The Hayka Magazine Flipbook PDF
Hayka, a perfect place for scientific people. Here you can find amazing scientific articles that would blow your mind.
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LETTER FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD
Letter From The Editorial Board Dear Readers, It gives us immense pleasure to release the very first edition of annual science magazine, Hayka. The Hayka Magazine covers various fields of science and caters to the readers numerous quality articles and interviews. Mr. Rahul Bharadwaj
Today, the world is driven by science and technology and this very well explains the importance of science in our life. We believe that with the help of science we can make the world a much better place to live and this led to the creation of Hayka. Our aim is to enlighten the world with science along with encouraging the youth to take part in STEM activities. We connected with some start-up founders and experts in the field of science to gather their views and opinions and cater to the readers. We hope that you will learn something new with us and heartfully welcome the first release of Hayka. Happy Reading!
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Pankaj Kumar 1.If we are placing solar panels on fresh water bodies, isn’t it blocking the sunlight for marine life? All right so, You can't block the entire sunlight falling on the water surface. So having done a lot of projects, having done a lot of projects in Japan and UK and other places, they concluded that if we leave 30% of the water surface open, it is sufficient for the aquatic life and we hardly use even 5% of that actually. 2.How do you determine if a site is feasible for placing floating solar panels? Okay, so what happens is that first, we visit the site. We check the soil conditions, we check the wind forces which are coming there and then we decide whether any plant will be able to sustain here or not and then only we decide about the feasibility. We see if there is a lot of undulation in the water or what will happen when the water body dries up? So all these things have to be decided before we initiate any project.
3.How do you manage to keep all the heavy solar panels afloat? So to understand this better, lets take an example of a ship, a ship weighs somewhere around 50,000 to 100,000 tons but still manages to stay afloat. It is all because of the buoyancy. It prevents it from sinking down and in the same way, we have to provide enough buoyancy and the solar panels will float
4.Does it depend upon the type of the solar panel or does it depend upon the setup of the whole project? It depends upon the type of the solar panel or the kind of cells we use. So that is where the real technology is. How to place the silica cells? How to put the diodes?So this is all the research is going on in that field. Thats how to optimize those things. So in the future, more and more research will happen and with it the efficiency would also hopefully increase.
5.Do you think that solar energy is the ideal source of energy even in the future? Solar there is an infinite source of energy right? It's up to us that weather we harness it or not? It is free anywhere you go. So I'm sure that in the future, more and more technology development will take place and the efficiency will improve. Nuclear energy is also a good source of energy, because that is also environmental friendly. But again, there are two factors here. 1 it depends on a very rare material 2. The risk of any disaster is huge. And a country like India, we cannot sustain that disaster and that's why, even though in the US there are a lot of nuclear reactors, in India we are not taking such a risk. Therefore, nuclear energy, I see it ruled out and I don’t see it as a possibility. But wind energy in the future or maybe tidal energy etc are also some good contenders and also there are a lot of things actually which are yet to be explored for example 50 years back no one thought solar energy could be an alternative, so let’s keep our perspective broad and open and let’s see what the future beholds.
6.Where do you see your company within the next ten years? We should be doing good work. We should be doing more and more projects. We started very small, but now we are doing multiple projects across India and also beyond India. When you start anything, you have to believe in yourself, in your technology, and things get better and better. It may not be best in the very beginning itself but when going gets tough, tough gets going.
Interviewed By Sameep Mody Ayaan Agrawal
Scripted By -
Pankaj Kumar Co-founder
Dr. Anand Agrawal 1.What are the effects of digital life on our eyesight? There can be numerous effects,. The most common one is when we are working over gadgets, to see clearly, we do not blink very frequently. Normally, the eyes are made in such a way that an individual should blink after every ten to 15 seconds. But while we are working over the screen, this blinking is delayed. It may be delayed to 30 seconds, 40 seconds, and sometimes more. So this causes dryness in the eye. It results in watering and straining. 2.While using gadgets, how frequently should we take breaks?
Work for an hour, take a break from your gadget work for five minutes. During these five minutes you can leave your desk, have a cup of water, have a cup of tea, go to the washroom, do some other work so that your eyes are not focused on a specific point and distance. That is the basic fundamental of giving a break.
