the man __________? a) b) c) d)

you borrowed his car which car you borrowed whose car you borrowed his car you borrowed

96. I __________feel very tired when I wake up in the morning. a) b) c) d)

still unless since already

97. He is learning English __________ he can get a better and more interesting job. when so that although as soon as

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

98. I don't know him very well, __________ I have met him socially on a couple of occasions.

.a

unless although when so that

w

a) b) c) d)

as long as while until as if

w

a) b) c) d)

w

99. I don't mind if you go out for lunch__________ you're back for the meeting at two.

100. We will go ahead with the project __________our partners refuse to help us. a) b) c) d)

even if in spite because consequently

101. A telephone recording tells callers __________ . a) b) c) d)

what time starts the movie when does the movie start what time the movie starts the movie starts what time 223

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102. George knew how to improve his test scores __________ he did not have enough time to study. a) b) c) d)

despite but due to unless

103. Colin told me about his new job, __________very much. a) b) c) d)

though he‟s enjoying which he‟s enjoying where he‟s enjoying why he‟s enjoying it

a) b) c) d)

when the weather is cool when is the weather cool the weather when is cool when is it cool weather

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104. Ben likes walking, especially __________.

w

until while as if so that

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

105. I'm going shopping for food this evening __________I don't have to go at the weekend.

a) b) c) d)

w

106. You can come to the meeting __________you have nothing to say. so that even if while despite

107. I couldn‟t sleep __________ I was very tired. a) b) c) d)

though despite so that in order

108. It‟s not cold now, but take your coat with you __________it gets colder. a) b) c) d)

in case if unless while 224

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109. Public television stations are different from commercial stations__________ . a) b) c) d)

because they receive money different and different types of shows for money and program types in the areas of funding and programming because the former receives money and has programs differently from the latter

110. A good student must know__________ . a) b) c) d)

even if to how effectively study so that to study effectively how to study effectively still to study effectively

a) b) c) d)

that he did was to sell what he did was to sell whatever he did to sell while he sold

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111. Dave lost his job and was short of money, so __________ his flat and go to live with his brother.

112. Many of the international problems we are facing now __________ .

w

.a

linguistic incompetences are the result of misunderstandings are because of understanding themselves lacks of the intelligent capabilities of understanding each other

w

a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

w

113. After Barlow was arrested, his wife and daughters were questioned by the police __________they knew nothing about his business affairs. even though so that in spite because of

114. I like travelling by ship __________the sea is not rough. a) b) c) d)

as long as unless despite in spite of

115. I‟m playing tennis tomorrow __________it doesn‟t rain. a) b) c) d)

providing unless until because 225

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116. You might not remember the name of the hotel, so write it down __________you forget it. a) b) c) d)

in case unless so that as if

117. Having finished lunch, __________. a) b) c) d)

the detectives began to discuss the case the case was discussed again by the detectives at the table they are going to discuss on the case together because the detectives were beginning to discuss the case

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

118. Joan __________ that she could not attend classes the following week. while informed by her professors which her professors informed that informed her professors informed her professors

w

Not lately Soon after No sooner had Hardly ever had

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

119. __________ Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamon‟s tomb, than strange reports appeared in the newspapers.

a) b) c) d)

w

120. When travelling it is advisable to write your name and address on your bag__________. unless you lose it if you lose it when you lose it in case you lose it

121. The children were alone in the house all day long. __________, it was in complete mess. a) b) c) d)

Consequently However Nevertheless Even though

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122. It is so annoying to find somebody in your own room__________. a) b) c) d)

at reading your personal letters has been reading your personal letters reading your personal letters without reading your personal letters

123. Some parts of the White House, __________ the US president lives and works, are open to the public. a) b) c) d)

that which where whenever

a) b) c) d)

like verbs and nouns as verbs and nouns as well as verbs and nouns as they are verbs and nouns

tc .a m

124. Many English words (for example, „work‟ and „rain‟) can be used __________.

125. In summer a lot of tourists usually walk round the town __________.

.a

looking at the sights and taking photographs walked round the town and took photographs when looking at the sights with taking photographs without sightseeing and photographs

w

a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

w

w

126. The fur traders are sure there would be more unemployment and less choice for fashion industry because of __________. their opponents have banned fur trade campaign their opponents‟ fur trade banning campaign their opponents are against fur trading their opponents had banned fur trade campaign

127. The teacher suggested that her students __________ experiences in Europe. a) b) c) d)

write a composition on their to write composition about the wrote some compositions of his or her had written any compositions for his

128. Travelling by sea can be much more fascinating __________. a) b) c) d)

as long as you are seasick providing that you are seasick even though you are seasick unless you are seasick 227

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129. The buses are so expensive these days, __________. a) b) c) d)

you will need also to take a taxi you may as well take a taxi you may be able to take taxi you may as good as take taxi

130. __________ , but he had also predicted the danger that the nearby two villages could face. a) b) c) d)

Not only did the Polish scientist study the active volcano Provided the Polish scientist studied the active volcano Not only the Polish scientist would study the active volcano Only the Polish scientist did not study the active volcano

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

131. Spiders are not insects, as many people think. __________ , they are not even related to them. Even though Consequently Moreover However

w w

what which where as if

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

132. Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route __________ will give them a good sport.

133. Their office consisted of two rooms, __________ was used as a conference

room. a) b) c) d)

the larger of which the largest of what the largest of them largest which

134. Ann __________. She left three months ago. a) b) c) d)

still does not work here doesn‟t work here any longer not more works here any longer works here

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135. I just wonder __________ spent her last year‟s holiday. a) b) c) d)

while she yet she how often she where she

136. __________ Albert Einstein went to school, neither his parents nor his teachers thought much of his mental abilities. a) b) c) d)

Unless So Even When

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

137. Yesterday Jack was having a party but Sheila couldn‟t come, __________ was a pity. while which so what

.a

138. Swimming is a beneficial exercise, __________ aerobic activity and uses a

number of muscle groups.

w

w

not only because it provides because it both provides for provision as result of providing

w

a) b) c) d)

139. __________ in Japan as after that terrible earthquake. a) b) c) d)

Never was the situation so serious Not only was the situation so serious Never the situation was so serious No sooner had the situation been so serious

140. After the interruption, the speaker went on talking __________. a) b) c) d)

as nothing had happened though nothing had happened in spite of nothing had happened as if nothing had happened

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141. People __________from other countries are called immigrants. a) b) c) d)

who come to live in America come to live in America that live in America which live in America

142. Jane started feeling sad __________couldn‟t come to her party. a) b) c) d)

by two of her best friends till two of her best friends for two of her best friends because of two of her best friends

a) b) c) d)

that I was looking for what I was looking for in which I was looking for because I was looking for

tc .a m

143. At last I found the information __________.

that I really need of which I really need this I really need what I really need

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

144. After six months of hard work __________ is a vacation.

However Although When While

w

a) b) c) d)

w

145. __________ Mary didn‟t know how to swim, she jumped into the pool.

146. __________ the fact that we warned him about it he continued his work. a) b) c) d)

Though In spite Despite Because

147. __________ graduating from university, George went to New York to start his career. a) b) c) d)

Because After While During 230

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148. I didn‟t tell him what I thought __________ he wouldn‟t be upset. a) b) c) d)

even if in case because of so that

149. The other day I met a man __________ in television. a) b) c) d)

who sister works while sister works whose sister works whom sister work

150. __________ several unsuccessful attempts, Robert Peary reached the North Pole on April 6, 1909. After He made When His

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

151. Atlanta is the city __________ the Olympic Games were held in 1996.

w

.a

which when where while

w

a) b) c) d)

152. Sarah put the papers back into the file__________ them. once she had copied so she had copied and she had copied what she had copied

w

a) b) c) d)

153. The car suddenly went out of control __________ the driver‟s experience with driving on snowy roads. a) b) c) d)

in spite of in order despite of because

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154. We worked all night on the decorations for the party, __________ we couldn‟t finish the job properly. a) b) c) d)

however even if as though as a matter

155. School was cancelled for the day __________ the biggest snow storm in five years. a) b) c) d)

due to as though only if in fact

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

156. The bride‟s parents spent a lot on the wedding, __________ she felt that she had to pay at least some of it back. consequently otherwise whenever whether

w

can where they where they can where can from where they

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

157. Birds make nests in trees __________ hide their young in the leaves and branches.

a) b) c) d)

w

158. Kitchen appliances called blenders began __________ in the 1930s. using to use which used to be used

159. Birthdays __________ occasions for congratulations. a) b) c) d)

that usually considered are usually considered usually considering birthdays that consider usually

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160. __________ the painting looked like genuine Picasso, the signature was definitely a fake. a) b) c) d)

Despite In spite of Although While

161. __________ his strong will, he wouldn‟t have become a sportsman. a) b) c) d)

Although But for If Unless

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

162. __________putting on sun cream, Martha got burnt. Despite In spite While Although

w

because in spite of however although

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

163. Penicillin is a powerful antibiotic, __________, some people are allergic to it.

a) b) c) d)

w

164. I‟ll never understand the reason __________ you decided to postpone our meeting. that for why how

165. People‟s attitudes to disability are changing, __________more and more places have wheelchair access these days. a) b) c) d)

and when although however

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166. I shall make my final decision __________ I have discussed the problem with my family. a) b) c) d)

afterwards after while as soon

167. __________ you don‟t agree with a person‟s ideas, make sure that you understand what he is saying. a) b) c) d)

In spite of As Even if Unless

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

168. You had better start working a bit harder __________ you‟ll be dismissed. or however although but

w

similarly consequently but besides

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

169. You can see your skin __________ you cannot see the cells that form it.

a) b) c) d)

w

170. __________ fire, leave the building by the nearest emergency exit. In case On condition that In case of In the event

171. I can lend you my laptop __________ you give it back to me by Sunday. a) b) c) d)

in order that so provided that

234

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172. __________ water sports can be very enjoyable, they can also lead to injuries. a) b) c) d)

Despite Although That Unless

173. Four Weddings and a Funeral is an enjoyable film, __________ there is hardly any plot to speak of. a) b) c) d)

despite even though but for besides

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

174. Take some water with you __________ you get thirsty on the way. provided even if so that in case

w

yet in addition but besides

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

175. Sleep not only takes up a large part of your life, __________is an essential part of your health as well.

a) b) c) d)

w

176. Bacterial infections can be cured with antibiotics, __________ viruses cannot. even though whereas despite similarly

177. The judge allowed the accused to stay at home __________ she reported to the police every morning. a) b) c) d)

on condition that whether otherwise as though

235

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178. A wife is a woman, __________ not every woman is a wife. a) b) c) d)

therefore because but consequently

179. Friends are an important part of your life. __________, they have more influence on what you do. a) b) c) d)

Otherwise Consequently Yet Beside

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

180. For most people, choosing a career is not easy, __________it is one of the most important decisions you make in your life. in case of yet as though because of

w

Even if Despite Although If

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

181. __________ I were you, I would go out and get a job I like.

a) b) c) d)

w

182. Finally I received __________I had always wanted − independence. which that what whatever

183. Maria wondered __________ her son would like the present. a) b) c) d)

if that in case but

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184. Make sure you mix the ingredients well, __________you might get lumps in your cake. a) b) c) d)

provided unless yet otherwise

185. You might be interested in learning __________ speech pathologists help deaf people to speak clearly. a) b) c) d)

while how how often why

where while whether because of

.a

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

186. In some families one parent is responsible for taking care of the home __________the other parent is employed.

w

As a result If so Otherwise However

w

a) b) c) d)

w

187. Jack failed to do his lessons properly. __________ he got bad marks.

188. __________ most people, you probably enjoy the beauty of delicate, brightly coloured flowers. a) b) c) d)

Like Unlike to In contrast Similarly

189. __________ Matilda were not a feminist she would want to be equal and develop her potential. a) b) c) d)

Whether While Because of Even if

237

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190. You must fasten the boat to that pole, __________the current will carry it away. a) b) c) d)

otherwise if therefore so

191. Air pollution can affect people‟s health. __________, it can damage people‟s lungs. a) b) c) d)

Yet For example Consequently Therefore

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

192. Stress caused by hunger or tiredness lasts __________ a person satisfies his or her needs. if because of until despite

w

so that therefore so yet

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

193. It was the middle of July, __________ the morning was cloudy and chilly.

a) b) c) d)

w

194. I couldn‟t understand __________ he could cope with such a difficult task. that how until however

195. Plain women are always jealous of their husbands, __________ beautiful women seldom are. a) b) c) d)

since so that while because

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196. An accident can happen to anyone at any time, __________ some people think that accidents happen only to others. a) b) c) d)

yet otherwise because so that

197. My grandma has a mobile phone. She doesn‟t use it __________. a) b) c) d)

despite in spite of but though

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

198. Crime is spreading rapidly in our country, __________ the government should do something about it. so that so before although

w

w

otherwise nevertheless moreover but

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

199. I argued with Dan for hours, __________, I threatened to tell his parents about what he had done.

200. He didn‟t do well in mathematics. __________he failed the exam. a) b) c) d)

Although Consequently Despite However

201. ______________ a child grows older, his need for independence might cause some problems in the family. a) b) c) d)

On condition that As Afterwards As if

239

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202. Losing weight will take both time and effort, ______________ the results will make you happy. a) b) c) d)

for in spite of but because

203. We all know _____________ dogs are the most faithful animals. a) b) c) d)

that because but how

204. In some countries, teenagers have jobs ____________ they are still students. since despite as though while

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

205. One could never trust a woman ____________ tells one her real age.

.a

who which whom what

w

a) b) c) d)

Although Even However Nevertheless

w

a) b) c) d)

w

206. ____________ quickly we ran, we couldn‟t catch up with the van.

