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Vol. 14, Issue 5 Flipbook PDF

Animal Wellness is North America’s top natural health and lifestyle magazine for dogs and cats, with a readership of ove





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Contents October / November 2012features 18 Proteins and 54 Doggy diabetes 18 veggies and carbs, oh my! Is your pooch diabetic? Don’t panic. This 72 Tummy trouble? common disease doesn’t have to be fatal, How much protein is too much? Should my and in most cases can be easily and Diarrhea is common in cats and has a dog be eating carbohydrates? Education effectively treated. variety of causes. In many cases, digestive and moderation are important keys to enzymes and probiotics can help improve balancing your companion’s diet. 59 Herbs for his your kitty’s digestion and prevent upsets. plumbing 22 Brainwaves 74 Food shopping Digestive and urinary problems are common for Fido Your dog’s mental well being is as important in dogs. Take a look at how herbs can help as his physical health. Stimulating his mind resolve these issues. The good news is there’s plenty to choose will help him learn faster, feel happier, and from when it comes to healthy premium can even prevent behavioral problems. 65 Againstthe grain foods. But that can make deciding where to begin more than a little bewildering. This 26Top 11 stress- Feeding your cat a high quality diet with little or handy shopping list will get you started. busting foods no grain content can help stave off inflammatory bowel disease and other health problems. 76 Shetalkstothe Is anxiety making your dog antsy? This animals healthy and flavorful fare will help him chill. 68Taking care of Tina An animal communicator to the stars who 31 Heart of gold also has her own TV and radio shows, She seemed impossibly disabled when I first “pet psychic” Sonya Fitzpatrick has been A pioneer in natural pet food, the founder took her home over a decade ago, but this conversing with critters since she was five. of this company overcame challenges that spunky stray showed a strong will to live. would crush many others, and triumphed. Here’s how I brought her back to health and 80The enemywithin have kept her going ever since. 32 Fighting over Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia may Fido 70 Anna Easteden – sound like an obscure disease, but it’s cat lover more common than you might think. When couples separate, deciding who gets the dog can often turn nasty. The law still An aspiring actress whose passion for kitties 84 Food and fun regards animals as property, but there are spans two continents and an entire lifetime. ways to ensure a positive outcome for all They’re his two favorite things. This parties – including the dog. 34 innovative company combines them into mentally stimulating products that prevent 34 Mushrooms for boredom and enrich his environment. immunity They’re more than just tasty treats. These morsels offer many important health benefits – they help enhance the immune system and inhibit cancer. 44 Know about nutrigenomics? It’s a new science that studies the connection between nutrition and genes – and how we can optimize health by designing diets for each individual’s genetic makeup. 48 And inthis corner…. Dealing with a dog that attacks other canines can be frightening and stressful. Follow these 5 principles to help avoid or defuse fights.4 animal wellness

56columns 80 12 yakkity yak Departments 40 warm & fuzzy 56 whats your breed? 8 editorial 67 feline wellness 52 product picks 78 animal wellness book reviews resource guide 86 passages 90 animal wellness 85 the scoop 88 amazing animals photo contest book reviews check out the winning shots! 98 tail end 91 events calendar 70 92 animal wellness marketplace 96 classifieds animal wellness 5

