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The Visual Dictionary of Transportation


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THE VISUAL DICTIONARY OF

T R A N S P O R TAT I O N

luggage rack Support at the rear of the vehicle, for attaching a trunk or for lashing down luggage using straps.

mirror Mirror attached to the handgrip, allowing the motorcyclist to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around. seat Usually leather seat where the driver sits. apron Aerodynamic component in sheet metal or plastic, trimming the steering column and protecting the driver from the wind and inclement weather.

floorboard Wide flat surface for resting the feet on.

TRANSPORTATION Jean-Claude Corbeil Ariane Archambault

QA INTERNATIONAL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our deepest gratitude to the individuals, institutions, companies, and businesses that have provided us with the latest technical documentation for use in preparing this dictionary. Arcand, Denys (motion picture director); International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authority; Canadian Payments Association (Charlie Clarke); Canadian Bankers Association (Lise Provost); Automobiles Citroën; Automobiles Peugeot; Bank of Canada (Lyse Brousseau); Royal Bank of Canada (Raymond Chouinard, Francine Morel, Carole Trottier); Barrett Xplore inc.; Bazarin, Christine; Library of Canadian Parliament (Information Services); Bibliothèque nationale du Québec (Jean-François Palomino); Bluechip Kennels (Olga Gagne); Bombardier Aerospace; Bridgestone-Firestone; Brother (Canada); Canadian National; Casavant Frères ltée; C.O.J.O. ATHENS 2004 (International Media Service); Centre Eaton de Montréal; Centre national du costume (Recherche et diffusion); Cetacean Society International (William R. Rossiter); Chagnon, Daniel (architect D.E.S. - M.E.Q.); Cohen et Rubin Architectes (Maggy Cohen); Commission scolaire de Montréal (École StHenri); Hudson Bay Company (Nunzia Iavarone, Ron Oyama); Corporation d'hébergement du Québec (Céline Drolet); National Theatre School of Canada (Library); Élevage Le Grand Saphir (Stéphane Ayotte); Atomic Energy of Canada; Eurocopter; Famous Players; Fédération bancaire française (Védi Hékiman); Fontaine, PierreHenry (biologist); Future Shop; Garaga; Groupe Jean Coutu; Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal; Hôtel Inter-Continental; Hydro-Québec; I.P.I.Q. (Serge Bouchard); IGA Barcelo; International Entomological Society (Dr. Michael Geisthardt); Irisbus; Jérôme, Danielle (O.D.); La Poste (Colette Gouts); Le Groupe Canam Manac inc.; Lévesque, Georges (urgentologist); Lévesque, Robert (chief machinist); Manutan; Marriott SpringHill Suites; MATRA S.A.; Métro inc.; National Defence of Canada (Public Affairs); ministère de la Défense, République Française; ministère de la Justice du Québec (Service de la gestion immobilière - Carol Sirois); ministère de l'Éducation du Québec (Direction de l'équipement scolaire - Daniel Chagnon); Muse Productions (Annick Barbery); National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Nikon Canada inc.; Normand, Denis (telecommunications consultant); Office de la langue française du Québec (Chantal Robinson); Paul Demers & Fils inc.; Phillips (France); Pratt & Whitney Canada inc.; Prévost Car inc.; Radio Shack Canada ltée; Réno-Dépôt inc.; Robitaille, Jean-François (Department of Biology, Laurentian University); Rocking T Ranch and Poultry Farm (Pete and Justine Theer); RONA inc.; Sears Canada inc.; Public Works and Government Services Canada: Translation Bureau; Correctional Service Canada; Société d'Entomologie Africaine (Alain Drumont); Société des musées québécois (Michel Perron); Société RadioCanada; Sony du Canada ltée; Sûreté du Québec; Théâtre du Nouveau Monde; Transport Canada (Julie Poirier); Urgences-Santé (Éric Berry); Ville de Longueuil (Direction de la Police); Ville de Montréal (Service de la prévention des incendies); Vimont Lexus Toyota; Volvo Bus Corporation; Yamaha Motor Canada Ltd. Transportation was created and produced by QA International 329 De la Commune West, 3rd Floor Montreal (Quebec) H2Y 2E1 Canada T 514.499.3000 F 514.499.3010 www.qa-international.com © QA International 2009. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval sytem, without permission in writing by QA International.

Printed and bound in Singapore 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 11 10 09

www.qa-international.com Version 3.5.1

ISBN 978-2-7644-0880-3

EDITORIAL

S TA F F

L AY O U T

Editor: Jacques Fortin Authors: Jean-Claude Corbeil and Ariane Archambault Editorial Director: François Fortin Editor-in-Chief: Anne Rouleau Graphic Designer: Anne Tremblay

Pascal Goyette Danielle Quinty Émilie Corriveau Preliminary layout: Émilie Bellemare Sonia Charette D O C U M E N TAT I O N

PRODUCTION

Nathalie Fréchette Josée Gagnon TERMINOLOGICAL

RESEARCH

Jean Beaumont Catherine Briand Nathalie Guillo ENGLISH

Gilles Vézina Kathleen Wynd Stéphane Batigne Sylvain Robichaud Jessie Daigle D ATA

MANAGEMENT

Programmer: Éric Gagnon Josée Gagnon

DEFINITIONS

Nancy Butchart Rita Cloghesy Tom Donovan Diana Halfpenny John Woolfrey Kathe Roth

REVISION

Veronica Schami Jo Howard Marie-Nicole Cimon Liliane Michaud PREPRESS

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

Artistic Direction: Jocelyn Gardner Jean-Yves Ahern Rielle Lévesque Alain Lemire Mélanie Boivin Yan Bohler Claude Thivierge Pascal Bilodeau Michel Rouleau Anouk Noël Carl Pelletier Raymond Martin

Karine Lévesque François Hénault Julien Brisebois Patrick Mercure

CONTRIBUTIONS

QA International wishes to extend a special thank you to the following people for their contribution to this book: Jean-Louis Martin, Marc Lalumière, Jacques Perrault, Stéphane Roy, Alice Comtois, Michel Blais, Christiane Beauregard, Mamadou Togola, Annie Maurice, Charles Campeau, Mivil Deschênes, Jonathan Jacques, Martin Lortie, Frédérick Simard, Yan Tremblay, Mathieu Blouin, Sébastien Dallaire, Hoang Khanh Le, Martin Desrosiers, Nicolas Oroc, François Escalmel, Danièle Lemay, Pierre Savoie, Benoît Bourdeau, Marie-Andrée Lemieux, Caroline Soucy, Yves Chabot, Anne-Marie Ouellette, Anne-Marie Villeneuve, Anne-Marie Brault, Nancy Lepage, Daniel Provost, François Vézina, Guylaine Houle, Daniel Beaulieu, Sophie Pellerin, Tony O'Riley, Mac Thien Nguyen Hoang, Serge D'Amico.

INTRODUCTION EDITORIAL POLICY

DEFINITIONS

The Visual Dictionary takes an inventory of the physical environment of a person who is part of today's technological age and who knows and uses a large number of specialized terms in a wide variety of fields. Designed for the general public, it responds to the needs of anyone seeking the precise, correct terms for a wide range of personal or professional reasons: finding an unknown term, checking the meaning of a word, translation, advertising, teaching material, etc. The target user has guided the choice of contents for The Visual Dictionary, which aims to bring together in 12 thematic books the technical terms required to express the contemporary world, in the specialized fields that shape our daily experience.

Within the hierarchical format of The Visual Dictionary's presentation, the definitions fit together like a Russian doll. For example, the information within the definition for the term insect at the top of the page does not have to be repeated for each of the insects illustrated. Instead, the text concentrates on defining the distinguishing characteristics of each insect (the louse is a parasite, the female yellow jacket stings, and so forth). Since the definition leaves out what is obvious from the illustration, the illustrations and definitions complement one another. The vast majority of the terms in the Visual Dictionary are defined. Terms are not defined when the illustration makes the meaning absolutely clear, or when the illustration suggests the usual meaning of the word (for example, the numerous handles).

STRUCTURE Each tome has three sections: the preliminary pages, including the table of contents; the body of the text (i.e. the detailed treatment of the theme); the index. Information is presented moving from the most abstract to the most concrete: sub-theme, title, subtitle, illustration, terminology.

TERMINOLOGY Each word in The Visual Dictionary has been carefully selected following examination of high-quality documentation, at the required level of specialization. There may be cases where different terms are used to name the same item. In such instances, the word most frequently used by the most highly regarded authors has been chosen. Words are usually referred to in the singular, even if the illustration shows a number of individual examples. The word designates the concept, not the actual illustration.

4

METHODS OF CONSULTATION Users may gain access to the contents of The Visual Dictionary in a variety of ways: • From the TABLE OF CONTENTS at the end of the preliminary pages, the user can locate by title the section that is of interest. • With the INDEX, the user can consult The Visual Dictionary from a word, so as to see what it corresponds to, or to verify accuracy by examining the illustration that depicts it. • The most original aspect of The Visual Dictionary is the fact that the illustrations enable the user to find a word even if he or she only has a vague idea of what it is. The dictionary is unique in this feature, as consultation of any other dictionary requires the user first to know the word.

TITLE DEFINITION It explains the inherent qualities, function, or characteristics of the element depicted in the illustration.

Its definition is found below. If the title refers to information that continues over several pages, after the first page it is shown in a shaded tone with no definition.

SUB-THEME These are shown at the end of the preliminary pages along with their definitions. They are then repeated on each page of a section, but without the definition.

TERM Each term appears in the index with a reference to the pages on which it appears.

ROAD TRANSPORT

ROAD TRANSPORT

movable bridges

movable bridges

Bridges whose decks move to free up the transportation channel they cross, or that are built temporarily while awaiting a permanent structure. swing bridge Bridge whose deck pivots around a vertical axle.

turntable Moving mechanical structure on a pier enabling the deck to pivot.

double-leaf bascule bridge Bridge whose deck is composed of two spans joining each other at the middle of the bridge and pivoting around a vertical axle at each abutment.

single-leaf bascule bridge Bridge whose deck is raised by means of a counterweight mechanism.

Bailey bridge Steel bridge, often temporary, whose standardized truss components make it easy to assemble quickly.

floating bridge Bridge whose deck rests on pontoons that can be taken apart to open the bridge.

counterweight Concrete or cast-iron mass, balancing the weight of the deck and facilitating its movement.

manrope Chest-high barrier on each side of the deck, preventing people and vehicles from falling off.

pontoon Floating caisson filled with air and supporting the deck.

trolley Part of the bridge moved by a motor; it glides along rails installed under the deck.

transporter bridge Bridge with a very high deck from which a moving platform is suspended to transport pedestrians and vehicles.

guiding tower Pylon equipped with pulleys and cables for hoisting the deck.

lift bridge Bridge whose deck is raised by a system of cables.

lift span Deck suspended at each end by cables hoisting it up along the guiding towers.

platform Cabin suspended from the trolley by cables; it moves from one shore to the other.

16

17

I L L U S T R AT I O N It is an integral part of the visual definition for each of the terms that refer to it. NARROW LINES These link the word to the item indicated. Where too many lines would make reading difficult, they have been replaced by color codes with captions or, in rare cases, by numbers. 5

CONTENTS

8

ROAD TRANSPORT 8 13 16 18 20 22 36 39 42 43 44 45 46 47 54 57 60 70 77 78

Road system Fixed bridges Movable bridges Road tunnel Service station Automobile Brakes Tire Radiator Spark plug Battery Electric automobile Hybrid automobile Types of engines Caravan Bus Trucking Motorcycle 4 X 4 all-terrain vehicle Bicycle

84 RAIL TRANSPORT 84 Passenger station 86 Railroad station 88 High-speed train 90 Diesel-electric locomotive 92 Types of passenger cars 94 Car 98 Yard 100 Railroad track 101 Highway crossing 102 Subway 107 Streetcar

6

108 MARITIME TRANSPORT 108 Harbor 110 Canal lock 112 Ancient ships 114 Traditional ships 116 Four-masted bark 120 Examples of boats and ships 132 Anchor 134 Life-saving equipment 136 Navigation devices 139 Maritime signals 142 Maritime buoyage system

146 AIR TRANSPORT 146 Airport 154 Long-range jet 156 Flight deck 158 Turbofan engine 160 Examples of airplanes 164 Combat aircraft 165 Forces acting on an airplane 165 Movements of an airplane 166 Helicopter 168 Examples of helicopters

169 INDEX

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ROAD TRANSPORT

road system Network of thoroughfares providing for the flow of traffic. cross section of a road Road: thoroughfare connecting two geographical points, usually urban centers.

solid line Line demarcating the edge of the roadway or, when in the center of the roadway, indicating that passing is prohibited.

surface course Roadway’s driving surface; it is smooth, impermeable and provides a good grip for vehicles.

roadway Surface upon which vehicles drive.

shoulder Area between the roadway and the ditch, providing the roadway lateral support; it is also a place for emergency stops.

base Series of layers above the embankment reducing stress exerted by the traffic and preventing the bed from deforming.

bed Composed of the embankment and the earth foundation; the base rests on it.

8

earth foundation Part of the ground that was not excavated during the road’s construction.

broken line Line demarcating the two lanes of the roadway and showing that passing is permitted.

ROAD TRANSPORT

road system

base course Top foundation layer, made up of fine compacted material; the driving surface lies on it.

subbase Base of a roadway, made up of coarse compacted gravel, making the roadway solid and stable.

bank Natural land along the edge of the road.

slope Steeply sloped ground between the ditch and the bank and between the ditch and the shoulder.

subgrade Layer supporting the base course and the subbase and providing drainage.

embankment Layers of material used to build up or level the route the road is to take.

ditch Ditch parallel to the roadway; surface water drains into it.

9

ROAD TRANSPORT

road system cloverleaf Interchange with four branches where the inside loops are for turning left and the direct links for turning right. loop Wide circular curve for moving from one highway to another in order to change direction.

broken line Line demarcating the two lanes of the roadway and showing that passing is permitted.

traffic lanes Parts of the roadway demarcated by lines, each accommodating a single line of vehicles.

freeway Large thoroughfare with separate oneway lanes and no crossing streets; reserved for high-speed traffic.

acceleration lane Temporary lane where vehicles entering the freeway gain speed in order to safely merge into the traffic lane.

passing lane Far left traffic lane where faster-moving vehicles pass other traffic.

traffic lane Part of the roadway demarcated by lines, each accommodating a single line of vehicles.

deceleration lane Temporary lane where vehicles slow down after leaving the traffic lanes.

slower traffic Far right traffic lane for slower-moving vehicles.

ramp Connecting lane between two highways or between a road and a highway for changing direction.

10

ROAD TRANSPORT

road system

overpass Raised part of a road or highway on which traffic flows over another highway or obstacle.

side lane Temporary lane for vehicles intending to enter or exit the main lanes.

median Strip of land separating two roadways leading in opposite directions.

exit Start of the ramp for vehicles leaving the freeway.

entrance Start of the acceleration lane, parallel to the traffic lanes.

island Groomed land between the various lanes of an interchange.

transfer ramp End of the ramp where it meets the highway entrance.

highway Communications route connecting two distant geographic points, usually urban centers.

11

ROAD TRANSPORT

road system examples of interchanges Interchange: structure linking roads or freeways so they do not intersect.

cloverleaf Interchange with four branches where the inside loops are for turning left and the direct links for turning right.

diamond interchange Interchange connecting a road and a freeway, requiring traffic lights for left turns onto and off the road or overpass.

traffic circle Interchange composed of four ramps joining each other to form a circular one-way thoroughfare.

trumpet interchange Interchange connecting a road ending at a freeway, using only one loop.

12

ROAD TRANSPORT

fixed bridges Structures enabling traffic to clear an obstacle, such as a river, gorge or highway. beam bridge Bridge whose deck is composed of one or several beams, which are supported by piers across the open space.

abutment A pier’s point of support on firm ground.

overpass Raised part of a road or highway on which traffic flows over another highway or obstacle.

continuous beam Extended load-bearing part supported by abutments and piers.

deck Set of components making up the structure that carries the bridge’s traffic lanes.

underpass Lowered part of a thoroughfare, enabling traffic to flow under another roadway or obstacle.

parapet Chest-high barrier on each side of the deck, preventing people and vehicles from falling off.

pier Sturdy load-bearing component placed at intervals to support the bridge’s beams.

cantilever bridge cantilever span Bridge whose two main spans extend toward Span with a complex framework on each other and support a short suspended span, suspended span each side of a central pillar; one end of which bears less load. Short center span resting on the ends the span rests on the ground and the other supports a suspended span. of the two cantilever spans.

13

ROAD TRANSPORT

fixed bridges arch bridge Bridge whose deck is supported by suspenders attached to an arch, which exerts diagonal thrust against the lateral supports.

trussed arch Arched girder consisting of two chords joined by a triangulated network of struts.

upper chord Upper lengthwise steel girder forming the metal arch.

arch Metal bow-shaped structure supporting the deck, whose load it transfers to the abutments.

portal frame Part of the deck’s frame over firm ground, lying on columns.

thrust Point at which the arch is supported by the abutment.

deck Set of components making up the structure that carries the bridge’s traffic lanes.

lower chord Lower lengthwise steel girder forming the metal arch.

14

column Sturdy component forming a vertical support.

pier Solid concrete construction acting as counterweight to the thrust of the arch against the abutment.

abutment Base of the pier; it supports the arch’s weight and thrust.

ROAD TRANSPORT

fixed bridges suspension bridge Bridge whose long deck is suspended from load-bearing cables, which are supported by the towers and anchored in the ground at both ends of the bridge.

suspender Cable or metal rod connecting the suspension cable to the deck, supporting it.

deck Set of components making up the structure that carries the bridge’s traffic lanes.

foundation of tower Solid concrete base that is anchored in the ground.

anchorage block Concrete structure on each side of the abutment; it is buried deep in the ground and the end of the suspension cable is attached to it.

approach ramp Lane for accessing the bridge.

suspension cable Very strong, flexible component made of steel wires; it bears the weight of the deck.

tower Elevated structure made of metal or reinforced concrete; it supports the cables.

center span Section of the deck entirely suspended between the towers.

side span Section of the span between the tower and the abutment.

abutment Solid concrete construction whose mass counterbalances the weight of the suspended roadway.

15

ROAD TRANSPORT

movable bridges Bridges whose decks move to free up the transportation channel they cross, or that are built temporarily while awaiting a permanent structure. swing bridge Bridge whose deck pivots around a vertical axle.

turntable Moving mechanical structure on a pier enabling the deck to pivot.

Bailey bridge Steel bridge, often temporary, whose standardized truss components make it easy to assemble quickly.

floating bridge Bridge whose deck rests on pontoons that can be taken apart to open the bridge.

manrope Chest-high barrier on each side of the deck, preventing people and vehicles from falling off.

pontoon Floating caisson filled with air and supporting the deck.

trolley Part of the bridge moved by a motor; it glides along rails installed under the deck.

transporter bridge Bridge with a very high deck from which a moving platform is suspended to transport pedestrians and vehicles.

16

platform Cabin suspended from the trolley by cables; it moves from one shore to the other.

ROAD TRANSPORT

movable bridges double-leaf bascule bridge Bridge whose deck is composed of two spans joining each other at the middle of the bridge and pivoting around a vertical axle at each abutment.

single-leaf bascule bridge Bridge whose deck is raised by means of a counterweight mechanism.

counterweight Concrete or cast-iron mass, balancing the weight of the deck and facilitating its movement.

guiding tower Pylon equipped with pulleys and cables for hoisting the deck.

lift bridge Bridge whose deck is raised by a system of cables.

lift span Deck suspended at each end by cables hoisting it up along the guiding towers.

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ROAD TRANSPORT

road tunnel Underground passage for a road under an obstacle, such as a river or a hill.

emergency station Office housing on-duty personnel responsible for communications and for first aid and fire-fighting equipment.

technical room Room housing lighting, ventilation, heating and telecommunications equipment.

connecting gallery Corridor connecting the vehicle rest area to the emergency station. emergency truck Vehicle equipped for freeing accident or fire victims and transporting them to hospital. vehicle rest area Area reserved for permanent parking of an emergency vehicle or temporary parking for a vehicle that has broken down or has had an accident.

fresh air duct Conduit usually connected to a central ventilating station, which supplies the tunnel with fresh air through openings at the side of the roadway. exhaust air duct Conduit usually connected to a central ventilating station, which evacuates polluted or smoky air through openings along the tunnel. 18

ROAD TRANSPORT

road tunnel shelter Enclosed room, ventilated, insulated from fire and connected to the evacuation route, ensuring the users’ safety before evacuation.

pressurized refuge Enclosed corridor with two doors; one cannot be opened unless the other one is closed, thus the air pressure prevents the smoke from entering.

stairs

safety niche Recess for an emergency telephone and fire extinguishers.

evacuation route Fresh-air duct connected to a shelter and equipped to evacuate users in case of fire.

roadway Surface upon which vehicles drive.

19

ROAD TRANSPORT

service station gasoline pump Machine with a pump for refilling vehicles with fuel.

volume display Screen displaying, in gallons or liters, the volume of fuel pumped.

display Surface displaying instructions for customers paying by card.

price per gallon/liter Screen displaying the price per volume unit (liter or gallon) of the fuel chosen.

total sale display Screen displaying the total price, corresponding to the volume of fuel pumped.

alphanumeric keyboard Set of buttons for entering numbers, letters and other kinds of information. card reader slot The card is inserted into the device, which verifies the customer’s personal identification number (PIN) before the transaction can begin. slip presenter Slot through which the user is given the payment receipt for the card payment.

type of fuel Choice of available fuels (such as diesel and gasoline) and the price of each per volume unit (liter or gallon). operating instructions Set of instructions explaining the steps to follow to use the gasoline pump.

pump nozzle Gun-shaped spout at the end of the gasoline pump hose and used to pour fuel into the vehicle’s tank.

gasoline pump hose Flexible pipe connected to the pump, maintaining fuel flow.

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pump number

ROAD TRANSPORT

service station service station Commercial establishment comprising one or several gasoline pumps and carrying out general maintenance of vehicles.

mechanics Workshop where engines and their related systems are maintained and repaired.

car wash Station where vehicles are automatically washed.

ice dispenser Refrigerated box containing bags of ice for self-service.

soft-drink dispenser Automated machine serving soft drinks; it is activated by the insertion of coins into a slot.

maintenance Workshop where the necessary checks and adjustments are made to vehicles.

office Workplace for administrative personnel. air pump Machine connected to a compressor, used for inflating tires to their required air pressure. kiosk Hut where customers can quickly settle their fuel bills. gasoline pump Machine with a pump for refilling vehicles with fuel. pump island Space where the gasoline pumps are installed.

