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g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns kl/ro !=! ef}uf]lns cjl:ylt g]kfn blIf0f Pl;ofdf cjl:yt e"kl/jl] i7t d'ns ' xf]  . g]kfn @^ l8u|L @@ ldg]6b]lv #) l8u|L @& ldg]6 pQ/L cIff+z / *) l8u|L $ ldg]6b]lv ** l8u|L [email protected] ldg]6 k"jL{ b]zfGt/;Dd km}lnPsf] 5  . g]kfnn] ljZjsf] s'n e"efusf] )=)# k|ltzt, Pl;of dxfb]zsf]  )=# k|ltzt /blIf0f Pl;ofsf]@=*@ k|ltzt e"efu cf]u6]sf] 5  . g]kfn Pl;ofsf b'O{ ljzfn d'ns ' x¿ ef/t / rLgsf] lardf kb{5  . of] ;d'b÷| aª\ufnsf] vf8Lb]lv sl/a [email protected]& ls=ld= 6f9f 5  . g]kfnsf] If]qkmn !,$&,!*! ju{ ls=ld= cyf{t %^,*@& ju{dfOn 5 . g]kfnsf]  k"j–{ klZrd nDafO **% ls=ld= / pQ/ blIf0f rf}8fO ;/b/ !(# ls=ld= 5  . o;sf] blIf0fdf ef/tsf] ljxf/ / pQ/ k|bz ] /fHo, klZrddf ef/tsf] pQ/fv08 /fHo, k"jd{ f klZrd aª\ufn, l;lSsd /fHo / pQ/tkm{ rLgsf] :jzfl;t If]q ltAat kb{5  . g]kfnsf] k|dfl0fs ;do bf]nvf lhNnfdf kg]{ uf}/Lzª\s/ lxdfnnfO{ sf6]/ uPsf] *^ l8u|L !% ldg]6 k"jL{ b]zfGt/nfO{ cfwf/ dfgL lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5  . g]kfnsf] ;do lu|gljr dfgs ;doeGbf % 306f $% ldg]6 l56f]5 . of];do lj=;+= @)[email protected] ;fn j}zfv ! ut]bl] v nfu' ul/Psf] xf]  . ljZjsf *,))) ld6/eGbf cUnf !$ r'r/' fdWo] g]kfndf cf7cf]6f kb{5g\  . ^,))) ld6/ / ;f]eGbf cUnf r'r/' f !,#)) eGbf a9L 5g\ . d':tfª Onfsfdf dfq o:tf nueu #)! r'r/' fx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . g]kfndf lxdfnosf ;fy;fy} sf];L, u08sL, s0ff{nLh:tf 7'nf gbLx¿ / /f/f, km]jf, uf];fOFs0' 8h:tf ;'Gb/ tfnx¿ 5g\  . e":j¿ksf] ljljwtfsf ;fy} hnjfo' / df};dsf] cTolws ljleGgtfn] ubf{ pmi0f (Tropical), cwf]i{ 0f (Mesothermal), ;"Id tfkLo (Micro thermal), 6fOuf /6'Gb|f k|sf/sf hnjfo' g]kfndf kfOG5g\ . g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns ef}lts :j¿kdf prfOut ljljwtfn] ef}uf]lns ljleGgtfsf] cj:yf l;h{gf u/s ] f] 5  . ljZj dfglrqdf g]kfn ;u/dfyfsf] b]z, uf}td a'4sf] hGd:yn n'lDagLsf] b]z / ljlzi6 emG8fsf] b]zsf] ¿kdf ;d]t kl/lrt 5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷1

[email protected] ef}uf]lns ljefhg [email protected]=! w/ftnLo :j¿ksf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] ljefhg g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns ljefhg ljleGg cfwf/df ljleGg lsl;dn] ul/Psf] kfOG5  . w/ftnsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] e"efunfO{ pQ/b]lv blIf0f;Dd qmdzM tLg a[xt\ k|b]zdf ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . tflnsf g+= !=! :yfgLo ;/sf/ ;~rfng P]g, @)&$ -)&$ c;f]h @( ut] k|df0fLs/0f_ cg';f/ lhNnfx¿sf] juL{s/0f