3.Are there any specific food items that could help us improve our eyesight? Dietary supplements in the form of vitamins and minerals. You should have a rich diet with vitamin A. Supplements are all green leafy vegetables, carrot, mango, and papaya. If a person is a nonveg, fish oil is again a good source of vitamin A. Apart from vitamin A which is required for visual perception, you should have a diet that is also rich in protein. A rich diet would strengthen your extraocular muscles, the muscles which help move the eyeball in different directions. 4.Do you think the blue light filter glasses are helpful? Yes, they reduce the ultraviolet rays and help in reducing the strain on the eye. But the blue light is also required for a normal sleep pattern. It is preferred to use the blue filter only while you are working over the gadgets and not in your daily routine so that you keep on having a small exposure to blue light.
Interviewed by: Pulak Bagaria Saksham Agrawal
Dr. Anand Agrawal Opthalmologist
Unsolved mystery of sound creating light
D id you know water can emit
This phenomenon lasts only for a trillionth of a second and therefore it goes unnoticed. Due to soundwaves, gaseous cavities in liquids get converted into small bubbles with a diameter of not more than 1 micrometer.
When these bubbles burst, they emit light. This explosion and emission of light last for a noticeably brief period, making it unobservable. This period can be increased by setups in laboratories in which the bubbles form and explode in a cycle.
Even then due to the low intensity of the light and the small size of the bubble, this phenomenon remains unnoticeable. Adding noble gases (helium, neon, argon, etc.) to the liquid increases the intensity of light. The temperature of the bubbles may range between 2300 K to 5100 K.
Even today, scientists are unable to figure out how this emission of light occurs.
light if sound waves of sufficient intensity pass through it? This phenomenon is known as “sonoluminesc ence.” It was discovered by two scientists at the University of Cologne in 1934.
Alchemy- turn anything to gold
Alchemy was a philosophical tradition that dealt with converting anything into gold. It was rehearsed in some of the world’s oldest civilizations such as Egypt, India, China, and Greece but no substantiation of such techniques was ever found.
Ancient scriptures describing alchemy were found across the world. To help against misapplication, these scriptures were written in secretive languages. Monarchical autocrats made it illegal in medieval Europe to talk about and work on alchemy.
Another idea that's related to alchemy is the “ Elixir of life.” Drinking this elixir of life will make anyone immortal. Again, indeed this wasn't achieved.
Many believe that alchemy gave rise to chemistry. Even Isaac Newton devoted more of his writings to alchemy than to optics or physics. Superficially, alchemy appears to be something that can not be achieved but there are certain propositions that appear promising.
Now the question arises, is alchemy possible, and if yes, then how? In science, we've the concept of nuclear transmutation. Nuclear transmutation refers to the transformation of one chemical element to another element. One similar 9 illustration of nuclear transmutation is the conversion of hydrogen to helium in stars.
So, can we convert base metals into gold? Yes, we can. The requirements are-a particle accelerator and a vast supply of energy. A particle accelerator costs billions of dollars and still could produce only a little quantum of gold. Noble Prize winner Glenn Seaborg formerly said, “ It would cost more than one quadrillion dollars per ounce to produce gold by this experiment."
Graphene: The future?
For beginners, Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that have been tightly bounded to form a hexagonal pattern. Layers of graphene are stacked together to form graphite and if you want to feel graphene yourself it is as easy as rubbing a pencil on paper and then putting a tape on it, once you remove the tape the black layer would be graphene. Graphene shows tremendous properties like high electrical conductivity, thermal stability and incredible strength. It is even stronger and stiffer than diamond and this ability of it gives us infinite possibilities to explore…. You all must have realized that when you buy a phone its battery might easily be lasting for a day or even more. But, after 2-3 years or so the battery might not even last for 5-7 hours. Have you ever wondered why this happens? It happens because all batteries are made from lithium-ion and there is an anode and a cathode in these batteries. The lithium-ion needs to pass from a liquid to go from the anode to the cathode, releasing energy.
But, the catch with these batteries is that they are highly inflammable and there are small structures which form in this liquid over time called dendrites. These dendrites make it harder for the lithium-ion to flow freely, which makes your phone’s battery life degrade. Solid batteries though can be made by having quite essentially the same structure but by just switching the liquid in these batteries with Graphene, this could easily boost the battery’s life up to 10 years or so and concerning the “EV” revolution we have been witnessing in the modern era, this is a game-changer.