21

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile Motor vehicle comprising four wheels, developed for transporting a small number of people and small loads. examples of bodies Styles vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and from year to year but there is little variation in the basic model.

micro compact car Very small automobile comprising two seats and integrated cargo area, designed to be driven and parked in large cities.

sports car Automobile with an aerodynamic look comprising two doors, a small trunk separate from the passenger compartment and, sometimes, narrow rear seats.

two-door sedan Automobile comprising two doors, a trunk separate from the passenger compartment and four places.

hatchback Automobile comprising two doors and a lift gate, folding front seats granting access to the rear seats, and a cargo area integrated with the passenger compartment.

convertible Automobile comprising two or four doors and a soft or hard retractable roof.

22

four-door sedan Automobile comprising four doors and a trunk separate from the passenger compartment.

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile station wagon Automobile comprising four doors, a large cargo area integrated with the passenger compartment and folding rear seats for enlarging the cargo area.

minivan Automobile comprising three rows of seats; the last row can be folded down to enlarge the cargo area.

sport-utility vehicle Automobile designed to be driven on any kind of roadway or on rugged terrain.

pickup truck Automobile comprising only one row of seats and an uncovered bed closed off by a gate.

limousine Spacious deluxe sedan comprising four or more doors; the passenger area is separated from the chauffeur’s.

23

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile body Automobile structure designed to house and protect the mechanical components, the passengers and cargo.

windshield wiper Rubber squeegee, usually mounted in a pair; it is activated by a motor and cleans the windshield.

windshield Glass and plastic pane protecting the occupants from inclement weather while providing good visibility.

outside mirror Mirror fixed to the outside of the passenger compartment enabling the driver to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around. cowl Transverse component of the body between the hood and the windshield allowing air into the passenger compartment.

washer nozzle Device squirting liquid on the windshield in order to clean it. hood Lidlike part of the body covering and protecting the engine.

grille Plastic or metal grating in front of the vehicle protecting the radiator and serving as decoration.

bumper molding Metal or plastic trim embellishing the front and rear bumpers. headlight Lamp on the front of the vehicle to light up the space in front.

fender tire front fascia Component of the body forming a Component on the exterior of the body Circular deformable unit made of rubber, mounted on streamlined and aerodynamic casing the wheel and inflated with air, providing the below the bumpers reducing air around the wheels. connection between the car and the road, and resistance. absorbing the unevenness of the road. 24

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile

sliding sunroof Moving part in the roof that opens up over the front seats to let air into the passenger compartment.

antenna Device receiving radio waves broadcast by a station.

roof Exterior component with a slightly curving surface forming the vehicle’s covering.

center post Vertical safety pillar between the two doors connecting the upper part of the body to the lower part.

drip molding Small open canal capturing rainwater from the roof and carrying it to the rear, where it drips off. trunk Enclosed space at the rear of the vehicle, or sometimes at the front, designed to hold and transport cargo that is not too large. quarter window Small window among the series of windows on the side of the body.

gas tank door Flap concealing the fuel-tank opening, which is plugged by a cap.

mud flap Piece of rubber or plastic attached behind the rear wheels to repel projectiles.

window Side window that can be lowered, protecting against inclement weather while providing good visibility.

door Moving panel with a handle, attached to the body by hinges or a sliding system, providing access to the passenger compartment. body side molding Metal or plastic part attached along the doors to protect them against light impact.

wheel cover Decorative metal or plastic part concealing the wheel hub.

door lock Mechanism housed in the door to lock it; it is manipulated with a key or button.

door handle Device for activating the door’s opening mechanism.

25

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile headlights Set of regulation luminous devices placed on the front of a vehicle for illuminating and signaling.

fog light Lamp whose light rays are directed toward the roadway and illuminate the road shoulder, by which the driver navigates in the event of fog.

taillights Set of regulation lighting devices placed at the rear of a vehicle and used for signaling.

low beam Lamp illuminating the road at short distances (30 yards), used instead of high beam to high beam avoid blinding drivers coming in the opposite Lamp illuminating the road over a long distance direction. (100 yards), used outside urban areas.

side marker light Colored light demarcating the width of the vehicle. turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles.

brake light Light that goes on automatically when the driver steps on the brake pedal in order to warn the vehicles following it.

license plate light Lighting device for a vehicle’s license plate, making it visible in darkness.

taillight Lamp turning on automatically when the front lights are lit, making the vehicle visible for up to 150 yards. side marker light Colored light demarcating the width of the vehicle.

turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles.

26

brake light Light that goes on automatically when the driver steps on the brake pedal in order to warn the vehicles following it.

reverse light White lamp that turns on automatically to warn motorists and pedestrians when the driver puts the car in reverse.

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile door Moving panel with a handle, attached to the body by hinges or a sliding system, providing access to the passenger compartment.

outside mirror control Lever for adjusting the position of the outside mirror from the inside.

window regulator handle Handily placed lever that turns to activate the mechanism raising and lowering the window.

assist grip Handle allowing the passenger to pull the door inward in order to close it.

window Side window that can be lowered; it protects against inclement weather while ensuring good visibility.

interior door lock button Visible end of the rod activating the lock; it is lifted or lowered to unlock and lock the door.

lock Mechanism housed in the door to lock it; it is manipulated with a key or button.

trim panel Component covered with fabric, plastic or leather, upholstering the inside of the door.

accessory pocket Open compartment fitted into the bottom of the door, for storing small objects.

hinge Articulating mechanism supporting the door and enabling it to pivot while it is being opened and closed.

armrest Support fixed to the door, for resting the arm.

inner door shell The door’s metal structure, serving to absorb impacts; it also encloses the locking mechanisms and, when it is lowered, the window.

interior door handle Mechanism for opening the door from the inside of the vehicle.

27

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile bucket seat: front view Bucket seat: upholstered and adjustable seat that envelopes the occupant’s body, keeping it in place during turns and providing greater comfort.

shoulder belt Strap crossing in front of the passenger’s thorax, from the shoulder to the hip.

bucket seat: side view

headrest Safety pad placed behind the passenger’s head to protect the cervical vertebrae in the event of impact.

backrest Part of the seat supporting the back.

sliding rail Metal part along which the seat moves forward and backward. sliding lever Handle for moving the seat toward or away from the dashboard, in relation to the passenger’s height.

seat Horizontal unit for a passenger to sit on. adjustment knob The seat’s regulating mechanism, for changing the angle of the backrest to an almost horizontal position.

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seat belt Safety device fitted with sliding straps, keeping the passenger in the seat in the event of an accident.

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile rear seat Bench containing several spaces installed in the rear of the passenger compartment and occupying its full width. armrest Folding support in the middle of the rear seat, for resting the forearm.

webbing Center belt in the rear seat, strapping in the passenger’s pelvis and restraining only the lower part of the body in the event of impact.

bench seat Horizontal unit for sitting on, providing up to three spaces.

buckle Clasp keeping the seat belt around the passenger and released by pressing with the finger.

29

ROAD TRANSPORT

automobile dashboard Component in the passenger compartment comprising the instrument panel, the manual controls, storage and other accessories.

wiper switch Electric mechanism for switching on the windshield wipers, controlling their speed and activating the windshield washer fluid.

cruise control Mechanism enabling the driver to maintain a cruising speed for the vehicle.

ignition switch Switch activated by a contact key allowing a current from the battery to flow to the starter. headlight/turn signal Lever having several positions that control the turn signals and the low and high beams.

horn Device emitting a loud sound that the driver can use to attract the attention of a pedestrian or other user of the road. steering wheel Circular instrument used by the driver for steering the guide wheels.

clutch pedal Pedal pushed to change gears.

brake pedal Lever that the driver presses with the foot to activate the brake system.

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gas pedal Unit controlled by the foot to increase, maintain or decrease the vehicle’s speed.

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automobile rearview mirror Mirror mounted on the windshield, positioned by the driver so that the vehicles following behind can be seen in it.

vanity mirror Small mirror on the inside of the sun visor. sun visor Movable panel that the passenger can lower over the upper part of the windshield or of the side window to prevent being blinded by the Sun.

on-board computer Computer integrated into the vehicle; it provides information about the vehicle’s main components and helps the driver with tasks related to driving. vent Opening, usually covered by an adjustable grille, allowing warm or cold air into the passenger compartment. glove compartment Small storage space fitted with a locking door.

climate control Mechanism operating the heating or air-conditioning system and controlling its intensity. audio system Sound-reproduction device comprising a tuner and a cassette or CD player.

gearshift lever Control for the gearbox that is manually activated by the driver to change gears.

parking brake lever Lever connected to the rear-wheel brakes that the driver activates manually to stop the vehicle, or in case of emergency.

center console Component located between the front seats and containing certain accessories and control devices, especially the parking brake and gearshift levers. 31

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automobile instrument panel Set of dials and warning lights within the driver’s view that report on the vehicle’s functioning.

temperature indicator Dial showing the temperature of the engine’s coolant.

fuel indicator Dial whose needle is connected to a float in the gas tank; it shows the level of fuel still available.

oil warning light Warning light showing that the engine’s oil level is lower than the minimum required.

alternator warning light Warning light showing that the battery needs recharging.

high beam indicator light Light showing that the high beams are on.

low fuel warning light Warning light showing that the gas tank is almost empty.

turn signal indicator Intermittent light, often accompanied by a sound, showing that a turn signal is in use.

seat-belt warning light Warning light showing that one or more seat belts are not buckled or are not buckled correctly.

tachometer Dial showing the engine’s rotation speed in revolutions per minute.

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trip odometer Mechanism measuring partial distances traveled by the vehicle in kilometers or miles; it can be reset to zero.

odometer Mechanism measuring, in kilometers or miles, the total distance traveled by the vehicle since it left the factory.

speedometer Dial showing the speed at which the vehicle is moving, in kilometers or miles per hour.

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automobile air bag Flexible envelope encased in the dashboard, the steering wheel or the doors, which inflates with pressurized gas when it receives the signal from the safing sensor.

air bag restraint system Automatic safety device containing air bags that, in the event of impact, instantly come between the occupants and the dashboard.

safing sensor Device that receives the signal from the primary sensor and deploys the air bags. It has safeguards against deploying accidentally.

electrical cable Cable connecting the safing sensor, which causes the air bags to deploy. primary crash sensor Device located at the front of the vehicle, which, in the event of collision, transmits the pulse it receives to the safing sensor.

windshield wiper Rubber squeegee, usually mounted in a pair; it is activated by a motor and cleans the windshield.

windshield wiper blade Metal part supporting the wiper through the actions of two small connecting rods.

wiper arm Metal rod with a to-and-fro motion that exerts a uniform pressure on the blade attached to it. fluted shaft Part driven by an electric motor, whose rotating motion it converts into alternating motion through two connecting rods.

wiper Thin rubber blade wiping the water and dust from the windshield.

articulation Assembly enabling the blade to pivot on the end of the arm so that it adapts to the curvature of the windshield. tension spring Spring causing the arm to exert pressure on the blade. 33

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automobile accessories roller shade Shade with a roller containing a spring that causes the shade cloth to roll up; it is usually placed on a side window.

Secondary components of a vehicle, used for its maintenance, safety and such.

floor mat Fabric or rubber covering placed under the passengers’ feet in order to protect the floor of the vehicle.

jumper cables Cables fitted with alligator clips for connecting an emergency battery to a discharged one.

snow brush with scraper Small broom with one end for removing snow from the vehicle and the other for scraping ice off the windows. black clamp A black clamp is fitted on the negative terminal of the emergency battery; the other is attached to a metal part of the other car. red clamp A red clamp is fitted on the positive terminal of both batteries.

cable

ski rack Support placed on the vehicle’s roof, for mounting and transporting skis.

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bike carrier Support placed on the roof or the rear of the vehicle, on which one or more bicycles can be mounted and transported.

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automobile

jack Mechanism activated by a handle, for raising the vehicle.

handle Lever comprising two right-angle bends, for activating the jack mechanism to raise and lower it.

hitch ball Device for hooking up a trailer or caravan to a vehicle.

ball mount Part attached under the rear of the vehicle, with a hitch ball on one end; the trailer’s or caravan’s hitch articulates with it.

four-way lug wrench Wrench for tightening and loosening the wheel nuts; it is made up of two crossed rods with each end having a different size.

child safety seat Chair adapted to the size of a child; it is equipped with a safety harness for keeping the child seated and attached to the rear seat by the seat belt.

sun visor Screen placed inside the windshield of a parked vehicle to protect the passenger compartment from the Sun’s rays.

car cover Flexible casing for covering and protecting the vehicle from the sun, dust and inclement weather.

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brakes Units slowing down or stopping the rotation of the vehicle’s wheels.

disc brake Braking mechanism comprising a disc attached to the wheel, whose rotation is slowed down when the brake pads exert friction on it. piston Part put into motion by hydraulic pressure, which pushes the brake pads to squeeze the disc.

brake line Tube carrying the brake fluid, which becomes pressurized when the driver steps on the brake pedal.

caliper Viselike part comprising a piston, which straddles the brake disc and supports the brake pads.

brake pad Metal plate that is held by the caliper; it is covered with a heat-resistant material that rubs against the disc to slow down its rotation.

disc Round plate interlocked with the wheel whose rotation slows down as it is braked by the friction of the brake pads.

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brakes drum brake Braking mechanism comprising a drum interlocked with the wheel; the brake shoes rub against the drum to slow down the wheel’s rotation.

wheel cylinder Mechanism with a cylinder and two pistons that converts the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder to mechanical force that is applied to the brake shoes.

piston Part that slides in the cylinder under hydraulic pressure and pushes the brake shoe against the drum.

anchor pin Axle serving as an anchoring point for the brake shoe, enabling it to move when acted upon by the piston.

return spring Spring returning the brake shoe to its initial position once the pressure on the brake pedal has ceased.

lug Part for assembling and interlocking the drum and the wheel.

brake shoe Crescent-shaped part interlocked with an anchor pin; it is fitted with a lining, which moves against the interior surface of the drum to slow its rotation.

backing plate Fixed part serving as a mount for the brake shoes, cylinder and anchor pin.

drum Part interlocked with the wheel so that the wheel slows its rotation when the brake shoes rub against the inside of the drum.

brake lining Band of material attached to the brake shoe; heat resistant, it increases the frictional force on the drum.

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brakes antilock braking system (ABS) Electronic device controlling the hydraulic pressure in the braking circuit, to prevent the wheels from locking.

brake fluid reservoir Reservoir supplying the master cylinder with the fluid that transmits pressure to the brakes after the driver presses the brake pedal.

brake booster Mechanism amplifying the force exerted by the driver on the brake pedal.

master cylinder Mechanism composed of a cylinder and pistons that converts the mechanical force of the brake pedal into hydraulic pressure that is transmitted to the brakes.

wheel speed sensor Device sensing the rotation speed of a wheel and transmitting that information to the control unit.

electronic control unit Device that, as a result of signals received from the wheel speed sensor, controls the brake pressure modulator to give the optimal hydraulic pressure.

sensor wiring circuit Set of electric wires transmitting the signals from the sensor to the electronic control unit. disc brake Braking mechanism comprising a disc attached to the wheel, whose rotation is slowed down when the brake pads exert friction on it. pump and motor assembly Pump driven by an electric motor, circulating the brake fluid from the accumulator to the master cylinder.

braking circuit System of tubes containing a fluid that activates the brakes when they come under pressure from the pedal.

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brake pedal Lever that the driver presses with the foot to activate the brake system. brake pressure modulator Hydraulic unit fitted with electric valves that, depending on the signals received from the electronic control unit, adjusts the pressure in each wheel cylinder. accumulator Device temporarily holding the hydraulic brake fluid while the modulator lowers the pressure.

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tire Circular deformable unit made of rubber, mounted on the wheel and inflated with air, providing the connection between the car and the road, and absorbing the unevenness of the road.

rim Metal circle constituting the wheel’s circumference and on which the tire is mounted.

wheel Circular unit turning around an axle; it supports the weight of the vehicle and transmits the thrust, steering and braking actions.

rim flange Edge of the rim providing lateral support to the tire bead so that it adheres solidly to it.

technical specifications Alphanumeric code molded onto the side of the tire, showing its characteristics.

disk A part of the rim that is fixed at its center on the wheel’s axle.

tread design Raised part of the tire tread that improves traction for various usage conditions.

bead Part of the tire that encloses a rigid steel wire that keeps the tire on the rim and makes it watertight.

rubbing strip Round protrusion of the rubber wall, protecting it from side impact and wear.

rubber wall Part of the tire located between the tread and the bead. 39

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tire examples of tires Depending on the intended conditions and uses, tire construction (e.g., type of rubber, tread design, width) varies widely.

performance tire Wide tire that withstands particularly high temperatures and offers superior performance in holding the road and handling turns.

winter tire Tire characterized by ridges providing a good grip on snow- and ice-covered roads.

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all-season tire Tire designed for driving on roads that are dry, wet or slightly snow-covered.

touring tire Tire designed for driving on dry or wet roads, but not recommended for snow or ice.

studded tire Tire whose tread is fitted with metal studs, which provide a good grip on icy roads.

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tire

tread Sculpted part of a tire coming in contact with the roadway.

steel belted radial tire Hybrid tire with addition belts laid on top of the plies of the radial tire; the cords of these belts crisscross each other diagonally.

tread design Raised part of the tire tread that improves traction for various usage conditions.

rubbing strip Round protrusion of the rubber wall, protecting it from side impact and wear. belt Layer of steel wires or fabric under the tread, reinforcing it.

radial ply Layer of fabric fibers covered with rubber; its cord extends from one bead to the other.

inner lining Rubber layer covering the interior surface of the tire, preventing the tire from leaking or bursting when punctured.

bead wire Coil of steel wire reinforcing a tire’s bead. rubber wall Part of the tire located between the tread and the bead.

radial tire Tire with plies whose cords are perpendicular to the direction of the tread.

bias-ply tire Tire with plies whose cords cross each other and are diagonal to the direction of the tread. 41

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radiator Vessel in which the coolant, which circulates around the engine, is cooled by means of flowing air.

filler cap Cap plugging the radiator’s filling opening and regulating the pressure in the cooling system.

cooling fan Mechanism with blades blowing air across the radiator in order to cool the liquid it contains.

grille Grating on the radiator’s front side, protecting it from impact.

electric fan motor Device transforming electric energy into mechanical energy to drive another device. lower radiator hose Rubber hose connecting the cooling-circuit components to each other. temperature sensor Device immersed in the coolant that switches on the fan when the coolant reaches a predetermined temperature.

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spark plug Electric device whose two electrodes produce the spark necessary to ignite the air/gasoline mixture in the cylinder.

spark plug terminal Top part of the spark plug that plugs into a cable connected to the distributor cap.

spline Rib that prevents the current from spreading outside the spark plug, thus avoiding short circuits.

center electrode Metal shank through which the electric current passes after being transmitted by the terminal. insulator Porcelain part, resistant to high temperatures, insulating the center electrode to prevent short circuits.

hex nut Six-faced nut providing a grip on the spark plug to tighten it.

spark plug body Lower part of the spark plug that screws into the cylinder head. The ground electrode is part of the spark plug body, from which the end of the center electrode protrudes.

spark plug gap Space between two electrodes, where the spark is created.

spark plug gasket Machined part providing the seal between the spark plug body and the cylinder head.

ground electrode Metal shank welded to the spark plug body and curving under the center electrode.

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battery Unit storing the electricity produced by the alternator and releasing it to supply the vehicle’s electric system.

battery cover Upper part of the battery, sealed in the case.

negative terminal Polarity element connected to the negative plates and attached to an electric cable, which connects the battery to the electric circuit.

hydrometer Color indicator giving information about the state of the battery.

positive terminal Polarity element connected to the positive plates and attached to an electric cable, which connects the battery to the electric circuit.

liquid/gas separator Ventilation device retaining the acid vapors and preventing liquid from being discharged.

positive plate strap Component holding the positive plates together.

negative plate strap Component holding the negative plates together. positive plate Electrode made of honeycombed lead oxide; it supports the active matter (paste) and collects the current.

plate grid Hole in the plate coated with a porous lead-based paste that reacts in the acid solution.

negative plate Electrode made of honeycombed lead; it supports the active matter (paste) and collects the current.

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battery case Box made of insulating acid-resistant material; the chemical reactions between plates are produced in it.

separator Porous partition separating the negative and positive plates in order to prevent short circuits.

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electric automobile Car propelled by an electric motor whose energy is provided by a battery.

electronic control box Electronic device modifying the energy exchanges between the batteries and the electric motor as a function of the driver’s commands and the traffic conditions.

auxiliary battery Battery charged by the traction batteries, producing a 12-V current to supply the electric accessories.

traction batteries Batteries producing a 120-V current, providing the vehicle’s traction.

heating fuel tank Reservoir containing the fuel for the heating system.

charging plug Plug for connecting the vehicle to the main current or to a specially fitted terminal, in order to charge the batteries.

electric cable Cable enabling the batteries to supply the electric motor and recover energy during deceleration and braking. transmission Mechanism relaying the rotational motion of the motor to the wheels.

electric motor Device transforming electric energy into mechanical energy to drive another device.

cooling fan Device with blades for cooling the electronic control box.

traction batteries Batteries producing a 120-V current, providing the vehicle’s traction.

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hybrid automobile Car powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, reducing gasoline consumption and polluting emissions.

motor control module Electronic device controlling the operation of the electric motor (assisting the gasoline engine or recharging the battery).

power control module Device modifying the direction and output of the battery condition module electric current between the battery and the electric Electronic device equipped with sensors, which calculate the state motor. of the battery’s charge and its temperature.

electric cable Cable enabling the batteries to supply the electric motor and recover energy during deceleration and braking.

cell The battery is composed of numerous interrelated electric cells, each one accumulating an electric reserve.

gasoline engine Engine in which a mixture of air and gasoline is compressed and ignited to produce an explosion whose energy is converted into mechanical energy.

gas tank Reservoir containing the fuel that supplies the gasoline engine. electric motor/generator The electric motor allows the vehicle to start and move at low speed. It also recovers the energy generated by deceleration and braking to recharge the battery. transmission Mechanism transferring to the wheels the rotational motion of the gasoline engine and the electric motor.