207. Our teacher keeps a record of our test scores ___________ she can see how much we‟ve progressed. a) b) c) d)

since so that because when

208. A company has announced _________ it wishes to build a factory near our house. a) b) c) d)

how what that no matter 240

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209. The problem with freedom is to decide __________ mine ends and yours begins. a) b) c) d)

where how why whenever

210. I‟ll be able to defend you __________ you tell me the whole truth. a) b) c) d)

unless despite even though only if

211. I can‟t explain _________ I refused the offer to work for that agency. that when why yet

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

w

while how or else because

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

212. Some people prefer to live in a small town, _________ others prefer to live in a big city.

a) b) c) d)

w

213. I am completely dissatisfied with my current position, __________ I‟ve decided to change my job. but so so that provided

214. It will be great to see you on Saturday evening _________ you have already got other plans. a) b) c) d)

if until as long as unless

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215. Sue isn‟t the person ________ you could share your problems. a) b) c) d)

who whom whose with whom

216. Anything that can happen to you in real life can happen in a dream. __________, sometimes dreams do not seem to make sense. a) b) c) d)

Thus So However For instance

217. I am quite happy to lend you money ________ you promise to give if back soon. as long as in case of that or

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

w

what whether that because

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

218. Sometimes you might buy food _________ has been damaged or spoilt.

219. How should a person treat people ___________ he/she does not like? whose which whom what

w

a) b) c) d)

220. After finishing his breakfast, ___________ consisted of a sandwich and a cup of tea, Mike left the house. a) b) c) d)

which whose what who

221. We often drink tea __________ they do in China. a) b) c) d)

because that which as 242

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222. My uncle, __________ we hope will arrive soon, is the manager of the firm. a) b) c) d)

whom who which whose

223. Indians traditionally eat with their right hand, _________ the left is considered unclean. a) b) c) d)

that however as though

224. My partner is an interesting character. _________ I like her so much. That‟s why As However Nevertheless

tc .a m

a) b) c) d)

225. I admired the patience and calmness with __________ she spoke.

w

.a

which that how what

w

a) b) c) d)

a) b) c) d)

w

226. __________ in many other cultures, the Nepalese are sensitive about being photographed. In contrast Likewise How Like

227. She passed her exam, ___________ surprised everybody. a) b) c) d)

that what which who

228. I am going to join the athletics team, __________ you want it or not. a) b) c) d)

if whether in case no matter how 243

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229. It was raining heavily. __________ Jack went into the street without an umbrella. a) b) c) d)

That‟s why For that matter Yet So

230. I like sweets very much.___________, I try not to have too much sugar in my tea. a) b) c) d)

How As a matter of fact However In contrast

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

231. Fats are a source of energy. __________, a tablespoon of fat gives you about twice as much energy as a tablespoon of sugar. So that For example On the other hand Therefore

w

so as in order in order that

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

232. Please, speak slowly and distinctly __________ everybody is able to understand you.

a) b) c) d)

w

233. I am of the same opinion about this matter __________ everybody else in this room is. that as unlike than

234. You are usually allowed to photograph the exterior of mosques, _________ you are rarely allowed to photograph the interior of the buildings. a) b) c) d)

similarly as likewise but

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235. All memory is based on association. _________ you can remember any new piece of information by associating it with something you already know. a) b) c) d)

Though Like So Likewise

236. __________ you feel well when you get on the plane, you will possibly feel ill when you get off. a) b) c) d)

In spite of Even if Because While

a) b) c) d)

tc .a m

237. We are going to have the living room done up __________ it hasn‟t been painted for years. because of as despite even though

w

though while as soon after

w

a) b) c) d)

.a

238. Radio waves could be studied __________ the radio telescope was invented.

a) b) c) d)

w

239. Limestone powder is added to animal food _________ animals form strong bones. because in order yet so that

240. _________ the Ancient Chinese and Egyptians took astronomy seriously, the Greeks were the first to study the stars scientifically. a) b) c) d)

Despite Although In spite of Because

245

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SECTION 10 î»ùëïáõÙ µ³ó »Ý ÃáÕÝí³Í ݳ˳¹³ëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñ: Èñ³óÝ»É ï»ùëïÁ` ï»Õ³¹ñ»Éáí ѳٳå³ï³ëË³Ý Ý³Ë³¹³ëáõÃÛáõÝÁ: Fit the missing sentences into the gaps of the following texts. Text 1

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w

All trembling and shaking, he handed me the watch. I felt in my pocket for my expensive gold watch. Proud of my presence of mind, I hurriedly drove home. Aiming his pistol at me he ordered me to stop the car. I agreed and he got into the car beside me. Suspecting something, I asked him what the time was. Fortunately, I had a pistol in the car.

w

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

.a

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One evening I was driving home along a quiet dark street in a suburb of London. A man stopped me and asked for a lift._______________. As I drove I suddenly remembered all the headlines I had recently seen in the popular newspapers, describing the activities of thieves and murderers. I began to feel suspicious of the man sitting next to me. _______________. Sure enough, the watch had disappeared! So the newspapers were right after all. _______________. It was not loaded, but that did not matter. Stopping the car I quickly took out the pistol. Pushing the pistol into the man‟s ribs I ordered him to give me the watch. It was amusing to see the man‟s reaction. He was a very strange robber! _______________. “Now, get out, quick!” I ordered. He rushed out of the car and ran like a rabbit. _______________. Half an hour later I was undressing to go to bed and suddenly I looked at my dressing table. What do you think I saw there? My watch which I had forgotten to take!

Text 2 A group of five old people in a nursing home won over five million pounds on the National Lottery last Saturday night. __________________. The oldest person in the group is 87 and the youngest is 77. Most Lottery winners want to change their lives immediately. __________________. They don‟t want to leave the nursing home, or even go on holiday. “We have no reason to leave,” they said. “This is our home and we‟re very happy here. __________________.” What exciting things are they going to buy with their money? “Well, perhaps an electric chair on wheels,” said one. Is that all? No new houses or fast cars? “But what can we do with Ferraris at our age?” replied the old people. “Cars are no use to us. We need help just to move around the home!” Professional financial people are sent to visit Lottery winners by the company which 246

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runs the National Lottery. __________________. But these five old people don‟t need any help. __________________. They just want things to stay as they are. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

They help winners decide how to spend their money. And these five old friends are no exception. They are looking forward to leaving the nursing home. But these friends want to change their lives as little as possible. They don‟t want big changes in their lives. We have good food, TV, friends  everything that we want. Each got over a million pounds. Text 3

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I am a writer and my latest books are about ghosts. To get all the information I need for my books I travel around the country. _______________. I‟ve been to several haunted houses and you can scarcely imagine the experiences I‟ve had, many of them quite frightening. A few months ago I was staying with friends near Land‟s End. _______________. One evening someone mentioned The Smuggler‟s Arms, an inn outside the village. “The inn‟s nearly 400 years old and they say it has a ghost. I‟ve never seen it, of course, but you can ask the man who owns the place. His name is Tregeagle. He won‟t mind you asking him questions.” The next day I went out to the inn. Tregeagle could hardly tell me anything about the history of the place. _______________. I had a few drinks with him in the bar and at a quarter to eleven we went upstairs to wait. Soon we heard footsteps in the room above us. It sounded like the footsteps of several men walking around. _______________. There was nobody in the room. The next morning I went to the local library to look for some books on the history of the area. _______________. It turned out that the inn was once a place where smugglers met. The owner was a smuggler and died there in the 18th century. Many years ago people found a secret room in the roof where the smugglers used to hide. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

I ran upstairs and pushed the door open. I stay in various places and talk to people about their experiences. I spent only one day there and then got bored and left the place. Every time I stay there, they ask me to talk about ghosts. So I had to get into my car and drive away. But he allowed me to spend the night there. I managed to find all the information I needed about the inn.

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Text 4

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Mafia is a famous party game created in the USSR in 1986. It models a battle between the mafia and the townspeople. ______________. They are either mafia, who know each other; or townspeople, who know only the number of mafia among them. A typical game starts with seven townspeople and two or three Mafiosi. ______________. During the day phase, all of the surviving players debate, trying to find out the members of the mafia. ______________. The game continues until all of the mafia have been eliminated, or until the mafia outnumber the townspeople. ______________. He dates the first game to spring 1986 at the Psychology Department of Moscow State University spreading to classrooms, dorms, and summer camps of Moscow University. ______________. Soon the game became popular in other Soviet colleges and schools and in the 1990s it began to be played in Europe, and then in the United States. Mafia was called one of the 50 most historically and culturally significant games published since 1800.

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1) Dimitry developed the game to combine psychology research with teaching students. 2) Then everybody votes to eliminate those who are suspected of being Mafiosi. 3) After a heated debate the game comes to its end. 4) The players are secretly assigned roles. 5) Dimitry Davidoff is generally acknowledged as the game‟s creator. 6) The creator of the game, Davidoff, was accused of teaching his students to lie. 7) In the game‟s night phase the mafia secretly „murder‟ a townsperson. Text 5

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_______________. Eggs after all are a symbol of spring and new life. Exchanging and eating Easter eggs is a popular custom in many countries. _______________. Later they were replaced by chocolate Easter eggs. ______________. The traditionally bright colours represented spring and light. An old traditional game is one in which real eggs are rolled against one another or down a hill. The owner of the egg that stayed uncracked the longest, won. _______________. Hard boiled eggs are rolled down slopes to see whose egg goes furthest. In other places another game is played. You hold an egg in the palm of the hand and bang against your opponent‟s egg. The loser is the one whose egg breaks first. _______________. They are usually hollow and filled with sweets. On TV you will see adverts for Cadbury‟s Cream Eggs, a very sweet confectionery. And in Britain children hunt for chocolate Easter eggs hidden about the home or garden by the Easter Bunny. 1) Another favourite Easter symbol is the little chocolate Bunny. 2) The eggs were hard-boiled and dyed in various colors and patterns. 3) In many countries, some people exchange presents at Easter. 4) Easter eggs are an old tradition going back to a time before Christianity. 5) In England they still carry out the custom of egg rolling. 6) Nowadays people give each other Easter eggs made of chocolate. 7) In the UK real eggs were used, in most cases, chicken eggs. 248

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Text 6

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The poor scholar‟s eyes opened wide at the sight of the dishes. The minister was deeply touched by the man‟s devotion. But as it was lunchtime, he asked the young man to stay for lunch. He expected that the minister would give him a well-paid job. The man was hurt because of the refusal and left without saying good-bye. However, he did not eat the delicious food set before him. He asked for his daughter‟s hand in marriage.

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There was once a government minister who had a beautiful daughter. When she came of age, the minister began to look for an intelligent young man to be her husband. Shortly afterwards, a young scholar came to see the minister. ________________. The minister, seeing his poor and shabby appearance, thought that he was not a good match for his daughter and refused him. ________________. He had a table laden with delicious dishes and expensive wines. ________________. He had never eaten or even seen such delicacies before. ________________. Instead, he began to wrap up the food and put it in a bag he was carrying. Greatly surprised, the minister asked the young scholar why he was storing the food away instead of eating it. The young man replied, “I have never seen such fine dishes before, and so I am taking them home to give to my mother.” ________________. He instantly changed his mind and gave him permission to marry his daughter. The young scholar later became a famous government minister like his father-inlaw.

Text 7

Any loud sound that can harm a person‟s health is noise pollution. There are more people and more noise in our world today than ever before. There are also more machines and engines. One hundred years ago, noise pollution wasn‟t as big a problem as it is today. _______________. Nowadays many people are not aware of the many noises around them. Loud noises may be a part of everyday living. _______________. Yet noise can affect a person‟s health. Suppose a person sneaked up behind you. This person made a loud noise and scared you. _______________. Your heartbeat rate would increase causing your blood pressure to rise. Constant noise can produce stress which also causes the above effects. There is also a relationship between noise and disease. _______________. When you don‟t get enough sleep, your body becomes tired. A tired body is a poor defence against disease. Noise can also affect your study habits and your grades. If you try to do homework while a stereo is playing loud music, you might not be able to concentrate. You will make more mistakes in your homework. _______________. 249

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If this occurred, certain things would happen to your body. It wouldn‟t affect your body or mind in any way. Many of the products that make noise were not around then. Research shows that a quiet environment helps people to learn. You cannot sleep soundly unless there is a loud noise around. People don‟t seem to understand that loud noises hurt them. Noise can keep you from sleeping well.

Text 8

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They had five boys and couldn‟t take proper care of them. So I learnt from the example of their love. My mother took the little girl into our family. I liked my youngest brother most of all. They were very poor, and the children were thin and hungry. At school I met another very fine person. However, for five years I was the only child in the family.

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I was born in Switzerland, in the town of Geneva. My parents loved each other very much. __________________. I learnt that to love and to be patient are the most important things in the world. My mother hoped to have a daughter after I was born. __________________. And then my mother found a sister for me. She was helping a family in which there were five children. __________________. One of the children was a little girl, with golden hair and blue eyes. Her name was Elizabeth. _______________. So Elizabeth became the daughter that my mother had always wanted. As I grew older, my love for Elizabeth became stronger all the time. We loved her as much as she loved us. The years passed happily, and we had everything that we needed. _______________. His name was Henry Clerval, and he was very clever. My family also liked him very much, so he was a welcome visitor to our house.