Get your 3rd VOLUME 14 ISSUE 5year for $1! EDitoriAL DEPArtMEnt Western Regional Manager: Buy a 2-year subscription to Editor-in-Chief: Dana Cox Becky Starr, (866) 764-1212 ext. 221 Animal Wellness Magazine for $34 US Managing Editor: Ann Brightman [email protected]($48 CAN) and get the 3rd year for only $1! Graphic Designer: Dawn Cumby-Dallin Graphic Designer: Kathleen Atkinson Southeast US: $1 Cover Photography: Yuritz Debra Berger, (770) 396-3220 [email protected] for the 3rd year coLuMnists & contributinG WritErs cLAssiFiED ADVErtisinG: Michelle StewartTOPICS INCLUDE: product Nadia Ali [email protected] recommendations Luise Bolleber disease prevention Christina Chambreau, DVM to subscribE: natural diets and integrative Vet Q & A W. Jean Dodds, DVM Subscription price at time of this issue is nutrition gentle training, Audi Donamor $19.00 in the U.S. and $26.00 in Canada, natural health care and so much more! Cynthia S. Evans including taxes for six issues shipped via Sara Jackson surface mail. Subscriptions can be processed Call or go online today – your animals will thank you! Deva Khalsa, VMD by: Website: Lisa Loeb Phone: 1-866-764-12121-866-764-1212 9am– Patrick Mahaney, VMD, CVA 5pm Erin Mayo, DVM us MAiL: Animal Wellness Magazine, E.S.T. Shawn Messonnier, DVM 6834 S University Blvd PMB Sandra Murphy Centennial, CO 80122 Barbara Nefer on tHe cover Saralee Perel cDn MAiL: Animal Wellness Magazine, Lisa Provost 202-160 Charlotte St.Peterborough, pHotograpH by: Amberly Scott Hindler ON, Canada K9J 2T8. John R. Taylor, ND Yuritz Charlotte Walker Subscriptions are payable by VISA, Some people think MasterCard, American Express, check or German shepherds ADMinistrAtion & sALEs money order. The material in this magazine are aggressive, but President/C.E.O.: Tim Hockley is not intended to replace the care of just like any other Office Manager: Michelle Stewart veterinary practitioners. The opinions breed, they make Operations Director: John Allan expressed are not necessarily those of the wonderful family Administrative Assistant: Libby Sinden editor, and different views may appear in companions if other issues. Redstone Media Group Inc., properly socialized subMissions: publisher of Animal Wellness, does not and trained. This Please send all editorial material, advertising promote any of the products orservices alert and elegant material, photos and correspondence advertised by a third party advertiser in fellow obviously has an easy-going and to: Animal Wellness Magazine, 202-160 this publication, nor does Redstone Media contented outlook on life. Turn to page Charlotte St. Peterborough, ON, Canada Group Inc. verify the accuracy of any claims 56 to read more about this second most K9J 2T8. We welcome previously made in connection with such advertisers. popular breed in the US. unpublished articles and color pictures Refund policy: call or write our customer either in transparency or disc form at 300 service department and we will refund6 animal wellness dpi. We cannot guarantee that either articles unmailed issues. or pictures will be used or that they will be returned. We reserve the right to publish all DEALEr inQuiriEs WELcoME: letters received. Email your articles to: Animal Wellness Magazine is available at a [email protected] discount for resale in retail shops and through various organizations. Call ADVErtisinG sALEs 1-866-764-1212 and ask for dealer magazine National Sales Manager: sales, fax us at 705-742-4596 or e-mail at Ann Beacom, (866) 764-1212 ext. 222 [email protected] [email protected] Animal Wellness Magazine (ISSN 1710-1190) is published six times a year by Redstone Media Group Inc. Publications Mail Agreement #40884047. Entire contents copyright© 2012. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, without prior written permission of the publisher. Publication date: September 2012. IMPROVING THE LIVES OAFTAIMNEIM. ALS... ONE READER AT

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EDitoriALThFoooudghfot rWhen I first adopted Renny back in 1998, my knowledge of healthy Good nutrition is also the theme of this issue. Read about the pet foods was sadly lacking. In my ignorance, I put him on a top 10 stress-reducing foods, and how medicinal mushrooms can diet of commercial brand-name food from the grocery store – help with immunity. We also look at how to achieve the right products I subsequently learned were full of coloring, by-products, balance between protein and carbs, explore the new modality of preservatives and other nasties. As I learned more about animal nutrigenomics, and learn about herbal remedies for digestive and nutrition, I made numerous attempts to switch Renny to something urinary issues. And don’t forget to take along our shopping list of healthier, but didn’t meet with much success. With patience and healthy dog foods next time you hit the stores. persistence, it got to the point where I could sneak some premium meat-based kibble into his meals. But despite all my best efforts, he Other topics covered in this edition include brain games to keep turned his nose up at everything else. your dog mentally sharp, the latest advances in dealing with diabetes, and 12 steps for overcoming canine aggression. We also Sadly, I had to say goodbye to Renny this past May, when he look at a health problem called immune anemia, and what the law passed away at the age of 14 after a brief battle with a rapidly- can do for companion animals when couples split up. Informative growing cancer. I wonder if the poor quality food he insisted on reading for the crisp, cool days of fall! eating played a role in the development of his disease, since I’ve always avoided over-vaccination and did everything else I could Have a happy and healthy autumn! think of to keep him healthy.Although I deeply miss my little feline soulmate, I’m sure I’ll Ann Brightmaneventually welcome another kitty (or two) into my home and heart. Managing EditorOne of the first things I intend to do is start him or her on thehealthiest diet possible. No more packages of grocery store brandfood will ever cross the threshold of our home.8 animal wellness