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gas conduit Tubes connecting the tank with the engine and supplying it with fuel by means of a pump.

battery The battery is composed of cells providing the energy required by the electric motor, which in turn recharges the battery.

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types of engines Engines: machines that convert the combustion of an air/fuel mixture into mechanical energy.

turbo-compressor engine Engine equipped with a device combining a turbine with a compressor, which increases the amount of air entering the engine to increase its efficiency.

exhaust valve Part that opens to allow the burned gases to escape.

combustion chamber Part of the cylinder in which the pressurized air/fuel mixture is ignited and burned.

exhaust manifold Set of pipes at the exit of the cylinders; intake manifold it captures the exhaust gases and After cooling, the air is again conducted to the conducts them to the turbocombustion chamber, which takes in more air. compressor.

warm-air outlet When compressed, the temperature of the air increases greatly, which can make it less effective.

charge air cooler The heat exchanger cools the compressed air before it enters the cylinders.

driven compressor wheel Part integrated with the driving turbine wheel; it spins very quickly as it draws in air and compresses it.

driving turbine wheel Part converting the energy from the exhaust gases into rotational energy to activate the compressor.

piston Metal moving part in the cylinder and attached to the connecting rod; it compresses the air/fuel mixture, then receives the thrust from the burned gases.

exhaust gas admission The flow of the exhaust gas is conducted directly from the combustion chamber to the turbo compressor to drive the turbine.

exhaust pipe Tubular conduit conducting the exhaust gases from the turbocompressor to the muffler.

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types of engines four-stroke-cycle engine Combustion engine whose cycle (intake, compression, combustion, exhaust) requires two up-and-down movements of the piston.

1

2 intake valve Part that opens to let the air/fuel mixture into the cylinder.

spark Spark produced when an electric current arcs between the two electrodes of a spark plug and ignites the air/fuel mixture.

connecting rod Articulated shank powered by the gas explosion; it transmits the thrust from the piston to the crankshaft.

cylinder Chamber closed by two valves; in it, the piston moves and the air/fuel mixture is burned. air/fuel mixture Mixture prepared in the carburetor, containing an amount of fuel proportional to the amount of air entering.

crankshaft Shaft consisting of a series of cranks, which convert the alternate rectilinear motion of the piston/connecting rod assembly into a continuous circular motion.

intake Phase during which the exhaust valve opens and the piston comes down and draws the air/fuel mixture into the combustion chamber.

compression Phase during which the piston goes up to compress the air/fuel mixture. At the height of the compression, the spark plug produces a spark.

3

4

explosion Ignition of the air/fuel mixture produces a major energy release that pushes the piston downward.

exhaust valve Part that opens to allow the burned gases to escape.

burned gases Mixture of gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and unburned hydrocarbons) filling the combustion chamber after the explosion. piston Metal moving part in the cylinder and attached to the connecting rod; it compresses the air/fuel mixture, then receives the thrust from the burned gases.

combustion Phase during which the expansion of the combustion gases pushes the piston downward, driving the rotation of the crankshaft. 48

exhaust Phase during which the exhaust valve opens and the piston moves back up to expel the burned gases.

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types of engines two-stroke-cycle engine cycle

spark plug Electric device whose two electrodes produce the spark necessary to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder.

Two-stroke engine: combustion engine whose cycle (intake, compression, combustion and exhaust) requires one up-and-down movement of the piston.

1

intake port Conduit through which the air/fuel mixture enters the crankcase.

exhaust port Conduit through which the burned gases are expelled from the combustion chamber.

compression/intake Beginning of the first stroke during which the piston moves up, drawing the air/fuel mixture into the crankcase and compressing the mixture in the cylinder.

3

2

transfer port Conduit conducting the air/fuel mixture from the crankcase to the cylinder.

crankcase Sealed enclosure where the air/fuel mixture enters and the piston/connecting rod moves.

combustion End of the first stroke during which a spark ignites the air/fuel mixture.

exhaust/scavaging Second stroke during which the piston is pushed back by the expansion of the burned gases, which are then expelled and replaced by the mixture coming from the crankcase. 49

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types of engines rotary engine cycle Rotary engine: combustion engine in which the combustion chamber is divided by a rotor into three turning parts of unequal volume.

intake manifold Passages through which the air/fuel mixture enters the cylinder.

1

exhaust manifold Pipe through which the burned gases are expelled from the cylinder.

2

compression The rotor’s rotation reduces the volume in the chamber and compresses the mixture.

intake The air/fuel mixture enters the cylinder through the intake manifold; the rotor’s motion forces it into the next chamber. rotor Triangular piston turning eccentrically around an axle and transmitting a rotational motion directly to the crankshaft.

3

4

power When the compression level is reached, the spark plugs produce sparks that ignite the air/fuel mixture.

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exhaust In the passage before the exhaust manifold, the burned gases are expelled by the rotor.

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types of engines diesel engine cycle Diesel engine: combustion engine in which the compressed air becomes sufficiently hot to ignite the injected fuel. air Air enters the combustion chamber.

1

2

injection/combustion Fuel ignites immediately when it is injected into the hot air at very high pressure.

intake Phase during which the exhaust valve opens and the piston comes down and draws the air/fuel mixture into the combustion chamber.

3

compression Stroke during which the piston rises, compressing the air, which becomes heated under the pressure.

4

fuel injector Device pulverizing the fuel in the combustion chamber.

power Stroke during which the expansion of the burning gases pushes the piston downward.

exhaust Phase during which the piston moves up and forces the burned gases toward the exhaust valve.

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types of engines gasoline engine Engine in which a mixture of air and gasoline is compressed and ignited to produce an explosion whose energy is converted into mechanical energy.

combustion chamber Part of the cylinder in which the pressurized air/fuel mixture is ignited and burned.

camshaft Axle driven by a belt, a chain or gears connected to the crankshaft, controlling the opening and closing of the valves.

timing belt Strap connecting the crankshaft to the camshaft.

inlet valve Part that opens to let the air/fuel mixture into the cylinder.

valve spring Spring that brings the valve back into the closed position.

piston ring Circular ring mounted on the piston providing a seal between it and the cylinder.

piston skirt Side surface of a piston guiding it along the inside of the cylinder. connecting rod Articulated shank powered by the gas explosion; it transmits the thrust from the piston to the crankshaft.

alternator Current generator driven by the engine, which recharges the battery to supply the electric system.

cooling fan Mechanism with blades blowing air across the radiator in order to cool the liquid it contains.

pulley Part attached to a shaft, whose rotational movement it transmits by means of a belt. crankshaft fan belt Shaft consisting of a series of cranks, which Rubberized bands mounted on a pulley convert the alternate rectilinear motion of the and linked to the engine, driving the piston/connecting-rod assembly into a fan and the alternator. continuous circular motion. 52

oil drain plug Plug closing the hole at the bottom of the oil pan through which used oil is evacuated.

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types of engines

fuel injector Device pulverizing the fuel in the combustion chamber.

intake manifold Passages through which the air/fuel mixture enters the cylinder.

distributor cap Unit supplying the electric current necessary for producing sparks that ignite the fuel in the engine. vacuum diaphragm Device connected to the distributor cap specifying the precise moment ignition must be produced relative to the engine’s rotation speed.

cylinder head cover Part of the engine covering the cylinder heads, where the fuel is burned. spark plug Electric device whose two electrodes produce the spark necessary to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder.

exhaust valve Part that opens to allow the burned gases to escape.

exhaust manifold Set of pipes at the exit of the cylinders, capturing the combustion gases to conduct them to the exhaust pipe. flywheel Disk connected to the crankshaft, which uses the kinetic energy produced at combustion to regulate the crankshaft rotation during the rest of the cycle. engine block Main engine casing, which encloses the cylinders.

oil pan Container closing the bottom of the engine block; it is the reservoir for the oil that lubricates the engine’s moving parts.

air conditioner compressor Component of the air-conditioning system circulating coolant, which cools the air in the passenger compartment when it is hot outside.

piston Metal moving part in the cylinder and attached to the connecting rod; it compresses the air/fuel mixture, then receives the thrust from the burned gases. 53

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caravan Motorized or towed vehicle fitted out as a dwelling. trailer Caravan fitted out as a dwelling, usually pulled by an automobile.

roof vent Opening in the roof, fitted with a cover, for letting in fresh air when parked.

side vent Grille on the side of the body, for letting in fresh air.

awning channel Track where the edge of an awning is inserted so it can be spread out in front of the caravan.

grab handle Vertical handle, placed at shoulder height near the door, that one holds to step up into the caravan.

storage compartment Compartment for storing bulky objects, usually accessible from the inside and the outside of the caravan.

outlet Device connected to the main current by an electric cord, which transmits the electric current to the appliances in the caravan.

door retractable step Opening comprising a leaf pivoting on Folding apparatus attached to the door hinge pins, for entering and exiting the sill, for stepping up into or down from caravan. the caravan.

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caravan

body Rigid metal frame comprising the body of the caravan. sun visor Device protecting against the Sun’s direct rays.

propane gas cylinder Tank containing a gas reserve for supplying the caravan’s stove and heating system. hydraulic jack Mechanism composed of a cylinder and a piston and activated by hydraulic pressure; it allows the landing gear to be deployed by turning a crank.

towing hitch Device placed at the end of the tow bar, securing the camper to the hitch ball of the vehicle towing it.

tow bar Metal piece attached to the caravan’s chassis; it comprises a towing hitch and enables the caravan to be connected to the towing vehicle. tow safety chain Part of an antitheft device attached to the towing hitch, which stops anyone from hitching or unhitching the caravan.

lighting cable landing gear Electric wire for connecting the caravan’s lighting and signaling The towing hitch’s telescopic support, system to that of the vehicle towing it. which props up the caravan when it is parked. 55

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caravan tent trailer Caravan with a collapsible section that is opened up when at rest and folded roof up again before moving, to lessen wind Rigid part enclosing the top of the resistance. body and protecting the sections when they are folded up.

canopy Canvas awning supported by a framework; it protects an outdoor space from the rain and sun. window Flexible canvas opening, letting in air and light, supported by a framework when it is opened out.

body Rigid metal frame comprising the body of the caravan.

bunk Area for sleeping, supported by a frame when opened out.

spare tire stabilizer jack Retractable support placed under the Supplementary wheel for replacing a caravan to keep it steady when parked. wheel whose tire is punctured.

motor home Van whose passenger compartment is fitted out as a dwelling. luggage rack Support mounted on the roof; baggage is stowed on it using straps.

ladder Device composed of steps and stiles, for accessing the vehicle’s roof.

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screen door Door fitted with a wire cloth that lets air and light pass through while protecting against mosquitoes.

air conditioner Device cooling and ventilating the caravan’s interior air when it is hot outside.

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bus Motorized vehicle for city or intercity transportation of passengers who are standing or seated.

double-deck bus Bus equipped with two superimposed compartments, connected by stairs.

upper deck Upper floor of the bus.

route sign Screen usually on the front, rear and right side of the vehicle, displaying the number of the bus’s route.

outside mirror Mirror fixed to the outside of the passenger compartment enabling the driver to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around.

blind spot mirror Exterior convex mirror providing a wider field of vision than a conventional mirror.

crossing arm Pivoting rod deployed at each stop so that the schoolchildren stay in the driver’s field of vision while passing in front of the bus.

school bus Motorized vehicle for transporting schoolchildren and equipped with specialized safety devices.

blinking lights Flashing red lights at the front and rear of the bus that the driver activates at each stop to signal other vehicles to stop.

crossover mirror Convex mirror allowing the driver to see the front of the bus.

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bus

air intake Opening in the roof, fitted with a cover, for letting fresh air into the bus.

city bus Motorized vehicle for city transportation of passengers who are standing or seated.

route sign Screen usually on the front, rear and right side of the vehicle, displaying the number of the bus’s route.

two-leaf door Wide door divided into two movable parts, which double back to each side to allow several people to pass through at once.

engine air intake Opening through which outside air enters the vehicle’s engine.

engine compartment Housing for the engine under the vehicle’s chassis, accessible by a door.

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coach Motorized vehicle for intercity transportation of seated passengers over medium and long distances. entrance door

baggage compartment Large compartment beneath the vehicle’s floor, fitted with side doors, in which passengers’ baggage is deposited.

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bus minibus Motorized vehicle for transporting about 10 passengers, sometimes equipped with a lift for wheelchairs. lift door

West Coast mirror Mirror fixed to the outside of the passenger compartment enabling the driver to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around.

handrail Support rail equipped with a belt restraining the wheelchair when the platform is being raised and lowered.

platform Horizontal part moving up and down for the wheelchair; it rests on the ground in the lower position and forms the doorsill in the upper position. wheelchair lift Electric lifting device deployed so that a person in a wheelchair can be raised into and lowered from a minibus.

rear rigid section

entrance door

blind spot mirror Exterior convex mirror providing a wider field of vision than a conventional mirror.

articulated bus Bus with two aligned compartments, connected by an articulated joint.

articulated joint Part connecting the rigid sections by a waterproof bellows and a turning platform shared by the two sections.

front rigid section

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trucking Transportation of cargo by truck.

truck tractor Motorized vehicle equipped with a fifth wheel that pulls a semitrailer and supports part of its weight.

air horn exhaust stack Device comprising two horns activated Vertical upper part of the conduit that by compressed air and emitting a sound evacuates exhaust gas from the engine. signal, most often to avert danger. marker light Yellow light in front and red in the rear demarcating the dimensions of the vehicle.

windshield Glass and plastic pane protecting the occupants from inclement weather while providing good visibility.

hood Lidlike part of the body covering and protecting the engine.

radiator grille Plastic or metal grating in front of the vehicle; it protects the vehicle’s radiator and serves as decoration. headlight Lamp on the front of the vehicle to light up the space in front.

fog light Lamp whose light rays are directed toward the roadway and illuminate the road shoulder, by which the driver navigates in the event of fog.

fender Part of the body covering the wheel.

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bumper Malleable element partially absorbing shocks, thus protecting the body and the engine parts from damage.

wheel Circular unit turning around an axle; it supports the weight of the vehicle and transmits the thrust, steering and braking actions.

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trucking

wind deflector Aerodynamic device mounted on the tractor’s roof to reduce the semitrailer’s wind resistance.

West Coast mirror Mirror fixed to the outside of the passenger compartment enabling the driver to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around. sleeper-cab Part behind the cab fitted out with a bed or bunk beds and storage space.

grab handle Vertical handle placed at shoulder height near the door, for gripping while climbing up to or down from the cab.

storage compartment Compartment for storing bulky objects, usually accessible from the inside and outside of the cab.

fifth wheel Coupling device enabling the tractor to be connected to the semitrailer and supporting its front portion. tire Circular deformable unit made of rubber, mounted on the wheel and inflated with air, providing the connection between the truck tractor and the road, and absorbing the unevenness of the road.

mud flap Piece of rubber or plastic attached behind the rear wheels to repel projectiles.

step Tread or set of treads built into the body for climbing up to or down from the cab.

fuel tank Reservoir containing the diesel fuel that makes the vehicle self-sufficient.

filler cap Part screwed into the fuel filler neck to close it.

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trucking refrigerated semitrailer Semitrailer equipped with a refrigeration unit and an insulated compartment for transporting perishable goods.

mud flap Piece of rubber or plastic attached behind the rear wheels to repel projectiles.

frontwall

marker light Yellow light in front and red in the rear demarcating the dimensions of the vehicle.

refrigeration unit Device using compression to lower the temperature inside the semitrailer to a predetermined level.

vent door Grille through which the air cools the refrigerant.

sidewall

partlow chart Device monitoring the temperature in the semitrailer.

reflector Device reflecting light back toward its source so that other drivers can see the semitrailer.

kingpin Axle of attachment housed in the tractor’s fifth wheel; it allows the semitrailer and the tractor to articulate.

landing gear Telescopic support keeping the semitrailer level when uncoupled.

side rail Thick piece along the length of the chassis frame, reinforcing it. sand shoe Part attached to the foot of the landing gear to increase stability. auxiliary tank Reservoir containing the fuel used to operate the refrigeration unit. landing gear crank Bent lever activating the elevating cylinder to deploy the landing gear.

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battery box Compartment containing the battery supplying the electric energy required to operate the refrigeration unit.

electrical connection Electric wire connecting the semitrailer’s lighting and signaling system with that of the tractor.

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trucking flatbed semitrailer Semitrailer composed of a platform around which detachable side panels can be placed.

stake pocket Support placed on the side edges of the deck, holding in place a belt hook or a post for attaching the side panels.

bulkhead Panel fixed to the front of the deck to prevent cargo from moving forward.

rub rail Bar attached to the stake pockets to protect them from side impact.

deck Floor of the semitrailer serving as the loading plane for the cargo.

marker light Yellow light in front and red in the rear demarcating the dimensions of the vehicle.

landing gear crank Bent lever activating the elevating cylinder to deploy the landing gear.

turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles.

taillight Lamp turning on automatically when the front lights are lit, making the vehicle visible for up to 150 meters.

bumper Malleable element partially absorbing shocks, thus protecting the body from damage.

mud flap Piece of rubber or plastic attached behind the rear wheels to repel projectiles.

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trucking examples of semitrailers Semitrailers: trailers whose front portion is equipped with a kingpin for coupling them to a tractor.

tandem tractor trailer Set of vehicles comprising a tractor, a semitrailer and a trailer.

truck tractor Motorized vehicle equipped with a fifth wheel that pulls a semitrailer and supports part of its weight.

container semitrailer Semitrailer comprising only a chassis; containers of standard sizes are loaded on it to transport cargo.

semitrailer Trailer whose front part is equipped with a kingpin for coupling it to the tractor.

truck trailer Motorless vehicle for transporting cargo and connected by a coupling bar to the vehicle towing it.

tank trailer Semitrailer for transporting bulk products in liquid, powder or gas form.

tank body Closed tank divided into several compartments of various sizes.

twist lock Locking mechanism housed in each bottom corner of the container to secure it to the semitrailer. double drop lowbed semitrailer Semitrailer for transporting heavy machinery.

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trucking

automobile transport semitrailer Semitrailer equipped with several sloped platforms for transporting vehicles. dump body Open or closed container; when raised by the elevation cylinder, it discharges its bulk material.

dump semitrailer Semitrailer equipped with a dump body for transporting in bulk.

chip van Semitrailer designed to transport wood in chip form.

van body semitrailer Semitrailer comprising a closed box, rigid or made of thick fabric (tarpaulin and sliding curtains).

refrigerated semitrailer Semitrailer equipped with a refrigeration unit and an insulated compartment for transporting perishable goods.

possum-belly body semitrailer Semitrailer designed to transport livestock; it comprises several perforated compartments.

log semitrailer Semitrailer with folding side posts for transporting tree trunks.

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trucking examples of trucks Trucks: motorized vehicles for transporting cargo and providing maintenance and safety.

tow truck Truck for towing vehicles that have broken down. hook Part that is detached from the towing device while the vehicle’s front wheels are placed in position, then reattached to raise it.

cable

boom Thick sturdy metal beam, which the elevating cylinder raises.

towing device elevating cylinder Lifting device where the front wheels of Hydraulic device comprising a the towed vehicle are placed. telescopic arm, for lifting a heavy load.

winch controls Control mechanisms for the electric motor, which powers the spool’s rotation.

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winch Mechanism with a steel cable rolled around a spool, for pulling and raising heavy loads, such as a vehicle that has broken down.

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trucking

van straight truck Truck whose box is rigid and closed.

dump body Open or closed container; when raised by the elevation cylinder it discharges its bulk material.

dump truck Truck equipped with a dump body; it is used for bulk transport.

cesspit emptier Truck equipped with a tank, a pump and a long pipe, for emptying septic tanks and other pipes.

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trucking street sweeper Vehicle for cleaning city streets, equipped with a collection body, rotating brushes, a vacuum cleaner and a watering device.

collection body Container for the trash swept up by the central brush.

central brush Rotating brush that cleans the width of the roadway.

lateral brush watering tube Rotating brush that cleans the edge of Pipe supplying water to the brush as it the roadway. cleans the roadway.

detachable body Truck for transporting containers, which it loads and unloads using a mechanical arm.

snowblower Vehicle with a mechanism that draws up snow from the road and projects it some distance or into a dump truck. projection device Adjustable funnel through which the snow is expelled in a chosen direction.

worm Mechanism grinding hardened snow before a screw forces it into the projection device.

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trucking

loading hopper Large reservoir that takes the trash bags and then feeds them to the packer body.

packer body Bin equipped with a hydraulic system that compresses household trash. collection truck Dump truck for collecting household trash.

tank body Closed tank divided into several compartments of various sizes. tank truck Truck for transporting bulk products in liquid, powder or gas form.

concrete mixer truck Truck equipped with a rotating tub, for transporting fresh cement, which it pours out down a chute.

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motorcycle Two-wheeled motorized vehicle whose engine cylinder is larger than 125 cubic centimeters.

mirror windshield Mirror attached to the handgrip, Glass and plastic pane in front, allowing the motorcyclist to see behind protecting the motorcyclist from the and along the sides of the vehicle wind and inclement weather. without turning around.

gas tank Reservoir containing the fuel that makes the vehicle self-sufficient.

handgrip Extension of the handlebars that the driver holds to steer the motorcycle.

dashboard Body component containing the instrument panel and the light switch. turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles.

headlight Lamp on the front of the vehicle to light up the space in front.

clutch lever Lever for disengaging then engaging the engine and the gearbox, allowing the gears to be changed.

front fender Piece of curved metal covering the front wheel, protecting the motorcyclist from being splashed.

telescopic front fork Pair of tubes sliding together and encasing a spring; it controls steering, suspension and shock absorption for the front wheel.

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engine Device converting the combustion of fuel and air into mechanical energy. fairing Aerodynamic parts covering certain components of the motorcycle to reduce air friction and driver discomfort.

carburetor Engine mechanism that prepares the air/fuel mixture.