Text 9 In the middle of the seventeenth century London was a city of dirty narrow streets. Indeed, the streets were so narrow that it was often possible for a person at the window on one side of the street to shake hands with a neighbour in the house across the street. __________________. So it is not strange that the great epidemic of the plague began in 1665. _________________. There were no people in the streets, shops were closed and there were few boats on the Thames. Every house in which there were sick people was shut up. __________________. The doors of such houses were marked with red marks. The following year the Great Fire took place. ________________. The summer of 250

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that year was dry, a hot wind was blowing and the fire spread very quickly. The Fire went on for five days and destroyed the greater part of the city. But it did the city much good. __________________. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Nobody was allowed to go in or out. It was a beautiful scene and some artists later painted it. It destroyed the old wooden houses and the dirty narrow streets. It began late on Saturday night in a street not far from London Bridge. In those days the city attracted a lot of visitors. There was little light and air in London streets. It was a sad time for London.

Text 10

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Some six months ago Mr. John Smith, an American gentleman, bought a small piece of ground. Mr. Smith afterwards presented this piece of ground to a poor artist named George Arnold. _______________. Now he wanted to pay for the damage he had done. He then said that he would make additional satisfaction by improving the ground for Mr. Arnold, at his own cost. Four weeks ago, while digging the ground, Mr. Smith discovered something. _______________. It was an exquisite figure of a woman, though sadly stained by the soil and the mould of ages. The nose, the left leg from the knee down, an ear, and also the toes of the right foot and two fingers of one of the hands were gone. _______________. The government at once took possession of the statue, and appointed a commission of art critics and antiquaries to estimate and determine the compensation that must go to the owner of the ground in which it was found. The whole affair was kept secret until last night. _______________. Last night they decided unanimously that the statue is a Venus. _______________. At midnight they held a final conference and decided that the Venus was worth the enormous sum of ten million dollars! 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

But on the whole the noble figure was remarkably preserved. It must be the work of some unknown but gifted first century artist. Some time before he had damaged some property belonging to Mr. Arnold. In the meantime the commission sat with closed doors discussing the matter. He did it in return for some favour Mr. Arnold had done him. He learnt that George was hopelessly in love with a woman. It turned out to be a very remarkable ancient statue.

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So one should use them as little as possible. When you start using them again, they slowly become strong. The reason is that he doesn‟t give it enough opportunity to become strong. Not all of us can become extremely strong or extremely clever. He may be accused of deliberately forgetting important things. If a friend complains that his arms are weak, we know that it is his own fault. The thing is that memory works in the same way.

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If you do not use your arms or legs for some time, they become weak. _______________. Everybody knows this, and nobody would think of questioning this fact. Yet there are many people who do not seem to know much about memory. _______________. When someone says that he has a good memory, he really means that he keeps his memory in practice by exercising it regularly. When someone else says that his memory is poor, it is actually his fault. _______________. The position is exactly the same as that of two people, one of whom exercises his arms and legs by playing tennis, while the other sits in a chair or a motorcar all day. _______________. But if he tells us that he has a poor memory, many of us think that his parents are to blame, or that he is just unlucky. Few of us realize that it is just his own fault. _______________. But all of us can, if we have ordinary bodies and brains, improve our strength and our memory by the same means – practice.

Text 12

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I was only five years old but I remember it very well. We arrived at the airport in the afternoon. _________________. We waited in the departure lounge for a very long time. Then suddenly everyone stood up and walked towards the doors to get on the plane. _________________. We all climbed up the steps and into the plane. My seat was by the window. My brother sat next to me. _________________. I looked out of the window and saw the houses getting smaller and smaller. The plane flew through the clouds and into very bright sunshine. It was magical. I hate eating on airplanes now. _________________. It tasted wonderful! _________________. They were very bright. When we got on the bus to take us back to the terminus, I felt very tired but also very happy. It was a very special day. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

I was very nervous when the plane took off. My parents said good-bye to us and got on the plane. I was with my parents and my two older brothers. That first time I really liked the food though. I kept watching the dark clouds through the window. We landed in the dark and I saw all the airport lights. Nervous but eager, I followed my parents. 252

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Text 13

Others looked like famous people from the past. After a while we felt quite thirsty and went into a large white tent. The crowd started to dance and we joined in. They could see we were foreigners and took no notice of us. Last summer we spent a fortnight in a small town in Spain. It was the start of the fireworks display. After a while we felt that something extraordinary was going to happen.

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_________________. When we arrived in the town we didn‟t know that there was a celebration going on. In the streets there were many people. Almost everyone was wearing unusual clothes. They had masks on their faces. Some of them looked like characters from cartoons. _________________. We followed them into a big park where a band was playing really exciting music. _________________. We didn‟t feel that we were tourists anymore because everyone around us was so friendly. We really enjoyed being in this happy atmosphere. _________________. Inside, someone served us with delicious ice-cold drinks. There was lots of mouth-watering food on the tables. When it began to get dark, the music stopped and suddenly we heard an enormous bang. _________________. I had never seen anything like it before. The noise, the brilliant patterns and the bright colours against the night sky were all incredible. The whole day was wonderful. I‟ll never forget it.

Text 14

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I arrived about two hours before the start of the marathon. It was cold but sunny. _________________. This was also their first marathon. We had to run about 40 kilometres on the roads in the city. There was a feeling of great excitement. _________________. I also had a number on it. I was number 375. I didn‟t feel nervous when the race started. ________________. My legs hurt and my head ached. The crowd shouted, „Come on!‟ „Good luck!‟ and someone gave me some water. _________________. I finally finished the race and sat down in the road. I felt very proud and very happy. I don‟t know why I wanted to run in the marathon but I am very pleased that I did. _________________. But I am not sure I will. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

I am trying to persuade my friends to join me next year. There were many other people all around me. I drank it very quickly and felt better. When I looked at those who weren‟t going to run, I felt proud. I was wearing my favourite white T-shirt. My friends want me to run again next year. After about an hour I felt tired though.

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They really enjoy it, so she decided to try it. Then you float down so that you land safely. All her friends were cheering and clapping. They have advised Renata never to try sky diving. However, many people want to try them. Then you get rid of it and jump down. There were three other sky divers on the plane.

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Dangerous sports can be very expensive. _______________. Those who take risks often feel very happy afterwards. In sky diving you jump out of a plane with a parachute on your back. You don‟t open your parachute immediately. Instead, you dive through the air for several seconds. You can control the way you move in the air with your arms and legs. When you get closer to the ground, you open your parachute. _______________. Some of Renata‟s friends are members of a sky diving club. _______________. When Renata was going up in the plane for the first time, she felt absolutely terrified, but her instructor was very calm. This helped her a lot. __________________. They went before Renata so she was the last one to jump. Suddenly she felt that she was going down very quickly and then she opened her parachute and was floating in the air. When she landed safely she felt very happy. ________________. Renata wants to jump again but her boyfriend is against it.

Text 16

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Sean Connery was born in 1930 in Edinburgh. He had a series of jobs − driving vans, working as a cleaner, etc. − and struggled to make a living. However, he was a fanatical bodybuilder and spent three or four hours a day in the gym. Eventually, he represented Scotland in the 1950 Mr. Universe contest. He came third. _______________. He appeared in several stage productions, and in the late 1950s began his career in the movies. He became the first James Bond in 1962, when producer Albert Broccoli asked him if he would play the secret agent in Dr No. _______________. Most people in the movie business thought that Cary Grant would get the role. _______________. He said that he had already acted in five James Bond films and that he was looking for something more challenging. He also said that his family wanted him to spend more time with them. _______________. He won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor in 1987, for his role as an Irish police officer in The Untouchables. In the British New Year‟s Honours List for 1998, many people expected him to receive a knighthood (so that he would be Sir Sean Connery). _______________. He was finally knighted in 2000. 1) Connery has played many varied roles in films over the years. 2) This helped him to get into the national football team. 254

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In 1967, Connery announced that he wanted to stop playing Bond. This led to a job with a theatre company. Later that year, Connery gave up acting and went into business. He didn‟t get it, possibly because of his support of Scottish nationalism. Connery was an unexpected choice for the role.

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They stayed in Switzerland with some friends. Frankenstein, a young scientist, tries to create a perfect human being. Nobody can read the story without feeling scared. Then somebody suggested writing their own stories. All their stories were published and became very famous. There was almost nothing to do, they couldn‟t go out much and were bored. Most people have seen Frankenstein‟s monster in films and pictures.

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Mary Shelley, the author of „Frankenstein‟, is less famous than her story. ________________. He was a huge, clumsy creature with a square face and strange eyes. Fewer people realize that the writer of the original story was a slim, pretty, eighteen-year-old girl. „Frankenstein‟ is a tale of horror. _______________. Although he succeeds in bringing his creature to life, it‟s a monster. The story includes elements of myth and magic, as well as science and nature. It‟s a tragic story because the monster kills Doctor Frankenstein and his family. Mary Shelley was born in 1797, in London. When she was eighteen, she ran away with the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, whom she later married. ________________. Among them were George Byron and his doctor Polidori. The evenings were cold and wet. ________________. For entertainment, everybody read and told ghost stories. ________________. Only Mary Shelley finished her story. It was „Frankenstein‟. Mary Shelley‟s idea of a monster who turns against its creator has become a popular subject for horror films and frightening stories.

Text 18 Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. It‟s such a beautiful city that it‟s called „Athens of the North‟. The first thing you see in the centre of the city is the Rock. ________________. It looks like a castle from a fairy tale and parts of it are nearly a thousand years old. Lots of people visit it every year. __________________. You can also see that the city is between the sea and the hills. ________________. In one room there is a collection of old weapons, such as swords and spears. In another there are the crowns and jewels of Scottish kings from the past. At exactly one o‟clock every day you can hear the sound of a very large gun. 255

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_______________. You can check that the time on your watch is correct. ___________________. It is more than 900 years old. Below the castle is Esplanade, which leads into the Royal Mile. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

The modern shopping centre is also a very impressive building. It is a very large hill on which Edinburgh Castle stands. There‟s a beautiful chapel inside the castle walls. It‟s a big castle built a few years ago. There is a wonderful view of the city from the top of the Castle walls. There is a very loud bang as it fires. Inside the Castle there are many different rooms to visit.

Text 19

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It was ten o‟clock in the morning when I received the telephone call. I was told to be ready at 6.30 the next morning wearing warm clothes. After weeks of uncertainty at last a life-long ambition was about to be fulfilled. _______________. The flight was supposed to have taken place at a summer balloon festival. But the weather had been so bad that no flying was possible. Now I was full of anticipation. At 7.15 a.m. we took off. It was not with a bump like in a lift as I had previously imagined. _______________. It was so gentle that the only way I knew I must be going up was that the ground was going down away from us! Waving good-bye to my family, I did not know which way to look: across the houses, gardens and fields, or down at the fields we had just left where the people and cars were rapidly beginning to look like toys. _______________. Apart from the essential blasts of gas and flames which roared around my ears it was so quiet that I could hear dogs barking below. I could easily call out to the people in one of the other balloons which happened to travel quite near us. _______________. True, my feet were cold, but a rapid increase in temperature rose up my legs, ensuring my body and hands were warm and my head, nearest the burner, was positively hot! It was not at all windy either. One cannot fully give words to this unique experience. _______________. This was a peaceful and beautiful journey totally in tune with the environment. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

I was going to make a round-the-world cruise. Up in the air I could neither see nor hear anything. I had imagined it would be cold and windy. I was going to fly in a hot air balloon. I was surprised how incredibly peaceful it was up there. There was no feeling of movement whatsoever. Airplanes and helicopters seem a noisy and dirty way to fly.

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Text 20

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Today Esperanto may be encountered at international conferences. Esperanto was invented by L. Zamenhof, a Polish oculist. He was eager to learn languages, but he never got the opportunity There is a lot of opposition from those who favour English. Yet, Esperanto recently acquired the status of an international language. However, Esperanto failed to achieve official status as a world language. His own language background was very mixed.

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________________. He made the first draft of his international language when he was fifteen. ________________. Russian was used at home, with Yiddish and Polish outside, and French, German, Latin, Greek and English taught in school. The scheme was first published in Russian in 1887. The first Esperanto journal was published in 1889 and the first congress was held in 1905. It brought together nearly 700 delegates from 20 countries. ________________. Several journals and newspapers are published in the language and there is a large translated literature in addition to original works written in Esperanto. ________________. A proposal to the United Nations in 1966 was signed by nearly a million people from 74 countries, but it was not accepted. ________________. Supporters of other artificial languages also are against this proposal. Several criticisms have been expressed of the language, but it is generally easy to learn to read Esperanto. As always with language learning, though, passive competence is much easier to achieve than active use, and a good deal of memory work is still needed before fluency is acquired.

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SECTION 11 îñí³Í ݳ˳¹³ëáõÃÛáõÝÝ»ñÇó áñá±Ýù »Ý Ïñ³íáñ³Ï³Ý ë»éáí ×Çßï Ó¨³Ï»ñåí³Í: Choose the correctly formulated Passive constructions. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The workers must be stimulated by an offer to share in the firm‟s profits. I can assure you everything will have arranged in time. His old shoes were thrown away. After the accident the young man had taken to hospital. Invented by an Indiana housewife in 1889, the first dishwasher was operated by a steam engine.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Throughout the trial, the prisoner insisted on his lack of guilt. Was this trade centre opened last year? All the books mentioned in this catalogue can be borrowed from the library. The hall hasn‟t decorated with artificial flowers. Citizens forced into poverty by unfair government policies will usually support a new candidate.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who is this wedding hall being decorated by? The teacher was impressed by the student‟s answer. This message isn‟t to be e-mailed now. The drug was claimed to produce no undesirable side-effects. Julius Ceasar, Hannibal, Napoleon, Mussolini, Hitler had born with teeth.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Where is the hole digging? This easy task can be carried out without anybody‟s help. Some TV programs were being criticised at that time. Some consonants are mispronouncing by the students. Niccolò Paganini is known in history as an Italian violinist and composer.