lxdfnL lhNnfx¿

tfKn]h'ª, ;ª\v'jf;ef, ;f]n'v'Da', bf]nvf, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, /;'jf, dgfª, d':tfª, 8f]Nkf, h'Dnf, d'u', x'Dnf, sflnsf]6, afh'/f, aemfª, bfr'{nf, wflbª, /fd]5fk, uf]vf{, ?s'd -k"j{_, DofUbL [email protected])&% df kxf8Laf6 lxdfnLdf ylkPsf]_

kxf8L lhNnfx¿

kfFry/, Onfd, t]/y'd, wgs'6f, ef]hk'/, cf]vn9'ª\uf, vf]6fª, sfe|]knf~rf]s, g'jfsf]6 ndh'ª, tgx'F, sf:sL, :ofª\hf, kj{t, afUn'ª, @* kfNkf, c3f{vfFrL, u'NdL, ?s'd -klZrd_ lhNnf /f]Nkf, Ko'7fg, ;Nofg, hfh/sf]6, b}n]v, 8f]6L, c5fd, a}t8L, 88]nw'/f

leqL dw];sf lhNnfx¿

pbok'/, dsjfgk'/, lrtjg, l;Gw'nL, gjnk/f;L -ab{3f6 ;':tfk"j{_, bfª, ;'v]{t

& lhNnf

t/fO{sf lhNnfx¿

emfkf, df]/ª, ;'g;/L, ;Kt/L, l;/xf, wg'iff, dxf]Q/L, ;nf{xL, /f}tx6, af/f, k;f{, gjnk/f;L -ab{3f6 ;':tfklZrd_, ¿kGb]xL, slknj:t', afFs], alb{of, s}nfnL, s~rgk'/

!* lhNnf

sf7df8f}“ pkTosfsf lhNnfx¿

sf7df8f}F, nlntk'/, eQmk'/

# lhNnf

2÷g]kfn

kl/ro

@! lhNnf

-s_ lxdfnL k|b]z g]kfnsf] pQ/L e]udf lxpF / r§fgn] lgld{t lxdfnL If]qn] g]kfnsf] !% k|ltzt e"efu ;d]6s ] f] 5  . sl/a @% b]lv %) lsnf]ld6/ pQ/blIf0f rf}8fOleq km}lnPsf] lxdfnL k|bz ] ;d'b| ;txb]lv sl/a #,))) ld6/dflysf] prfOdf cjl:yt 5  . lxdfno g]kfnsf] pQ/kl§dfq geO{ pQ/L g]kfn ;/xbaf6 blIf0flt/ lxdfnL z[ªv \ nf b]lvg] g]kfnsf w]/} e"efux¿ 5g\  . h:tM} cGgk"0f{ / uª\ufk"0f{ lxdfnsf] pQ/kl§ dgfª, d':tfª cflb g]kfnsf If]q k5{g \ . wjnflul/ r'/g] lxdfnosf] pQ/df d':tfª tyf 8f]Nkfsf e"efu k5{g \ . tL If]qx¿af6 lxdfno blIf0flt/ b]lvG5  . ljZjsf pRrtd / dgf]/d lxdfnL 6fs'/fx¿ g]kfnsf] lxdfnov08df 5g\  . s~rghª\3f, hgs, pDas, dxfnª\u/' , /fN] jflnª, k'd/L, h'un, nfª6fª, u0f]z, ;]/fª, s'6fª, dgl;/L, k]/L, n'un ' f, bfdf]b/, lgnlul/, cGgk"0f{, wjnflul/, d':tfª, uf}td, kfnr'ª xduf, sflGh/fj] f, sflGt, uf]/vf, rfª\unf, r08L, gfnfsª\s/, u'/f; F k"jb{ l] v qmdzM klZrd;Dd km} lnPsf k|l;4 @* lxdz[ªv \ nfx¿ x'g  \ . oL z[ªv \ nfx¿ clwstd ef] 6 -ltAat_ sf ;LdfjtL{ If]qdf /xs ] f 5g\  . lxdfnL If]qsf]  cfly{s ultljlw ;Lldt 5 . pAhgL Go"g x'g]x'Fbf s[lif guGo eP klg ofs, e]8f,  Rofª\u|f, 3f]8f cflb kz'kfng /h8La'6Ldf of]If]q ;DkGg 5  . pgsf un}Frf, /f8L, kfvL a'Gg] 3/]n' pBf]ux¿ /x]sf] kfOG5  . ko{6g pBf]u, h8La'6L / kof{j/0f ;Dkbf oxfFsf dxŒjk"0f{ ;|ft] x'g\ . of] If]q cNkfOg / cfs{l6s hnjfo'If]qcGtu{t k5{  . prfO / kj{tsf] cjl:yltcg';f/ hnjfo' km/s k5{  . ;f]nv ' D' a'sf] $,$)) ld6/ prfODff /xs ] f] r'ªs'ª ufpFdf cfn' kmN5  . @,*)) ld6/ prfOdf /xs ] f] d':tfªsf] hf]d;f]ddf b'O{ ;o ldlnld6/ jiff{ x'G5  . o:tf pRr lxdfnsf v]tLof]Uo hldg ;f]nv ' D' a', dgfª, d':tfª / 8f]Nkf lhNnfdf kfOG5  . sl/a %,))) ld6/dfly ^ b]lv  [email protected] dlxgf;Dd lxpF /xG5 . nueu $,))) ld6/dflysf e"efudf 5f]6f] cjlwsf] jiff{ofddf klg t';f/fkft x'G5  . $,)))– %,))) ld6/;Dd xf]rf] emfª emf8L -h8La'6L_ kfOG5  . d':tfª / 8f]Nkfdf k|fs[lts jg:klt ljz]if sf/0fn] @,*)) ld6/ prfO;Dd klg x'g] u/s ] f] kfOG5  . sl/a [email protected] k|ltzt pRr lxdfnL If]q dg;'gL r/gsf nflu pko'Qm 5 . c¿ e"efu 7f8f] le/, 9'ªu\ ] / 7G8f x'bF f r/gsf nflu pko'Qm 5}g  . 3fF; k'gM knfpg ;do nfUg] ePsfn] clws r/gaf6 hf]ufpg r/g Joj:yfkg oxfFsf] d"n cfjZostf xf] . df6f]/hnjfo'sf b[li6n]Ps k|ltzteGbf sd hldg dfq}v]tLsf nflu pko'Qm 5 . oftfoftsf]cfjZos Joj:yf cem;Dd klg x'g g;s]sf] sf/0f pTkfbgsf] ahf/Ls/0f ug{ sl7gfO x'g] u/s ] f] 5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷3