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motorcycle

pillion footrest Metal rods, one on each side of the motorcycle frame, for resting the passenger’s feet on.

frame Set of hollow metal tubes welded together, forming the motorcycle’s framework.

dual seat Usually leather seat allowing the driver to sit in front and the passenger to sit behind.

rear shock absorber Cylindrical mechanism attached to the rear wheel and coupled with a spring; it absorbs shocks caused by unevenness in the road. turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles. taillight Lamp that lights up automatically when the front lights are lit and emits a brighter light when the driver applies the brakes.

brake caliper Viselike part comprising a piston, which straddles the brake disc and supports the brake pads.

exhaust pipe Compartmentalized chamber in which the escaping gases expand, thus reducing the noise from the engine. rim Metal circle constituting the wheel’s circumference and on which the tire is mounted.

front footrest Metal rods, one on each side of the motorcycle frame, for resting the driver’s feet on.

main stand Fold-down support comprising two rods; it keeps the motorcycle upright with one of its wheels off the ground.

disc brake Braking mechanism comprising a disc attached to the wheel, whose rotation is slowed down when the brake pads exert friction on it.

gearshift lever Pedal located under the motorcyclist’s left foot, for changing the ratio between the motor’s speed of rotation and that of the wheels.

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motorcycle motorcycle: view from above

front brake lever Lever connected by a cable to the front brake caliper, activated by the driver to brake the front wheel.

twist grip throttle Acceleration handle that the driver turns to increase or reduce the amount of air/fuel mixture entering the engine and hence its running speed.

turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles.

clutch housing Rigid covering protecting the clutch mechanism.

starter button Switch engaging the starter, which engages the engine.

emergency switch Device for cutting the engine in case of emergency.

headlight Lamp on the front of the vehicle to light up the space in front. gas tank cap Part screwed into the fuel filler neck to close it.

mirror Mirror attached to the handgrip, allowing the motorcyclist to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around.

clutch lever Lever for disengaging then engaging the engine and the gearbox, allowing the gears to be changed.

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horn Device emitting a loud sound that the driver can use to attract the attention of a pedestrian or other user of the road.

dip switch Button for switching between low and high beam.

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motorcycle

exhaust pipe taillight Compartmentalized chamber in which the escaping gases expand, thus Lamp that lights up automatically when the front lights are lit and emits a reducing the noise from the engine. brighter light when the driver applies the brakes.

rear brake pedal Pedal connected by a cable to the rear brake caliper, activated by the driver to brake the rear wheel.

gear shift Pedal located under the motorcyclist’s left foot, for changing the ratio between the motor’s speed of rotation and that of the wheels.

pillion footrest Metal rods, one on each side of the motorcycle frame, for resting the passenger’s feet on.

turn signal Device emitting an intermittent light, signaling a change of the vehicle’s direction or a temporary hazard to other vehicles.

front footrest Metal rods, one on each side of the motorcycle frame, for resting the driver’s feet on.

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motorcycle protective helmet Rigid headgear covering the head to protect it in the event of accident.

bubble Exterior surface made of durable materials (thermoplastic or composite materials) that absorb shocks.

visor Transparent swing-away part, protecting the eyes while providing good visibility.

air inlet Opening in the bubble allowing air to circulate in the helmet and preventing fog from forming on the visor. visor hinge Articulated fastener for raising and lowering the visor.

chin protector Part of the bubble protecting the motorcyclist’s chin.

motorcycle dashboard Body component containing the instrument panel and the ignition switch.

high beam warning indicator Light showing that the high beam is lit. tachometer Dial showing the engine’s rotation speed in revolutions per minute.

speedometer Dial showing the speed at which the vehicle is moving, in kilometers or miles per hour.

oil pressure warning indicator Light showing that the oil pressure in the engine’s lubrication system is below the minimum necessary.

neutral indicator Light showing that none of the gears is engaged; that is, the engine’s rotation is not being transmitted to the wheels.

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ignition switch Switch activated by a contact key allowing a current from the battery to flow to the starter.

turn signal indicator Intermittent light, often accompanied by a sound, showing that a turn signal is in use.

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motorcycle examples of motorcycles off-road motorcycle Motorcycle designed for traveling over rough terrain, with features such as a raised engine, extended suspension, elevated muffler and seat tires with studs. Usually leather seat where the driver sits.

telescopic front fork Pair of sliding tubes enclosing a spring; it controls steering, suspension and shock absorption on the front wheel. knobby tread tire Tire whose tread is fitted with blocks of rubber, providing better traction on rough terrain.

antenna Device receiving radio waves broadcast by a station.

touring motorcycle Motorcycle providing comfort for the driver and the passenger, with features such as wide fairing, extended handgrips and footrests for stretching the legs.

windshield Glass and plastic pane in front, protecting the motorcyclist from the wind and inclement weather.

backrest Part supporting the back.

top box Usually rigid and waterproof compartment, behind the passenger seat, for stowing light objects.

passenger seat Usually leather, individual seat with a back; it is higher than the driver seat, for the passenger to sit.

saddlebag Usually rigid and waterproof luggage, attached to each side of the passenger seat.

driver seat Usually leather, individual seat, sometimes equipped with a back, for the driver to sit.

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motorcycle motor scooter Motorized vehicle with two small wheels, embellished with fairing, characterized by an open frame and a flat floor.

mirror Mirror attached to the handgrip, allowing the motorcyclist to see behind and along the sides of the vehicle without turning around.

seat Usually leather seat where the driver sits. luggage rack Support at the rear of the vehicle, for attaching a trunk or for lashing down luggage using straps.

apron Aerodynamic component in sheet metal or plastic, trimming the steering column and protecting the driver from the wind and inclement weather.

floorboard Wide flat surface for resting the feet on.

moped Vehicle designed like a bicycle, but equipped with an engine whose cylinder is no larger than 50 cubic centimeters.

carrier Support at the rear of the vehicle, for attaching a trunk or for lashing down luggage using straps.

kickstand Fold-down support on the right side of the moped to keep it almost upright when at rest.

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4 X 4 all-terrain vehicle Four-wheeled all-terrain vehicle (ATV) for traversing most kinds of terrain, equipped with a motorcycle engine.

rear fender Piece of curved metal covering the rear wheel, for protecting the motorcyclist from being splashed.

rear cargo rack Support at the rear of the vehicle, for attaching a trunk or for lashing down luggage using straps.

gas tank Reservoir containing the fuel that makes the vehicle self-sufficient.

handgrip Extension of the handlebars used for steering the ATV.

seat Usually leather seat where the driver sits.

bumper Malleable component partly absorbing impact in the event of a front-on collision.

gearshift lever Pedal located under the driver’s foot, for changing the ratio between the motor’s speed of rotation and that of the wheels. muffler Compartmentalized chamber in which the escaping gases expand, thus reducing the noise from the engine.

front shock absorber Cylindrical mechanism attached to the front wheel and coupled with a spring; it absorbs shocks caused by unevenness in the road.

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bicycle Frame vehicle steered by the front wheel and propelled by the rear wheel, which in turn is driven, via a chain, by a pedal mechanism.

crossbar Horizontal part of the frame, connecting the head tube with the seat tube and stabilizing the frame.

parts of a bicycle

seat Small triangular seat attached to the bicycle’s frame.

seat tube Part of the frame leaning slightly to the rear, receiving the seat post and joining the pedal mechanism.

seat post Component supporting and attaching the seat, inserted to variable depth into the seat tube to adjust the seat’s height.

seat stay Tube connecting the top of the seat tube with the rear-wheel hub.

carrier Device attached to the back of the bicycle for carrying bags on each side and packages on top.

rear brake Mechanism activated by a brake cable, comprising a caliper and return springs; it forces a pair of brake pads against the sidewalls to stop the bicycle.

rear light Lamp signaling the bicycle’s presence in the dark. fender Piece of curved metal covering part of the wheel to protect the cyclist from being splashed.

generator Mechanism activated by the rear wheel, converting the wheel’s motion into electric energy to power the front and rear lights. reflector Device returning light toward its source so that other users of the road might see the cyclist.

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chain stay pedal Tube connecting the pedal mechanism Part attached to a crank that the cyclist to the rear-wheel hub. rotates to provide the bicycle’s power.

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bicycle

head tube Tube using ball bearings to transmit the steering movement to the fork.

stem Part whose height is adjustable; it is inserted into the head tube and supports the handlebars.

brake cable Sheathed steel cable transmitting the pressure exerted on the brake lever to the brake.

handlebars Device made up of two handles connected by a tube, for steering the bicycle.

brake lever Lever attached to the handlebars for activating the brake caliper via a cable. front brake Mechanism activated by a brake cable, comprising a caliper and return springs; it forces a pair of brake pads against the sidewalls to slow down the front wheel.

headlight Lamp illuminating the ground a few yards in front of the bicycle. fork Two tubes connected to the head tube and attached to each end of the frontwheel hub.

hub Central part of the wheel from which spokes radiate. Inside the hub are ball bearings enabling it to rotate around its axle.

rim Metal circle constituting the wheel’s circumference and on which the tire is mounted.

spoke Thin metal spindle connecting the hub to the rim. water bottle clip Support attached to the down tube or the seat tube for carrying the water bottle.

down tube Part of the frame connecting the head tube to the pedal mechanism; it is the longest and thickest tube in the frame and gives it its rigidity.

tire valve Small clack valve sealing the inflation opening of the inner tube; it allows air to enter but prevents it from escaping.

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bicycle power train Set of parts (axle, chain wheel, cranks and pedals) transmitting the force exerted by the cyclist on the pedals to the rear wheel.

chain guide Part of the derailleur moving the chain from one chain wheel to the other.

front derailleur Mechanism for changing the front gears by lifting the chain from one chain wheel to another; it allows the cyclist to adapt to road conditions.

shifter Lever for changing gears via a cable moving the derailleur. toe clip Metal device attached to the pedals that covers the front of the feet, keeping the feet in the proper position and increasing pedaling power.

freewheel Mechanism attached to the rear-wheel hub allowing it to continue turning when the cyclist stops pedaling.

chain Set of metal links meshing with the sprockets on the chain wheel and gear wheel to transmit the pedaling motion to the rear wheel.

control cable Wire made of steel strands transmitting the action exerted on the shifter to each derailleur.

chain wheel A Larger wheel with sprockets that, in combination with the rear gear wheels, increases the distance of one rotation of the pedal, and therefore the speed of the bicycle. bottom bracket axle Tube to which the crank is attached at each end so that one end is up when the other is down.

jockey rollers Small wheels guiding the chain and keeping it taut while changing gears.

rear derailleur Mechanism for changing the rear gears by lifting the chain from one gear wheel to another; it allows the cyclist to adapt to road conditions. 80

chain wheel B Smaller wheel with sprockets that, in combination with the rear gear wheels, decreases the distance of one rotation of the pedal. crank pedal Part attached to a crank that the cyclist Metal part bent at a right angle, rotates to provide the bicycle’s power. supporting a pedal and providing a rotational movement around the pedal’s axle.

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bicycle accessories

lock Antitheft system made up of two metal shanks, one inserted into the other and fitted with a lock, for locking the bicycle to a fixed object.

bicycle bag Bag that can be attached to the handlebars or the carrier.

protective helmet Rigid headgear covering the head to protect it in the event of accident.

tool kit Set of tools for simple repairs and adjustments, such as fixing a flat tire, replacing spokes or adjusting brakes.

child carrier Seat attached to the frame or the carrier, comprising a harness and footrests, for transporting a child.

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bicycle examples of bicycles

BMX bike Strong small bicycle, for acrobatics and competitions on bumpy tracks.

Dutch bicycle City bicycle designed for comfort and in such a way that the cyclist sits upright; its features include a built-in chain guard and a drop-down fender.

city bicycle Bicycle designed for comfort and safety while taking short trips on city streets.

mountain bike Bicycle with large wheels with treads with studs, a strong frame, numerous gears and powerful brakes, for navigating all kinds of terrain.

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bicycle road bicycle Bicycle with narrow tires, lightweight frame and handlebars that position the cyclist for optimum aerodynamics, designed for road racing.

touring bicycle Intermediate bicycle between a road bicycle and a city bicycle, designed for traveling long distances in comfort. child’s tricycle Very stable three-wheeled vehicle with pedals driving either the front wheel or the rear wheels, for the use of young children.

tandem bicycle Bicycle with two places; both cyclists pedal simultaneously but only the person in front steers.

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passenger station Covered building for the public where trains and passengers arrive and depart.

glassed roof Large glassed surface forming the walls and roof.

indicator board Panel showing the destination and the configuration of the train, such as type and numbering of cars.

office Workplace of the employees managing the station.

passenger train Set of cars coupled together and pulled along tracks by a locomotive.

parcels office Courier-service wicket for sending envelopes and packages to be dispatched by train.

baggage room Counter where passengers leave their baggage to be taken to the train’s baggage car, if it has one. 84

booking hall passenger platform Area alongside the tracks for passengers Large space for passengers and the public to embark and disembark trains. at large housing the various services of the station, such as ticket sales, information counter and shops.

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passenger station

metal structure Set of metal components comprising the skeleton of a building and supporting its roof; here, the roof is made of glass.

baggage cart Four-wheeled handcart available to passengers for transporting baggage inside the station. platform number

track A pair of parallel rails laid end to end and on which trains run.

ticket collector Person checking that passengers’ tickets correspond to their destinations.

schedules Grid showing the departure and arrival times of the trains, their number and their destination or point of departure.

destination Name of the last station where the train stops at the end of its route.

platform edge Zone along the edge of the platform, usually demarcated by a safety line.

baggage lockers Metal compartments for keeping luggage temporarily for a small fee.

departure time indicator

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railroad station Covered building for the public where trains and passengers arrive and depart.

passenger station underground passage Covered building for the public where Pedestrian tunnel connecting one side of the tracks with the other. trains and passengers arrive and depart.

parking Area for parking vehicles.

suburban commuter railroad Railroad connecting an urban center to its suburbs and neighboring cities.

station platform Area alongside the tracks, for passengers to embark and disembark the train, or for loading and unloading cargo from the cars.

freight car Vehicle pulled by a locomotive for transporting cargo. switch tower Building housing employees and controls for directing train movement in the station. signal gantry Support framework spanning several tracks used to display signals, such as tricolor lights and speed-limit panels.

mast Vertical support for a crosspiece, such as a signal gantry or an electric catenary.

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platform shelter Roof protecting passengers waiting on the platform from inclement weather.

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railroad station

commuter train Local train running frequently each day footbridge between an urban center and its Elevated walkway for passengers to suburbs or neighboring cities. cross over a set of tracks.

semaphore Light for relaying information such as the speed of trains and the distance between them.

main line Tracks for trains traveling long distances.

level crossing Intersection of a railroad and a road, with or without warning lights.

bumper Buffer placed at the end of a track stopping the train from running off the end of the track. subsidiary track Side track not used for railroad traffic but for shunting, marshaling or loading and unloading.

diesel shop Building for maintaining and refueling diesel locomotives. freight station Set of railroad installations and buildings required for transporting cargo.

switch A pair of movable track rails (switch rails) for guiding the train from one track to another.

scissors crossing Track enabling a train to change tracks.

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high-speed train High-speed passenger train (between 135 and 190 mph) powered by electricity, with a power car at each end and a limited number of cars in between.

passenger car Part of the car with rows of numbered seats.

pantograph Articulating mechanism on the roof of the power car that collects electricity from an overhead catenary.

baggage compartment Space at the entrance of the car for stowing large pieces of luggage.

air compression unit System producing compressed air for operating various pneumatic devices, such as the suspension and brakes.

suspension truck Three-axled truck with brakes and shock absorbers.

main transformer Device transferring and adapting electrical energy from the catenary to the traction motors.

motor unit Compartment where the electricity from the transformers is modified and transmitted to the motor trucks.

equipment compartment Compartments for various electrical equipment.

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high-speed train

catenary One or more overhead wires supplying electricity to the power car.

headlight Lamp illuminating the track ahead.

driver’s cab Compartment in the power car containing controls used by the engineer and providing a view of the track ahead.

power car Vehicle with an electric motor and braking system for pulling one or more cars.

headlight Lamp illuminating the sides of the track. position light Lamp signaling the presence of the power car while at rest.

motor truck Two-axled truck with traction motors propelling the power car.

pilot Steel bar attached to the frame that pushes aside debris from the track.

coupling guide device Assembly on the nosepiece of the power car for coupling it with another train.

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diesel-electric locomotive Vehicle with a diesel engine turning a generator that in turn powers the electric traction motors.

driver’s cab dynamic brake Compartment where the engineer Wheel acting as a generator to turn the operates the locomotive and has a view traction motor, which slows down the of the track ahead. train.

horn Sounding device warning of the train’s approach.

battery Device providing electricity for starting the engine and for the lights and other electrical devices when the engine is at rest.

ventilator Mechanism cooling the traction motors.

safety rail Guardrail to prevent falls.

side footboard Ladder attached to the chassis for climbing up to or down from the locomotive.

control stand Panel containing the locomotive’s main controls.

main generator Generator driven by the diesel engine, which in turn supplies electricity to the traction motors.

fuel tank Reservoir containing the diesel fuel that makes the vehicle self-sufficient.

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diesel-electric locomotive

water tank Reservoir for the cooling water.

air compressor Device supplying the compressed air that operates various pneumatic equipment, especially the brakes.

ventilating fan Bladed mechanism blowing air through the radiators to cool the coolant inside them.

radiator Vessel in which the coolant, which circulates around the engine, is cooled by means of flowing air.

diesel engine Combustion engine in which the compressed air becomes sufficiently hot to ignite the injected fuel.

air filter Device removing dust from the air entering the engine.

lubricating system Device circulating oil throughout the engine to reduce friction between its moving parts.

headlight Lamp illuminating the track.

compressed air reservoir Storage chamber for the compressed air.

sandbox Container for the sand that is strewn on the track in front of the wheels to provide friction.

pilot Steel bar attached to the frame that pushes aside debris from the track.

coupler head Device on each end of a locomotive or car for attaching it to another locomotive or car.

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diesel-electric locomotive truck Two- or three-axled carriage whose wheels are guided by the track; it supports a locomotive or a car.

spring Part absorbing vibrations caused by the wheels as they move along the track.

axle Transversal part under a vehicle passing through the hubs of the wheels, which support it.

truck frame Framework supporting the axles, suspension, brakes and traction motors.

journal box Part connecting the axle to the truck frame.

types of passenger cars Cars: vehicles with various layouts that are pulled by locomotives, for transporting and providing services to passengers. coach car Car with two rows of benches or seats for transporting passengers in the seated position.

adjustable seat Seat whose back can be changed from a sitting position to a reclining position.

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center aisle Walkway between the two rows of benches or seats, for going from one end of the car to the other.

luggage rack Space at the entrance of the car for stowing large pieces of luggage.

vestibule Entrance compartment of the car.

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types of passenger cars sleeping car Car with compartments laid out as small bedrooms.

toilet Compartment equipped with a toilet and a sink.

berth Sometimes folding bench located in a compartment, for sleeping.

sleeping compartment Compartment laid out with berths.

wheelchair Place with special fittings designed for wheelchairs.

linen Storage for linens needed for the trip, such as towels and sheets.

dining car Car laid out for serving meals.

dining section Part of the car where passengers can eat or drink.

steward’s desk Table for laying out the dishes used for the various courses and food that is ready to serve.

kitchen Room where meals are prepared.

storage space Place where employees keep materials for providing service during the trip.

crew’s locker Compartment at the entrance where personnel can stow their coats and other personal effects.

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car Vehicle pulled by a locomotive for transporting cargo.

box car Car covered with a waterproof casing and having sliding side doors, for transporting cargo that must be protected from the weather and theft.

corner cap Metal part reinforcing and protecting the edges of the car.

horizontal end handhold Crossbar for holding onto when moving from one side of the car to the other while coupling.

hand brake wheel Wheel for manually activating the brake.

end ladder Ladder for climbing up and down the car to carry out certain tasks, such as uncoupling the cars and setting the hand brake. hand brake gear housing Part covering a chain transmitting the wheel’s turning movement to the hand brake winding lever.

hand brake winding lever Vertical metal shaft, with one end connected by a chain to the hand brake wheel and the wheel house, for setting the hand brake.

telescoping uncoupling rod Rod ending in a bent handle for uncoupling the cars.

sliding channel Groove guiding and supporting the door as it slides open and shut.

side ladder Ladder on the side of the car for accessing the end ladder.

sill step U-shaped support situated under the car’s frame for reaching the ladder.

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car

routing cardboard Placard for a label listing the car’s contents.

placard board Placard for a label warning of dangerous material.

door stop Part stopping the door when it is closed.

locking lever Bar that locks the door and prevents it from sliding.

automatic coupler Device on each end of a locomotive or car for attaching it to another locomotive or car.

coupler knuckle pin Part around which the coupler knuckle pivots to open and uncouple. coupler knuckle Articulated component that interlocks with the corresponding part on another car or locomotive. 95

RAIL TRANSPORT

car examples of freight cars The shape of the cars varies depending on the type of cargo being transported. gondola car Open-top car for carrying heavy bulk material, such as scrap metal and construction material. flat car Car with a simple wooden deck for carrying large objects, such as pipes, logs and heavy machinery.

bulkhead flat car Flat car with sturdy plates at each end for carrying loose cargo (usually logs).

depressed-center flat car Car with two extra trucks and a lowered deck for carrying heavy equipment.

intermodal car Flat car for carrying semitrailers.

hopper car Car for carrying bulk cargo; it has dump doors on the bottom for unloading the cargo.

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hopper ore car Usually open-top hopper car of limited capacity for carrying minerals.

wood chip car Open-top gondola car with a large compartment for carrying wood chips.

hard top gondola Gondola with of a retractable metal roof for carrying bulk cargo.

tank car Car with a sealed reservoir for carrying liquids and gases.

RAIL TRANSPORT

car

refrigerator car Closed-box insulated car with a refrigeration unit for carrying perishable foodstuffs.

livestock car Car with slatted sides for carrying livestock; it sometimes has two decks.

caboose Car that is usually at the end of the train; it houses personnel, provisions and tools.

box car Car covered with a waterproof casing and having sliding side doors, for transporting cargo that must be protected from the weather and theft.

automobile car Multilevel car for carrying vehicles, which are strapped down.

container car Flat car for carrying standard-size shipping boxes.

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yard Set of tracks where freight trains are reconfigured to contain cargo cars with the same destination and then dispatched.

classification yard Set of tracks where cars are hitched together to form trains with the same destination.

second classification track Track where cars of known destination are assembled.

first classification track Track where cars for the second classification track are switched.

hump office Office where train formations are programmed and car shunting is controlled.

hump lead Track where cars are released to coast onto other tracks for switching onto outbound trains. hump Sloped part of the track where cars are pushed up a hill (hump) by a locomotive.