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5. 21.Great progress in physics has been made lately. 22.Who had met the foreign delegation? 23.These red roses have bought for my dear mother. 24.The films of Charlie Chaplin are loved all over the world. 25.Paganini‟s Caprice No.24 in A minor is widely considered one of the most difficult pieces ever written for the solo violin. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

This big house is made of brick. The suspect had told the police an unassailable alibi. Was designed the first helicopter by Leonardo da Vinci? This major social problem should be settled at once. The local party workers have adopted Mr. Green as their representative for the coming election. 258

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The golf match was postponed because of the heavy rain. A fixed salary will be paid to you. The students impressed by the professor‟s lecture. They‟re going to perform Beethoven‟s Fifth Symphony next week. Caprice No.24 in A minor has served as an inspiration for many prominent composers.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I am always invited to their political meetings. Two new engineers were introduced to the head of the department. This scandal could bring down the government. They probably recycle some of the solid wastes regularly. Left-handed people are often placed at a disadvantage by the prevalence of right-handed tools in society.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A lot of goods are brought to London from many countries. The young man was asked to wait in the corridor. They had finished the preparations by the time the guests arrived. Those files must have been deleted from the computer. Many tools and devices are designed to be comfortably used with the right hand.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Lots of people had parked their cars on the pavement. Children should be taught foreign languages before starting school. Must be these documents signed by the director himself? Who has your holiday cottage been designed by? No production cameras have been made for left-handed people.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Is this nice bouquet bought for your girlfriend? Magical properties are sometimes claimed for certain medicines. The historical novel had translated into German and English. The boy couldn‟t have given a better answer than this one. America is often described as a melting pot because of different religions living there side by side.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Are those big monuments made of brass? This e-mail had received after his departure. The fisherman‟s boat was overturned by a huge wave. They couldn‟t get Saddam Hussein to withdraw from Kuwait. If people only made prudent marriages, what a stop to population there would be!

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This music seems to have heard from the next room. Your drinks will be brought in a moment. The police have issued a description of the burglar. The motorbike George rode in the race was lent to him by Tom. The Nile, the world‟s longest river, stretches north for about 4,000 miles from East Africa to the Mediterranean.

14. 20.All the texts were looked through yesterday and not a single mistake was found. 21.All their profit is given to the sick. 22.It was the most difficult passage I had ever translated. 23.The boxes haven‟t been packed yet. 24.Antonio Banderas is famous for the role he played in The Mask of Zorro. 15. I haven‟t been to a football match for a long time. We were greatly shocked by Albert‟s behaviour. These folders should have been sent to a USB flash. Who was your house designing by? The Amazon, the world‟s largest tropical rainforest, covers an area of about 2.8 million square miles.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A new apparatus for the deaf was invented recently. The social grants will have been reduced by next year. I have never been treated like that before. I don‟t want you to spend your money on me; we‟ll go Dutch treat. Antonio Banderas has been in numerous hit movies.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The fence was painted in two applications. Was he injured in the accident? They broke off their engagement just two days before the wedding. You needn‟t have bought such an expensive watch. After only a year in the sports club, the youngest player was elected to the committee.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

These exotic plants should have been watered twice a day. The exterior of the house was washed using warm water and a mild detergent. They were killed in the earthquake. The government must deal with unemployment. Electricity lines had brought down, leaving thousands of houses without electricity.

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19. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The essays are to be handed in on Monday. Before the conference we had drawn up a plan to stop drug trafficking. All the chinks and pores in the walls were sealed with putty. The stress of the last few weeks has broken me down. Featured in many Spanish and American films, Banderas often being used a musical performer as well.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A five-star hotel was being built next to the cinema. The draught blew out the candle. Why were these important documents left on the desk? After the putty had had a chance to dry, the exterior could be painting. Winds are caused by air moving from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

We have thought of all eventualities. The explosion was believed to have been caused by a mine. Our concert hall was being decorated the whole day. This event will build up his confidence. In his first American movie role Banderas, still speaking no English, was forced to learn his lines phonetically.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

They will call on the rebels to stop fighting. The wounded soldiers are surely being taken care of. The police let her off with a fine. Their new album must have been released this week. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A whole week was needed to finish this part of the job. Being washable and easy to apply, a latex paint was used. You should be careful when working on electrical equipment. That strange event is still being talked about. It was later admitted that the information had been obtained from unreliable sources.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Documents are usually written in ink. I was careful to apply the paint evenly in order not to apply two coats. Mr Boddington‟s new book may be published in January. She was brought up in a friendly atmosphere. More antioxidants are found in a glass of pomegranate juice than in red wine.

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25. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Millions of dollars‟ worth of damage caused by a storm last night. The new product is supposed to come out soon. I must get my dad to buy me a new computer. The delegation was impressed by the places of interest in Paris. Carrots are given to young children as a substitute for snacks high in sugar.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Many people had rescued from the floods by fire-fighters. Is English spoken in many countries all around the world? Life‟s a succession of lessons which must be lived to be understood. Father‟s shirt is being ironed by my younger sister. The Amazon Rainforest gets its life from the majestic Amazon River.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The roads were blocked by fallen trees. Instead of buying a new car, have your old one repaired. Will be these documents taken to the head office next Monday? Very little is needed to make a happy life. Compounds found only in pomegranates are shown to benefit the blood vessels.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The cyclist was hit by a trailer truck. A policeman stopped Tom for speeding. The work should do by yourself to achieve good results. How much money is being transferred to you? The paint bucket had to be hung on the top of the ladder while working.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A good computer was recommended to me. The River Reiner burst its banks after a heavy rain. My sister has been promoted to a management position at work. Mr. Harrington had us replace the broken window. Tangerine oil is considered to reduce anxiety.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A tall ladder was needed to paint the kitchen ceiling. Firefighters had received hundreds of calls for help. When painting, a color very close to the original used by me. Fruit and vegetables are bought at the greengrocer‟s. During World War I Ernest Hemingway was wounded on the Italian front.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Wind speeds reached ninety miles an hour in some places. Someone ought to wash those dishes right away. The directives will be shown to us. Many people could have been killed during that dangerous trick. Mushroom was highly prized by the Romans.

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32. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The furniture was broken up for firewood. The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool, in 1960. Everything possible was done to get things back to normal. My boss told me to send the check to a Nigerian bank account. Animals and slaves were sometimes given samples of mushrooms to test their reactions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Someone must have picked it up by mistake. The tree had been decorated with colourful balloons. Two of the climbers were injured. How stupid of you to have invited that boring person! The old myths of cooking mushrooms with a silver coin or spoon have not been substantiated.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Nuclear power stations are thought to be dangerous. Have the janitor arrange for the plumber to deal with the blockage. This surgeon is considered to be a brilliant practitioner. These flowers should be planted in a sunny place. The singer Michael Jackson was dubbed the King of Pop.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

He is thought to have been on holiday. The flight must have been postponed because of the fog. The Board offered the manager‟s job to Simon. The article had translated in thirteen languages. One of Michael Jackson‟s gloves was sold for $200,000 in Los Angeles.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The world-famous opera Aida was written by Verdi. These books must have returned within a fortnight. Alice badly hurt by his words. He was fired for his irresponsibility. When dubbed into English, a lot of the original meaning of foreign films is lost in the translation.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How many invitation cards were sent yesterday? Even the best students frequently make this mistake. Glenn Miller was killed in an air crash in England. Bread is bought at the baker‟s. In 1921, Chaplin was awarded by the French government for his outstanding work as a filmmaker.

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38. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

She needs be taken care of. The design had spoiled and it was good for nothing. That wonderful picture had looked at with admiration. The work was done with due care and understanding. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th US President, was assassinated in 1963, in Dallas, Texas.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Were you offered that job? No major decision was taking without his father‟s knowledge or advice. I was given five shillings change at the shop. Is this academic journal published twice a month? The song “We Are the World” was originally recorded by the supergroup USA for Africa in 1985.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

He was shot with a rifle. Evidently somebody had informed him of the news before. These consonants pronounced with aspiration. Mr Smith‟s lectures were being listened to with interest. No prince of the house of Lancaster betrayed a wish to renew the quarrel with the Church.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Did the noise in the next room disturb you last night? The classified research is still being carried out. I was shocked by your attitude. The positive hydrogen atoms are attracted to the negative oxygen atoms. The speaker had tried to urge the crowd forward to show their opposition to the new law.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

If she hadn‟t been so bad-tempered, I might have married her. We Are the World was written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie. A ballet school is being built in this district. Friends are needed both for joy and for sorrow. Hemingway‟s experiences in Italy during World War I became the material for one of his best-loved novels, A Farewell to Arms.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Vitamins A, C, E and K contained within the strawberry are vital to health. Only once had the grandfather been angry. The mission was found to be impossible. The work must be finished as soon as possible. Philadelphia International Airport was evacuated for about an hour yesterday morning.

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44. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The thief was caught easily for he was described thoroughly. The first parachute designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Those impolite girls shouldn‟t have been invited to our party. Will a new suit have bought for your brother tomorrow? The subject in the Armenian sentence may sometimes be omitted.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Passive Voice is formed with the help of to be + Past Participle. Why haven‟t the suitcases packed yet? On his way home he was attacked by unknown men. The letter of application had been signed before his arrival. Armenian learners of English encounter some difficulty related with the rules of sequence of tenses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The last student is being examined right now. I ought to have phoned him this morning. Dazzled by the orchestra‟s brilliant performance, the audience clapped wildly. Was the young gentleman asked to wait outdoors? According to Holy Trinity Church records, Shakespeare was baptized on the 26th of April.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The crowd cheered the football players in the stadium yesterday. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. The hurricane severely damaged the houses on the shore. Not a moment‟s peace does she have during the day. The Beatles is considered to be the most influential rock group of the era.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I was invited to the university ball. Nouns are classified into proper and common. My younger brother‟s jokes had laughed at. These paintings shouldn‟t have been kept in a damp room. Madame Tussaud‟s Museum in London has got branches in a number of major cities.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Neither love nor cough can be hidden. Pushed by somebody, the boy fell into the water. Visitors to the Matenadaran are shown a collection of old manuscripts. Van Gogh spent his early adulthood working for a firm of art dealers. The lyrics of the Armenian national anthem Mer Hayrenik were written by Mikael Nalbandian.

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50. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The lyrics later set to music by Barsegh Kanachyan. Those documents are being studied by the manager. He stood before the masterpiece as if lost in admiration. Are these red tulips bought for your teacher? Before today‟s Gregorian calendar was adopted, the older Julian calendar was used.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I am sure this easy work can be done even by a child. People know that cars pollute the environment. The president of their country elected two years ago. Craftsmen make many beautiful objects of paper in Japan. In the Middle Ages, the study of the measure of time was first viewed as prying too deeply into God‟s own affairs.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The diploma paper was written in good English. A new film about the Armenian genocide is being made at present. The incident would have argued about for a long time. Several houses were washed away by the flood. Protestant tract writers responded to Gregory‟s calendar by calling him the Roman Antichrist.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.The handwriting has been identified as hers. The witnesses of the robbery were being questioned. A lot of tragedies and comedies written by Shakespeare. He will be given all the necessary information. The song Mer Hayrenik was adopted as National Anthem of Armenia, in 1991.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Proper nouns are individual names given to persons and things. Numerous inventions were made by Leonardo da Vinci. This beautiful flower vase is made of crystal. The injured passengers had been taking care of. Kennedy was fatally shot by a sniper while traveling with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor Connally with his wife Nellie, in a presidential motorcade.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The definite article is used before names of parties and organizations. A big hospital has built opposite the bank. People drink a lot of tea in England. Were the parents shocked by their son‟s behaviour? These rules must be learned by heart.

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56. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Paganini was the most talented violin virtuoso of his time. The Smiths should have been invited to this meeting. The order given, the servant hurriedly left the room. The national anthem of the United States is called “The Star-Spangled Banner”. Passive Voice is often used without a mention of the doer of the action.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

These doughnuts are made from milk and honey. Love is composed of a single soul inhabiting two bodies. Did everyone find fault with her? I think this book can be enjoyed by a person of any age. Pope Gregory XIII finally reformed the Julian calendar.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Nobody has ever treated me with such kindness. Out ran a crowd of children, laughing and talking excitedly. David was asked some tricky questions. The last patient was being examined at that time. The indefinite article may be used with personal names to indicate one member of a family.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Naturally Frederick hurt by her rude remark. Two skyscrapers are being built in this district. The nurse insisted on the patient‟s taking the medicine at once. Reaching the town, they were raided by the police. The new calendar was not adopted uniformly across Europe until well into the 18th century.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. The origin of high heels goes back many centuries in history. She was seen to enter the building in the morning. He will be rewarded for finding our lost dog. Bruce Lee was born in the year of the Dragon.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The law of gravity was discovered by Newton. That tiny cottage is made of wood. Did they put an end to this useless talk? The research carried out by a group of young scientists. The lyrics of the US national anthem were written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A reward has been promised to us for finding their puppy. Coal is used for making artificial materials. Your sister has sewn the button on to your coat. Martin‟s story was rejected by several magazines. On February 4, 1789, George Washington became the first and only president unanimously elected by the Electoral College. 267

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Section 11

63. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

They are being fined for breaching safety regulations. Had been your proposal objected to? Excellent shelters have been built for tourists in these mountains. The yard and the rooms were being cleaned. Washington‟s opponent John Adams had the most votes and became Vice President.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Grandmother‟s parcel had been received the day before. Were many guests invited to your birthday party? This expression is commonly used in informal, conversational English. The manager had received a letter marked „personal‟. Key‟s poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Everything was thoroughly explained to the participants. Nothing was being done to save the situation. The oak tree broke by a violent storm. All the colours of the rainbow have used by this painter. Washington was re-elected in 1792.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Having sprained my ankle, I couldn‟t play tennis. He was distracted by that news. The new time-table has not been hung up yet. This composer‟s symphonies are performed everywhere. After their break-up in 1970, each of the Beatles enjoyed successful musical careers.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

He was shown into a lounge. He finally was enrolled in a management training course. A glass bridge has to build across the river. After the hurricane these houses are repairing. In1980, John Lennon was shot and killed by Mark Chapman, a fan of his.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

At that time my favourite program was being broadcast on TV. The stolen motorbike is still being looked for. These books and magazines may be taken for a week. No sooner had the boy hung the picture on the wall than it fell down. Madame Tussaud‟s museum of wax figures in London is visited by thousands of people annually.