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contributors 1 35 7 24681.Veterinarian Dr. Jean Dodds received her Cancer in Dogs, and 8 Weeks to a Healthy of Canada’s Silmaril Kennel Trophy for theveterinary degree in 1964 from the Ontario Dog. He’s the pet care expert for Martha Human/Animal Bond. In this issue (page 26),Veterinary College. In 1986, she established Stewart Living’s “Dr. Shawn – The Natural she focuses on the top stress-fighting foods.Hemopet, the first non-profit national blood Vet” on Sirius Satellite Radio, and creator ofbank program for animals. From 1965 to Dr. Shawn’s Pet Organics. His practice, Paws & 8. Amberly Scott Hindler owns and operates1986, Dr. Dodds was a member of many Claws Animal Hospital (, Lux Dog Daycare, Inc. in West Los Angeles,committees on hematology, animal models of is in Plano, Texas. See page 54 for his article ( She worked in Clienthuman disease and veterinary medicine. She on diabetes in dogs. Services at high-traffic veterinary hospitals inreceived the Holistic Veterinarian of the Year Los Angeles for many years after graduatingAward from the AHVMA in 1994. On page 44, 5. Veterinarian Dr. Deva Khalsa authored Dr. from the University of Southern CaliforniaDr. Dodds talks about nutrigenomics. Khalsa’s The Natural Dog and co-authored where she won awards and honors for her Healing Your Horse: Alternative Therapies. writing. Amberly is the recipient of a Gold2. Veterinarian Dr. Christina Chambreau is She lectures internationally and is a professor Circle Award for Journalists from Columbiaa homeopathic vet, lecturer and author. She at the British Institute of Homeopathy. She University’s Scholastic Press Association. Seegraduated from the University of Georgia has almost 30 years of experience in holistic page 48 for Amberly’s tips on overcomingVeterinary College, and is a founder of the modalities. Turn to page 18 for Dr. Khalsa’s canine aggression.Academy Of Veterinary Homeopathy. Dr. article on balancing proteins and carbs.Chambreau teaches classes in homeopathy 9. Barbara Nefer is an animal lover andfor animals and lectures on many topics. She 6. Veterinarian Dr. Patrick Mahaney graduated freelance writer living in Celebration, co-author of the Homeopathic Repertory: A from the University of Pennsylvania School of She shares her life with three cats, two horses,Tutorial. For her article on herbs for digestive Veterinary Medicine in 1999. He is a certified and a Quaker parrot. For this edition (page 76),and urinary issues, see page 59. veterinary acupuncturist from the International Barbara talks to pet psychic Sonya Fitzpatrick. Veterinary Acupuncture Society. His practice,3. Veterinarian Dr. Erin Mayo graduated from California Pet Acupuncture and Wellness, 10. Sara Jackson lives on a 12-acre farmthe North Carolina State University College of offers integrative medicine. Dr. Mahaney in American Canyon, just outside the NapaVeterinary Medicine in 2002. She received her writes a veterinary blog for patrickmahaney. Valley. She is a graduate of the Academy ofveterinary acupuncture and Chinese herbal com. His first book, The Uncomfortable Vet, Art University in San Francisco and has a BFAcertification from the International Veterinary will be available this year. He writes about in Screenwriting. She is a freelance writerAcupuncture Society, and provides holistic mushrooms for immunity on page 34. and has written a number of short stories,and TCVM services for companion animals two scripts and a book ( central New Jersey. In this issue, (page 7. Audi Donamor has been creating special com). On page 22, Sara looks at why mental80), Dr. Mayo discussion immune-mediated needs diets for cats and dogs for many years. stimulation is important to dogs.hemolytic anemia. Following the loss of her beloved golden retriever, Blues, she founded The Smiling Blue 11. Nadia Ali is a freelance writer who was4. Veterinarian Dr. Shawn Messonnier authored Skies Cancer Fund through the University born in London, England and now lives on thethe Natural Health Bible for Dogs and Cats, The of Guelph’s Pet Trust. She is the only two- Caribbean island of Trinidad. She is inspiredNatural Vet’s Guide to Preventing and Treating time recipient of the Golden Retriever Club by Cici, her family cat. Her work has been10 animal wellness

