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UEECD0020 Learner Guide


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Electro-technology Package (UEE)

UEECD0020 Fix and secure electrotechnology equipment

Learner Guide

Introduction This unit involves the skills and knowledge required to fix, secure and mount electrotechnology equipment to hollow walls, solid walls and metal fixings. It includes the safe use of hand and portable tools/ power tools and the selection and safe application of fixing devices and supporting accessories/equipment. No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.

Pre-requisite Units UEECD0007 Apply work health and safety regulations, codes and practices in the workplace.

Elements and Performance Criteria Elements describe the

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to

essential outcomes.

demonstrate achievement of the element.

1

Prepare to fix and 1.1

Work health and safety (WHS)/occupational health

secure

and safety (OHS) requirements and workplace

electrotechnology

procedures for a given work area are identified and

equipment

applied 1.2

Hazards are identified, risks are assessed and control measures are implemented

1.3

Scope of work to be undertaken is obtained from relevant documentation and/or from work supervisor

1.4

Advice is sought from work supervisor to ensure work is coordinated effectively with others

1.5

Materials required for the work are identified and obtained in accordance with workplace procedures

1.6

Fixing devices are selected for their suitability for the environment, weight of the load they are supporting and sub-stratums into which they are being installed in accordance with manufacturer specifications and safe load limits

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1

Prepare to fix and 1.7

Supporting accessories/equipment are selected for

secure

their suitability for the environment and ability to

electrotechnology

support and protect from damage in accordance

equipment

with workplace procedures 1.8

Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out the work are obtained and checked for correct operation and safety in accordance with workplace procedures

2

Install fixing and

2.1

support devices

Exposed and/or conductive parts, plant or machinery are confirmed as isolated in consultation with authorised person

2.2

WHS/OHS risk control measures relevant to work site are followed

2.3

Fixing devices are installed in accordance with manufacturer instructions, regulatory requirements and workplace procedures

2.4

Support accessories/equipment are installed accurately in accordance with industry technical standards, regulatory requirements and job specifications

2.5

Work is carried out without waste of materials or damage to apparatus or circuits, the surrounding environment or services and using sustainable energy practices

3

Complete fixing

3.1

and support work

WHS/OHS risk control measures for work completion are followed

3.2

Worksite is tidied and tools and equipment cleaned and securely stored in accordance with workplace procedures

3.3

Relevant personnel are notified of work completion in accordance with workplace procedures

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Requirements Resources for assessment must include access to: • a range of relevant exercises, case studies and/or other simulations • relevant and appropriate materials, tools, equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE) currently used in industry • applicable documentation, including workplace procedures, equipment specifications, regulations, codes of practice and operation manuals. Range is restricted to essential operating conditions and any other variables essential to the work environment. Non-essential conditions may be found in the UEE Electrotechnology Training Package Companion Volume Implementation Guide. Fixing and securing electrotechnology



installation

equipment must include:



maintenance or development work functions

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Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2 Pre-requisite Units ....................................................................................................................... 2 Elements and Performance Criteria ........................................................................................ 2 Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 4 Topic 1: devices, tools, equipment and methods for supporting, fixing and protecting electrotechnology equipment wiring/cabling/piping and functional accessories ............. 6 Hollow walls, wood, masonry blocks, plasterboard and panelling ................................... 6 Fixing to metal .......................................................................................................................... 9 Solid walls, including masonry and concrete structures ................................................... 11 Changing bits and speeds.................................................................................................... 22 Vertical and horizontal surfaces ........................................................................................... 25 Fixing adhesives and tapes................................................................................................... 25 Securing and mounting types, load limits and safe installation ....................................... 27 Support accessories/equipment .......................................................................................... 28 Topic 2: relevant electrical regulations and legislations ......................................................... 41 Electrical Safety Act............................................................................................................... 41 Electrical Safety Regulation .................................................................................................. 42 AS/NZS3000:2018 .................................................................................................................... 43 TOPIC 3: relevant job safety assessments or risk mitigation processes .................................. 44 TOPIC 4: Relevant electrotechnology equipment manufacturer specifications ................ 48 TOPIC 5: Relevant WHS/OHS legislated requirements ............................................................ 50 TOPIC 6: Relevant workplace documentation ........................................................................ 51 TOPIC 7: Relevant workplace policies and procedures ......................................................... 52 TOPIC 8: sustainable energy principles and practices ........................................................... 55 References ................................................................................................................................... 56 Internet References ............................................................................................................... 56