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Section 11

69. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Our project was discussed at the last meeting. The houses could not be seen in the dark. The children are silent; they must have fallen asleep. The violent hurricane struck several cities. The name Bruce was given to Lee by a nurse at his birthing hospital.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Yesterday a greeting card sent to him. Had many guests invited to your sister‟s birthday? The football match ought to have been cancelled. The experiment was carried out by an experienced scientist. The first high-heeled shoes were discovered in a tomb of Tebas in Old Egypt.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The old pensioners were being looked after by some volunteers. Santa Claus believed to have entered their house through the chimney. A number of diseases have caused by smoking. By that time most obstacles had been overcome. The Beatles’ songs are listened to with pleasure.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

All the colours of the rainbow are used in this landscape. The sick patient being taken care of by this nurse. Our exploration project was being discussed at that time. My brother‟s shoes made of leather. The archeological excavations in the Valley of Kings were carried out by Howard Carter, in 1922.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The will was being reading by the lawyer at that time. I am being taught the Chinese language. He was given two journals to look through. Had been the hall decorated before our arrival? The work had been done when I returned.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The papers were set on fire in order to get rid of the evidence. His bicycle stolen yesterday. Hasn‟t the mystery novel translated yet? Can be made this soup without cabbage? The Paganini violin is known in classical music circles as “the cannon” because of its loud, booming sound.

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Section 11

75. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

These delicious pies are made from milk, honey and butter. Where the summit being held? The old and the handicapped are being taken care of. The candidate was listened to with great interest. Leonardo da Vinci‟s fascination with science aided him in mastering the realistic art form.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The non-fiction novel had written by a young author. We were shown the way to Trafalgar Square. The car had driven at a very high speed. Yesterday morning the workers were paid the wages. The museum was founded by a wax sculptor Marie Tussaud.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who was invented the paper by? Gayane is a four-act ballet with music by Aram Khachaturian. According to church tradition, newly ordained priests are given new names. The president of our country was elected last year. Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

After the school-leaving party a surprise was being planned by the boys. Komitas is regarded as the founder of Modern Armenian classical music. Can we make this salad without vinegar? The car had stopped by the police. Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th US president.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Granny‟s spectacles were found on the window-sill. You should have asked my permission before signing the papers. Will the tourists be taken to that ancient castle? Do you keep documents in the safe? All the personages in Leonardo da Vinci‟s works are painted with great accuracy and detail.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Will that educational film be shown to the students? Is being the mansard roof repaired right now? Granny‟s fairy tales were listened to with pleasure. Pork not used by some nations for religion purposes. Madame Tussaud’s displays waxworks of historical and royal figures.

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Section 12

SECTION 12 гٳå³ï³ë˳ݻóÝ»É Ý³Ë³¹³ëáõÃÛ³Ý »ñÏáõ Ù³ë»ñÁ: Match the beginning and the end of the sentences. 1 A. Nowadays it is quite common for B. The first curry house in England was C. Fish and chips is the oldest kind of British food D. It is common to find British restaurants that

1. after they finish high school. 2. but his family emigrated to Britain when he was five. 3. as they have become older. 4. at the age of one. 5. he didn‟t visit the country for many years. 6. through a special programme.

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2 A. The writer Kazuo Isiguro was born in Japan, B. Although his first book was about Brazil, C. Orlando‟s daughter lost her hearing D. The boys got a job at the supermarket

1. operated by an Indian immigrant. 2. still eaten today. 3. both parents to work. 4. that has recently been invented. 5. have food from other cultures. 6. three meals a day.

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3 A. The authorities warned B. He announced C. Mary told D. Fred should tell the manager that

4 A. In future blind people will use a visual sensor B. There will be a time when we‟ll be able to C. R. Kurzweil is the author of The Age of Intelligent Machines D. Scientists are already putting chips into the brain

1. the public about the imminent danger. 2. his retirement from international football. 3. to the woman who came in. 4. a final decision hasn‟t been reached yet. 5. the man who approached him. 6. me she had found a well-paid job.

1. to help people who have Parkinson‟s disease. 2. built into a pair of sunglasses. 3. is not likely to recognize voices. 4. by helping people with hearing disorders. 5. download our entire consciousness onto a computer. 6. and is one of the world‟s best computer research scientists.

271

LEVEL B

5 A. If the building catches fire, B. Unless they invited me, C. If the weather changes for the worse, D. If they ask me,

1. they would switch off the TV set. 2. William would not go to hospital. 3. I will try to arrange the matter. 4. leave it by the emergency exit. 5. I would never go to their wedding party. 6. we shall not have a picnic. 1. had left a business card at the bank with his phone number on it. 2. by using black ink on the notes instead of green. 3. caught as soon as he tried to spend it. 4. arrested him at once. 5. has attacked the enemy. 6. died at home as a result of a fall.

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6 A. The police found the robber without difficulty as he B. When the man broke into the house, the police C. A man who had climbed Mount Everest six times D. An unemployed man who tried to print his own money was

Section 12

1. it‟s not far to walk anywhere in the city. 2. a world famous festival held every year in Brazil. 3. many water buses on the main canals all day and night. 4. but I still love it here. 5. attractive parks and beautiful beaches. 6. but it hasn‟t got a theatre.

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7 A. There are no cars and lorries in Venice, but there are B. There is not much to do in this town C. The town has got a cathedral D. Rio de Janeiro has got some

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8 A. The hostess treated us warmly and asked B. While you were taking the dog for a walk someone called C. The director called a meeting D. Before I wrote my homework exercise

1. you on your mobile phone. 2. to discuss the issue of discipline in the office. 3. which the teacher would explain. 4. I had learnt to retell the text. 5. as she wanted to take the children to the zoo. 6. us to help ourselves to the sweets.

272

LEVEL B

9 A. In 1999 Tori Murden was the first woman who B. She determined not to send a signal C. She has been on mountaineering expeditions, D. They couldn‟t get the boat out of the sea as

1. including climbs in Alaska. 2. asking to be rescued. 3. the sea was too rough. 4. therefore there was a hurricane. 5. that‟s how the accident happened. 6. rowed solo across the Atlantic.

1. she has been writing job applications since morning. 2. is awful diet. 3. as they had left for France the day before. 4. which is dangerous for both physical and mental health. 5. is exposed to high cancer risk. 6. because he had studied it since childhood.

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10 A. Helen is tired, B. Your son spends all night in chat rooms C. Ordering take-away food every day D. My nephew spoke French perfectly

Section 12

1. when he was on holiday. 2. which she is determined to purchase on Sunday. 3. as though he had bought a new iPad. 4. she had bought at the mall a few days before. 5. attached to your body by strings. 6. and float safely to the ground.

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11 A. Linda was wearing the leather coat B. A parachute enables a person to jump from an aircraft C. Robert used to wake up very late D.The parachute consists of a large piece of thin cloth

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12 A. Sam wondered why B. Uncle Jack asked how many C. My colleague asked what D. Granny suggested

13 A. Pet owners have a special understanding B. People who commit suicide deliberately kill C. The story is especially remarkable for the way it teaches children D. Little Charlotte does everything she can to stop the farmer

1. to redecorate the hall. 2. I hadn‟t bought tickets to the concert. 3. trees we had planted. 4. work had we done. 5. planting roses in the garden. 6. I thought of his plan. 1. convincing the farmer that he is a genius. 2. with their animals. 3. from killing the pig. 4. how to deal with problems. 5. themselves because they do not want to continue living. 6. are very loyal to their owners. 273

LEVEL B

14 A. In the past teens usually spent a lot of money on sweets, but now B. Most of the boys and girls in my class seem to C. I prefer texting my friends on my mobile – I hate D. The most common jobs for a woman of her age are

1. when you worked in this office? 2. while you were sweeping the floor? 3. during the official dinner at the town hall? 4. as he was jumping on the bed. 5. when she was six years old. 6. because she was ten. 1. certainly an unusual journey. 2. the first tourist ever in space. 3. everyone was waiting to get on the plane. 4. space travel will belong to the public. 5. so we missed the flight. 6. a sum of $20 million.

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16 A. Dennis Tito, a 60-year-old multimillionaire from New York was B. The taxi arrived late, C. We ran through the terminal to the department lounge where D. To go to space the man had to pay

1. and these days people use instant messaging to talk to friends. 2. it means some of them are working. 3. spend a lot of free time on computers. 4. sitting in front of a computer for hours. 5. they spend most of it on mobile phone cards. 6. babysitting, washing and cleaning the house.

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15 A. Little Johnny fell down B. What did you use to do C. Teresa wore her hair long D. Was Peter painting the ceiling

Section 12

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17 A. If something is bothering you, B. The guy sitting behind us keeps C. Just try to avoid eye contact D. What do you think she‟s gesturing

1. leaning forward – do you think he is trying to listen to us? 2. to hear our conversation. 3. say it out loud – don‟t whisper to your friends. 4. did they help you? 5. at? Do you think she is in trouble? 6. with Gerald if you don‟t want to talk to him.

274

LEVEL B

18 A.The reason why I like this programme is that the characters are interesting B. There is something in this soap opera for everyone, C. I watched the first 6 episodes of the series D. The audience enjoyed the performance a lot despite

1. which took place in the town central square on Sunday. 2. in connection with last night's robbery. 3. by the end of the coming year. 4. being well aware that she would lose her job. 5. enjoying their holidays in summer. 6. lecture at 11:30 on Tuesday.

1. that it‟s not too far from the underground station. 2. even if you are worried. 3. nod your head three times. 4. if you require further information on the case. 5. I would have arranged an appointment with them. 6. back in your armchair and enjoy the film

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20 A. If you agree to what I say, B. Just sit C. Please, contact me D. Try not to look nervous

1. but also because the presenters are really funny. 2. but then I got bored. 3. the cold in the hall. 4. there were no seats. 5. no matter how old they are. 6. and you get into their lives.

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19 A. Presently the detectives will be questioning the man B. They will have rebuilt the theatre building C. Susan dared not utter a word to defend herself D. The children will be

Section 12

21 A. If she‟d studied harder for the test, B. I shouldn‟t have asked Rick for help C. He wouldn‟t drive so fast if D. I should listen to my parents

1. before it was too late. 2. she would have got a better mark. 3. because I think they are right. 4. he knew that the policeman was there. 5. and wrote Tim an e-mail apologizing for what I said. 6. as I knew he was busy studying for his exams.

275

LEVEL B

22 A. In Sweden the winters are very cold, B. The sari has its own distinctive style C. Young people in my country are casual D. You can find many pubs in Dublin

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1. on their arrival at Vienna Airport? 2. if they had told us their exact arrival time. 3. they were in London last spring? 4. as I was busy packing my things for the trip. 5. because I bought a new cell phone. 6. when I phoned you yesterday morning?

1. so long as my friends are with me. 2. even if I had a chance to quit this job. 3. be it a friend or an enemy. 4. than anyone had feared. 5. why Susan thought badly of Sally. 6. when I passed my final exams.

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24 A. I don‟t mind where to go B. The news was much worse C. I was very proud D. Alice hardly knew

1. with their jeans and T-shirts. 2. so children and teenagers are more casual than their parents. 3. and they are open all day. 4. so overcoats and ski jackets are very common. 5. depending on which part of India it comes from. 6. because many people wear westernstyle clothes.

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23 A. Did they see the Wax Museum when B. I failed to call Nancy C. We would have gone to the station to meet them D. What were you doing

Section 12

25 A. The National Museum is on B. Dawson Street is C. They have moved to a new flat D. Jerry bought a new car on

1. in a very new building in Potsdam. 2. the sales last Sunday. 3. that she feels healthier now. 4. the corner of College Green and Westmoreland Street. 5. and now lives in London. 6. between St Stephen‟s Green and Nassau Street.

276

LEVEL B

26 A. For optimists thirty is one of the happiest ages, for pessimists B. She thinks she is cultured C. Water starts to boil at 100° D. You need to take a little more care

Section 12

1. and turns into vapour. 2. he drives a Volkswagen now. 3. it is the minimum age for buying alcohol in Armenia. 4. merely because she is always polite. 5. it marks the end of feeling young. 6. of your body.

1. while Mother was cutting the meat? 2. because I was at University. 3. you were having a break? 4. when I was a college student. 5. before they rented a flat. 6. and neither were their teammates.

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27 A. The sportsmen had been staying at the hotel B. Who was peeling the potatoes C. What happened at the time D. I didn‟t use to attend Geography classes

1. without sightseeing and photographs. 2. looking at the sights and taking photographs. 3. in spite of the fact that it causes cancer. 4. as if nothing had happened. 5. so they don‟t work here any more. 6. my mind was on something else.

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28 A. After the interruption, the speaker went on talking B. Millions of people around the world continue to smoke C. In summer a lot of tourists usually walk round the town D. I didn‟t realize what he was saying because

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29 A. It is so annoying to find somebody in your own room B. Many of the international problems we are facing now C. A good student must know D. The house was in darkness

30 A. The children were very tired B. She was still feeling bad C. Tommy had eaten too many sweets D. All the participants of the meeting were pleased

1. linguistic incompetence. 2. are the result of misunderstandings. 3. how to study effectively. 4. reading your personal letters. 5. lack the ability to understand each other. 6. except for a light in the kitchen.