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outbound track Track that leads trains out of the yard.

RAIL TRANSPORT

yard

car cleaning yard Set of tracks where cars are cleansed of any cargo residue before going back into circulation. water tower Elevated reservoir containing potable water. repair shop Structure for repairing and maintaining locomotives and cars.

receiving yard Set of tracks where arriving trains park and are unhitched from their locomotives.

locomotive track Track that leads locomotives to the shop for maintenance.

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railroad track A pair of parallel rails laid end to end and on which trains run.

railroad track A pair of parallel rails laid end to end and on which trains run.

rail Steel bar of a set gauge that is attached to ties; the train’s wheels roll along it.

rail section

head Upper horizontal part of the rail on which the wheels roll.

tie Piece of wood or concrete that is set in ballast and supports the rails to distribute the train’s load and keep the rails parallel.

ballast Bed of gravel that serves as the foundation for the tracks and provides drainage.

remote-controlled switch Device operated from a distance for opening and closing a pair of movable track rails (switch points) to guide a train from one track to another.

web Narrow vertical part of the rail to which the fishplates are attached.

switch rod Metal part located between two ties that maintains the distance between two switch points.

base Lower horizontal part of the rail; it rests on and is attached to the ties.

switch point Movable rail that is machine-tapered at the end and connected to a parallel and similarly machined switch point.

pull rod Metal part connected to the power switch machine that opens and closes the switch points.

power switch machine Remote-controlled motor that provides the mechanical force for opening and closing the switch. point wire Wire that connects the power switch machine to levers in the switch house. 100

closure rail Two fixed rails located between a switch point and a frog.

RAIL TRANSPORT

highway crossing Intersection of a railroad and a road, with or without warning lights.

highway crossing bell Metal sounding device that rings automatically as a train approaches.

crossbuck sign Sign that marks the spot where a railroad crosses a road and signals to drivers on the road that they must yield to passing trains.

mast Post that supports the crossing signs and signal lights.

gate arm lamp Flashing signal light that is activated as the gate arm is lowered.

junction box Box that houses the electric wires used in the operation of the signal lights.

signal background plate Plate that frames the signal lights to enhance their visibility. number of tracks sign Sign that displays the number of tracks the road crosses.

gate arm Moving barrier that blocks the road to stop vehicles from crossing the tracks.

gate arm support Articulating bracket that lowers and raises the gate arm.

base Bottom of the mast that is anchored to the ground.

visor Curved sheet of metal that enhances a signal light’s visibility by blocking sunlight. peep hole Flashing signal light that is activated at the same time as the flashing lights to inform the engineer that the gate arm is lowered.

flashing light Intermittent signal light that is activated automatically as the train approaches.

counterweight Mass that provides balance to the gate arm to facilitate its movement.

crossing gate mechanism Box housing the mechanism that automatically lowers and raises the gate arm. 101

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subway Electrified urban railroad built mainly underground for transporting passengers at frequent intervals.

subway station Structure and facilities that provide passengers access to the subway.

exterior sign Sign placed outside the entrance to the subway that makes it visible from afar.

exit turnstile Device that allows one user at a time to exit.

station entrance Small structure built on a public thoroughfare that provides access to the subway station.

escalator Installation that consists of articulated steps on a continuously turning chain; it allows movement between two levels of a building.

mezzanine Intermediate level that is accessible by stairs and serves as a landing between the station entrance and the platforms.

ticket collecting booth Kiosk protected by glass where an agent sells tickets and passes, and controls who enters and exits.

entrance turnstile Automatic device that allows a user to enter after swiping a pass or inserting a ticket or transfer. stairs Structural component that enables movement between levels.

line map Chart that shows a train’s route and the stations it serves.

tunnel Underground passageway through which the subway train travels between stations.

advertising panel subway train Space rented by a business to place a Set of cars that is pulled by a motor car poster promoting products or services. and carries passengers.

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track Course that consists of parallel electrified rails on which trains roll.

RAIL TRANSPORT

subway

transfer dispensing machine Device that dispenses tickets entitling the user to subsequently board another means of transportation linked with the subway system, such as a bus, streetcar or train.

kiosk Small store in the halls or the entrance of the station that sells newspapers and refreshments. footbridge Bridge that spans the tracks and provides access to both platforms.

directional sign Sign that indicates the terminus of the train arriving at that platform.

bench Long narrow unupholstered seat with or without a back, seating several people. station name Sign on the platform wall that shows the name of the station so that passengers in the train can see it.

subway map Map that shows the entire subway system; each subway line is illustrated in a different color.

platform edge Zone along the edge of the platform, usually demarcated by a safety line.

safety line Visible or textured line warning passengers of the margin of safety.

platform Area adjacent to the tracks where passengers board and exit trains; it is at the same level as the floor of the trains.

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subway passenger car Vehicle that rolls along subway tracks and transports passengers.

ventilator Grille that circulates fresh air throughout the car.

side door Sliding door that opens onto the station platforms for passengers to enter and exit.

light Fixtures for illuminating the interior of the car.

inflated guiding tire Tire mounted at right angles to the carrying tire; it rolls against the guiding bar to guide the truck. inflated carrying tire suspension Nitrogen-filled tire that supports and conveys Assembly that dissipates the vibrations the car. occurring as the wheels roll along the tracks.

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window Opening containing thick glass that does not open.

RAIL TRANSPORT

subway

advertising sign Poster on a space rented by a business that promotes products or services.

side handrail Handle on the wall next to the door for passengers to hold onto while the train is in motion.

communication set Loudspeaker phone used for talking to the train driver.

emergency brake Device that stops the train; it is available to users in case of emergency.

subway map Map that shows the entire subway system; each subway line is illustrated in a different color.

handrail Floor-to-ceiling pole in the middle of the aisle for passengers to hold onto while the train is in motion.

single seat Seat for one passenger.

double seat Bench with space for two passengers.

heating grille Grating through which warm air is forced to heat the car interior.

subway train Set of cars that is pulled by a motor car and carries passengers.

motor car Vehicle with an electric motor and braking system for pulling one or more cars.

trailer car Freewheeling car pulled by a motor car.

motor car Vehicle with an electric motor and braking system for pulling one or more cars.

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subway truck and track The most up-to-date subway trucks ride on tires, which provide fast acceleration and little noise or vibration.

sliding block Shoe taking the current from the guiding and current bar.

guiding and current bar Metal bar against which the guiding tire rolls; it also supplies the traction current.

inflated guiding tire Tire mounted at right angles to the carrying tire; it rolls against the guiding bar to guide the truck.

steel safety wheel Auxiliary regular train wheel that comes in contact with the running rail in the event the tire deflates and during switching.

inflated carrying tire Nitrogen-filled tire that supports and conveys the car.

running rail Regular railroad rail for the steel safety wheel to roll on in the event the tire deflates; it also receives the traction current from the return shoe. runway Metal or concrete track that is fixed to the invert on which the tires roll.

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invert Thick concrete foundation for the tracks.

RAIL TRANSPORT

streetcar Electrically powered vehicle for transporting people; it rolls on tracks embedded in city streets and on the edge of roadways.

pantograph Articulating mechanism on the roof of the streetcar that collects electricity from an overhead catenary. catenary One or more overhead wires supplying electricity to the streetcar.

route sign Screen that is usually placed on the front, rear and side of the streetcar to show its route number.

advertising sign Poster on a space rented by a business that promotes products or services.

motor bogie Double-axle truck whose steel wheels are driven by an electric motor and roll along tracks.

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MARITIME TRANSPORT

harbor Site for refueling and repairing ships, loading and unloading cargo and embarking and disembarking passengers.

container-loading bridge Cantilevered gantry crane along the quay for loading and unloading containers.

quay Structure for docking ships so that passengers can embark and disembark and cargo can be loaded and unloaded.

transit shed Warehouse located near the quay for temporarily storing cargo.

bulk terminal Area with installations and equipment to store, sort and handle bulk items, such as ore and coal.

gate Waterproof device that closes a dock. dry dock Dock where water is pumped out so that a ship’s hull can be repaired, cleaned or painted. quayside crane Crane that rolls along rails the length of the quay and uses a moving arm to load and unload cargo in forms such as container, bulk and break bulk. canal lock Structure with a lock-chamber that can be filled with water or emptied to raise or lower a ship from one water level to another. silos Very large, usually cylindrical, reservoirs for storing products in bulk, especially grain.

grain terminal Area with installations and equipment for storing, sorting and handling grain.

floating crane Quayside crane that is mounted on a floating movable platform and often used for carrying heavy cargo.

dock Vast enclosure made up of quays where ships dock to take on and unload cargo.

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quay ramp Slope leading from the quay to the level of the water.

container ship Ship that is designed for transporting cargo in containers in its hold and on its deck.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

harbor

lighthouse Tower with a powerful lamp at the top for guiding ships.

cold shed Insulated refrigerated structure for storing perishable foodstuffs.

passenger terminal Structures and facilities where passengers embark and disembark ships.

ferryboat Shuttle boat for carrying vehicles with their cargo and passengers.

oil terminal Area with installations and equipment to store petroleum products and load them into tankers. tanker Ship with large reservoirs for transporting liquid petroleum products.

office building Structure where personnel who administer the port work.

customs house Structure where inspection and legal operations related to imported and exported cargo are carried out.

road transport Transportation of cargo by truck on public roads.

container terminal Area with installations and equipment to store, sort and handle containers.

quayside railway Railroad tracks leading onto a quay for transshipping containers from a ship to a car or vice versa.

parking lot Area for parking vehicles.

bridge Structure consisting of a girder and posts that rolls along tracks moving containers.

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canal lock Structure with a lock-chamber that can be filled with water or emptied to raise or lower a ship from one water level to another. lower gate Watertight door or pair of doors made of wood or metal that open when the water levels between the lock-chamber and the lower level are the same.

line hook Piece of wood or metal attached to the side wall for securing the rope that holds a ship in place while it is in the lock-chamber.

side wall Wall forming one side of the lockchamber and supporting its doors.

approach wall Wall along the side wall that guides ships into the lock.

lock emptying system Conduit that evacuates the water from the downstream side causing the water level in the lock-chamber to go down.

canal lock: side view

lower gate Watertight door or pair of doors made of wood or metal that open when the water levels between the lock-chamber and the lower level are the same.

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lock filling and emptying system System consisting of a conduit with sluices alongside the side wall and perpendicular conduits on the canal bed that together raise and lower the water level in the lock.

lower level Part of the lock at the downstream end of the lock-chamber.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

canal lock

ladder Ladder fixed to the side wall for climbing up out of and down into the lock-chamber.

miter gate recess Indentation in the side wall into which a gate fits when open. lock filling intake Conduit with a sluice that opens to raise the water level in the lock-chamber. upper gate Watertight door or pair of doors made of wood or metal that open when the water levels between the lock-chamber and the upper level are the same. lock filling opening Holes through which the water flows to fill the lockchamber.

lock filling and emptying opening Holes through which the water flows in to fill the lock-chamber or out to empty it. canal bed Thick concrete base that makes up the lock’s foundation. flow Natural current moving down the grade from upstream to downstream.

lock-chamber Central part of the lock where the water level is raised and lowered depending on the heading of the ship.

upper gate Watertight door or pair of doors made of wood or metal that open when the water levels between the lock-chamber and the upper level are the same.

upper level Part of the lock at the upstream end of the lock-chamber.

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ancient ships Over the course of history, navigation has played a key role in discovering new lands and in developing trade between peoples. longship Sailing ship used by the Vikings during the Middle Ages; it had square sails, oars and a prow and stern that were usually sculpted.

stay Rope strung tautly from the top of the mast to the planking to stabilize the mast.

stern Rear end of a ship. stempost Main timber reinforcing the prow.

steering oar Oar at the back of the ship acting as rudder.

oar Long piece of wood that is broad and flat at one end; it is mounted on the boat and pulled by one or more people to propel the boat.

galley Warship with a sail and oars that was used in ancient times; it disappeared in the 18th century.

ram Timber jutting out in front of the prow usually at water level; it was used to punch holes in the hulls of enemy ships.

oar Long piece of wood that is broad and flat at one end; it is mounted on the boat and pulled by one or more people to propel the boat.

trireme Warship used by the Romans with a ram, a sail and three vertical rows of oars.

steering oar Oar at the back of the ship acting as rudder.

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figurehead Sculpted timber on the prow of a ship in ancient times that depicted a human, a god or a mythical creature.

oar Long piece of wood that is broad and flat at one end; it is mounted on the boat and pulled by one or more people to propel the boat.

ram Timber jutting out in front of the prow usually at water level; it was used to punch holes in the hulls of enemy ships.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

ancient ships

galleon Large warship with sails that was used by the Spanish in the 17th and 18th centuries for trading with the colonies.

caravel Fast ship with three or four masts; it was used especially in the 15th and 16th centuries for exploration.

side-wheeler Ship used in the 19th century that was propelled by steam, which turned two paddle wheels.

funnel Tall pipe atop the engine that evacuates the steam and the combustion smoke.

paddle wheel Wheel with blades that propels the boat; it is driven by a steam engine.

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traditional ships Boats characteristic of various parts of the world for a number of generations; they are used as a means of transportation, for fishing, commerce and exploration. outrigger canoe Dugout canoe that is stabilized by one or two outriggers.

hull Part of the boat’s structure that forms a watertight vessel.

outrigger boom Wooden pole connecting the outrigger to the hull. outrigger Piece of wood parallel to the hull that stabilizes the boat. prow ornament The iron prow is characteristic of gondolas; it symbolizes the pointed caps of the doges and the districts of Venice.

gondola Venetian boat characterized by raised curved ends and steered by an oar.

oar Long piece of wood that is broad and flat at one end; it is mounted on the boat and pulled by one or more people to propel the boat. dugout canoe Light boat used in Africa and Oceania that is made from one piece of wood and is propelled by a paddle or a sail.

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canoe Light boat used by Native Americans; it is propelled by a paddle and is used for transporting people and cargo.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

traditional ships

mast Tall pole that is sometimes slightly inclined; it supports the lateen yard.

felucca A Mediterranean boat of ancient times that was propelled by a sail or an oar; it is still found today on the Nile.

lateen yard Long inclined pole that is supported by the mast and rigged with a triangular sail. rudder Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

junk Boat used in the Far East for fishing and transporting cargo; its sails are made of matting or canvas and are stretched by battens. mainmast Principal mast that is fixed approximately in the center of the boat. mizzenmast Mast on the stern of the boat. foremast Mast nearest the prow of the boat.

batten Rigid pole inserted into the sail’s batten pockets to maintain its shape. rudder Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

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four-masted bark Sailboat with four masts and square sails except for the jiggermast, which carries a gaff sail.

masting and rigging Masting: masts, yards, ropes and other movable sailing equipment that support and manipulate the rigging.

mizzenmast One of the principal masts of the ship; it is located aft of the mainmast between the ship’s center of gravity and its rudder.

mainmast One of the principal parts of the ship; it is located closest to the center of gravity.

jiggermast Mast located aft on the four-masted bark.

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foremast Mast nearest the prow of the boat.

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4

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gaff Diagonal yard aft of a mast and supporting the top part of a gaff sail.

gaff sail boom Horizontal yard articulating on a mast; it keeps the bottom edge of a sail taut.

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shroud Heavy taut rope between a mast and the side of the ship; it secures and supports the mast on the sides.

backstay Long taut rope between the mast and the deck; it secures and supports the mast athwartships and aft.

side Longitudinal surface of the ship.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

four-masted bark

pole Tapered top end of a mast.

yard Long pole that is supported by the mast and holds up the edge of a sail.

fore-royal mast Mast above the fore-topgallant mast that carries a royal sail.

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1 fore-topgallant mast Mast above the fore-topmast that carries a topgallant sail. footrope Rope hanging along the entire length of a yard that is used by sailors to trim the sails.

masthead Topmost section of a mast that is sometimes doubled with the lower section of the mast supporting it; the stays and shrouds are attached to it.

fore-topmast Mast that is immediately above a lower mast and carries a topsail. lifeboat Boat for transporting passengers and crew in the event of shipwreck. top Platform at the top of the lower mast from which the upper rigging can be manipulated.

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davit Skid hanging over the edge of the ship that supports a boat and is used to lower and raise it.

stem Main timber reinforcing the prow.

stay Taut rope between a mast and another point on the masting; it secures and supports the mast fore of it.

lower mast Bottom section of a mast that is solid and thick so it can support the upper sections.

4 bobstay Rope counterbalancing the tension caused by the stays and the staysailstays on the bowsprit. bowsprit Mast extending before the stem; additional jibs can be attached to it.

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four-masted bark sails A sailboat’s sails that are rigged on the bowsprit, the foremast, the main masts, the jiggermast and between these masts.

mizzen royal staysail Triangular sail rigged on the stay supporting the aft foreroyal mast.

mizzen royal brace Rope that causes the yard supporting the royal sail to pivot around the mizzenmast.

mizzen topgallant staysail Triangular sail on the stay supporting the aft foretopgallant mast.

jigger topgallant staysail Highest triangular sail among the sails rigged between the mizzenmast and the jiggermast.

gaff topsail Sail above a gaff sail and between the gaff and the top of the mast.

jigger topmast staysail Triangular sail below the jigger topgallant staysail.

spanker Gaff sail for the mizzenmast.

halyard Rope for hoisting a sail or a yard.

sheet Rope extending from the lower corner of a sail for trimming it with respect to the wind direction.

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mizzen sail The lowest square sail supported by the mizzenmast.

mizzen topmast staysail Triangular sail on the stay supporting the aft fore-topmast.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

four-masted bark

main royal sail Small square sail above the topgallant sail at the top of the mainmast.

main lower topgallant sail Square sail between the main upper topgallant sail and the main upper topsail.

main upper topgallant sail Square sail under the main royal sail.

fore royal sail Small square sail at the top of the foremast above the fore topgallant sail.

upper fore topgallant sail Square sail below the fore royal sail.

main upper topsail Square sail between the main lower topgallant sail and the main lower topsail.

upper fore topsail Square sail between the lower fore topgallant sail and the lower fore topsail.

flying jib Very light triangular staysail that is foremost on the bowsprit. outer jib Triangular staysail that lies between the flying jib and the middle jib.

middle jib Triangular staysail that lies between the outer jib and the inner jib. inner jib Very heavy triangular staysail that lies farthest aft on the bowsprit.

main sail Lowest square sail on the mainmast.

foresail Lowest square sail on the foremast.

lower fore topsail Square sail above the foresail.

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examples of boats and ships Boats and ships: floating structures for underwater exploration and transporting passengers and cargo across water. trawler Fishing boat that tows a large funnelshaped net (trawl).

drill ship Ship for drilling for oil in deep water (1,000 m and more); it is more mobile but less stable than a drilling rig.

bulk carrier Ship for transporting raw dry materials, such as grain, coal and ore.

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derrick Metal structure erected over an oil well; tools for drilling through rock are raised and lowered through it.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships tug Boat propelled by powerful engines that is used to tow boats and other floating craft to help them maneuver or to rescue them.

wheelhouse Cabin that houses the pilot and the navigation instruments.

rudder blade Part of the rudder that receives the thrust from the propeller in order to steer the boat.

propeller Device with blades integrated onto a shaft that is driven by the engine to provide thrust and thus impel the ship.

ice breaker Boat that opens up a navigable passage through ice.

stem Reinforced part of the boat’s prow that crushes the ice with its weight and then pushes it aside to open a channel.

stem propeller Screw that pulls up water from under the ice sheet to weaken its support thus making it easier to break and move.

rear propeller Screw driven by a powerful engine to propel the ice breaker.

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examples of boats and ships container ship Ship that is designed for transporting cargo in containers in its hold and on its deck.

stack Tall pipe atop the engine that evacuates the steam and the combustion smoke.

chart room Office in which charts and other navigation documents are kept.

radio antenna Metal conductor that emits and receives radio waves for communications.

crew quarters Compartments for housing crew members.

propeller Device with blades integrated onto a shaft that is driven by the engine to provide thrust and thus impel the ship.

rudder Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

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radar Detection device that emits radio waves and receives their echo; it is used to avoid collisions and to navigate when visibility is reduced.

compass bridge Covered glassed-in platform from which officers and crew navigate the vessel.

lifeboat Boat used for evacuating people from the ship in case of emergency.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships

masthead light Lamp projecting a strong light several miles ahead and to the sides of the ship.

forecastle Section of the forward deck for storing equipment such as chains and anchors.

container Metal box of standardized dimensions for transporting cargo.

anchor-windlass room Opening made in a ship’s bulwark or deck for the anchor chains and lashings. waterline Line separating the submerged and abovewater parts of the hull of a ship under normal load conditions.

container hold Large compartment under the deck where containers are stowed. stem bulb Bulge in the bottom part of the stem that reduces the hull’s water resistance.

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MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships hovercraft Propeller vehicle that moves above water (or land) by gliding on a cushion of air it creates by blowing downward.

rudder Pivoting part behind the propeller blast for steering the hovercraft.

control deck Compartment from which the pilots operate the hovercraft.

propeller duct Metal part that surrounds the propeller and increases its power by concentrating its air intake.

dynamics propeller Device that is made up of blades integrated with a shaft; it pushes air behind the hovercraft thus causing a forward movement.

navigation light Lamp that is visible from afar to signal the hovercraft’s presence.

passenger cabin Compartment where the passengers sit during the trip.

blade lift fan Device blowing air downward under the hovercraft to keep it levitated.

baggage racks Compartment for storing luggage.

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diesel propulsion engine Power source using the combustion of an air/fuel mixture to drive the propellers.

skirt finger Flexible and pliable extension to the skirt that adapts to the surface of the water.

flexible skirt Rubber flexible side that surrounds the edge of the hull to trap the air blown down by the lift fan; this increases pressure, which in turn causes lift.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships ferry boat Shuttle boat for carrying vehicles with their cargo and passengers.

telecommunication antenna Multipurpose antenna that receives and transmits various signals such as video, telephone and digital.

restaurant Compartment where meals are prepared and eaten.

radio antenna Metal conductor that emits and receives radio waves for communications. radar Detection device that emits radio waves and receives their echo; it is used to avoid collisions and to navigate when visibility is reduced.

heating/air-conditioning equipment Machinery that regulates the cabin’s temperature and humidity.

car deck Compartment where the vehicles are parked in such a way as to keep the ferry balanced.

bow loading door Door for loading vehicles; another is located aft for unloading cars.

compass bridge Covered glassed-in platform from which officers and crew navigate the vessel.

passenger cabin Compartment where the passengers sit during the trip.

folding ramp Retractable door that lowers onto the quay to load and unload vehicles.