One more use of Graphene could be in fuel cells, for those who don’t know a fuel cell converts chemical energy formed by the reaction of oxygen and hydrogen into electrical energy. One of its major drawbacks is high fuel crossover which reduces its durability and efficiency Graphene is so dense enough to not let hydrogen pass through it but it allows protons to pass through it, this property of Graphene would help in improving the fuel cell’s efficiency and power by lowering the fuel crossover.
As told before Graphene has many useful properties such as high, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and incredible strength. This makes it the go-to material for many biomedical uses. Many outside applications of graphene can be envisioned such as when healing the body and many inside applications can be envisioned such as drug delivery And potentially changing the behaviour of the cells. These are just a few uses of Graphene but, its possibilities are infinite. Many like to call Graphene the “wonder material” but I like to call it the “not so wonder material”. When 2004 when graphene was found it was considered to be a material that could bring down industries here we stand almost 2 decades in future and people rarely know about this material. The reason is that it is very difficult to obtain graphene without damaging it. When you exfoliate graphene either by force or the chemical-based approach, you are likely to introduce defects in the material’s structure and can end up making graphene oxide damaged to the extent where it is no longer capable of conducting electricity. People are working on methods to reduce Graphene’s price and to make the method of obtaining Graphene more efficient, I hope that they succeed in their endeavours and the near future we could be able to see Graphene in wide use.
S.A. BHISE Born only a decade after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, Shankar Abaji Bhise was a child prodigy who designed an indoor coal-gas generator, when he was only 14 year old. A boy brilliant researcher from Bombay seemingly got his early exposure to global science through science magazines. By his early 20s, he had already invented electrical bicycle contraptions, a station indicator for Bombay’s suburban railway system, tamper-proof bottles and a cutting-edge grocery-weighing machine that earned him the first prize at a British inventor’s contest. However, Bhise is most recognised for his iconic Bhisotype, a type-casting machine that revolutionised the printing industry. In one minute, the machine could cast and assemble 1200 different types automatically When top researchers from Britain contested his claim, he went ahead to set up his own foundry and display his machine to the critics who were left spellbound by his technical prowess. Throughout his career, bhise had 200 inventions and 40 patents to his name, which include a unique telephone model, kitchen appliances, and automatic toilet flushers. Bhise later upgraded the Bhisotype to comprise finer features and faster performance, however, continued research was compromised with the advent of World War I, after which he gradually faded into oblivion. He passed away on 7 April 1935, in New York at the age of 68.
S.N. BOSE Satyendra Nath Bose is admired as a theoretical physicist with his pioneer work in the field of quantum formulations. Born on January1, 1894, in Kolkata, his source of inspiration was always his father and teachers like Jagdish Chandra Bose, Prafulla Chandra Ray and Naman Sharma. He worked as Professor of Physics at the Rajabar Science College of the University of Calcutta. During his time of teaching, he suddenly realized that the process of measuring particles is incorrect and a solution has to be found out for the same. After years and years of hard work, he build a hypothesis and documented all his findings in a study titled “Planck’s Law and the Light Quantum Hypothesis”. He submitted his work finally to a famous journal “The Philosophical Magazine” but was rejected. Inspite of this rejection, he took the bold step in sending his work directly to Albert Einstein. Soon he realized the essence of Bose work and he started applying his findings in his own work. With certain modifications, two masterminds came up together with a term BoseEinstein Condensate, a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero, begin to behave like a wave rather than a particle. His theory on Bose statistics led to the class of particles called Bosons named after his name.
OF OF It was the night of August 2018, when I was loosening up in my bed, giving a thought about the future. The future which is inevitable and which needs to be endured by all, that’s when my fascination and curiosity upon automobile kicked in out of nowhere.
Well, as I mentioned it was 2018, when basically Tesla was the only brand dominating the EV(Electronic Vehicle) market and when the world had just started to ponder upon the possibility of EV’s being the primary source of transportation. It had started to seem that it was the only way to conserve our environment from the lion’s share of the carbon emissions emitted during transit.