9 11 1310 12 14published online and in print. In this issue feline IBD and its associated disorders. She Sandra Murphy lives in St Louis, Missouri.(page 32), she gives advice on what you need also helps counsel and educate fellow cat When she’s not writing, she works as a petto know about animals and divorce. lovers about proper feline nutrition, feline IBD sitter. Check out her profile of cat-loving and feline obesity. On page 65, Lisa looks at actress Anna Easteden on page 70.12. Cynthia S. Evans has never been without the link between IBD and grains.a dog or a cat in her life. She has learned Submissionsmany valuable lessons and received many 14. John R. Taylor, ND, has served as the CEOblessings from the animal kingdom in general. and president of Natural Wellness Centers of If you are interested in submitting anShe is also a songwriter/musician, belongs America Inc. since 1995. He is also author of article for Animal Wellness Magazine, pleaseto the duo band ViCindy, and is a writer and the book The Wonder of Probiotics, and the contact Ann Brightman, Managing Editor,photographer. Turn to page 68 for Cynthia’s chief science officer and formulator for NWC at [email protected] on caring for a disabled cat. Natural Pet Products LLC ( Read John’s article on page 72 to learn how13. Lisa Provost is the owner/creator of digestive enzymes and probiotics can and counsels people about your cat’s digestive health. animal wellness 11

YAKKitY YAKFRIENDS, NOT FOOD PINCH YOUR PENNIES Guangzhou is the third largest Of all the household items that might be toxic city in China. It’s also known to your dog, the lowly penny is probably as the dog and cat-eating something you’ve never even considered. capital of the world. But According to the ASPCA Poison Control Center, Animals Asia, an organization however, American pennies minted after 1981 dedicated to improving the contain significant quantities of zinc. When ingested, excess zinc is absorbed through the welfare of animals in China gastrointestinal tract, and causes red blood cells and Vietnam, is helping to to break apart. The result is anemia. Affected dogs change things through its will experience lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea, Professor Paws program, a wine-colored urine and yellowing of the skin school-based dog education and gums. So be sure toprogram designed to show children that dogs are friends, not food. Professor keep your pennies inPaws was launched in Guangzhou in 2008, and has been running in Hong your purse orKong since 2004. The program teaches children how to make friends with pockets!dogs and become responsible dog carers.Last year, Professor Paws dogs visited 2,750 schoolchildren in 23 schools. Thevolunteer dogs and their guardians were also in great demand at many of the 32community activities organized by Animals Asia throughout the year to campaignan end to cat and dog-eating, and promote responsible dog guardianship.animalsasia.orgGROUND-BREAKING SURGERY Callie is currently undergoing radiation therapy to prevent the tumor from returning. She is able to take long walks and herCallie is an eight-year-old English setter recently diagnosed doctors believe she will live several more years.with a dangerous brain tumor. Thanks to a special piece of MRIequipment, doctors from the University of Missouri College ofVeterinary Medicine (right) were able to remove the tumor.They used a piece of high-tech surgical equipment called theBrainsight MR frameless neuro-navigation device. It allowed thesurgeons to take an MRI of Callie’s brain and create a 3D model.The model allowed the MRI to guide the doctors to exactly wheretheir instruments needed to go to remove as much of Callie’stumor as possible.“This equipment not only assists in open surgeries like Callie’s,but allows us to pinpoint any region of the brain with extremeaccuracy, allowing us to perform biopsies through a hole thesize of a pencil,” says Fred Wininger, an assistant professor ofneurology and neurosurgery at the college.12 animal wellness

SOBERING STATISTICS According to ‘Gospel’...It seems the incidence of Canine Light Therapycertain chronic diseasesin cats and dogs has 2 SIZES DO IT ALL!risen dramatically duringthe last five years, Helps to:according to BanfieldPet Hospital’s State •reduce recovery timeof Pet Health 2012 •reduce painReport. Here are some •htiessaul esoinftjurykey findings: •tmreuastclseosre •reduce arthritis pain • Obesity affects approximately one in •increase circulation five cats and dogs, and the number of overweight dogs has increased by 37% since 2007. Illuminating the future of animal care • Kidney disease is seven times more common in cats than 615.293.3025 dogs and is one of the leading causes of death in felines. • Arthritis has increased by 38% in dogs and 67% in cats over the last five years.All good reasons to feed a healthier diet and adopt a moreholistic healthcare approach!ONE IN A MILLIONThe American Holistic Veterinary Medical AssocuiationFoundation’s One in a Million campaign ran June 25 to July2, and raised close to a whopping $450,000 for education andresearch in just that two weeks. The campaign’s goal was to getone million people to donate one dollar each to the foundation.“If each of us donated one dollar a month for 12 months, in one year we would have exceeded our research goals,” says veterinarian and AHVMA past president, Dr. Rick Palmquist. “We could fund over 30 major studies with that money.” To date, the Foundation has raised funds for acupuncture research and vaccine reform research. animal wellness 13