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TOPIC 1: DEVICES, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND METHODS FOR SUPPORTING, FIXING AND PROTECTING ELECTROTECHNOLOGY EQUIPMENT WIRING/CABLING/PIPING AND FUNCTIONAL ACCESSORIES Hollow walls, wood, masonry blocks, plasterboard and panelling Electrical installation work requires equipment to be fixed to a range of materials including timber, steel, concrete, brickwork and wallboard. The fixing device may need either to be readily removable or more permanent.

Fig 1

Nylon

Fig 2

Metal

Fig 3 Application The above figures are of plaster fixings or ‘wall mates’ This is not an exhaustive list, but some of the common devices for fixing and securing.

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All fixings must be: • • •

suitable for the material able to adequately support the load correctly installed.

Suitable fixing devices include nails, screws, expansion devices, powder/gas installed devices, hollow wall devices, chemical-setting devices and adhesives.

Medium duty for typical loads up to 10kg for 4mm, 15kg for 5mm and 6mm fixings.

Fig 4 Hollow wall anchors, metal

Fig 5 Hollow wall anchor application tool

Fig 6 & fig 7 Nylon hollow wall anchors

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Fig 8 Nylon wall anchor The above pictures are of hollow wall anchors, it is not an exhaustive list but only limited by the application they are being used for, and depends on the thickness of the wall material .

Fig 9 Spring toggle or butterfly toggle screws/bolts.

Fig 10 Gravity toggle

Fig 11 Application

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Fig 12 Wood panelling screw, ‘Torx’ bit.

Fig 13 Wood screw, Flat tip.

Fixing to metal

Fig 14 Self drilling, button head, Philips bit

Fig 16 Metal screw, Flat head

Fig 15 Self drilling, cheese head, Philips bit

Fig 17 Hex head, counter sunk screw

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Fig 18 Self drilling, galvanized dipped

Fig 19 Self drilling, Tech screw

The above figures show, light to medium duty metal fixing screws. The following metal fixing screws are for medium to heavy duty fixing.

Figure 20 Self drilling, series 500 screw

Fig 21 Self drilling, series 500 tech screw

Fig 22 Cable support, double sided tape, light duty Fig 23 Cable tie fixing, press in, hole in metal

Fig 24 double side tape, light duty.

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Solid walls, including masonry and concrete structures Depending on the job being undertaking, this will dictate on the fitting/fixing being chosen.

Fig 25 Light duty, ‘booker rod’ socket Fig 26 medium to heavy duty socket Fig 27 ‘Booker rod’ or ‘All thread’

Fig 28 Masonry fixing, cable tie

Fig 29 Masonry fixing, cable tie included

Fig 30 Chemset anchor, stainless

Fig 31Chemset anchor, galvanised

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Fig 32 Chemset epoxy vial

Fig 33 Chemical adhesive

Fig 34 Chemical adhesive applicator tool

Fig 35 chemical adhesive and applicator

Chemsets predominantly used where secure fixing is required on corner work of bricks, concrete etc, or where a strong permanent waterproof bond is required.

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Fig 35a preparing the hole

Fig 35 b Making it happen

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Fig 35 c Hollow wall anchors application

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Fig 36 Masonry coach bolt

Fig 37 Masonry coach screw, counter sunk hex bit

Fig 38 Masonry anchor, short, ‘Dyna bolt’ or ‘Loxon’

Fig 39 Masonry anchor hook

Fig 40 Masonry anchor, long.

Fig 41 Masonry anchor screw, loop

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Fig 41a How to with anchor bolts

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Fig 42 Masonry anchor, nylon, light duty loop

Fig 43 Hole clearing pump

Warning: If we are doing lots of concrete or block work then it is highly recommended to use a hole clearing pump or vacuum to remove dirt and debris from the hole being drilled. Don’t be tempted to blow the dirt out of the hole like blowing out a candle as dust will get in your eyes.

Fig 44 Masonry anchor, nylon, cable tie fixing

Fig 45 Nylon wall/floor anchor, green, Wall plug’

Fig 46 Nylon wall plug, white

Wall plugs are used for light to medium duty fixing and the colour usually indicates the hole size required. For example; the green wall plugs, 6-6.5mm hole size.