I questioned myself, is it so? And yes it is, but things start to get complicated here
Ev vehicles rely on rechargeable Lithium Ion batteries to run and that is extracted from cobalt by mining. Then the mineral is sent to Giga-factories to made into batteries and that solely causes the production of Ev vehicles to ooze 30-40% more emissions in their production when compared to gas vehicles.
In spite of this, taking an example of Tesla Model S, when the battery of the car is reused, 70% of it is conserved which probably compensates for all the emissions.
But there is more to it, now we stand in the year 2021 and now certain manufacturers have started to integrate the batteries of cars in the chassis which makes it unfeasible to change the battery of the car and car batteries like all the batteries degrade due to chemical reactions in the battery. A Tesla battery, which is one of the best in the industry, degrades after 10-15 years and for comparison an American car has an average lifespan of 15-17 years before its parts need conditioning.
But, there is a positive bit to it. Electronic vehicles though being more dearly priced than conventional gasoline powered ones, they are cheaper to run in general. As electricity is cheaper than petrol and diesel. We have seen this gap rise exceedingly in the COVID-19 era, for example the price of petrol in New Delhi in 2021 is RS. 103.97 per liter which is equivalent to 1.39 US dollars and economy beats everything in this sphere.
And now comes the division of history. If any person asks a youngster that would he plump for a rather quieter and eco-friendly Porsche Taycan with an electric engine and 522 hp or a V8 Mustang GT with a roar under its hood and 480 horsepower, I can bet my bottom dollar that most of the people will go for the Mustang.
It’s not that the Taycan is no good, but the electric cars are just not for everyone. The sad thing is that many of the countries are banning gasoline powered vehicles such as the UK banning all gasoline powered vehicles by 2030.
What I personally believe is that If countries are willing to go on the eco-friendly path all the vehicles from the cheapest car till the BMW 7 series or Mercedes S Class range should go to all electric while the vehicles above that range, which are sheer performance and luxury vehicles should be permitted to trade their vehicles. What this will execute is that all the cars present quotidian traffic will be electrified and all the super opulent automobiles could still be an option for the affluent and the respective companies would also not have to change their traditions and power units
Dark matter About 80 percent of the matter in this universe is composed of something that scientists do not know. This matter is called dark matter. We do not know much about this matter. It left scientists in astonishment for many years. This matter is not visible to us. That means it reflects no light. But if it does not reflect light, how do we know it is there?
Scientists detected some strange matter in those areas. We named this matter dark matter. We know this because scientists have observed strange gravitational forces acting on stars and planets.
It is not made up of baryonic particles (electrons, protons, and neutrons) because baryonic clouds absorb radiation passing through them but dark matter does not. So, what is dark matter composed of? If not electrons, protons, or neutrons, what subatomic particle could be there? Many scientists believe that dark matter is composed of WIMPS- Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. It is believed that the mass of these particles is ten to a hundred times that of a proton. Their weak interaction with normal matter makes them difficult to detect. It is also not antimatter because the unique gamma rays are seen when antimatter annihilates with matter. Antimatter contains particles that visible matter contains but with opposite charges. It contains antiprotons and anti antielectrons. When antiparticles meet with normal particles, an explosion occurs and the particles get destroyed.
Lastly, it is not a black hole because a black hole is a region of extremely strong gravity. We are not certain what kind of matter is this. The mystery of dark matter remains unsolved.
Laser & Light
LASER stands for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.” Lasers are highly directional, coherent-power source devices used for the generation and amplification of radiation. Since, 1954 many types of lasers have been introduced. In 1954, Teunes and his students at Columbia University developed the first microwave amplifier and oscillator [MASER]. In 1960, Maimen constructed the first ruby laser.
Basically, like other sources of light, laser is also a light source. The purpose of LASER is not to produce light but it has some of its characteristic properties which makes it different from other light sources. The basic principle for generation of both, normal light and LASER light is same. i.e., excitation of lower energy level atoms to higher energy level and then transition from higher to lower level giving rise to electromagnetic radiations in the form of light. So, the question that comes into our mind is about what makes LASER different from a normal light source. Normal light can be used to view the things around us but LASER light is not used for the same. Communication, Industries, Military Astronomy, LIDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging), Computers, Medical etc. are some of the important areas of application of LASER. LASER are the specially designed light sources using special type of materials. On the contrary, normal light can be generated by using so many types of materials.