YAKKitY YAKHEART OF THE MATTER SHE’S BACK ON HER FEET Photo courtesy of John Gavender. Quality of life is accepted The Sanctuary Equine Sports Therapy & Rehabilitation Center as an important predictor in Ocala, Florida is dedicated to the healing and conditioning of survival among human of equine athletes. But they also provide cutting edge therapies patients with heart failure. and services for dogs, such as Paris, a four-year-old dachshund. Now, veterinarians at the Cummings School “She has had chronic back problems and by the time she of Veterinary Medicine turned four was about 90% paralyzed,” says her person, at Tufts University have John Gavender. “Our vet was giving her steroids and muscledeveloped two surveys that may prove to be similarly useful in relaxers, but it wasn’t working so he suggested cold laserevaluating the quality of life for dogs and cats with heart disease. therapy.... I took her to The Sanctuary and after only one day of cold laser treatment she tried to stand. It was amazingKnown as “FETCH” (Functional Evaluation of Cardiac Health) and because within two weeks she was almost back to normal and“CATCH” (Cats’ Assessment Tool for Cardiac Health), the surveys now she is 100% recovered.”ask people to rank aspects of their dog or cat’s health on a scale of0 to 5. Veterinarians are then able to assess the animal’s perceived Cold laser therapy works toquality of life, which may inform decisions about treatment, relieve pain and soreness innutrition or euthanasia. the legs and back, swelling and heat, tightens legs and speeds healing. Keep Halloween candy out of your After receiving cold laser therapy dog’s reach. treatments, Paris is completely recovered and is now a happy and lively little dog.14 animal wellness

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YAKKitY YAKFEELING THE BITE Excessive barking can be caused byThanks to the recession, Pert Group and Brakke Consulting say boredom, lonelinessfewer animals are getting to the vet. A survey of 1,200 dog andcat people found that they visited the veterinarian nearly 20% and stress.less last year than in 2007 – if they went at all. In 2011, 77%of respondents took their dogs orcats to the veterinarian, comparedto 88% in 2007, when the studywas first A CHANCE TO PLAY BALL Helping troubled teens Photo courtesy of Chandra Fryer. and homeless dogsTHE MORE THE MERRIER at the same time…What’s better company than a dog or cat? How about two or what could be a betterthree? The American Pet Products Association is set to celebratemultiple animal guardianship during its Pets Add Life (PAL) goal? On June 23, k9“National Get A Pal for Your Pet Day” on November 19. Amongthe planned activities is a national shelter adoption contest to see Connection held itswhich one can adopt out the most animals. annual Let’s Play Ball“We are thrilled to have this special day set aside to encouragemultiple pet ownership and help promote the joys and happiness fund-raising event inadditional pets bring to our lives,” says APPA President BobVetere. “Pets Add Life is all about promoting responsible pet LA. The event offeredownership and we really encourage pet parents to think aboutadopting additional animals as there are so many out there in a variety of activities,need of good homes and families.” including a softball Donald, a K9 graduate, and his game, fun games adopted dog. for dogs, and two inspirational guest speakers for the teens: Executive Producer Nigel Sinclair (Ides of March, Terminator 3, The Woman in Black) and Executive Producer Palak Patel (Oz: The Great and Powerful, Snow White and the Huntsman, Maleficent). Let’s Play Ball is designed to raise donations and awareness for the k9 Connection program, which teaches teens to train homeless shelter dogs in basic obedience skills in order to increase their chances of adoption. Through the training they provide to the dogs, the teens also benefit by learning how to be more responsible and accountable, and how positive reinforcement offers an alternative to force and violence. k9connection.org16 animal wellness

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proteins,veggies,carbs How much protein is too much? And should my dog be eating carbohydrates? Education and moderation are important keys to balancing your companion’s diet.our dog’s well being depends on what you put in his dish. After By Deva Khalsa, VMDall, the time to keep illness at bay is before it’s had a chance to feeding your dog one-third each of protein, vegetables anddevelop. That’s what a healthful diet can do. But does this mean carbohydrates on a daily basis. It’s been around for a long timemeal planning or catering to your canine with specially prepared and has worked well for most meats, grains and veggies? Some dedicated dog lovers aredoing just that. But many of us have lifestyles that leave little time Nowadays, high protein raw diets are very much in vogue. I'mto cater to even our own dietary needs, let alone those of our dogs. one veterinarian who believes in high quality protein – but not an overabundance of it. Many people are feeding their dogs rawIt’s still possible to rustle up good, balanced meals for your dog diets, and that’s great. There are definite benefits a dog can gainno matter how little free time you have. If you’re among the from eating raw meat and poultry. Raw diets provide nutrientsgrowing number of people who have given up poor quality such as essential fatty acids that are destroyed during cooking. Ifcommercial processed foods in favor of healthier and more raw meat is your preference, you can even leave the fat on. Sincenatural premium diets, you’re already on the right track. fat turns into unhealthy grease when heated, however, it shouldWhatever you feed your dog, it’s important to understand a little be trimmed from meat before you cook it. It’s a good idea tobit about the roles of protein, carbohydrates and vegetables in a freeze raw meat for 14 days before you feed it to your dog. Thisbalanced diet. should kill any parasites encysted in the muscles and organs.Quality versus quantity While raw meat is an excellent choice, years of study andBoth the percentage and type of protein need to be considered deliberation have brought me to the conclusion that a dietin the quest for optimal health. The historical formula for consisting of only raw meat isn’t ideal. I firmly believe raw dietsdoling out proportions is the one-third rule. This formula entails need added vegetables and carbohydrates, so be sure to look for a product that contains these added ingredients, or else make sure to add them yourself if you’re preparing the diet at home.18 animal wellness