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Fig 47 Wall plug application and hole size chart

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A highly productive method of installing fixings is the use of percussion tools operated by a powder (an explosive charge) or a compressed gas. A special tool is used that has a piston driven by a powder charge or compressed gas, which in turn drives a special type of nail, screw or stud into brick, concrete or even solid steel.

This method is particularly efficient where multiple fixings are required, such as for cable supports in concrete above suspended ceilings, and runs of conduit, cable tray and cable ladder.

A certificate of competency for the operator of a powder-actuated tool is required in most jurisdictions. In some area’s however these tools are now banned from use on sites.

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Fig 48 The more common approach now is to use the gas cylinder charge type fixing tools. The manufacturer’s guides and instructions must be followed when selecting and installing fixings and fasteners. Safe working procedures must be followed at all times. It is often necessary for an electrician to cut channels or grooves in concrete and masonry surfaces to install conduits or cable before the surface finish is applied. This process is known as ‘chasing’. A common method for chasing masonry and concrete is to use a chasing machine fitted with two masonry-cutting bits. The most common tools for drilling masonry and concrete are the hammer drill and tungsten-tipped drill bit.

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Fig 49 An example of some of the concrete drilling tools

Fig 50 Some examples of working with concrete

Note: as we have become more aware of the issues with concrete dust, please ensure that you use a vacuum system attached to the drill or utilise the services of a vacuum to extract the dust created.

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Majority of power drills, either battery operated (cordless) or mains powered (corded) drills use for fixing and securing can alter the speed of drilling by squeezing the trigger harder for faster speed and not as hard for slower speeds. This makes it convenient when changing from drilling concrete on hammer, to pilot holes in metal where speeds vary greatly. These devices also have quick release chucks to allow for changing of bits and accessories.

Changing bits and speeds Changing the bit on quick release chuck

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More examples of changing bits

Example of changing speed on pedestal drill

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Table 1 Some hazards/risks associated with electrical work and some control measures

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Vertical and horizontal surfaces All fixings must be: •

suitable for the material



able to adequately support the load



correctly installed.

Manufacturers specifications must be adhered to as well as suitable installation practices Ratings are included with the fixings and or available from manufactures website etc.

Vertical installations have a shear load as well as supporting the equipment due to the forces of gravity.

Horizontal loads on ceilings etc have mainly forces due to weight and or gravity.

Care should also be exercised as when using impact tools to secure equipment as there is a very real chance of shearing off the fixing if we do not exercise care, due to the forces involved

Fixing adhesives and tapes

Fig 51 Liquid nails adhesive

Fig 52 Applicator tool for liquid nails and silicone sealer

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Remember some of these adhesives are chemicals and can create issues with burning of bare skin and or inhalation issues with the acrid smells. Refer to the SDS for each chemical and wear appropriate PPE at all times.

Fig 53 double sided tape, light duty fixing

Fig 55 Bostik adhesive applicator tool

Fig 57 Sikaflex heavy duty adhesive.

Fig 54 Sikaflex light duty fixing

Fig 56 Bostik adhesive

Fig 58 silicone sealer

Remember for electrical work we should use neutral curing silicone sealer as this is non acidic. A quick way to tell is that if it tastes like lemons then it is not neutral curing and will corroded stuff easily.

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Securing and mounting types, load limits and safe installation All fixings must be: •

suitable for the material



able to adequately support the load



correctly installed.

Fig 59 Fixing using anchor bolts

Manufacturers specifications must be adhered to as well as suitable installation practices Ratings are included with the fixings and or available from manufactures website etc. Often, they will be rated up to 5kg, vertical or horizontal, or up to 10 kg for individual fixings.

Vertical installations have a shear load as well as supporting the equipment due to the forces of gravity.

Horizontal loads on ceilings etc have mainly forces due to weight and or gravity.

Care should also be exercised as when using impact tools to secure equipment as there is a very real chance of shearing off the fixing if we do not exercise care, due to the forces involved

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Support accessories/equipment Accessories such as switches, socket-outlets and communication outlets must be securely mounted in place in order to withstand the strain placed on their fixing by constant use. If the terminal of an electrical accessory becomes exposed by failed fixings, the user is no longer protected from direct contact with live parts. There are four basic types of mounting accessories: 1. mounting brackets for lined stud walls 2. wall boxes 3. plaster-mounting brackets 4. mounting blocks.