- Saksham Agarwal
An elevator to space
The Space Elevator concept is estimated to be completed by 2050 for lifting mass out of the Earth.
Its major advantage is that it requires no rockets and works with extremely strong cables which extend beyond the geostationary orbit of the Earth. The estimated length of the cables required is 144,000km or 89,000 miles.
This would dramatically reduce the cost of reaching space and would make the transfer of cargo between Earth and Moon much cheaper and a lot more sustainable.
Countries like China and Japan are hoping to build a space elevator by 2045 and 2050 respectively. Japan has already started testing its miniature prototype in space.
- HARSHVARDHAN WADHER
1. You will find me in Mercury, Earth, Mars and Jupiter, but not in Venus or Neptune. What am I? 2. I can rush, be still, be hot, be cold, and be hard. I can slip through almost anything. What am I? 3. What can go up and come down without moving? 4. What grows only upwards and can never come down? 5. I touch your face. I am in your words. I am a lack of space and beloved by birds. What am I? 6. What has a mouth but cannot chew? 7. Give it food and it will live; give it water and it will die. What is it? 8. Why did the scientist take out his doorbell?
MASTER RIDDLE A man has to take a wolf, a goat, and some cabbage across a river. His rowboat has enough room for the man plus either the wolf or the goat or the cabbage. If he takes the cabbage with him, the wolf will eat the goat. If he takes the wolf, the goat will eat the cabbage. Only when the man is present are the goat and the cabbage safe from their enemies. All the same, the man carries wolf, goat, and cabbage across the river. How?
*answers at the end of magazine
*answers at the end of magazine
Science Behind Vegetarian Meat
Some scientists have allowed Vegetarian people to enjoy the taste of meat through their invention. Several ingredients like plant-based proteins, soy, potato protein, pea protein, mung bean protein, and even rice protein combined with other ingredients give the perfect chewy texture and juiciness to the vegetarian meat. Several companies around the world are discovering new processes to make VEG meat with different ingredients to mimic the taste of meat accurately. Some companies in India include Ahimsa Food, The Vegan Eatery, Vegeta Gold, and Vezelay. This invention can revolutionize how the world eats meat. Switching to Vegetarian Meat can possibly avoid another pandemic by reducing the consumption of disease-carrying animals. It is also environmentally friendly, unlike the way millions of animals are killed every day for meat. Along with these benefits, Vegetarian meat reduces the risk of heart-related diseases, blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes. This invention might revolutionize the entire food industry. However, the VEG meat also has a long way to go before it is available for everyone at an affordable price.
What's inside your skull ! I call it a huge mess inside your skulls without which u can't live. Yes, I am talking about the brain. You might have heard about the myth that we use less than 10% of your brain but the truth is that you use all of your brain all the time. To justify this I will add that if we use only 10 percent of our brain, the majority of brain injuries would have no discernible consequences. Since the damage will most probably affect parts of the brain that weren’t doing anything.
Jumping over to some facts, the brain exerts centralized control over the body by generating patterns of muscular activities and by driving the secretion of hormones, isn't the brain so interesting.
Did u know that the human brain weighs approximately 1.4 kg? The cerebrum makes up 85% of the brain's weight, and the brain makes up about 2% of a human's body weight? The heaviest human brain weighed 4.43 pounds. It belonged to the Russian writer Ivan Turgenev. In terms of length, the average brain is around 15 centimeters long.
The brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons, Neurons are information messengers. They use electrical impulses and chemical signals to transmit information between different areas of the brain. Reports say that brain has an average of 86 billion neurons!
Did u know that the human brain is the only object that can contemplate itself? The brain only feels pleasure and there are no pain receptors in the brain. Migraine and headache pain arise in the meninges, or the brains covering.
The brain runs on electricity, producing enough power to light a 25-watt bulb, Neurons in the human brain receive electrical signals from thousands of other cells!
The brain has so much in it to learn about and when u go deep into every detail the brain can shock you on how vast and interesting it can be. Can u imagine all of this thing is happening inside your body, inside your skull?
Some facts about sleep
The only activity in which humans spend 26 years of their lives is sleeping and it would not be an exaggeration to say we still beg for 'five minutes of it. In simple words, around 1/3 of our life is in a mysterious state called sleeping. This behavior is common in all animals ranging from flies to humans.