EXCESSIVE PROTEIN AND CANCER TMThe China Study is the most extensive study ever done on STORAGE THAT’S OUT OF SIGHT!cancer. Its author, Dr. T. Colin Campbell, was also one of theprimary researchers. In this monumental study, 2,400 Chinesecounties were surveyed for death rates from cancer. This >[email protected] Cold-pressed with Omegas EFAs from flax and fish oil, these623-399-0361 soft chew treats are free of wheat and corn and come in four flavors: Pumpkin Point, Cranberry Cove, Apple Splash and42 animal wellness Blueberry Wave. $9.99

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nKnuotwraigboeunt omics? BY W. JEAN DODDS, DVM44 animal wellness

It’s a new science that studies the connection between nutrition and our genes – and how we can optimize canine and human health by designing diets for each individual’s genetic makeup.You know that wholesome high quality food can help keep you and your dog healthy by enhancing your immune systems, increasing your energy levels, and reducing your risk of developing diabetes, heart disease and even cancer. But did you know there’s also a connection between nutrition and your genes? Nutrigenomics is an emerging science that studies the molecular relationships between nutrition and the response of our genes, to determine how even subtle genetic changes can affect human and animal health. The basic concept is that chemical nutrients affect gene expressions in a specific mode by switching from health to an abnormal (pathophysiological) condition, or vice versa. Nutrigenomics designs optimal nutrition based upon an individual’s unique genetic makeup (genotype). Simply stated, nutrigenomics defines functional foods based on an individual’s genes. The back story The role of diet and nutrition continues to be a major focus of study when addressing the increasing incidence and recognition of diet-related diseases in humans and animals. Nutrition research is studying how dietary constituents at the molecular level can optimize and maintain cellular, tissue and organ balance to help prevent disease. The development of nutrigenomics has been aided by powerful advances in genetic research. Genetic variability, the inter- individual differences in genetics, can affect metabolism as well as an individual’s phenotype. Genetic disorders of nutritional metabolism can cause abnormal physiological effects that are exhibited as polymorphisms (population diversity). Simple examples would be the genes associated with obesity or diabetes in various canine species, and vitamin B12 deficiency in giant Schnauzers. An important aim of nutrigenomics involves identifying the markers of early phases of diet- related diseases, so that nutritional intervention can return the patient to a healthy state. Rationale and aims Nutrients relay signals that tell a specific cell in the body about the diet. Basically, a sensory system in the cell interprets information from nutrients about the dietary environment. Once the nutrient interacts with this system, it changes gene (genomics) and protein (proteomics) expression and metabolite production (metabolomics) accordingly. So different diets elicit different patterns of gene and protein expression and metabolite production. Nutrigenomics describes the patterns of these effects, which are called molecular dietary signatures. animal wellness 45