1. with the decision of the Board. 2. though she had taken some medicine. 3. and was feeling sick. 4. after they had walked several kilometres. 5. because he was still very hungry. 6. since they had woken up in the morning.

277

LEVEL B

31 A. Dora wants to lose weight B. I am saving some money C. Bob was in such a hurry D. Sue left for Berlin

Section 12

1. buying expensive kitchen appliances. 2. and he caught the 5 o‟clock train to Birmingham. 3. that he left the documents at home. 4. where she was employed by a computer company. 5. because I want to travel around the world. 6. so she is going to cut down on bread.

1. his bicycle in the morning. 2. at the moment. 3. our tests after classes. 4. to reply to my e-mail tomorrow. 5. going sightseeing tomorrow. 6. listening to music yesterday evening.

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33 A. The teacher will be checking B. Little John is going to wash C. Kate‟s children were D. The tourists will be

1. provided my boss doesn‟t reply to my e-mail. 2. provided that you promise to look after it properly. 3. when he finds high-quality furniture. 4. in case someone phones. 5. on condition that I gave him $10. 6. unless he has kitchen furniture.

tc .a m

32 A. We can have a pet B. George will furnish his bedroom C. He would carry my bags for me D. I shall take my mobile phone with me

34 A. I had finished reading the newspaper B. The boss would have fired Sally C. Father was watering the trees D. I went to the café

1. if she hadn‟t promised to be more punctual. 2. till I had arranged to meet Sue there. 3. where I had first met Gina. 4. after I gave it to Nancy. 5. and gave it to my brother. 6. he had planted the year before.

278

LEVEL B

35 A. The plane took off in time B. Nelly was very tired C. Everybody knows D. There is too much traffic

Section 12

1. so she lay down on the sofa to have a rest. 2. that‟s why I don‟t go to work by car. 3. that Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar system. 4. whether the government would make a wise decision. 5. because there wasn‟t much air traffic. 6. so Jupiter has rings around it.

1. to sharing a room at the hostel. 2. treating like a child. 3. to be very slim when she was young. 4. the strict regulations at the office? 5. attend the same music school. 6. to the boss‟s ignorant attitude?

tc .a m

36 A. It turned out that we used to B. Will she ever get used to C. His mother used D. Were your colleagues used

1. drawn specially for them. 2. while he thought about his latest case. 3. the writer brought Holmes back to life. 4. so you can‟t smoke here. 5. he decided to kill his heroes. 6. she moves to her country house.

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37 A. This is a non-smoking area, B. Sherlock Holmes enjoyed smoking his pipe C. When A.C. Doyle didn‟t feel like writing any more detective stories, D. Under the pressure from his readers,

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38 A. If matters get worse B. The weather was sunny, C. If the terms were beneficial, D. As the weather was fine

39 A. Maria didn‟t put up with her colleagues B. This is the first time C. If you smile all the time D. Why she was dismissed

1. unless there were clouds in the sky. 2. we decided to have a picnic by the river. 3. I would have accepted their proposal. 4. consequently he went to bed very early. 5. we shall have to inform the police. 6. so we decided to go to the beach.

1. that she has praised her employees. 2. people will think that you are mad. 3. remains a mystery. 4. therefore she found another workplace. 5. when this bridge was built. 6. because we are badly paid.

279

LEVEL B

40 A. I can‟t imagine living with someone B. The seahorse is a fish C. It‟s not always easy to learn D. One of the advantages of this device is

43 A. Unless Sue is careful, B. If you borrowed Dick's iPhone, C. Unless they trust our company, D. If your brother touches your things,

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1. was his own decision. 2. I think of their football team. 3. we shall go to the stadium to see the football match. 4. is his respectful attitude towards everyone. 5. immediately find myself there. 6. we enjoyed the match.

1. asking no questions at the next lesson. 2. make a chocolate cake tonight? 3. his lesson from 2 to 3 p.m. 4. porridge today? 5. to the hairdresser‟s on Monday? 6. doing sports yesterday.

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42 A. Robert won‟t be learning B. Will the child be eating C. Will she be going D. Shall we

1. that it can run on batteries as well. 2. how some expressions become part of the language. 3. but its head looks like a horse. 4. consequently we can‟t eat fish for dinner. 5. who never stops talking. 6. not only because it is the specialty of this restaurant.

tc .a m

41 A. What I find attractive in Paul B. When I think of Brazil, C. Despite sitting in a cold stadium D. Whatever the weather is tomorrow,

Section 12

1. Sam would never beat him. 2. Father won‟t break the plate. 3. she will break the glass. 4. Mother would be angry with you. 5. will you be angry with him? 6. they will insist on a written agreement.

280

LEVEL B

44 A. The doctor warned the man B. You must sit still C. George was the first person D. Henry was fired

Section 12

1. who applied for that post. 2. although he hadn‟t been honest. 3. when the doctor is feeling your pulse. 4. because he had been dishonest. 5. that smoking was harmful for his lungs. 6. taking the medicine twice a day. 1. out what we have done. 2. in case the weather changes for the better. 3. of dishonesty. 4. provided I return the stolen necklace. 5. provided that they robbed the shop. 6. into my house.

tc .a m

45 A. They would agree to collaborate unless they suspected us B. He won‟t report me to the police C. My boss will demand an explanation if he finds D. I would report to the police if someone broke

1. fascinated by space travel. 2. we‟ll become world champions. 3. provide young singers with learning opportunities. 4. become very famous in the skating world. 5. provided by the local council. 6. to pay to use the facilities.

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46 A. Competitors in this sporting event can B. People have always been C. Most cities and towns have official skate parks D. If we win this match,

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47 A. They will install the new equipment B. My sister will have done the rooms C. We had had dinner D. Peter will have defended his doctoral thesis

48 A. The Jarawa are nomadic people B. The people on this island C. Survival is an international organization D. As a result of the elections

1. before Dad came home. 2. by the end of last century. 3. next week. 4. by the time the children return from school. 5. last year. 6. by next spring. 1. he became the company‟s president. 2. are fighting for their rights to own their land. 3. which helps endangered tribes. 4. and to make their own choices about how they live. 5. moving from place to place to find food. 6. as it was a disaster for tribal peoples. 281

LEVEL B

49 A. How important is the money for you B. What are you doing C. A lot of students have decided to study IT at university D. She has been working at a primary school

1. because of a problem with her knee. 2. I have to go to the shop to buy some. 3. because it isn‟t comfortable enough. 4. I don‟t like it with milk. 5. as all the shops close for lunchtime here. 6. he didn‟t use to like it when still a child.

1. car was I driving. 2. or how we had spent the skiing holiday. 3. I was planning to do next. 4. if I could help her with that work. 5. briefcase lay on the bench. 6. the meeting would be held.

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51 A. Fiona asked B. The detective wondered whose C. Mr Trench asked when D. The police officer asked what

1. in order to get the job you want? 2. it‟s usually badly paid, but I like working with children. 3. definitely wouldn‟t want to do? 4. when you choose your future job? 5. for the last few years. 6. as they think they can get well-paid jobs that way.

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50 A. My dad doesn‟t like his new office B. She used to run every morning, but now she can‟t C. We have run out of sugar, so D. I couldn‟t drink the tea they served as

Section 12

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52 A. Sophie got her first computer when she was eight, B. She came second in the race in C. The expedition worked in the mountains under D. Danny started sailing when he was ten

1. most terrible circumstances. 2. going out on sailing trips with his aunt. 3. despite rough weather conditions. 4. spite of so many obstacles. 5. and she‟s been interested in the Internet since then. 6. as she wasn‟t interested in computer design.

282

LEVEL B

53 A. Easter Island, about halfway between Chile and Tahiti, B. A long time ago travellers noticed C. Seahenge is located in Norfolk, D. The scientists couldn‟t understand how the statues were

1. some strange lines on the ground on Easter Island. 2. in the east of England. 3. cooked in the oven. 4. these drawings are at least 1500 years old. 5. moved to their present position. 6 is the world‟s most mysterious island.

1. until I gave her the money. 2. while her sister forgives easily. 3. because he gave the book to his teacher. 4. that everybody should be present at the ceremony. 5. which turned out to be the teacher‟s. 6. as though he were the happiest man on earth.

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54 A. It is not surprising B. Greta never forgives an insult C. Dick found a wallet D. The assistant refused to give me the diamond ring

Section 12

1. founded in 1919. 2. discovered in various parts of the world. 3. recognized as one of the most prestigious universities in Spain. 4. members in more than 40 countries. 5. the survivors of the plane crash. 6. offer scholarships to advanced students.

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55 A. The University of Santiago de Compostella has been B. Yerevan State University was C. Last year a number of unknown tribes were D. This international association has

56 A. The style of an Islamic wedding varies depending B. All my friends and relatives were invited C. My birthday was a great occasion D. Thousands of people were left without shelter

1. to share a meal and celebrate the event. 2. with a prayer that marriage will never end. 3. on the cultural background of the couple. 4. after the severe earthquake. 5. for violating the rules. 6. in a restaurant with hundreds of people.

283

LEVEL B

57 A. She knew that going at 140 kph was breaking the law but B. If he doesn‟t slow down, C. I am sorry we are late; the car broke down D. He turned the job down because

1. through learning from others. 2. for an interview. 3. because she doesn‟t mind working overtime. 4. who have more experience than me. 5. during the summer holidays. 6. in a hundred years or so.

1. dinner at the restaurant. 2. making arrangements for the party? 3. doing after classes? 4. us at the station. 5. be sailing across the Channel. 6. going to the park last evening.

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59 A. My cousin will be meeting B. Will they be C. What will his friends be D. We won‟t

1. and we had to get a bus. 2. you would be crazy to lose the opportunity. 3. it was badly paid. 4. she didn‟t think she‟d have an accident. 5. as four innocent people are in hospital with serious injuries. 6. he is going to have an accident.

tc .a m

58 A. I prefer to work with people B. You will be contacted by phone or email C. I would like to improve my skills D. My son will work as an assistant for a web design studio

Section 12

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60 A. Have you ever told B. Don‟t you think it would be C. Is it uncommon for people to speak D. Did she say

61 A. Teenage criminals need to be shown that crime does not pay and B. I believe the solution C. We persuaded her to give up the idea D. The detective was strictly ordered

1. Russian in this country? 2. good-bye to us when she left? 3. a good idea to have a break now? 4. making arrangements for the trip? 5. a joke at which no one laughed? 6. foreign language in this city?

1. to spy on the man day and night. 2. protecting the world from villains. 3. of joining the BMG music club. 4. should be taught other ways to live. 5. for solving certain mathematical problems. 6. to the problem of teenage crime is in education.

284

LEVEL B

62 A. My dad works in a restaurant B. They stopped for a rest C. I have bought a new car D. I‟ve moved to Bristol

Section 12

1. going to the shopping centre on foot. 2. where they serve fantastic seafood. 3. and now I drive to work. 4. after walking six kilometers. 5. with more and more tourists visiting the country. 6. and I like it here very much.

1. to lend me his car for the weekend. 2. agree that Bond films are still great entertainment. 3. borrow my bicycle next Sunday. 4. living in a world where people control life and death. 5. to enjoy the 007 series more than 40 years after its first appearance. 6. with popularity as big as it has ever been.

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63 A. Viktor Frankenstein imagines B. Dad offered C. Today‟s audiences continue D. Young and old, male and female, audiences will

1. live in the city, but they moved to the country last year. 2. sleeping with lots of noise. 3. to speaking Spanish. 4. wearing dark sunglasses. 5. not to speak in public. 6. to take the old man to hospital.

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64 A. We live next to a busy road, so I am used to B. I didn‟t recognize Jill as she was C. They used to D. I‟ve worked in Argentina for five years, so I‟ve got used

65 A. Anger is a feelingthat can be caused B. It‟s important that the children C. These days there are rules everywhere we go D. You can control your angry feelings with

1. learn relaxation techniques. 2. behave themselves when they are in a public place. 3. a few simple techniques. 4. by both external and internal events. 5. and it‟s hard to obey them all. 6. despite breaking them.

285

LEVEL B

66 A. Greg was delighted B. The company director told C. Mother said D. Linda thanked

Section 12

1. the man who showed her the way. 2. to the policeman who had found his bike. 3. to meet his ex-girlfriend at the cafe. 4. which was praiseworthy. 5. his employee that he was too busy to receive him. 6. she was proud of my achievements.

1. made about the situation in South Africa. 2. which support the disabled. 3. installed in her office. 4. interviewed on TV yesterday evening. 5. helping poor people worldwide. 6. of settling this land.

tc .a m

67 A. My mother had a new phone line B. Some years ago a film was C. The president of the company was being D. The government has given up the idea

1. to taking the medicine before going to bed. 2. to fix the wash basin every year? 3. wake you up in the mornings? 4. to take a language course? 5. drinking milk in the mornings? 6. visit her parents every weekend.

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68 A. Did your mother use to B. Is Timothy used to C. She hasn‟t got used D. Teresa used to

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69 A. The secretary was printing the documents B. Fiona needed a rest C. When we got to the bank D. Jeremy took part in the race

70 A. My friend recommended B. Father reminded us C. Jenny didn‟t bother to thank me D. Mr. Norris warned me not to

1. because she had had a good rest. 2. organized by the local authorities. 3. which the manager had given her. 4. it had already closed. 5. which she was printing. 6. as she had worked really hard the whole year.

1. to be ready for the journey at 6 sharp. 2. taking a single ticket. 3. for lending her my bike. 4. raise the issue of pay rise at the upcoming meeting. 5. not delete those files. 6. that he will reply to that email.