Fig 60 Plaster brackets and applications

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Fig 61 wall boxes and applications

Fig 62 Application of plaster bracket for cement render

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Fig 63 Junction boxes or J boxes for terminating cables Where possible any unused or redundant cables should be removed. If the circuit breaker then becomes spare it too should be marked on legend as spare or unused. Any unused or cut off cables that can’t be removed must be terminated in junction box for safety reasons in case the cable becomes live or is live under certain circumstances. Ideally, we should write on them with indelible marker what, where or circuit number or circuit breaker number. Once the junction box is open, never assume that the circuit has been isolated, always check for zero volts first.

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Fig 64 Application of surface flange

Fig 65 Mounting block and mounting box

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Fig 66 Surface mount kit/flange

Fig 68 metal anaconda or ‘seal-tite’ conduit

Fig 67 Inspection T screwed metal 3 way

Fig 69 plastic anaconda or corrugated conduit or ‘corro’

Corrugated conduit is suitable for shaping around complex structural profiles. It is not suitable for continuous flexing. Flexible conduit is suitable for continuous flexing and is used for applications where movement or vibration is expected.

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Cable tray can be mounted, horizontally or vertically and cables etc mounted on the tray can be secured with cable ties

Fig 70 Light duty, perforated cable tray

Fig 72 Cable ties, black.

Fig 71 Medium duty cable tray

Fig 73 Cables ties, white, UV stabilised

Fig 74 Cable tie tensioner and trimming tool.

When using cable ties, after tensioning, please trim the left over tie off, flush to the lock so that it not only looks professional but also so the next person in vicinity doesn’t cut themselves on the tail, that can be like a knife edge.

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Commonly used conduits include: — rigid PVC conduit — halogen-free, temperature-stable (HFT) rigid conduit — flexible conduit — corrugated conduit — steel conduit.

Fig 75 Heavy duty rigid plastic conduit

Fig 76 Medium duty rigid plastic conduit

Rigid PVC conduit may be light duty, medium duty or heavy duty. Colours are used for identification of conduits. Grey is used for general electrical work and is suitable for use in direct sunlight if marked with a ‘T’. Orange is used for underground installations. White is used for telecommunications. When bending heavy duty plastic conduit there are separate springs for heavy duty and separate springs for medium duty. Although looking similar the heavy-duty spring is of a smaller diameter. Please use the correct spring for the conduit.

Fig 77 Conduit bending spring

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Fig 78 Plastic saddles

Steel conduit has approximately ten times the strength of PVC conduit and it is used where protection against mechanical damage is required. Rigid PVC conduit can be shaped using an internal bending spring to prevent collapse of the conduit. A minimum bending radius of not less than six times the conduit diameter is recommended.

Fig 79 Metal conduit

Fig 81 Steel conduit bender, ‘hockey stick’

Fig 80 One-way screwed junction box

Fig 82 three-way screwed junction box

Steel conduit may also be bent to a required shape with a suitable bending tool. A wide range of fittings is also available to assist installation of steel and PVC conduits. Joining steel conduits and conduit fittings requires that the conduit has a thread cut into the outside wall of the conduit. All joins are required to be mechanically and electrically continuous.

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Fig 83 Metal saddles, half and full

Fig 84 Some examples of where steel conduit is used

Selection of conduits requires consideration of: •

the ambient temperature



likely mechanical hazards



environmental hazards such as corrosive or flammable atmospheres



job specifications



cost.

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Conduit size can be selected based on the number of cables to be installed in the conduit (guidance is available in Appendix C of the Wiring Rules). Room must be allowed to complete the installation of conduits, particularly screwed steel conduits. Conduits may be cut with a hacksaw or conduit cutters for PVC conduits. Fittings must be secured to the conduits and the conduits adequately supported to allow for anticipated environmental conditions. Conduits may also be installed in concrete structural members prior to pouring the concrete.

Fig 85 More examples of where and how conduits are used in construction

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There are two important requirements for installing metallic wiring enclosures: •

Cables must be protected from sharp metal edges.