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MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships runabout Pleasure boat with an outboard engine for cruising and waterskiing on inland waterways.

windshield Front sheet of glass and plastic protecting the pilot from the wind and splashing.

steering wheel Wheel for steering the engine and hence the boat.

outboard engine Detachable engine mounted on the boat’s stern.

handrail Railing serving as support for the passengers.

motor yacht Pleasure boat of various sizes and speeds with a cabin fit to live in; it can navigate the sea and inland waterways. handrail Railing serving as support for the passengers.

houseboat Motorized pleasure boat for navigating inland waterways; it is characterized by a long deck and a cabin fit to live in.

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sundeck Part of the deck for relaxation; it is surrounded by a handrail.

fore and aft passage Passageway on the deck that connects the bow and the stern.

pilot house Compartment from which the pilot operates the boat.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships hydrofoil boat Fast boat with foils, which lift and support the hull above water when cruising speed is reached.

passenger cabin Compartment where the passengers sit during the trip.

radio antenna Metal conductor that emits and receives radio waves for communications.

radar Detection device that emits radio waves and receives their echo; it is used to avoid collisions and to navigate when visibility is reduced.

life buoy Ring made of buoyant material that is thrown to anyone who has fallen overboard to help them float.

propeller shaft Long metal rod that transmits the motor’s rotational movement to the propeller.

propeller Device with blades integrated onto a shaft that is driven by the engine to provide thrust and thus impel the ship.

compass bridge Covered glassed-in platform from which officers and crew navigate the vessel.

surface-piercing foils Parts that lift the boat when cruising speed has been reached; they also stabilize the boat.

front foil Wing on each side of the prow.

strut Vertical support that connects each foil to the boat’s hull.

rear foil Wing on each side of the stern.

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MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships tanker Ship with large reservoirs for transporting liquid petroleum products.

radar mast Mast with a radio-wave detection device (radar set) used to prevent collisions when visibility is reduced.

radio antenna Metal conductor that emits and receives radio waves for communications.

separator Device that removes any water that might contaminate the oil tanks.

guardrail Railing along a ship’s deck that protects crew from falling overboard. davit Winch that manipulates the anchors.

engine control room Compartment housing the instruments that monitor the ship’s movement and control the engines and other machinery.

propeller Device with blades integrated onto a shaft that is driven by the engine to provide thrust and thus impel the ship.

rudder Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

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lengthwise bulkhead Wall that divides the hold along the length to demarcate the tanks.

transverse bulkhead Wall that divides the hold across the width thus demarcating the tanks.

MARITIME TRANSPORT

examples of boats and ships

main deck Flat top that seals the hull and protects the cargo; it provides space for crew to circulate and for auxiliary equipment.

derrick Device with pulleys that is mounted on a pivot for handling loads.

foam monitor Pressurized mechanism that produces foam for extinguishing fires.

foremast Mast located near the bow of the deck that supports the navigation lights.

tank Watertight reservoir; the hold is divided into several tanks to prevent sloshing.

wall side Vertical part of the hull below the water line.

crossover cargo deck line Thick pipe that runs transversally and is used to fill and empty the tanks.

web frame Metal reinforcement that spans the hull transversally.

center keelson Metal girder that runs along the ship’s longitudinal axis to reinforce the bottom of the hull.

bitt Metal cylindrical fittings attached to the deck for fastening mooring ropes and tow lines.

mooring winch Motorized spool around which a mooring cable is wound.

bulb Bulge in the bottom part of the stem that reduces the hull’s water resistance.

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examples of boats and ships passenger liner Large cruise ship, fitted like a luxury hotel and with diverse recreation facilities for passengers.

promenade deck Open deck for strolling that is sometimes glassed in.

hall Room fitted with armchairs for passengers to meet.

funnel Long vertical pipe above the machinery evacuating exhaust gases from the engines, with filters for absorbing carbon particles.

stern Rear end of a ship.

lounge Area with a counter and tables where alcoholic drinks are sold.

playing area Fenced-in area for playing ball sports.

propeller Device with blades integrated onto a shaft that is driven by the engine to provide thrust and thus impel the ship.

rudder Submerged component that pivots on a vertical axle and is used to steer the boat.

engine room Room housing the engines, turbines and related machinery that propel the ship.

stabilizer fin Small pivoting winglike flaps on each side of the hull to reduce the rolling motion.

cabin Room that accommodates one or several passengers.

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dining room Hall for eating meals.

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examples of boats and ships

telecommunication antenna Multipurpose antenna that receives and transmits various signals such as video, telephone and digital.

sundeck Usually the highest and sunniest deck with a pool and lounge chairs.

radio antenna Metal conductor that emits and receives radio waves for communications. radar Detection device that emits radio waves and receives their echo; it is used to avoid collisions and to navigate when visibility is reduced.

open-air terrace Outdoor platform that is formed from the roof of the deck below and is protected by a guardrail.

compass bridge Covered glassed-in platform from which officers and crew navigate the vessel.

port hand Left side of the ship when looking forward.

porthole Waterproof glassed-in opening in the hull that lets natural light and air into the ship.

captain’s quarters Lodgings for the captain located aft of the bridge on the starboard side.

bow thruster Propeller on each side of the stem bulb for maneuvering the ship to port or starboard at slow speeds.

starboard hand Right side of the ship when looking forward.

stem bulb Bulge in the bottom part of the stem that reduces the hull’s water resistance.

bow Foremost part of the ship.

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anchor Usually steel part that is attached to a chain or cable; it hooks onto the bottom of a body of water to keep the boat from moving. ship’s anchor The traditional anchor is made up of a shank with a stock at one end and two arms ending in palms at the other end.

crown Point at the end of the shank.

arm Shank that curves out from the bottom end of the main shank and ends in a palm.

throat Point where the arms meet the shank. gravity band Anchor’s center of gravity.

fluke Broad part of the palm.

palm Flat pointed part at the end of the arm; it sinks into the bottom of the water to grip it.

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bill Tip of the palm.

hoisting ring Small ring at the anchor’s center of gravity; a rope is attached to it, which is pulled to dislodge the anchor from the bottom of the water.

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anchor examples of anchors The weight and the shape of the arms of anchors are designed to hook onto various bottoms (such as firm, loose or reedy).

plow anchor Anchor with a plow-shaped arm that pivots on the shank and hooks onto most bottoms.

stockless anchor Relatively light anchor with a pair of pivoting palms that fold along the shank.

stocked anchor Relatively heavy and bulky anchor with a stock and two arms ending in palms.

grapnel Small anchor with four, sometimes folding, cruciform arms.

sea anchor Solid cone-shaped canvas sack that is dragged behind a boat to counter heaving and strong winds.

mushroom anchor Anchor with a large crown instead of arms.

shank Long straight rod forming the body of the anchor.

ring Heavy ring through the eye at the end of the shank; the anchor’s cable or rope is attached to it. stock Transverse rod perpendicular to the shank; it positions the anchor so that its two arms grip the bottom of the water. 133

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life-saving equipment Instruments and equipment for signaling a boat’s presence and for saving people from drowning. life raft Inflatable boat where passengers can take refuge in case of emergency.

boarding ladder Nylon straps that form steps for climbing into the life raft.

fog horn Instrument that makes a regulation sound when visibility is reduced to indicate the presence of a boat.

canopy Covering that automatically deploys to protect against wind, rain and spray.

inflation system Device containing pressurized air that automatically inflates the buoyancy tubes when the life raft is launched.

antenna Metal rod that emits the radio signal into the atmosphere.

trumpet Bell mouth that amplifies the sound emitted by a diaphragm when compressed air passes over it.

canister Small container of compressed air.

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buoyancy tube Inflatable tube that serves as a hull to make the raft float.

distress beacon Device that automatically transmits a radio distress signal giving its precise position.

strobe Lamp that produces an intense light from a gas, which glows between two electrodes.

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life-saving equipment life jacket Buoyant vest filled with air or plastic foam that is used to keep a person afloat.

buckle Fastener with two elements that hook together and unfasten when pressed.

belt Nylon strap that adjusts to the wearer’s size to keep the life jacket in place.

leg strap Adjustable nylon belt that goes between the legs to prevent the life jacket from riding up.

handle

boat hook Usually telescopic pole with a tip and a hook; it is used to maneuver a boat alongside quays, to hook an object and to fathom the bottom.

life buoy Ring made of buoyant material that is thrown to anyone who has fallen overboard to help them float.

ring Rigid buoyant circle that a person in the water slips under the arms.

hook Curved end for hooking a rope or fishing an object out of the water.

rope Nylon rope that can be caught with the boat hook to hoist a person out of the water.

retro-reflective tape Tape that reflects light, making it easier to find a person in the water. 135

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navigation devices Examples of instruments that are used on a ship to determine its position and to chart and stay a course.

sextant Optical instrument for measuring the angle between a heavenly body and the horizon to determine the ship’s position.

index mirror Mirror integrated with the index arm that is positioned so that the Sun reflects on the horizon mirror.

index arm Moving arm on the sextant that measures the displacement angle on the graduated arc to determine the height of the observed heavenly body.

horizon mirror Fixed mirror in front of the telescope; it is aimed at the horizon and the image of the Sun is projected on it.

horizon shade Colored glass that blocks certain rays in the light spectrum to filter out ambient light.

drum Thumbnail for turning the micrometer screw.

micrometer screw Screw with a head graduated in minutes that is turned to set the index arm precisely.

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telescope Optical instrument that magnifies an observed object.

graduated arc Arc graduated in degrees; the observed angle measurement is read from it.

index Guide mark that helps to read the graduation marks on the arc.

vernier scale Small graduated rule that slides along the ruler and is used to read very precise measurements.

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navigation devices liquid compass Instrument with magnets that floats on a liquid; it indicates magnetic north.

glass dome Transparent nondistorting hemispherical cover for the bowl containing the liquid.

compass card Rotating disk graduated from 0° to 360° and integrated with two magnets; it shows the cardinal points and the points in between.

sliding cover Retractable cover that protects the glass dome from scratches when not in use.

pivot Axle around which the compass card rotates.

bowl Watertight case containing the magnetic elements, which float in a liquid (oil or alcohol) to reduce oscillations.

display Liquid crystal display screen on which graphics or text data are displayed.

satellite navigation system Device that uses radio signals transmitted by a network of satellites to plot a boat’s position and course on a chart.

GPS receiver-antenna External antenna and GPS receiver that receive radio waves from satellites to calculate the boat’s position.

bracket Support fixed onto a surface that holds the display. 137

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navigation devices echo sounder Device that uses ultrasound to measure the depth of the water below the boat. dial-type display depth scale Display surface where an illuminated Line graduated in feet or meters for reading the dot appears at the point on the scale distance to the bottom. that corresponds to the depth.

housing

sound alarm Audible signal activated when the alarm threshold is reached.

on-off switch Button for activating the sounder and for selecting the scale. gain control Knob for adjusting the amplification of the signal.

alarm threshold setting Knob for setting the maximum depth considered to be dangerous.

alarm threshold display button Button that is pushed to display the alarm threshold value.

echo sounder probe Part of the sounder that is submerged to send the ultrasound to the bottom; it receives the echo and converts it into sound. transmission cable Electric wire that relays the electric signals between the housing and the echo sounder probe. transducer Part of the echo sounder probe that emits the ultrasound and receives its echoes.

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plug Metal prong that plugs into the housing.

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maritime signals Beacons and devices located on the sea, coasts and waterways that emit light, sound and radio waves to aid navigation. lighthouse Tower with a powerful lamp at the top for guiding ships. lantern pane Framed panes of glass that protect the lantern and support the cupola. lantern Powerful lamp that projects an encoded beam.

cupola Roof protecting the lantern; it is equipped with a lightning rod.

incandescent lamp Lamp in which a filament heated by an electric current produces light rays.

gallery Narrow platform with a guardrail that provides a panoramic view from the lighthouse.

tower Concrete structure that forms the lighthouse’s body; it is resistant to waves and very strong winds. lamp base Metal end of a lightbulb inserted into a socket to connect it to the electric circuit.

dioptric ring Concentric glass rings surrounding the lantern that refract its rays to intensify them.

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maritime signals high focal plane buoy Floating beacon whose light is especially high above the surface of the water.

pillar buoy Floating beacon with a pylon-shaped superstructure.

light Encoded light beam that serves as a navigation aid at night.

radar reflector Metal part that reflects ships’ radar signals so they can locate the buoy. photovoltaic panel Device that converts solar energy into electricity to power the light.

daymark Navigation aid that is visible by day only; it displays various colors and signage.

ladder For accessing the components at the top of the tubular structure. tubular structure Columnar part of the superstructure that supports the day- and nightmarks and keeps them above the water.

waterline

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conical buoy Floating beacon with a cone-shaped superstructure.

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maritime signals cylindrical buoy Floating beacon with a cylindrical superstructure. topmark Metal cone-shaped part atop a buoy that serves as a navigation aid during the day; its position signifies various meanings. light Encoded light beam that serves as a navigation aid at night.

photovoltaic panel Device that converts solar energy into electricity to power the light.

superstructure Metal frame that forms the buoy’s body and contains all its elements.

daymark Navigation aid that is visible by day only; it displays various colors and signage.

flotation section Lightweight base that keeps the buoy afloat and upright.

bridle assembly Two chains that link the flotation section to the mooring chain.

mooring chain Long, very sturdy chain that links the buoy to the sinker.

sinker Heavy object often made of concrete; it rests on the bottom of the waterway to keep the buoy in place.

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maritime buoyage system Buoys, beacons and lights located along coasts and waterways to guide ships and boats.

cardinal marks Buoys of standardized colors, topmarks and lights whose placement alone or in a pattern corresponds to the divisions of a compass.

white light White flashing light whose flash pattern serves as a cardinal mark at night.

North The north cardinal mark is composed of two topmarks with both tips pointing upward.

Northeast

Northwest

East The east cardinal mark is composed of two topmarks placed base to base.

West The west cardinal mark is composed of two topmarks placed tip to tip.

Southeast

Southwest

safest water Navigable water is deep enough that it is safe to proceed.

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topmark Metal cone-shaped part atop a buoy that serves as a navigation aid during the day; its position signifies various meanings.

South The south cardinal mark is composed of two topmarks with both tips pointing downward.

danger Buoys signal shallow waters, a submerged object or an object posing a hazard to a boat or a ship.

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maritime buoyage system buoyage regions The color of the buoys that indicate starboard and port is the opposite in various parts of the world.

port hand Left side of the ship when looking forward.

starboard hand Right side of the ship when looking forward.

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maritime buoyage system daymarks (region B) System B combines lateral and cardinal marks. It is the opposite of system A, in which starboard marks are red and port marks are green.

spar buoy Long tubular buoy used in harbors and in waters that have no tides.

East cardinal mark Buoy with two base-to-base topmarks that is placed to the east of a danger zone.

special mark Buoy marking an area that is regulated for a specific use (such as military exercises or fishing) or contains submerged obstacles (such as cables or pipelines).

isolated danger mark Buoy marking an isolated danger zone beyond which the waters are navigable.

safe water mark Buoy signaling that the water is navigable.

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preferred channel Navigation lane with beacons; it is the shortest and safest way to a harbor or for navigating near a coast or through a waterway.

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maritime buoyage system

light Encoded light beam that serves as a navigation aid at night.

West cardinal mark Buoy with two point-to-point topmarks that is placed to the west of a danger zone.

port hand Mark the ship must keep on the left side of its prow as it navigates a channel.

starboard hand Mark the ship must keep on the right side of its prow as it navigates a channel.

conical buoy Floating beacon with a cone-shaped superstructure.

South cardinal mark Buoy with two topmarks pointing downward that is placed to the south of a danger zone.

lateral mark Red or green buoy that indicates the port or starboard limits of the channel.

secondary channel Navigation lane with beacons that is longer or more difficult than the preferred channel.

pillar buoy Floating beacon with a pylon-shaped superstructure.

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airport Location that contains all the technical and commercial facilities needed to support air traffic.

high-speed exit taxiway Lane linking the landing runway with a taxiway that is used by aircraft after landing to free up the runway.

by-pass taxiway Branch for right turns.

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control tower cab Glassed-in office where the air traffic controllers coordinate aircraft movement such as takeoff, landing and flight.

taxiway Lane used by aircraft for entering and exiting the apron.

control tower Structure supporting the control tower cab, which provides a wide view of the runways and terminals.

service road Lane reserved for airport service vehicles.

AIR TRANSPORT

airport

taxiway Lane used by aircraft for entering or exiting a takeoff or landing runway.

maintenance hangar Structure where aircraft are maintained and repaired.

parking area Area where aircraft park between flights for maintenance or overhaul.

access road Part of the network of roads serving the airport.

passenger terminal Structure through which passengers pass before or after their flight to pick up or leave their baggage and to go through customs.

telescopic corridor Mobile corridor connecting the passenger loading area with the aircraft. radial passenger loading area Pavilion for passengers to reach aircraft that is linked by an underground corridor or by vehicles with the main terminal. maneuvering area Area crossed by an aircraft to enter or exit a parking spot.

apron Lane used by aircraft for entering or exiting the maneuvering area.

service area boarding walkway Area around an aircraft that is reserved Underground corridor linking the main terminal for service vehicles and ground crew with a radial passenger loading area. attending to arriving or departing aircraft.

taxiway line Yellow line painted on the ground that shows aircraft the route to follow on the apron or the maneuvering area.

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airport passenger terminal Structure through which passengers pass before or after their flight to pick up or leave their baggage and to go through customs.

lobby Large entrance hall of the terminal for passengers and the people accompanying them.

parking lot Area for parking vehicles.

automatically controlled door Door automatically opening and closing for people to go through.

baggage claim area Area where the baggage conveyor belt emerges for passengers to pick up their luggage.

ticket counter Desk where an airline or travel agent sells tickets for flights.

baggage check-in counter Desk where an employee checks and weighs passengers’ baggage and issues boarding passes.

conveyor belt Mechanized rubber belts transporting luggage from the reception area to the baggage claim area.

railroad shuttle service Train that runs frequently between the terminal and the city or the nearest station.

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platform Area bordering the track for passengers to enter or exit the railroad shuttle service.

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airport

security check Mandatory checkpoint for passengers before boarding where their identification and luggage are inspected.

observation deck Mezzanine that is open to the public and overlooks the departure and arrival area and the runways.

passport control Booth where passengers show their passports before entering or leaving the boarding room.

customs control Booth where passengers from international flights show their passports upon arriving and declare any imported merchandise.

duty-free shop Store located near the boarding room where tax-free goods are sold (e.g., perfume, alcohol, leather goods).

flight information board Panel listing and updating all the airport’s arrivals and departures as well as the flight departure gate numbers.

boarding room Room where passengers wait before boarding.

freight expedition Room where luggage and cargo are inspected, sorted and loaded onto carts transporting them to the aircraft.

passenger transfer vehicle freight reception Room where luggage and cargo that have been Vertically adjustable vehicle with a cabin for transporting passengers between the aircraft and the terminal. unloaded from the cargo hold are transferred to the conveyor belt, which in turn moves them to the baggage claim area.

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airport runway Strip of land on which an aircraft speeds up before takeoff or brakes after landing. runway center line markings Wide broken white line that shows the center of the runway.

holding area marking Line that shows an aircraft where to wait for clearance from the control tower before entering the runway for takeoff.

runway designation marking Number that, when multiplied by 10, shows the runway’s position in relation to magnetic north.

runway side stripe markings Wide solid white line that marks the edges of the runway.

ground airport equipment Equipment and materials for preparing an aircraft for its next flight; this includes cleaning, performing checks, refueling and boarding.

air start unit Vehicle that is equipped with an air compressor driven by a gas turbine; it pumps air into the aircraft’s jet engines to start them.

potable water truck Truck that fills the aircraft’s water tanks with drinking water.

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jet refueler Truck that pumps fuel from underground tanks into the aircraft’s tanks.

electrical power unit Vehicle that is equipped with a transformer to provide electricity to the aircraft when its auxiliary generator set is at rest.

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airport

fixed distance marking Lines painted at regular intervals so that pilots can gauge distances on the runway. exit taxiway Lane connecting the runway with a taxiway so that incoming aircraft can exit the runway as soon as possible after landing.

runway threshold markings Longitudinal lines painted at each end of the runway to show its limits.

runway touchdown zone marking Pair of lines painted at each end of the runway that shows where aircraft should touch down on the runway.

ground air conditioner Truck that contains a device for treating the aircraft’s interior air (ventilation and cooling or heating) when the aircraft is at rest.

lavatory truck Truck that empties and cleans the aircraft’s toilets.

tow bar Device that connects the tow tractor to the aircraft’s front landing gear.

tow tractor Very heavy vehicle that pulls or pushes an aircraft onto the maneuvering area or the parking area.

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airport

universal step Mobile staircase that is positioned manually at an aircraft door to allow passengers to enter or exit.

tripod tail support Adjustable tripod that supports part of the aircraft (the tail or a wing) when maintenance or repairs are carried out.

wheel chock Object that is placed against the landing gear’s wheels to keep the aircraft stationary when on the ground.

aircraft maintenance truck Vehicle that is used by technical maintenance crew when servicing an aircraft.

mobile passenger stairs Truck that carries a telescopic staircase, which is positioned at an aircraft door to allow passengers to enter or exit. 152

container/pallet loader Vehicle whose articulated arms raise and lower a level platform for loading and unloading heavy cargo such as containers and cargo on pallets.

boom truck Vehicle that is equipped with a bucket at the end of an articulating pivoting arm; technicians stand in it to work on aircraft.

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airport

baggage trailer Flat trailer or cart that carries containers in which baggage is transported from the terminal to the aircraft.

baggage conveyor Conveyor belt of adjustable height for loading and unloading baggage and cargo.

tow tractor Vehicle that pulls the baggage trailer.

catering vehicle Truck whose box can be lifted up to the aircraft; it delivers the food and drink to be served to passengers.

passenger transfer vehicle Vertically adjustable vehicle with a cabin for transporting passengers between the aircraft and the terminal.