basic concepts of nutrigenomics Functional foods1Diet can be a serious risk factor for a number of diseases. Certain dietary constituents such as vitamins A and D, zinc and2Common dietary ingredients act on the animal genome (the total fatty acids can directly influence gene expression, whereas others such as dietary fiber can have an indirect effect through changes genetic information), both directly and indirectly, to alter gene in hormonal signaling, mechanical stimuli, or metabolites expression and structure. produced from the microbial flora in the bowel. So-called “functional” food ingredients and herbal supplements3Certain diet-regulated genes play a role in the onset, incidence, are now being incorporated into animal as well as human foods. progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases. Examples of nutrients currently added to pet foods include those intended to improve joint health such as glucosamine,4Dietary intervention based on an animal’s nutritional needs and chondroitin sulfate, and green lipped mussel. Others protect the current state, applied together with his/her genotype, can prevent, body from cellular free radical damage, and include vitamin E, mitigate or cure chronic disease. beta carotene and selenium. Omega-3 fatty acids improve the skin, while oligosaccharides (carbohydrates) and probiotics are5The degree of dietary influence on the balance of health and disease good for gut health. states in the body depends on an individual’s genetic makeup.An important aim of nutrigenomics involves identifying Different diets elicit different patterns of gene andthe markers of early phases of diet-related diseases, so that protein expression and metabolite production.nutritional intervention can return the patient to a healthy state.Another aim is to demonstrate the effects of biologically active There are also pet foods designed for a dog’s life stages ( components on health, leading to the design of functional puppy, adult and geriatric), body type (e.g. toy, large and giantfoods that will keep individuals healthy according to their own breeds), and lifestyle (e.g. active, growth and performance). It’sspecific needs. important to keep in mind that the benefits provided by these diets may be well suited for one dog, but not another. With our Applying nutrigenomics to dogs growing knowledge of genes and gene expression, it should be possible to formulate diets not only for preventing structuralRecently, veterinary and nutrition scientists have begun applying abnormalities, but also for more complex diseases such asanimal genomics to the field of nutrition. Nutritional genomics diabetes, cancer, aging, behavioral changes and heart disease.and proteomics will play a vital role in the future of pet foods.Functional genomics will emerge as important areas of study,now that the genome “maps” for the dog are available.Studying and monitoring the health of dogs parallels that In summary, animal nutrition professionals need to be ableof humans. Close to 500 canine genetic diseases have been to prescribe or recommend nutrients and diet formulationsdescribed to date. Molecular biological techniques have been based on a more precise knowledge of how nutrients or foodused for several decades to identify the cause of single gene components interact at the level of the genome. Diets for dogsdisorders in animals, allowing for prevention and treatment should be designed and tailored to the genome or genomic profilestrategies. Currently, at least 30 canine disease genes have been of the individual in order to optimize physiological balance,cloned and characterized. This has lead to the development of disease prevention and treatment, and performance. Ourgenetic mutation-based tests for diagnosis and carrier detection. advancing knowledge about human and animal genomes, alongThese tests permit the elimination of carriers from the breeding with the breadth of biotechnology, offer us the opportunity topopulation, ultimately decreasing or eliminating the incidence individualize dietary intervention to help prevent, mitigate orof disease. cure chronic diseases.However, while determining the DNA sequences of single genemutations is now feasible, identifying the genetic loci (locations Glossaryon the genome) responsible for complex genetic diseases is amuch more difficult task. Nevertheless, dogs serve as excellent Gene – the molecular unit of heredity in an individualmodels for the nutritional diseases in other animal species Genome – the entire hereditary (genetic) makeup of an individualand humans. Although a genetic component exists for these Genotype – the genetic makeup of an individualconditions, nutrition plays a major role in the development and/ Phenotype – an individual’s observable physical traits oror treatment of many.Changing lifestyles in urban populations have led to a significant characteristicsincrease in obesity and diabetes in people and dogs. The Polymorphism – when two or more clearly different phenotypesnegative health outcomes of obesity and diabetes observed inhumans are also seen in canines. These are just two common exist in the same populationexamples of animal diseases having both a nutritional cause anda therapeutic component.46 animal wellness