The enclosure must be earthed at its origin and the earthing maintained over the entire enclosure length.

Cables are laid in trunking before the lids are installed; this is different to duct, so requires the drawing in of cables similar to conduits.

Some trunking systems are designed for surface mounting while others are for embedding in a concrete pour. The initial cost is higher than conduit but trunking systems are used because of their flexibility to accommodate changes.

Trunking may be PVC, galvanised or coated steel.

Fig 86 Plastic trunking or ‘mini’ trunking

Trunks are divided into compartments to meet the requirements for segregation of wiring systems as per the Wiring Rules.

Skirting trunking usually has separate channels for power cables and communications cables.

There are a number of aids for installing cables in conduits and ducts.

Care must be taken to ensure that the cables are not damaged during installation. Loss of insulation integrity and kinks in the cable will reduce the performance of the cable. © Tec-NQ ® Limited Template Version 0121SD Page 38 of 56 This document must be checked against the Document Management System for currency.

Fig 87 More examples of trunking use

Fig 88 More examples of trunking use

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Fig 89 Some more tools/aids for pulling in cables/wires

Fig 90 Cable tie fitting, multipurpose

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TOPIC 2: RELEVANT ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATIONS Electrical Safety Act The Electrical Safety Act 2002 (Qld) Current as at 23 October 2017 is the overarching legislation that all electrical work falls under. Purpose: This Act is directed at eliminating the human cost to individuals, families and the community of death, injury and destruction that can be caused by electricity. Accordingly, the purpose of this Act is to establish a legislative framework for— (a) preventing persons from being killed or injured by electricity; and (b) preventing property from being destroyed or damaged by electricity.

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Electrical Safety Regulation The Electrical Safety Regulation 2013 (Qld) Current as at 19 July 2019 is the regulation that covers all electrical work The purposes of this regulation include the following— (a) ensuring the electrical safety of licensed electrical workers, other workers, licensed electrical contractors, consumers and the general public; (b) enhancing consumer protection for electrical work; (c) stopping cathodic protection systems from damaging or interfering with the property of others; (d) ensuring a safe supply of electricity; (e) ensuring electrical equipment hired or sold is electrically safe.

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AS/NZS3000:2018 The other document that must be complied with is the Australian & New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS3000:2018 inc A2 that sets the minimum standard for all electrical work in Australia and New Zealand. It is good if the Standard is exceeded but sets a minimum standard.

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TOPIC 3: RELEVANT JOB SAFETY ASSESSMENTS OR RISK MITIGATION PROCESSES The Electrical Safety Act 2002 (the ES Act) is directed at eliminating the human cost to individuals, families and the community of death, injury and destruction that can be caused by electricity. The ES Act establishes a legislative framework for preventing persons from being killed or injured by electricity, and preventing property from being destroyed or damaged by electricity. The ES Act places the primary electrical safety duty on a person conducting a business or undertaking, who must ensure the business or undertaking is conducted in a way that is electrically safe. Duties are also placed on officers of a person conducting a business or undertaking, workers and other persons at a workplace, as well as electricity entities, designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers, installers, repairers and persons in control of electrical equipment. The Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (WHS Act) requires persons who have a duty to ensure health and safety to ‘manage risks’ by eliminating health and safety risks so far as is reasonably practicable, and if it is not reasonably practicable to do so, to minimise those risks so far as is reasonably practicable. The WHS Act provides a framework to protect the health, safety and welfare of all workers at work. It also protects the health and safety of all other people who might be affected by the work. The WHS Act places the primary health and safety duty on a person conducting a business or undertaking, who must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety of workers at the workplace. Duties are also placed on officers of a person conducting a business or undertaking, workers and other persons at a workplace. In terms of electrical safety, where the ES Act and the WHS Act both apply, the ES Act takes precedence. To assist us in this process there are Codes of Practice, Electrical safety code of practice 2013 Managing Electrical Risks in the Workplace Electrical safety code of practice 2020 Works Electrical safety code of practice 2020 Working near overhead and underground electric lines Electrical safety code of practice 2020 Electrical equipment rural industry

All of these codes of practice aim at eliminating or minimising the harm from the risks associated with the hazards by; 1. Identify the hazard(s) 2. Assess the risks associated with the hazard(s) 3. Identify control measures 4. Implement the control measures 5. Review & feedback