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long-range jet Aircraft that transports passengers and cargo traveling long distances at high altitudes (between 30,000 and 40,000 ft).

trailing edge Back edge of the wing.

upper deck Upper floor on very large aircraft that contains the flight deck and a passenger cabin. flight deck Compartment that contains all the navigation and control equipment; the navigation crew pilot the aircraft from here.

aileron Hinged flap on the trailing edge of the wing near the tip for controlling the aircraft’s roll.

trailing edge flap Articulated flap on the trailing edge of the wing that deploys downward to increase the aircraft’s lift on takeoff.

spoiler Articulated flap on top of the wing that is deployed immediately after landing; it increases drag and reduces lift to slow the aircraft.

windshield Highly durable pane made of glass and plastic that provides good visibility.

nose Leading tip of the fuselage.

door Airtight door for entering the cabin; some doors are used only in emergencies.

first-class cabin Most comfortable part of the cabin where passengers receive special attention; it is always situated at the front of the aircraft.

nose landing gear Retractable mechanism that enables the aircraft to land; it is located at the front end.

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galley Compartment where meals for service are prepared.

window Airtight window that lets natural light into the cabin.

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long-range jet

rudder fin Articulated flap at the rear of the fin that Fixed vertical part of the tail assembly steers the aircraft and corrects any yaw tail that keeps the aircraft stable. that might occur. Rear part of the fuselage.

horizontal stabilizer Wing made up of the fixed horizontal tail assembly; it stabilizes the aircraft horizontally.

tail assembly Moving and fixed surfaces that are located at the tail of the aircraft for steering and stabilizing it.

elevator Articulated flap that is attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer; it is used to change altitude and correct any pitch that may occur.

fuselage Aircraft body that is divided into several compartments and whose aerodynamic form reduces air friction; it is supported by the wings in flight.

passenger cabin Compartment in which most of the passengers travel and receive basic services; it is also called economy class.

freight hold Compartment where baggage and cargo are stored.

wing Horizontal surface on which aerodynamic forces are exerted to keep the aircraft in the air.

turbojet engine leading edge Jet-propulsion turbine producing hot Front edge of the wing. gases that are expelled at high speed to provide the thrust necessary to propel the aircraft.

winglet Protruding surface at the wingtip that enhances aerodynamics.

navigation light Light signaling the direction in which the aircraft is flying: red on the left wing (port), green on the right wing (starboard) and white on the tail.

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flight deck Compartment that contains navigation equipment and controls and from which the crew pilots the aircraft.

engine and crew alarm display Screen that controls the engines and displays alarm signals in the event of system failure.

autopilot controls Device that enables the aircraft to be piloted and kept on course automatically.

standby attitude indicator Screen that shows the aircraft’s position in relation to the horizon; it is used in the event the flight display fails.

standby airspeed indicator Instrument that shows the aircraft’s speed; it is used in the event the flight display fails. standby altimeter Instrument that shows the vertical distance between the aircraft and the ground; it is used in the event the flight display fails.

systems display Screen that controls various systems, such as air pressure and the electric and hydraulic circuits.

speedbrake lever Command stick that releases the wing flaps to brake the aircraft immediately after landing. throttles Control levers for the engines; they regulate speed and thrust.

captain’s seat Left seat occupied by the pilot, who is in charge of the flight and the crew. communication panels Panel for selecting radio frequencies on which pilots can send or receive.

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engine fuel valves Knobs for opening and shutting the fuel supply to the engines.

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flight deck

landing gear lever Control for lowering and raising the landing gear.

overhead switch panel Panel made up of the switches that cut the hydraulic, electric and fuel circuits.

windshield Highly durable pane made of glass and plastic that provides good visibility.

navigation display Screen that shows the aircraft’s position and flight plan and weather conditions.

primary flight display Screen that shows the main parameters necessary for piloting (aircraft’s position in relation to the horizon, altitude and course).

control column Steering component that causes an aircraft to bank to the left or to the right and to ascend or descend. control wheel Lever that activates the control column from back to front and from side to side.

transponder Instruments that, with the autopilot, control the engine power and guide the aircraft on its course.

first officer’s seat Right seat occupied by the copilot, who is second in command. control console Component located between the two seats that contains part of the instrumentation.

flap lever Control stick that activates the wing slats and the trailing edge flaps.

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turbofan engine Jet engine with a fan and two airflows; one airflow passes through the combustion chamber and the other bypasses it. pipe diffuser Conduit with several exit orifices that connects the centrifugal compressor to the combustion chamber; its purpose is to direct the flow and slow down the airflow to increase its pressure.

outer stators Set of fixed blades that corrects the airflow that is deflected as it passes through the fan.

annular combustion chamber Enclosure consisting of two concentric hydraulic cylinders that surrounds the turbine-compressor shaft and where combustion occurs.

compressor turbine Turbine that is activated by the gas produced in the combustion chamber; it drives the centrifugal compressor and the accessories.

inner stators Set of fixed blades that corrects the airflow that is deflected as it passes through the blades of the axial compressor.

centrifugal compressor Engine components that use centrifugal force to compress air and expel it at very high speed to the combustion chamber by the pipe diffuser.

nose cone Part located on the tip of the fan axle that creates an aerodynamic airflow into the fan blades.

axial compressor Engine component in which air is highly compressed by a set of small fan blades to increase the engine’s output and reduce fuel consumption. turbine-compressor shaft Axle transmitting the turbine’s rotational movement to the compressors.

accessory gearbox Mechanism that drives various accessories such as the alternator and the hydraulic, fuel and oil pumps.

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fuel control Device measuring the amount of fuel injected into the combustion chamber.

ignition box Device that produces the electric pulses supplying the system that sets off combustion.

AIR TRANSPORT

turbofan engine power turbine Turbine that is driven by the gases expelled by the combustion chamber; it drives the axial compressor and the fan. It is independent of the compressor turbine. fan Blower sucking air into the turbofan engine. bypass duct Channel that conducts some of the air sucked in by the fan, which contributes to the engine’s thrust.

exhaust guide vanes Protruding parts directing the exhaust gases straight out. compression Phase during which some of the air flowing through the engine is compressed before it enters the combustion chamber.

combustion Phase during which the compressed air enters the combustion chamber, where it is mixed with fuel and ignited.

exhaust duct Opening through which the exhaust gases are evacuated; the duct is usually coneshaped in order to narrow the gas flow, thus increasing thrust.

exhaust Phase during which the air expands and produces a thrust that activates the turbines and propels the turbofan engine.

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examples of airplanes Ever since the first airplane, Éole, in 1890, the shape of aircraft has evolved constantly as new aerodynamic discoveries were made and engine power increased. float seaplane Airplane designed to take off from and land on water.

three-blade propeller Propulsion device with three blades that are arranged around an axle and driven by a motor.

high wing Wing mounted on top of the fuselage.

wing strut Rigid or flexible component that braces an airplane’s wing and connects the wing to the fuselage or connects the two wings on a biplane.

float Watertight structure attached under the fuselage that enables the seaplane to float and move on water.

upper wing

biplane Airplane with two superimposed and parallel sets of wings. wings Surfaces upon which aerodynamic forces are exerted to cause the airplane to fly.

lower wing

light aircraft Airplane that usually has a single engine and cruises between 90 and 150 mph; it is used for recreation and traveling short distances.

canopy Glassed covering over the cockpit.

two-blade propeller Propulsion device with two blades that are arranged around an axle and driven by a motor. 160

high frequency antenna cable Wire enabling radio communication for the aircraft.

AIR TRANSPORT

examples of airplanes

variable ejector nozzle Duct whose mouth widens as the plane climbs, thus enabling the engines to increase output.

supersonic jetliner Passenger aircraft whose cruising speed (1500 mph) is faster than the speed of sound (761 mph). The Concorde was the best known commercial aircraft of this type.

droop nose Articulated nose that is lowered on takeoff and landing to provide the pilot with better visibility.

delta wing Thin triangular wing that is especially aerodynamic.

amphibious fire-fighting aircraft Airplane with large water tanks; it is used to fight forest fires.

three-blade propeller Propulsion device with three blades that are arranged around an axle and driven by a motor.

water-tank area Area with a hatch that scoops up water from the surface of a body of water to fill its tanks so that it can dump the water in flight.

float Watertight structure that prevents the airplane from tipping when it fills its tanks.

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examples of airplanes business aircraft Airplane with a limited number of seats; it is usually used by heads of corporations for business trips. winglet Protruding surface at the wingtip that enhances aerodynamics.

cargo aircraft Plane with large freight capacity; it is used to transport goods.

superjumbo jet Airplane that can transport a large number of passengers (more than 500).

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examples of airplanes

swiveling nozzle Duct that can be pointed downward to increase the engine’s vertical thrust during vertical landing and takeoff.

vertical take-off and landing aircraft Airplane that can move vertically in order to take off from and land on short runways; it is usually used in combat.

radar-absorbent material Material that absorbs radar waves before they strike any metal part of the aircraft in order to muffle the sound of the echo.

stealth aircraft Aircraft that cannot be detected by radar because of the radar-absorbing facets covering its fuselage.

facet Flat surface with a protruding edge that disperses any radar waves hitting it and makes them undetectable.

rotodome Domelike rotating structure that houses radar antennae.

radar aircraft Surveillance aircraft for locating and identifying aircraft in flight.

strut Structure that supports the rotodome.

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combat aircraft Military aircraft used for attack purposes.

in-flight refueling Action of refueling a plane from a tanker in flight.

parachute Device that opens from the tail of the aircraft to reduce speed on landing.

exhaust nozzle Conduit through which hot gases from the turbojet engine are released.

air brake Aerodynamic flap at the back of the aircraft; it is used to reduce speed on landing.

turbojet engine Jet-propulsion turbine producing hot gases that are expelled at high speed to provide the thrust necessary to propel the aircraft. air-to-air missile Missile fired from a helicopter or an aircraft; its target is an aircraft or another missile.

canopy Glass window covering the cockpit.

ejection seat Seat designed to be projected from the aircraft in the event of an emergency.

wing Horizontal surface on which aerodynamic forces are exerted to keep the aircraft in the air.

front landing gear Retractable mechanism that enables the aircraft to land; it is located at the front end.

wing box fuel tank Metal substructure of the wings; the trailing and Reservoir containing the fuel that leading edge flaps are connected to it. allows the aircraft to fly.

164

radome Rigid casing that radio waves can pass through; it protects the radar system.

radar unit Device that uses radio waves to detect objects such as other aircraft.

AIR TRANSPORT

forces acting on an airplane Physical phenomena that affect the movement of an aircraft in flight.

lift Force exerted on an aircraft’s wings to keep it in the air when a certain forward speed is reached.

thrust Force developed by the engine’s propeller pulling it forward; in jet aircraft, thrust is created by the force of the ducts.

drag Force opposite to thrust that creates resistance to the aircraft’s forward movement and must be reduced.

weight Force resulting from the effect of the Earth’s gravity acting on the aircraft’s mass; the force of the engines must overpower this to keep the aircraft in the air.

movements of an airplane Changes exerted on an aircraft in flight that affect its behavior; a pilot must know how to correct them.

pitch Rotational movement of an aircraft around its transverse axis; it is caused by an imbalance of pressure on the nose and tail.

yaw Aircraft’s rotational motion around its vertical axis; it is caused by an imbalance of pressure on the leading edges of the wings.

roll Rotational movement of an aircraft around its longitudinal axis; it is caused by an imbalance in the lift of the wings. 165

AIR TRANSPORT

helicopter Aircraft whose lift agent is a rotor on a vertical axle.

rotor hub Center part of the rotor head that connects the driveshaft to the blades. drive shaft Part driven by the engine that transmits its rotational movement to the hub.

rotor head Rotating mechanism that transmits the required power and angle.

sleeve Part of the hub to which the blades are attached.

air inlet Opening through which air enters to supply the helicopter’s engine.

cabin Compartment where the passengers ride. flight deck Compartment that contains navigation equipment; the pilot operates the helicopter from here.

control stick Lever for changing the rotor’s tilt; it is used to steer the helicopter.

antenna Antenna that receives and transmits radio signals to communicate with the control tower or another aircraft. landing window Window by the pilot’s feet for seeing the ground when landing.

166

landing light Spotlight that is aimed at the ground for landing at night.

fuel tank Reservoir for the helicopter’s fuel.

AIR TRANSPORT

helicopter

position light Light visible from afar that signals the helicopter’s presence.

fin Fixed vertical part mounted on the tail boom to keep the helicopter flying straight.

anti-torque tail rotor Rotor on a horizontal axle that prevents the helicopter from spinning due to the effect of the main rotor.

tail skid Support attached to the tail end of the boom that protects it and the antitorque tail rotor in the event of a landing with the nose up.

exhaust pipe Opening through which the exhaust gases are evacuated.

tail boom Long part of the helicopter’s frame that contains a propeller shaft and supports the rear rotor, fin and stabilizers.

horizontal stabilizer Horizontal wing mounted on the tail boom to stabilize the helicopter’s horizontal movement.

rotor blade Long streamlined part of the main rotor that, depending on its angle, lifts and propels the helicopter.

baggage compartment Compartment for storing luggage.

skid Tube on which the helicopter lands and rests.

167

AIR TRANSPORT

examples of helicopters Because they can take off and land vertically, helicopters are more effective than airplanes in certain situations.

tactical transport helicopter Armed military helicopter for transporting troops, small combat vehicles and various objects.

water bomber helicopter Helicopter with a water tank that is used to fight forest fires.

belly tank Tank filled with water by a long pipe hanging underneath; it uses a hatch to empty the water in flight.

ambulance helicopter Helicopter for transporting the sick and injured and providing medical assistance.

168

ENGLISH A

bench 103 bench seat 29 berth 93 bias-ply tire 41 bicycle 78 bicycle bag 81 bicycle, accessories 81 bicycle, parts 78 bicycles, examples 82 bike carrier 34 bill 132 biplane 160 bitt 129 black clamp 34 blade lift fan 124 blind spot mirror 57, 59 blinking lights 57 BMX bike 82 boarding ladder 134 boarding room 149 boarding walkway 147 boat hook 135 boats 120 bobstay 117 bodies, examples 22 body 24, 55, 56 body side molding 25 B booking hall 84 boom 66 backing plate 37 boom truck 152 backrest 28, 75 bottom bracket axle 80 backstay 116 bow 131 baggage cart 85 baggage check-in counter 148 bow loading door 125 bow thruster 131 baggage claim area 148 bowl 137 baggage compartment 58, bowsprit 117 88, 167 box car 94, 97 baggage conveyor 153 bracket 137 baggage lockers 85 brake booster 38 baggage racks 124 brake cable 79 baggage room 84 brake caliper 71 baggage trailer 153 brake fluid reservoir 38 Bailey bridge 16 brake lever 79 ball mount 35 brake light 26 ballast 100 brake line 36 bank 9 brake lining 37 base 8, 100, 101 brake pad 36 base course 9 brake pedal 30, 38 batten 115 battery 44, 46, 90 brake pressure modulator 38 battery box 62 brake shoe 37 battery case 44 brakes 36 battery condition module 46 braking circuit 38 battery cover 44 bridge 109 bead 39 bridges 16 bead wire 41 bridle assembly 141 beam bridge 13 broken line 8, 10 bed 8 bubble 74 belly tank 168 bucket seat 28 belt 41, 135 buckle 29, 135 antilock braking system 38 approach ramp 15 approach wall 110 apron 76, 147 arch 14 arch bridge 14 arm 132 armrest 27, 29 articulated bus 59 articulated joint 59 articulation 33 assist grip 27 audio system 31 automatic coupler 95 automatically controlled door 148 automobile 22 automobile car 97 automobile transport semitrailer 65 autopilot controls 156 auxiliary battery 45 auxiliary tank 62 awning channel 54 axial compressor 158 axle 92

bulb 129 bulk carrier 120 bulk terminal 108 bulkhead 63 bulkhead flat car 96 bumper 60, 63, 77, 87 bumper molding 24 bunk 56 buoyage regions 143 buoyancy tube 134 burned gases 48 bus 57 business aircraft 162 by-pass taxiway 146 bypass duct 159 C cabin 130, 166 cable 34, 66 caboose 97 caliper 36 camshaft 52 canal bed 111 canal lock 108, 110 canister 134 canoe 114 canopy 56, 134, 160, 164 cantilever bridge 13 cantilever span 13 captain’s quarters 131 captain’s seat 156 car 94 car cleaning yard 99 car cover 35 car deck 125 car wash 21 caravan 54 caravel 113 carburetor 70 card reader slot 20 cardinal marks 142 cargo aircraft 162 carrier 76, 78 catenary 89, 107 catering vehicle 153 cell 46 center aisle 92 center console 31 center electrode 43 center keelson 129 center post 25 center span 15 central brush 68 centrifugal compressor 158 cesspit emptier 67 chain 80 chain guide 80 chain stay 78 chain wheel A 80

chain wheel B 80 charge air cooler 47 charging plug 45 chart room 122 child carrier 81 child safety seat 35 child’s tricycle 83 chin protector 74 chip van 65 city bicycle 82 city bus 58 classification yard 98 climate control 31 closure rail 100 cloverleaf 10, 12 clutch housing 72 clutch lever 70, 72 clutch pedal 30 coach 58 coach car 92 cold shed 109 collection body 68 collection truck 69 column 14 combat aircraft 164 combustion 48, 49, 159 combustion chamber 47, 52 communication panels 156 communication set 105 commuter train 87 compass bridge 122, 125, 127, 131 compass card 137 compressed air reservoir 91 compression 48, 50, 51, 159 compression/intake 49 compressor turbine 158 concrete mixer truck 69 conical buoy 140, 145 connecting gallery 18 connecting rod 48, 52 container 123 container car 97 container hold 123 container semitrailer 64 container ship 108, 122 container terminal 109 container-loading bridge 108 container/pallet loader 152 continuous beam 13 control cable 80 control column 157 control console 157 control deck 124 control stand 90 control stick 166 control tower 146 control tower cab 146 control wheel 157 169

ENGLISH INDEX

ABS 38 abutment 13, 14, 15 acceleration lane 10 access road 147 accessories 34, 81 accessory gearbox 158 accessory pocket 27 accumulator 38 adjustable seat 92 adjustment knob 28 advertising panel 102 advertising sign 105, 107 aileron 154 air 51 air bag 33 air bag restraint system 33 air brake 164 air compression unit 88 air compressor 91 air conditioner 56 air conditioner compressor 53 air conditioning equipment 125 air filter 91 air horn 60 air inlet 74, 166 air intake 58 air pump 21 air start unit 150 air transport 146 air-to-air missile 164 air/fuel mixture 48 aircraft maintenance truck 152 airplane, forces 165 airplane, movements 165 airport 146 alarm threshold display button 138 alarm threshold setting 138 all-season tire 40 all-terrain vehicle 77 alphanumeric keyboard 20 alternator 52 alternator warning light 32 ambulance helicopter 168 amphibious fire-fighting aircraft 161 anchor 132 anchor pin 37 anchor-windlass room 123 anchorage block 15 anchors, examples 133 ancient ships 112 annular combustion chamber 158 antenna 25, 75, 134, 166 anti-torque tail rotor 167

INDEX

convertible 22 conveyor belt 148 cooling fan 42, 45, 52 corner cap 94 counterweight 17, 101 coupler head 91 coupler knuckle 95 coupler knuckle pin 95 coupling guide device 89 cowl 24 crank 80 crankcase 49 crankshaft 48, 52 crew quarters 122 crew’s locker 93 cross section of a road 8 crossbar 78 crossbuck sign 101 crossing arm 57 crossing gate mechanism 101 crossover cargo deck line 129 crossover mirror 57 crown 132 cruise control 30 cupola 139 customs control 149 customs house 109 cylinder 48 cylinder head cover 53 cylindrical buoy 141

ENGLISH INDEX

D danger 142 dashboard 30, 70 davit 117, 128 daymark 140, 141 daymarks 144 deceleration lane 10 deck 13, 14, 15, 63 delta wing 161 departure time indicator 85 depressed-center flat car 96 depth scale 138 derailleur 80 derrick 120, 129 destination 85 detachable body 68 dial-type display 138 diamond interchange 12 diesel engine 91 diesel engine cycle 51 diesel propulsion engine 124 diesel shop 87 diesel-electric locomotive 90 dining car 93 dining room 130 dining section 93 dioptric ring 139 dip switch 72 directional sign 103 disc 36 disc brake 36, 38, 71 disk 39 display 20, 137 distress beacon 134 170

distributor cap 53 ditch 9 dock 108 door 25, 27, 54, 154 door handle 25 door lock 25 door stop 95 double drop lowbed semitrailer 64 double seat 105 double-deck bus 57 double-leaf bascule bridge 17 down tube 79 drag 165 drill ship 120 drip molding 25 drive shaft 166 driven compressor wheel 47 driver seat 75 driver’s cab 89, 90 driving turbine wheel 47 droop nose 161 drum 37, 136 drum brake 37 dry dock 108 dual seat 71 dugout canoe 114 dump body 65, 67 dump semitrailer 65 dump truck 67 Dutch bicycle 82 duty-free shop 149 dynamic brake 90 dynamics propeller 124 E earth foundation 8 East 142 East cardinal mark 144 echo sounder 138 echo sounder probe 138 ejection seat 164 electric automobile 45 electric cable 45, 46 electric fan motor 42 electric motor 45, 46 electrical cable 33 electrical connection 62 electrical power unit 150 electronic control box 45 electronic control unit 38 elevating cylinder 66 elevator 155 embankment 9 emergency brake 105 emergency station 18 emergency switch 72 emergency truck 18 end ladder 94 engine 70 engine air intake 58 engine and crew alarm display 156 engine block 53

engine compartment 58 engine control room 128 engine fuel valves 156 engine room 130 engines, types 47 entrance 11 entrance door 58, 59 entrance turnstile 102 equipment compartment 88 escalator 102 evacuation route 19 examples of airplanes 160 examples of anchors 133 examples of bicycles 82 examples of bodies 22 examples of freight cars 96 examples of helicopters 168 examples of interchanges 12 examples of motorcycles 75 examples of semitrailers 64 examples of tires 40 examples of trucks 66 exhaust 48, 50, 51, 159 exhaust air duct 18 exhaust duct 159 exhaust gas admission 47 exhaust guide vanes 159 exhaust manifold 47, 50, 53 exhaust nozzle 164 exhaust pipe 47, 71, 73, 167 exhaust port 49 exhaust stack 60 exhaust valve 47, 48, 53 exhaust/scavaging 49 exit 11 exit taxiway 151 exit turnstile 102 explosion 48 exterior sign 102 F facet 163 fairing 70 fan 159 fan belt 52 felucca 115 fender 24, 60, 78 ferry boat 125 ferryboat 109 fifth wheel 61 figurehead 112 filler cap 42, 61 fin 155, 167 first classification track 98 first officer’s seat 157 first-class cabin 154 fixed bridges 13 fixed distance marking 151 flap lever 157 flashing light 101 flat car 96 flatbed semitrailer 63 flexible skirt 124 flight deck 154, 156, 166

flight information board 149 float 160, 161 float seaplane 160 floating bridge 16 floating crane 108 floor mat 34 floorboard 76 flotation section 141 flow 111 fluke 132 fluted shaft 33 flying jib 119 flywheel 53 foam monitor 129 fog horn 134 fog light 26, 60 folding ramp 125 footbridge 87, 103 footrope 117 forces acting on an airplane 165 fore and aft passage 126 fore royal sail 119 fore-royal mast 117 fore-topgallant mast 117 fore-topmast 117 forecastle 123 foremast 115, 116, 129 foresail 119 fork 79 foundation of tower 15 four-door sedan 22 four-masted bark 116 four-stroke-cycle engine 48 four-way lug wrench 35 frame 71 freeway 10 freewheel 80 freight car 86 freight cars, examples 96 freight expedition 149 freight hold 155 freight reception 149 freight station 87 fresh air duct 18 front brake 79 front brake lever 72 front derailleur 80 front fascia 24 front fender 70 front foil 127 front footrest 71, 73 front landing gear 164 front rigid section 59 front shock absorber 77 frontwall 62 fuel control 158 fuel indicator 32 fuel injector 51, 53 fuel tank 61, 90, 164, 166 funnel 113, 130 fuselage 155