286

LEVEL B

71 A. When Steve was a teenager, he was always getting B. If you want to buy a pet, you should find C. If your cat finds D. I like the idea of camping, but I am

1. someone who cares for it more than you do, it will change owners. 2. into trouble with the police for vandalism and shoplifting. 3. up with my boss any more. 4. out as much as possible about it. 5. to look like a small puppy. 6. afraid of insects. 1. that‟s why children pick up foreign languages easily. 2. but can‟t remember anything about it. 3. whole industries are appearing to help teenagers spend their time and money. 4. those in developing countries are becoming younger. 5. and it is not always the same as the English they learn in the classroom. 6. it is the dominant language in youth style.

tc .a m

72 A. While the population of Europe and America is growing old, B. Young peoples‟ tastes influence the design of goods; C. English plays an important role in a teenager‟s world since D. People are also learning English from their friends on the Internet

Section 12

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73 A. They are very good athletes; B. Jim failed his driving test last Sunday; C. Tom and Nick have failed two exams; D. My parents bought my brother a bike;

74 A. Your fingerprints can tell the interested observer a B. It is important which fingers C. Fingerprints are unique: no two people, not even identical twins, D. Hand analysts can distinguish your personality type by

1. he‟ll have to take it next month. 2. she needn‟t have done it. 3. they should have bought one for me as well. 4. they will surely be able to get the first prize. 5. they have to spend more time on their lessons. 6. they are allowed to drive a car.

1. the patterns are on. 2. whether the descriptions are true for me. 3. great deal about your personality. 4. special patterns on your fingers. 5. to the six basic types. 6. possess the same pattern.

287

LEVEL B

75 A. Mrs Caxton says that B. Joana advised C. Little Annie said D. Julia assured me that she

Section 12

1. me to attend computer courses. 2. had settled the problem with her co-workers. 3. if she will be able to take the child to the kindergarten. 4. that she had a terrible toothache. 5. whether I could help her. 6. her son is a medical officer in the Royal Navy.

1. he made the natives into slaves. 2. in which he was successful. 3. the arts, law and religion to the primitive tribes of the New World. 4. and more intelligent than he had expected. 5. one of the most powerful nations on earth. 6. she was one of the greatest figures of Western civilization.

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76 A. In the 15th century, the Portuguese were B. Columbus not only discovered America, but also introduced C. When the gold Columbus found was not enough, D. He thought the Indians were gentler

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77 A. Kids these days can chat online with B. Today people across the world can communicate with each C. Companies like Benettonsay they are trying D. Methods of teaching are changing to

78 A. H. Quimby was the first woman B. When he left home, he told his wife that he was C. Guess where I am writing from– D. In 1960, F. Chichester won the first transatlantic race

1. to create a youth agenda to unite teenagers of the world. 2. new ways of learning have emerged. 3. meet the needs of today‟s pupils. 4. friends thousands of miles away. 5. pupils do not always adopt the same learning style. 6. other and share a common culture.

1. on the plane this time tomorrow. 2. by sailing from Plymouth to New York City in 40 days. 3. an Internet cafe in Barcelona. 4. win an award in a race in Alaska. 5. to get a pilot‟s license in the USA. 6. going on a skiing holiday.

288

LEVEL B

79 A. More people in cities should take up B. David is a keen cyclist and rides C. We missed the train because of D. When the storm began

80 A. We had better take up some sport B. They called an ambulance C. Martin decided to D. I am afraid she

Section 12

1. his bike to school every day. 2. by driving his sports car. 3. cycling instead of using cars. 4. a Mercedes since last month. 5. the little boat headed for the harbour. 6. the queue in the ticket office.

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1. visit the doctor after his trip to the jungle. 2. is suffering from a severe disease. 3. to keep fit and healthy. 4. to take the injured man to hospital. 5. get a terrible headache. 6. to take the children to the National Art Gallery.

289

ANSWER KEY

1a

2c

3d

4d

5b

Text 2

1d

2c

3c

4b

5d

Text 3

1a

2b

3c

4c

5d

Text 4

1a

2b

3b

4a

5d

Text 5

1d

2d

3a

4c

5d

Text 6

1d

2c

3b

4a

5d

Text 7

1b

2a

3a

4d

5b

Text 8

1d

2c

3b

4a

5c

Text 9

1b

2c

3b

4a

5d

Text 10

1c

2c

3b

4a

5c

Text 11

1c

2b

3d

4b

5c

Text 12

1c

2c

3c

4b

5a

Text 13

1c

2d

Text 14

1d

2c

Text 15

1b

Text 16

1a

4b

5a

3b

4c

5a

2c

3b

4a

5b

3a

4c

5d

w

3a

w

tc .a m

Text 1

.a

LEVEL A SECTION 1

w

2b

1a

2b

3b

4b

5d

1a

2b

3c

4c

5d

Text 19

1a

2b

3d

4c

5c

Text 20

1b

2d

3a

4c

5d

Text 21

1b

2b

3b

4b

5d

Text 22

1d

2d

3d

4c

5d

Text 23

1b

2b

3d

4d

5c

Text 24

1c

2a

3d

4a

5b

Text 25

1d

2b

3c

4d

5d

Text 17 Text 18

290

2c

3a

5d

2.

1d

2c

3b

3.

1d

2b

3d

4d

5c

4.

1d

2b

3d

4d

5a

5.

1d

2a

3a

4a

5a

6.

1b

2a

3c

7.

1a

2a

3b

4a

8.

1a

2a

3a

4b

9.

1a

2b

10.

1a

2a

3a

11.

1a

2a

3a

12.

1a

2a

3a

13.

1a

2b

3a

14.

1a

2b

3c

15.

1a

2d

16.

1a

17.

1c

18.

1c

19.

4b

5a

4d

5a

.a

1a

2a

3b

w

w

1.

tc .a m

4d

w

SECTION 2

2a

3d

2b

3d

4a

1d

2a

3c

4c

5a

20.

1b

2a

3a

4a

5b

21.

1c

2b

3a

22.

1d

2b

3a

4c

5c

23.

1b

2c

3b

4d

5a

6a

24.

1a

2b

3a

4a

5b

6a

25.

1b

2a

3b

4d 291

26.

1d

2d

3a

27.

1a

2b

3c

28.

1b

2c

3c

29.

1d

2d

3b

30.

1b

2d

3d

4c

31.

1b

2a

3c

4b

32.

1d

2a

33.

1c

2a

34.

1c

2a

35.

1b

2a

36.

1d

2b

3c

37.

1b

2b

3d

38.

1a

2c

3d

39.

1c

2b

3c

40.

1a

2a

3a

41.

1a

2c

42.

1a

43.

1d

w

4b

44.

1b

45.

5b

tc .a m

3d

w

.a

4d

4a

2c

3b

w

3b

2b

3c

2c

3c

4a

1c

2b

3a

4c

46.

1a

2a

47.

1d

2c

3a

4c

48.

1d

2d

49.

1c

2c

3d

50.

1b

2d

3c

51.

1c

2b

3a 292

1d

2b

3a

4b

53.

1a

2a

3b

4a

54.

1d

2a

3a

55.

1a

2a

3b

56.

1a

2a

3b

57.

1a

2a

3b

58.

1b

2a

3a

59.

1a

2c

3b

60.

1a

2c

3a

61.

1d

2d

3c

62.

1b

2b

3d

63.

1c

2b

3d

64.

1c

2b

3d

65.

1b

2a

3d

66.

1d

2a

3b

67.

1d

2c

w

52.

68.

1c

69.

1c

70.

1b

4b

tc .a m

4d 4a

5d

4c

.a

4b

w

3b 3a

2b

3a

2c

3a

w

2d

4b

4d

293

SECTION 3 1d

2a

3d

4a

5d

Text 2

1c

2b

3a

4d

5b

Text 3

1d

2c

3a

4c

5b

Text 4

1d

2b

3a

4c

5c

Text 5

1b

2d

3a

4d

5b

Text 6

1a

2d

3c

4b

5b

Text 7

1d

2b

3c

4a

5b

Text 8

1d

2a

3b

4c

5b

Text 9

1b

2b

3d

4c

5a

Text 10

1d

2a

3c

4a

5b

Text 11

1a

2c

3d

4c

5b

Text 12

1d

2c

3a

4d

5b

Text 13

1c

2d

3c

4b

5c

Text 14

1c

2d

Text 15

1c

2d

Text 16

1b

Text 17

1a

4b

5c

3c

4b

5c

2a

3b

4b

5a

2b

3c

4d

5a

w

w

3c

w

.a

tc .a m

Text 1

1a

2b

3c

4d

5a

Text 19

1a

2a

3b

4d

5a

Text 20

1a

2b

3c

4d

5a

Text 21

1b

2d

3b

4a

5b

Text 22

1d

2c

3c

4b

5a

Text 23

1a

2b

3c

4c

5a

Text 24

1c

2d

3b

4a

5c

Text 25

1a

2b

3b

4d

5c

Text 26

1c

2d

3c

4b

5d

Text 18

294

Text 27

1a

2d

3b

4c

5a

Text 28

1b

2c

3a

4d

5b

Text 29

1b

2c

3c

4a

5b

Text 30

1a

2d

3c

4a

5b

SECTION 4 6b 16b 26c 36c 46a 56a 66c 76c 86c 96b 106c 116a 126b 136d 146d 156b 166b 176b 186b 196c 206a 216b 226c 236d 246b 256d 266b 276a 286a 296a

7b 17c 27d 37c 47d 57a 67b 77a 87b 97c 107b 117a 127d 137c 147b 157b 167b 177a 187c 197c 207c 217c 227a 237c 247c 257d 267c 277b 287a 297d

8d 18d 28c 38a 48d 58a 68a 78c 88a 98d 108a 118c 128c 138b 148c 158b 168c 178a 188a 198c 208b 218a 228d 238a 248b 258d 268c 278d 288a 298a

tc .a m

5d 15d 25b 35d 45c 55b 65d 75c 85d 95c 105a 115a 125d 135d 145a 155c 165c 175b 185a 195b 205a 215a 225c 235c 245c 255a 265a 275c 285b 295a

.a

4b 14d 24b 34a 44a 54c 64b 74b 84d 94c 104c 114b 124d 134c 144b 154c 164c 174a 184d 194b 204b 214a 224a 234c 244d 254d 264c 274a 284b 294a

w

3d 13a 23a 33a 43c 53c 63c 73d 83c 93a 103a 113b 123b 133c 143c 153a 163c 173c 183a 193a 203b 213a 223a 233b 243c 253c 263d 273d 283c 293d

w

2d 12a 22a 32b 42c 52c 62d 72a 82a 92b 102b 112c 122a 132a 142d 152b 162b 172a 182c 192c 202c 212a 222c 232b 242d 252b 262b 272d 282b 292c

w

1d 11c 21d 31b 41c 51a 61a 71b 81a 91d 101a 111b 121d 131b 141b 151d 161d 171b 181a 191b 201b 211a 221d 231b 241d 251d 261a 271b 281a 291d

295

9a 19c 29c 39a 49a 59c 69d 79d 89b 99d 109c 119a 129b 139c 149b 159c 169a 179b 189a 199a 209a 219a 229d 239d 249d 259c 269d 279a 289c 299a

10d 20c 30c 40c 50a 60b 70c 80c 90c 100b 110c 120b 130c 140a 150c 160a 170a 180b 190a 200c 210a 220a 230b 240b 250a 260d 270a 280c 290c 300a

SECTION 5 2, 5, 3, 1, 6

Text 16

1, 4, 5, 2, 3

Text 2

3, 1, 5, 7, 4

Text 17

7, 3, 4, 5, 2

Text 3

6, 4, 5, 1, 7

Text 18

4, 7, 6, 3, 5

Text 4

1,7, 3, 4, 6

Text 19

2, 7, 4, 5, 3

Text 5

6, 2, 5, 1, 7

Text 20

7, 5, 6, 4, 1

Text 6

7, 6, 5, 2, 1

Text 21

5, 1, 6, 2, 3

Text 7

5, 2, 7, 3, 1

Text 22

4, 7, 6, 1, 3

Text 8

4, 1, 2, 5, 6

Text 23

6, 5, 3, 2, 4

Text 9

3, 5, 1, 2, 4

Text 24

3, 5, 7, 2,6

Text 10

3, 1, 7, 6, 2

Text 11

2, 6, 7, 5, 4

Text 12

7, 2, 5, 4, 6

Text 13

2, 3, 7, 4, 1

Text 14

1, 4, 7, 6, 2

Text 15

5, 1, 3, 2, 4

Text 25

5, 1, 2, 7, 3

Text 26

7, 1, 2, 3, 5

Text 27

6, 2, 4, 3, 5

Text 28

3,7, 6, 5, 2

Text 29

2, 7,5, 6, 3

Text 30

1, 4, 6, 7, 5

.a

w

w 5, 3, 7, 6, 2 2, 3, 6, 4, 5 4, 2, 1, 5, 3 5, 2, 1, 3, 7 6, 1, 7, 4, 2 1, 2, 5, 4, 7 1, 3, 2, 6, 4 2, 1, 3, 5, 7 1, 3, 2, 6, 4 6, 1, 5, 3, 4

w

Dialogue 31 Dialogue 32 Dialogue 33 Dialogue 34 Dialogue 35 Dialogue 36 Dialogue 37 Dialogue 38 Dialogue 39 Dialogue 40

tc .a m

Text 1

296

SECTION 6 3, 4, 5

2.

1, 2, 4

3.

1, 2, 4, 5

4.

1, 2, 3

5.

3, 5

6.

1, 4

7.

2, 3, 5

8.

1, 2, 3, 4

9.

1, 3, 5

10.