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BY AMBERLY SCOTT HINDLERDealing with a dog that attacks other canines can befrightening and stressful. Follow these 5 principlesto help avoid or defuse fights.Donna was mortified when her recently adopted shepherd By understanding the subtle signs your dog is giving you mix tried to attack another dog at the local dog park. with his body, you will be better equipped to prevent a Not surprisingly, the other pooch’s guardian wasn’t very happy fight next time he is with another dog. For instance (and either. Luckily, Donna was able to get her new friend under this illustrates just how subtle body signals sometimes control before anyone got hurt, but she ended up slinking are), right before a dog attacks another dog he will often home with him and hasn’t returned to the park since. “It was so push forward the corners of his mouth. I first read about embarrassing,” she says. “You can’t help wondering if people are this in Dr. Patricia B. McConnell’s book, For the Love of a thinking you must be abusing the dog for him to act that way.” Dog: Understanding Emotion in You and Your Best Friend, and have witnessed it firsthand on many occasions. This signal If you’ve ever had an aggressive dog yourself, you know how doesn’t mean he is definitely going to attack, but it’s a stressful and upsetting it can be. You face the daily dichotomy warning that he is feeling territorial. When combined with of socializing your canine in an attempt to reduce his aggressive other body signals, he may very well be telling you his next tendencies, without anyone getting hurt in the process. move is to attack.Here are five principles for getting on the road to recovery. But Here are some other telltale signs, which when combined, shouldfirst, be sure to take your dog to the veterinarian to check his alert you that your dog might be about to bite another dog:behavior isn’t caused by a medical problem. • Erect, motionless tail (though spastic and erratic wagging couldPrinciple #1: Study your dog like a scientist would also signal the same impending dangerous situation)Don’t attempt an interaction between a dog-aggressive dog • Curled lips (yet sometimes dogs do “smile,” so context isand another canine without first becoming an expert in dog very important)communication. Get out a notepad and observe every slightmovement in your dog’s face, torso, tail and extremities. Engage • Raised hackleshim with a ball, favorite toy, or hide some kibble for him to find • Pursed mouth cornersas you are taking your notes. You will be surprised how much you • Growlinglearn in just 15 minutes of objective observation and note-taking. • Focused, squinted eyes (unless his eyes are naturally squinty) • Entire body frozen in place, or moving as if in slow motion48 animal wellness

• Head held high above the other dog (or low, if stalking from a distance)• Turning around sharply to snarl/snap/growl/bite when another dog attempts to sniff his anal/genital regionPrinciple #2: Learn how to safely break up an altercationYou were distracted at the dog park by your friend’s juicy story about her ex-husband,and didn’t notice when your dog raised his hackles, right before attacking another dog.What do you do?Never reach into a dog fight with your hands, or try to get between the animals. Youwill get bitten. Luckily, there are some tools you can keep on hand when introducingtwo dogs for the first time. A large bucket of water, for example, is a great way to breakup a dog fight.During my recent visit to Kanab, Utah, where I volunteered at Best Friends AnimalSanctuary, I watched closely as two male dogs started to play together. As their energyand rough-housing elevated, I calmly walked over to a large bucket of water, just in case.Sure enough, within seconds, their playful romp turned ugly, and I splashed a torrentof water on them. They stopped dead in their tracks, frozen like two embarrassedlunatics. The volunteer coordinator ran over and thanked me profusely, adding that itwas exactly what he would have done.Many fights are avoidable, and it is your responsibility to sidestep as many as possible by being acutely aware of what sets your dog off. I suggest keeping the following items close by: • A jar of pennies for shaking and making a loud noise to startle fighting dogs (a blow horn works as well) • A bucket of water or a hose for dousing the dogs; they will instantly become more focused on getting dry than on fighting • C itronella spray, which the volunteers at Best Friends also use; just don’t spray it into the dogs’ eyes or faces! animal wellness 49

Principle #3: Don’t set your dog up to fail Gain a thorough understanding of your dog’s triggers, and modify his environment accordingly. Many fights are avoidable, and it is your responsibility to sidestep as many as possible by being acutely aware of what sets your dog off. For example, leaving a bowl of favorite food out and allowing a canine houseguest to stick her muzzle in it will most certainly trigger some dogs to violently attack the intruder. If you know your dog has issues surrounding food, put his bowls away when you are expecting a visit from another canine. The same rule applies to his toys. Principle #4: Provide physical and mental stimulation My favorite part of yoga is the sense of calm I get after challenging my body for an hour. It inevitably wears off as I drive home from the studio in LA traffic, but the first 20 minutes are blissful. If your dog is excessively aggressive with others of his kind, consult a professional positive trainer or canine behaviorist for help. Exercise has the same effect on your dog. Mental stimulation is also important, especially if you are unable to sufficiently exercise your dog. As the owner of a dog daycare, I discovered that dogs really like board games – yes, there are board games designed for dogs, with varying degrees of difficulty, that I play with my pack of daycare pups. I also like to play “find the kibble cups”. They love whizzing around the living room and kitchen looking for overturned plastic cups with kibble inside. This game is perfect for rainy days when the dogs are feeling cooped up and want some release. Always supervise your dog when playing with others, since the last thing you want is for him to become territorial about the game or food! For dogs with a history of aggression, these mentally stimulating games are best played solo. Once again, always try to avoid situations that set your dog up to fail. Principle #5: Don’t hide out While it is tempting to retreat after your dog gets in a fight, becoming a hermit will only increase the risk that he will fight again. Dogs live in the moment. If you introduce two dogs in a safe manner, and you employ the preventive strategies I have discussed here, there is no reason to discontinue his socialization training. Remember, a fight today does not beget a fight tomorrow.50 animal wellness