G gaff 116 gaff sail boom 116 gaff topsail 118 gain control 138 galleon 113 gallery 139 galley 112, 154 gas conduit 46 gas pedal 30 gas tank 46, 70, 77 gas tank cap 72 gas tank door 25 gasoline engine 46, 52 gasoline pump 20, 21 gasoline pump hose 20 gate 108 gate arm 101 gate arm lamp 101 gate arm support 101 gear shift 73 gearshift lever 31, 71, 77 generator 46, 78 glass dome 137 glassed roof 84 glove compartment 31 gondola 114 gondola car 96 GPS receiver-antenna 137 grab handle 54, 61 graduated arc 136 grain terminal 108 grapnel 133 gravity band 132 grille 24, 42 ground air conditioner 151 ground airport equipment 150 ground electrode 43 guardrail 128 guiding and current bar 106 guiding tower 17 H hall 130 halyard 118 hand brake gear housing 94 hand brake wheel 94 hand brake winding lever 94 handgrip 70, 77 handle 35, 135 handlebars 79 handrail 59, 105, 126 harbor 108 hard top gondola 96 hatchback 22 head 100 head tube 79 headlight 24, 60, 70, 72, 79, 89, 91 headlight/turn signal 30 headlights 26 headrest 28 heating equipment 125 heating fuel tank 45 heating grille 105

helicopter 166 helicopters, examples 168 hex nut 43 high beam 26 high beam indicator light 32 high beam warning indicator 74 high focal plane buoy 140 high frequency antenna cable 160 high wing 160 high-speed exit taxiway 146 high-speed train 88 highway 11 highway crossing 101 highway crossing bell 101 hinge 27 hitch ball 35 hoisting ring 132 holding area marking 150 hood 24, 60 hook 66, 135 hopper car 96 hopper ore car 96 horizon mirror 136 horizon shade 136 horizontal end handhold 94 horizontal stabilizer 155, 167 horn 30, 72, 90 houseboat 126 housing 138 hovercraft 124 hub 79 hull 114 hump 98 hump lead 98 hump office 98 hybrid automobile 46 hydraulic jack 55 hydrofoil boat 127 hydrometer 44

intake manifold 47, 50, 53 intake port 49 intake valve 48 interchanges, examples 12 interior door handle 27 interior door lock button 27 intermodal car 96 invert 106 island 11 isolated danger mark 144 J jack 35 jet refueler 150 jigger topgallant staysail 118 jigger topmast staysail 118 jiggermast 116 jockey rollers 80 journal box 92 jumper cables 34 junction box 101 junk 115 K kickstand 76 kingpin 62 kiosk 21, 103 kitchen 93 knobby tread tire 75 L

M main deck 129 main generator 90 main line 87 main lower topgallant sail 119 main royal sail 119 main sail 119 main stand 71 main transformer 88 main upper topgallant sail 119 main upper topsail 119 mainmast 115, 116 maintenance 21 maintenance hangar 147 maneuvering area 147 manrope 16 maritime buoyage system 142 maritime signals 139 maritime transport 108 marker light 60, 62, 63 mast 86, 101, 115 master cylinder 38 masthead 117 masthead light 123 masting 116 mechanics 21 median 11 metal structure 85 mezzanine 102

micro compact car 22 micrometer screw 136 middle jib 119 minibus 59 minivan 23 mirror 70, 72, 76 miter gate recess 111 mizzen royal brace 118 mizzen royal staysail 118 mizzen sail 118 mizzen topgallant staysail 118 mizzen topmast staysail 118 mizzenmast 115, 116 mobile passenger stairs 152 mooring chain 141 mooring winch 129 moped 76 motor bogie 107 motor car 105 motor control module 46 motor home 56 motor scooter 76 motor truck 89 motor unit 88 motor yacht 126 motorcycle 70, 72 motorcycle dashboard 74 motorcycles, examples 75 mountain bike 82 movable bridges 16 movements of an airplane 165 mud flap 25, 61, 62, 63 muffler 77 mushroom anchor 133 N navigation devices 136 navigation display 157 navigation light 124, 155 negative plate 44 negative plate strap 44 negative terminal 44 neutral indicator 74 North 142 Northeast 142 Northwest 142 nose 154 nose cone 158 nose landing gear 154 number of tracks sign 101 O oar 112, 114 observation deck 149 odometer 32 off-road motorcycle 75 office 21, 84 office building 109 oil drain plug 52 oil pan 53 oil pressure warning indicator 74 oil terminal 109 oil warning light 32 on-board computer 31 on-off switch 138

open-air terrace 131 operating instructions 20 outboard engine 126 outbound track 98 outer jib 119 outer stators 158 outlet 54 outrigger 114 outrigger boom 114 outrigger canoe 114 outside mirror 24, 57 outside mirror control 27 overhead switch panel 157 overpass 11, 13 P packer body 69 paddle wheel 113 palm 132 pantograph 88, 107 parachute 164 parapet 13 parcels office 84 parking 86 parking area 147 parking brake lever 31 parking lot 109, 148 partlow chart 62 parts of a bicycle 78 passenger cabin 124, 125, 127, 155 passenger car 88, 104 passenger cars, types 92 passenger liner 130 passenger platform 84 passenger seat 75 passenger station 84, 86 passenger terminal 109, 147, 148 passenger train 84 passenger transfer vehicle 149, 153 passing lane 10 passport control 149 pedal 78, 80 peep hole 101 performance tire 40 photovoltaic panel 140, 141 pickup truck 23 pier 13, 14 pillar buoy 140, 145 pillion footrest 71, 73 pilot 89, 91 pilot house 126 pipe diffuser 158 piston 36, 37, 47, 48, 53 piston ring 52 piston skirt 52 pitch 165 pivot 137 placard board 95 plate grid 44 platform 16, 59, 103, 148 platform edge 85, 103 platform number 85 platform shelter 86 playing area 130 plow anchor 133 plug 138 171

ENGLISH INDEX

ladder 56, 111, 140 lamp base 139 landing gear 55, 62 landing gear crank 62, 63 landing gear lever 157 landing light 166 landing window 166 lantern 139 lantern pane 139 lateen yard 115 lateral brush 68 lateral mark 145 I lavatory truck 151 leading edge 155 ice breaker 121 leg strap 135 ice dispenser 21 lengthwise bulkhead 128 ignition box 158 level crossing 87 ignition switch 30, 74 license plate light 26 in-flight refueling 164 life buoy 127, 135 incandescent lamp 139 life jacket 135 index 136 life raft 134 index arm 136 life-saving equipment 134 index mirror 136 lifeboat 117, 122 indicator board 84 inflated carrying tire 104, 106 lift 165 inflated guiding tire 104, 106 lift bridge 17 lift door 59 inflation system 134 lift span 17 injection/combustion 51 inlet valve 52 light 104, 140, 141, 145 inner door shell 27 light aircraft 160 inner jib 119 lighthouse 109, 139 inner lining 41 lighting cable 55 inner stators 158 limousine 23 instrument panel 32 line hook 110 insulator 43 line map 102 intake 48, 50, 51 linen 93

liquid compass 137 liquid/gas separator 44 livestock car 97 loading hopper 69 lobby 148 lock 27, 81 lock emptying system 110 lock filling and emptying opening 111 lock filling and emptying system 110 lock filling intake 111 lock filling opening 111 lock-chamber 111 locking lever 95 locomotive track 99 locomotive, diesel-electric 90 log semitrailer 65 long-range jet 154 longship 112 loop 10 lounge 130 low beam 26 low fuel warning light 32 lower chord 14 lower fore topsail 119 lower gate 110 lower level 110 lower mast 117 lower radiator hose 42 lower wing 160 lubricating system 91 lug 37 lug wrench 35 luggage rack 56, 76, 92

ENGLISH INDEX

point wire 100 pole 117 pontoon 16 port hand 131, 143, 145 portal frame 14 porthole 131 position light 89, 167 positive plate 44 positive plate strap 44 positive terminal 44 possum-belly body semitrailer 65 potable water truck 150 power 50, 51 power car 89 power control module 46 power switch machine 100 power train 80 power turbine 159 preferred channel 144 pressurized refuge 19 price per gallon/liter 20 primary crash sensor 33 primary flight display 157 projection device 68 promenade deck 130 propane gas cylinder 55 propeller 121, 122, 127, 128, 130 propeller duct 124 propeller shaft 127 protective helmet 74, 81 prow ornament 114 pull rod 100 pulley 52 pump and motor assembly 38 pump island 21 pump nozzle 20 pump number 20

ram 112 ramp 10 rear brake 78 rear brake pedal 73 rear cargo rack 77 rear derailleur 80 rear fender 77 rear foil 127 rear light 78 rear propeller 121 rear rigid section 59 rear seat 29 rear shock absorber 71 rearview mirror 31 receiving yard 99 red clamp 34 reflector 62, 78 refrigerated semitrailer 62, 65 refrigeration unit 62 refrigerator car 97 remote-controlled switch 100 repair shop 99 restaurant 125 retractable step 54 retro-reflective tape 135 return spring 37 reverse light 26 rigging 116 rim 39, 71, 79 rim flange 39 ring 133, 135 road bicycle 83 road system 8 road transport 8, 109 road tunnel 18 road, cross section 8 roadway 8, 19 roll 165 roller shade 34 roof 25, 56 Q roof vent 54 quarter window 25 rope 135 quay 108 rotary engine cycle 50 quay ramp 108 rotodome 163 quayside crane 108 rotor 50 quayside railway 109 rotor blade 167 rotor head 166 R rotor hub 166 route sign 57, 58, 107 radar 122, 125, 127, 131 routing cardboard 95 radar aircraft 163 rub rail 63 radar mast 128 rubber wall 39, 41 radar reflector 140 rubbing strip 39, 41 radar unit 164 radar-absorbent material 163 rudder 115, 122, 124, 128, radial passenger loading area 130, 155 rudder blade 121 147 runabout 126 radial ply 41 running rail 106 radial tire 41 runway 106, 150 radiator 42, 91 runway center line markings radiator grille 60 radio antenna 122, 125, 127, 150 runway designation marking 128, 131 150 radome 164 runway side stripe markings rail 100 150 rail section 100 runway threshold markings rail transport 84 151 railroad shuttle service 148 runway touchdown zone railroad station 86 marking 151 railroad track 100 172

S saddlebag 75 safe water mark 144 safest water 142 safety line 103 safety niche 19 safety rail 90 safing sensor 33 sails 118 sand shoe 62 sandbox 91 satellite navigation system 137 schedules 85 school bus 57 scissors crossing 87 screen door 56 sea anchor 133 seat 28, 75, 76, 77, 78 seat belt 28 seat post 78 seat stay 78 seat tube 78 seat-belt warning light 32 second classification track 98 secondary channel 145 security check 149 semaphore 87 semitrailer 64 semitrailers, examples 64 sensor wiring circuit 38 separator 44, 128 service area 147 service road 146 service station 20, 21 sextant 136 shank 133 sheet 118 shelter 19 shifter 80 ship’s anchor 132 ships 120 ships, ancient 112 ships, traditional 114 shoulder 8 shoulder belt 28 shroud 116 side 116 side door 104 side footboard 90 side handrail 105 side ladder 94 side lane 11 side marker light 26 side rail 62 side span 15 side vent 54 side wall 110 side-wheeler 113 sidewall 62 signal background plate 101 signal gantry 86 sill step 94 silos 108 single seat 105 single-leaf bascule bridge 17

sinker 141 ski rack 34 skid 167 skirt finger 124 sleeper-cab 61 sleeping car 93 sleeping compartment 93 sleeve 166 sliding block 106 sliding channel 94 sliding cover 137 sliding lever 28 sliding rail 28 sliding sunroof 25 slip presenter 20 slope 9 slower traffic 10 snow brush 34 snowblower 68 soft-drink dispenser 21 solid line 8 sound alarm 138 South 142 South cardinal mark 145 Southeast 142 Southwest 142 spanker 118 spar buoy 144 spare tire 56 spark 48 spark plug 43, 49, 53 spark plug body 43 spark plug gap 43 spark plug gasket 43 spark plug terminal 43 special mark 144 speedbrake lever 156 speedometer 32, 74 spline 43 spoiler 154 spoke 79 sport-utility vehicle 23 sports car 22 spring 92 stabilizer fin 130 stabilizer jack 56 stack 122 stairs 19, 102 stake pocket 63 standby airspeed indicator 156 standby altimeter 156 standby attitude indicator 156 starboard hand 131, 143, 145 starter button 72 station entrance 102 station name 103 station platform 86 station wagon 23 stay 112, 117 stealth aircraft 163 steel belted radial tire 41 steel safety wheel 106 steering oar 112

steering wheel 30, 126 stem 79, 117, 121 stem bulb 123, 131 stem propeller 121 stempost 112 step 61 stern 112, 130 steward’s desk 93 stock 133 stocked anchor 133 stockless anchor 133 storage compartment 54, 61 storage space 93 street sweeper 68 streetcar 107 strobe 134 strut 127, 163 studded tire 40 subbase 9 subgrade 9 subsidiary track 87 suburban commuter railroad 86 subway 102 subway map 103, 105 subway station 102 subway train 102, 105 sun visor 31, 35, 55 sundeck 126, 131 superjumbo jet 162 supersonic jetliner 161 superstructure 141 surface course 8 surface-piercing foils 127 suspended span 13 suspender 15 suspension 104 suspension bridge 15 suspension cable 15 suspension truck 88 swing bridge 16 switch 87 switch point 100 switch rod 100 switch tower 86 swiveling nozzle 163 systems display 156 T tachometer 32, 74 tactical transport helicopter 168 tail 155 tail assembly 155 tail boom 167 tail skid 167 taillight 26, 63, 71, 73 taillights 26 tandem bicycle 83 tandem tractor trailer 64 tank 129 tank body 64, 69 tank car 96 tank trailer 64 tank truck 69

tanker 109, 128 taxiway 146, 147 taxiway line 147 technical room 18 technical specifications 39 telecommunication antenna 125, 131 telescope 136 telescopic corridor 147 telescopic front fork 70, 75 telescoping uncoupling rod 94 temperature indicator 32 temperature sensor 42 tension spring 33 tent trailer 56 three-blade propeller 160, 161 throat 132 throttles 156 thrust 14, 165 ticket collecting booth 102 ticket collector 85 ticket counter 148 tie 100 timing belt 52 tire 24, 39, 61 tire valve 79 tires, examples 40 toe clip 80 toilet 93 tool kit 81 top 117 top box 75 topmark 141, 142 total sale display 20 touring bicycle 83 touring motorcycle 75 touring tire 40

tow bar 55, 151 tow safety chain 55 tow tractor 151, 153 tow truck 66 tower 15, 139 towing device 66 towing hitch 55 track 85, 102, 106 traction batteries 45 traditional ships 114 traffic circle 12 traffic lane 10 traffic lanes 10 trailer 54 trailer car 105 trailing edge 154 trailing edge flap 154 train 84 transducer 138 transfer dispensing machine 103 transfer port 49 transfer ramp 11 transit shed 108 transmission 45, 46 transmission cable 138 transponder 157 transport, air 146 transport, maritime 108 transportation 8 transporter bridge 16 transverse bulkhead 128 trawler 120 tread 41 tread design 39, 41 trim panel 27 trip odometer 32 tripod tail support 152 trireme 112

trolley 16 truck 92, 106 truck frame 92 truck tractor 60, 64 truck trailer 64 trucking 60 trucks, examples 66 trumpet 134 trumpet interchange 12 trunk 25 trussed arch 14 tubular structure 140 tug 121 tunnel 102 turbine-compressor shaft 158 turbo-compressor engine 47 turbofan engine 158 turbojet engine 155, 164 turn signal 26, 63, 70, 71, 72, 73 turn signal indicator 32, 74 turnstile 102 turntable 16 twist grip throttle 72 twist lock 64 two-blade propeller 160 two-door sedan 22 two-leaf door 58 two-stroke-cycle engine cycle 49 type of fuel 20 types of engines 47 types of passenger cars 92 U underground passage 86 underpass 13 universal step 152 upper chord 14

upper deck 57, 154 upper fore topgallant sail 119 upper fore topsail 119 upper gate 111 upper level 111 upper wing 160 V vacuum diaphragm 53 valve spring 52 van body semitrailer 65 van straight truck 67 vanity mirror 31 variable ejector nozzle 161 vehicle rest area 18 vent 31 vent door 62 ventilating fan 91 ventilator 90, 104 vernier scale 136 vertical take-off and landing aircraft 163 vestibule 92 visor 74, 101 visor hinge 74 volume display 20 W wall side 129 warm-air outlet 47 washer nozzle 24 water bomber helicopter 168 water bottle clip 79 water tank 91 water tower 99 water-tank area 161 watering tube 68 waterline 123, 140 web 100 web frame 129

webbing 29 weight 165 West 142 West cardinal mark 145 West Coast mirror 59, 61 wheel 39, 60 wheel chock 152 wheel cover 25 wheel cylinder 37 wheel speed sensor 38 wheelchair 93 wheelchair lift 59 wheelhouse 121 white light 142 winch 66 winch controls 66 wind deflector 61 window 25, 27, 56, 104, 154 window regulator handle 27 windshield 24, 60, 70, 75, 126, 154, 157 windshield wiper 24, 33 windshield wiper blade 33 wing 155, 164 wing box 164 wing strut 160 winglet 155, 162 wings 160 winter tire 40 wiper 33 wiper arm 33 wiper switch 30 wood chip car 96 worm 68 Y yard 98, 117 yaw 165

ENGLISH INDEX 173

THE VISUAL DICTIONARY OF T R A N S P O R TAT I O N

Adapted from the famous Visual Dictionary, an international bestseller with more than 8 million copies sold, this new series of thematic and ultracompact books provides readers with a multitude of words and concepts that are encountered in everyday life. All the subjects are explained with highly realistic illustrations, accompanied by terminology and concise definitions produced by an experienced group of professionals. The Visual Dictionary of Transportation gives readers the chance to explore ancient and modern transport, on road, rails, water, or in the air. Convenient and affordable, this book is the perfect tool to discover the fascinating world of transport!

AIR TRANSPORT

AIR TRANSPORT

long-range jet

long-range jet

Aircraft that transports passengers and cargo traveling long distances at high altitudes (between 30,000 and 40,000 ft).

trailing edge Back edge of the wing.

upper deck Upper floor on very large aircraft that contains the flight deck and a passenger cabin. flight deck Compartment that contains all the navigation and control equipment; the navigation crew pilot the aircraft from here.

aileron Hinged flap on the trailing edge of the wing near the tip for controlling the aircraft’s roll.

rudder fin Articulated flap at the rear of the fin that Fixed vertical part of the tail assembly steers the aircraft and corrects any yaw tail that keeps the aircraft stable. that might occur. Rear part of the fuselage.

horizontal stabilizer Wing made up of the fixed horizontal tail assembly; it stabilizes the aircraft horizontally.

tail assembly Moving and fixed surfaces that are located at the tail of the aircraft for steering and stabilizing it.

trailing edge flap Articulated flap on the trailing edge of the wing that deploys downward to increase the aircraft’s lift on takeoff.

elevator Articulated flap that is attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer; it is used to change altitude and correct any pitch that may occur.

spoiler Articulated flap on top of the wing that is deployed immediately after landing; it increases drag and reduces lift to slow the aircraft.

fuselage Aircraft body that is divided into several compartments and whose aerodynamic form reduces air friction; it is supported by the wings in flight.

passenger cabin Compartment in which most of the passengers travel and receive basic services; it is also called economy class.

windshield Highly durable pane made of glass and plastic that provides good visibility. freight hold Compartment where baggage and cargo are stored. nose Leading tip of the fuselage.

door Airtight door for entering the cabin; some doors are used only in emergencies.

first-class cabin Most comfortable part of the cabin where passengers receive special attention; it is always situated at the front of the aircraft.

nose landing gear Retractable mechanism that enables the aircraft to land; it is located at the front end.

154

galley Compartment where meals for service are prepared.

window Airtight window that lets natural light into the cabin.

wing Horizontal surface on which aerodynamic forces are exerted to keep the aircraft in the air.

turbojet engine leading edge Jet-propulsion turbine producing hot Front edge of the wing. gases that are expelled at high speed to provide the thrust necessary to propel the aircraft.

winglet Protruding surface at the wingtip that enhances aerodynamics.

navigation light Light signaling the direction in which the aircraft is flying: red on the left wing (port), green on the right wing (starboard) and white on the tail.

155