1, 2, 3, 5

11.

2, 4, 5

12.

1, 2, 3, 5

13.

1, 2

14.

3, 5

15.

1, 3, 5

16.

2, 3, 4

17.

1, 5

18.

1, 2, 4

19.

1, 3, 4, 5

20.

2, 4

21.

2,3, 4

22.

1, 2,3,5

23.

3, 5

24.

1, 2, 3

25.

2, 4, 5

26.

1, 2, 3, 5

27.

3, 4, 5

28.

1, 4

29.

2, 4, 5

30.

1, 3

31.

2, 4, 5

32.

2, 3, 4, 5

33.

1, 4, 5

34.

1, 3, 5

35.

2, 3, 4

36.

1, 2, 3, 5

37.

1, 5

38.

2, 3

39.

2, 4, 5

40.

1, 4

41.

1, 3, 4, 5

42.

1, 2, 5

43.

1, 2, 3, 4

44.

2, 3, 4, 5

45.

3, 5

46.

1, 2, 3

47.

1, 3, 4

48.

4, 5

49.

2, 4, 5

50.

1, 2, 3

51.

1, 3, 4

52.

1, 2, 4

53.

1, 2, 3

54.

1, 4

55.

1, 3, 4, 5

56.

2, 4

57.

1, 4

58.

1, 4, 5

59.

2, 3

60.

2, 3, 4, 5

61.

3, 4

62.

1, 2, 4, 5

63.

4, 5

64.

1, 5

65.

1, 2, 4

66.

2, 4

67.

2, 4

68.

2, 4, 5

69.

1, 3

70.

3, 5

71.

2, 4, 5

72.

2, 5

73.

2, 5

74.

1, 2, 4, 5

75.

2, 3, 5

76.

2, 3, 4

77.

1, 3, 5

78.

1, 3, 4

79.

2, 4

80.

1, 2, 3

B 3 B 5 B 3 B 2 B 4 B 1 B

.a

w C 1 C 4 C 2 C 3 C 5 C 3 C

D 2 D 1 D 1 D 4 D 3 D 5 D

2.

A 2 A 5 A 5 A 4 A 5 A 5 A

w

A 4 5. A 2 9. A 4 13 A 1 17. A 2 21. A 2 25. A

w

SECTION 7 1.

tc .a m

1.

6.

10. 14. 18. 22. 26.

B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 B

C 3 C 2 C 3 C 3 C 4 C 4 C

D 4 D 4 D 2 D 5 D 2 D 2 D

3. 7. 11. 15. 19. 23. 27. 297

A 5 A 4 A 1 A 5 A 5 A 4 A

B 1 B 1 B 4 B 2 B 1 B 1 B

C 2 C 5 C 2 C 4 C 2 C 3 C

D 4 D 2 D 3 D 3 D 3 D 2 D

4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 24. 28.

A 1 A 5 A 5 A 1 A 4 A 5 A

B 4 B 4 B 4 B 3 B 2 B 3 B

C 2 C 3 C 2 C 5 C 3 C 2 C

D 5 D 2 D 1 D 2 D 1 D 4 D

4 29. A 1 33. A 1 37. A 4

1 B 3 B 2 B 1

2 C 5 C 3 C 3

5 1 D A 30. 4 3 D A 34. 4 5 D A 38. 5 1

2 B 1 B 4 B 3

5 C 4 C 3 C 4

4 1 D A 31. 2 4 D A 35. 2 1 D A 39. 5 4

2 B 1 B 2 B 1

4 C 3 C 4 C 3

5 D 5 D 5 D 5

32. 36. 40.

1 A 3 A 1 A 4

1b

2c

3a

4b

5a

6c

7b

8b

9d

10b

Text 2

1d

2b

3b

4a

5d

6b

7d

8c

9b

10a

Text 3

1b

2d

3b

4a

5c

6d

7d

8d

9a

10c

Text 4

1b

2a

3b

4d

5b

6b

7c

8b

9b

10c

Text 5

1c

2b

3b

4b

5b

6b

7d

8a

9c

10b

Text 6

1b

2b

3b

6b

7d

8a

9a

10c

Text 7

1c

2a

5a

6d

7d

8b

9c

10c

Text 8

1b

4d

5c

6b

7a

8b

9d

10c

4d

w

3b 3a

w

2c

5b

w

4b

tc .a m

Text 1

.a

LEVEL B SECTION 8

1c

2c

3a

4d

5b

6c

7d

8b

9c

10a

Text 10

1a

2c

3b

4d

5b

6d

7b

8c

9c

10d

Text 11

1d

2c

3d

4c

5b

6a

7c

8a

9d

10d

Text 12

1d

2c

3d

4b

5c

6a

7c

8d

9c

10a

Text 13

1c

2a

3d

4b

5c

6a

7a

8b

9a

10d

Text 14

1d

2c

3b

4a

5b

6c

7a

8d

9c

10d

Text 15

1c

2b

3c

4d

5b

6c

7d

8c

9b

10a

Text 16

1d

2d

3b

4c

5a

6b

7a

8a

9d

10c

Text 9

298

2 B 1 B 3 B 1

5 C 4 C 2 C 3

4 D 5 D 5 D 5

1a

2a

3b

4a

5d

6b

7a

8a

9a

10c

Text 18

1b

2c

3d

4a

5d

6a

7b

8c

9b

10d

Text 19

1c

2d

3b

4c

5a

6a

7b

8c

9a

10 c

Text 20

1c

2a

3d

4b

5c

6d

7a

8a

9d

10c

Text 21

1d

2b

3c

4d

5c

6c

7a

8d

9a

10d

Text 22

1d

2c

3a

4d

5a

6c

7d

8c

9a

10c

Text 23

1b

2d

3a

4b

5b

6c

7b

8a

9b

10d

Text 24

1c

2d

3a

4b

5a

6d

7d

8c

9c

10b

Text 25

1c

2b

3a

4c

5c

6d

7b

8a

9d

10d

SECTION 9 3a

4b

11a

12a

13a

14a

21a

22a

23a

24b

31d

32d

33d

41a

42c

43a

51a

52c

53d

61b

62a

71d

5a

6a

8a

9b

10d

15d

16a

17a

18d

19c

20a

25a

26c

27a

28b

29b

30d

35b

36c

37b

38c

39d

40c

44b

45c

46a

47c

48a

49c

50c

w

w

34a

7a

.a

2b

w

1a

tc .a m

Text 17

54c

55d

56d

57b

58a

59b

60b

63b

64c

65a

66b

67b

68c

69a

70b

72c

73a

74d

75a

76b

77d

78b

79c

80d

81d

82a

83a

84d

85d

86a

87b

88c

89b

90c

91d

92a

93d

94b

95c

96a

97b

98b

99a

100a

101c

102b

103b

104a

105d

106b

107a

108a

109c

110c

111b

112b

113a

114a

115a

116a

117a

118d

119c

120d

121a

122c

123c

124b

125a

126b

127a

128d

129b

130a

131c

132b

133a

134b

135d

136d

137b

138b

139a

140d

299

142c

143a

144d

145b

146c

147b

148d

149c

150a

151c

152a

153a

154a

155a

156a

157b

158d

159b

160c

161b

162a

163c

164c

165a

166b

167c

168a

169c

170c

171d

172b

173b

174d

175c

176b

177a

178c

179b

180b

181d

182c

183a

184d

185b

186b

187a

188a

189d

190a

191b

192c

193d

194b

195c

196a

197d

198b

199c

200b

201b

202c

203a

204d

205a

206c

207b

208c

209a

210d

211c

212a

213b

214d

215d

216c

217a

218c

219c

220a

221d

222b

223c

224a

225a

226d

227c

228b

229c

230c

231b

232d

233b

234d

235c

236b

237b

238d

239d

240b

Text 1

5, 2, 7, 1, 3

2, 7, 3, 6, 4

Text 2

7, 4, 6, 1, 5

Text 12

3, 7, 1, 4, 6

Text 3

2, 4, 6, 1, 7

Text 13

5, 1, 3, 2, 6

Text 4

4, 7, 2, 5, 1

Text 14

2, 5, 7, 3, 6

Text 5

4, 7, 2, 5, 6

Text 15

5, 2, 1, 7, 3

7, 3, 1, 6, 2

Text 16

4, 7, 3, 1, 6

3, 6, 1, 7, 4

Text 17

7, 2, 1, 6, 4

Text 8

2, 7, 5, 3, 6

Text 18

2, 5, 7, 6, 3

Text 9

6, 7, 1, 4, 3

Text 19

4, 6, 5, 3, 7

Text 10

3, 7, 1, 4, 2

Text 20

2, 7, 1, 6, 4

Text 7

w w

Text 6

w

Text 11

.a

SECTION 10

tc .a m

141a

300

SECTION 11 1, 3, 5

2.

2, 3

3.

1, 2, 3, 4

4.

2, 3, 5

5.

1, 4, 5

6.

1, 4

7.

1, 2

8.

1, 2, 5

9.

1, 2, 4, 5

10.

2, 4, 5

11.

1, 2, 5

12.

1, 3

13.

2, 4

14. 1, 2, 4

15.

2, 3

16.

1, 2, 3

17.

1, 2, 5

18.

1, 2, 3

19. 1, 3

20.

1, 3, 5

21.

2, 3, 5

22.

2, 4, 5

23.

1, 2, 4, 5

24. 1, 3, 4, 5

25.

2, 4, 5

26.

2, 3, 4

27.

1, 4, 5

28.

1, 4, 5

29. 1, 3, 5

30.

1, 4, 5

31.

3, 4, 5

32.

1, 3, 5

33.

2, 3, 5

34. 1, 3, 4, 5

35.

1, 2, 5

36.

1, 4, 5

37.

1, 3, 4, 5

38.

4, 5

39. 1, 3, 4, 5

40.

1, 4

41.

2, 3, 4

42.

2, 3, 4

43.

3, 4, 5

44. 1, 3, 5

45.

1, 3, 4

46.

1, 4, 5

47.

2, 5

48.

1, 2, 4

49. 1, 3, 5

50.

2, 4, 5

51.

1, 5

52.

1, 2, 4

53.

1, 2, 4, 5

54. 2, 3, 5

55.

1, 4, 5

56.

2, 4, 5

57.

1, 2, 4

58.

3, 4, 5

59. 2, 4, 5

60.

3, 4, 5

61.

1, 2, 5

62.

1, 2, 4

63.

1, 3, 4

64. 1, 2, 3, 5

65.

1, 2, 5

66.

2, 3, 4

67.

1, 2, 5

68.

1, 2, 3, 5

69. 1, 2, 5

70.

3, 4, 5

71.

1, 4, 5

72.

1, 3, 5

73.

2, 3, 5

74. 1, 5

75.

1, 3, 4

76.

2, 4, 5

77.

3, 4, 5

78.

1, 2, 5

79. 1, 3, 5

80.

1, 3

.a 3. A1 B2 C6 D4

4. A2 B5 C6 D1

6. A1 B4 C6 D3

7. A3 B4 C6 D5

8. A6 B1 C2 D4

2. A2 B5 C4 D6

w

5. A4 B5 C6 D3

w

1. A3 B1 C2 D5

w

SECTION 12

tc .a m

1.

9. A6 B2 C1 D3

10. A1 B4 C2 D6

11. A4 B6 C1 D5

12. A2 B3 C6 D5

13. A2 B5 C4 D3

14. A5 B3 C4 D6

15. A4 B1 C5 D2

16. A2 B5 C3 D6

17. A3 B1 C6 D5

18. A6 B5 C2 D3

19. A2 B3 C4 D5

20. A3 B6 C4 D2

21. A2 B6 C4 D3

22. A4 B5 C1 D3

23. A3 B4 C2 D6

24. A1 B4 C6 D5

25. A4 B6 C1 D2

26. A5 B4 C1 D6

27. A5 B1 C3 D4

28. A4 B3 C2 D6

29. A4 B2 C3 D6

30. A4 B2 C3 D1

31. A6 B5 C3 D4

32. A2 B3 C5 D4

33. A3 B1 C6 D5

34. A5 B1 C6 D3

35. A5 B1 C3 D2

36. A5 B4 C3 D6

37. A4 B2 C5 D3

38. A5 B6 C3 D2

39. A4 B1 C2 D3

40. A5 B3 C2 D1

41. A4 B2 C6 D3

42. A3 B4 C5 D2

43. A3 B4 C6 D5

44. A5 B3 C1 D4

45. A3 B4 C1 D6

46. A4 B1 C5 D2

47. A3 B4 C1 D6

48. A5 B2 C3 D1

301

50. A3 B1 C2 D4

51. A4 B5 C6 D3

52. A5 B4 C1 D2

53. A6 B1 C2 D5

54. A4 B2 C5 D1

55. A3 B1 C2 D4

56. A3 B1 C6 D4

57. A4 B6 C1 D3

58. A4 B2 C1 D5

59. A4 B2 C3 D5

60. A5 B3 C1 D2

61. A4 B6 C3 D1

62. A2 B4 C3 D6

63. A4 B1 C5 D2

64. A2 B4 C1 D3

65. A4 B2 C5 D3

66. A3 B5 C6 D1

67. A3 B1 C4 D6

68. A3 B5 C1 D6

69. A3 B6 C4 D2

70. A2 B1 C3 D4

71. A2 B4 C1 D6

72. A4 B3 C6 D5

73. A4 B1 C5 D3

74. A3 B1 C6 D4

75. A6 B1 C4 D2

76. A5 B3 C1 D4

77. A4 B6 C1 D3

78. A5 B6 C3 D2

79. A3 B1 C6 D5

80. A3 B4 C1 D2

w

w

w

.a

tc .a m

49. A4 B1 C6 D5

302

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w

w

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