Have you ever wondered why we sleep? And why is it so important that our major portion of life is spent sleeping? According to some research, our sleep drive is linked to an organic compound- Adenosine, that is produced in the brain. As one becomes more tired leading to bedtime, the level of Adenosine rises through the process and finally, our body breaks this down during our sleep. Sleep is a vital activity that recharges and refreshes our body and mind when we wake up.
So, one calls it a psychological way of 'recharging our body in a flight mode' It is also the main reason behind a healthy heart and immunity boost. A healthy sleep also increases pain tolerance power. According to some scientists, it also increases memory and makes you smarter.
Not only does it put one in a good mood but also helps to make a better decision. So, next time before making a tough choice, "Take a nap and play smart". The fact that Humans are the only mammals that can delay sleep adds a feather to its mystery cap. Animals like cats, dogs, and goats sleep when their body tells them. But the human brain can say "Go back to sleep" for watching 'THE VAMPIRE DIARIES'. According to NDTV, a new survey finds that 1 in every 5 people across the globe is sleep deprived. It directly indicates that our specialty to 'delay sleep' is abuse.
Let us not forget that sleep deprivation can kill individuals more quickly than food deprivation. Shockingly, we also spent 7 years trying to get sleep which can easily be reduced with healthy sleeping habits and sleep hygiene. Make sure you get quality sleep to get a quality life. Have comfy sleep today.
What if Humans Were Immortal?
Imagine the possibilities that would come with living forever. You could spend more time with loved ones, master a variety of careers, and travel the entire world. If everyone on Earth were immortal, we would all have a chance to recover from our mistakes, and our society could save millions of billions of dollars spent on healthcare. How close are we to achieving it? And how would longer lifespans change the nature of our relationships? Would we ever get bored of living?
First things first, achieving immortality the way it has been portrayed in the movies, where you can jump off a building and live to tell the tale, is highly unlikely to be true. However, immortality, where people do not "die of old age", could be right around the corner. Would our planet be able to handle a population of people with ever-expanding lifespans?
In Silicon Valley, a movement of billionaires and biotech companies developing drugs to eliminate aging and extend healthy lifespans indefinitely. Playing around with genetics, and reducing caloric intakes have already been proven to extend the lifespans of flies, worms, and mice, so why couldn't that work for humans? Regardless of whether these efforts are successful, the real question is: are we ready for longer lifespans?
There are almost 8 billion of us on this planet, and if we all start living for centuries on end, life is going to look a lot different. Just think of the social implications that would come along with that. For starters, the idea of being married to someone your whole life might become outdated. With a lifelong union potentially comprising upwards of 1,000 years together, we might start looking at marriages as a bunch of long-term commitments we make throughout our lives. Living longer would also mean we would all be working a lot more. No pension plans in the world would be able to support you if you stopped working at 65 and then lived till 500.
Longer careers would be a blessing and a curse. On the positive side, with so many skilled workers staying in the workforce, our economy would be more productive than ever. Overpopulation will occur and the young will strive for jobs. This sort of stagnation would become a problem in other areas, like social progression. If the same, old-thinking leaders from the 18th century never died or retired from power, who is to say we would ever be able to progress past problems like racial segregation?
Even if our society found a way to regulate itself, what would the whole immortality experience be like for you as an individual? If we had endless days ahead of us, wouldn't that take away a big part of what makes life special? There would be less incentive to make every day count, and as a result, we might end up with unhappy people on our planet. Oh, and, that planet is not getting any bigger, it is just going to keep getting more crowded. Earth already has an overpopulation problem, and if the death rate slows to a halt, then our resources will run out quickly. Suddenly the idea of immortality does not seem so great.
CREDITS EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Pulak Bagaria Sameep Mody Harshvardhan Wadher
STAFF EDITOR Mr. Rahul Bharadwaj
SENIOR EDITORS Prataksh Sharma
ASSOCIATE EDITORS Ayaan Agrawal Saksham Agrawal Jayant Agrawal
DESIGNED BY Harshvardhan Wadher Prataksh Sharma
COVER DESIGN Harshvarshan Wadher
PUBLISHED BY The Hayka Magazine
SPECIAL THANKS Mr. Pankaj Kumar Dr. Anand Agrawal
k n a h T ! u ! o y
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