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To further assist us, we use the Hierarchy of Control which aims to eliminate, the most preferred method, to the least method of control, PPE 1. Eliminate the hazard/risk 2. Substitute for a lower risk 3. Engineering a fix 4. Isolating the hazard/risk 5. Administrative controls 6. PPE

1. Elimination : If you eliminate a hazard you completely eliminate the associated risk. 2. Substitution : You can substitute something else (a substance or a process) that has less potential to cause injury. 3. Isolation : You can make a structural change to the work environment or work process to interrupt the path between the worker and the risk. 4. Engineering : You can re-design the hazard to reduce the risks 5. Administrative : You may be able to reduce risk by upgrading training, changing rosters or other administrative actions, (lines on walkways or safety notices etc.) 6. Personal protective equipment : When you can't reduce the risk of injury in any other way, use personal protective equipment (gloves, goggles, etc.) as a last resort. © Tec-NQ ® Limited Template Version 0121SD Page 45 of 56 This document must be checked against the Document Management System for currency.

The formal process is called Risk Assessment or RA, or Job Safety Analysis or JSA.

Fig 91 Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment Cycle

Common Hazards in Electrical Industry (not all are listed here)

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Some Risks associated with the Hazards

Risk ratings example

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TOPIC 4: RELEVANT ELECTROTECHNOLOGY EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER SPECIFICATIONS Please refer to the relevant manufacturer or supplier of the equipment for appropriate specifications. They are to numerous to mention in this small document. Web site searches will also be helpful here. Normally the equipment comes with specifications and user guides also.

An example manufacturers specification or guide for Dynabolt (Loxon)

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Another example of manufactures specifications

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TOPIC 5: RELEVANT WHS/OHS LEGISLATED REQUIREMENTS Queensland’s work health and safety legal framework includes: •

the Work Health and Safety Act 2011



the Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011



Codes of Practice.

In terms of electrical safety, where the Electrical Safety Act and the WHS Act both apply, the Electrical Safety Act takes precedence.

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TOPIC 6: RELEVANT WORKPLACE DOCUMENTATION These are only going to be relevant to your particular workplace or the workplace where work is being undertaken. Normally there will be a job sheet and contact information that the times and details are logged/written onto then submitted to the workplace controller on completion of task or the day. Some area’s are also using I pads and tablets with suitable software as well, along with GPS tracking on vehicles for travel, obtaining spares etc.

Sample workplace policy and workplace procedure.

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TOPIC 7: RELEVANT WORKPLACE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Depending on your workplace or worksite these will vary greatly. Often however there are some similarities with policies; •

sign in/our register,



time cards,



clock cards,



swipe card



Evacuation, plan, area



Fire & emergency plan



Induction



Opening up, locking up the premises



Recycling



Rubbish disposal



Use of company vehicles

There is often an assembly area for evacuations and the like.

Fig 92 Assembly Point

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Often to, is the pre-start meeting before the physical side of the work gets undertaken.

Fig 93 Pre-start Meeting Agenda

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Jobs given out or allocated by Supervisor etc, which also includes an RA or JSA.

Fig 94 Sample Risk Assessment

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TOPIC 8: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES Remember to; •

segregate waste,



recycle where/when possible,



and keep work are clean and tidy at all times.



Turn off lights and power when not in use.



Recycle copper always

This is especially true when in a customers’ house. Nearly every work van, utility or vehicle has a vacuum cleaner, don’t be afraid to use it. Utilize drop sheets or mats also if marking, scuffing and or cleaning is going to be an issue.

Sustainable energy Principles is covered in greater detail in the following two units of competency that will be covered at a different time from this subject, but as part of your Cert II or Cert III Training. UEERE0001 Apply environmentally and sustainable procedures in the energy sector UEERE0021 Provide basic sustainable energy solutions for energy reduction in residential premises Ultimately the aim of sustainable energy principles and practices are to reduce the impact on the environment which is or should be a concern for everybody living on this planet. We can reduce our impact by reducing energy use, finding alternatives that are sustainable and not just assuming that it is someone else’s responsibility.

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REFERENCES Internet References https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/laws-and-compliance/work-health-and-safety-laws https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/licensing-and-registrations/electrical-licences https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/search?query=codes+of+practice

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