g]kfnsf] nueu !(=& k|ltzt [email protected],*((,%)) x]S6/_ cf]u6\g] pRr kj{tsf] blIf0fdf dWokj{t / pQ/df pRr lxdfn k5{  . o; If]qsf ;a}h;f] d'Vo pkTosf lxdfgLu|:t (Glaciated) 5g\  . gbLn] lkFw s6fg a9L u/]sf] kmn:j¿k gbL 9nfg (Gradient) n] uN5]8f / uN5L (Canyons) ag]sf 5g\  . 8fF8fsf] 6'Kkf] / pkTosfsf] km]b;Dd @,))) ld6/eGbf a9L prfOsf] leGgtf 5  . o;}n] oxfFsf] Pp6} 9nf]df pmi0f, pmkf]i0f / Gofgf] ;dzLtf]i0f Pjd\ lr;f] zLtf]i0f af]6la?jf kfOG5g\  . of] If]qsf] %) k|ltzt efu s'g} klg v]tLsf nflu sfd nfUb}g . afFsL %) k|ltzt e"efudWo]#$ k|ltzt e"efudf v]tLsf nflu ckof{Kt kftnf] df6f] 5 eg] !^ k|ltzt e"efun] dfq v]tL wfg]sf] 5  . o:tf] @)),))) x]S6/ hldgdf klg $) k|ltztdf dfq /fd|/L v]tL ug]{ ul/G5  . lxdfnL If]qdf g]kfnsf k"jb{ l] v qmdzM tfKn]hª' , ;ª\vj' f;ef, ;f]nv ' D' a', bf]nvf, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, /;j' f, dgfª, d':tfª, 8f]Nkf, d'u,' x'Dnf, h'Dnf, sflnsf]6, afh'/f, aemfª, bfr'n { f wflbª, /fd]5fk, uf]/vf / ?s'd -k"j_{ u/L @) lhNnf kb{5g\  . lxdfnL k|bznfO{ ] lgDglnlvt tLg a[xt\ If]qdf ljefhg u/L cWoog ug{ ;lsG5M d'Vo lxdfnL If]q

ljZjsf] ;jf]{Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf

lxdfnocGtu{tsf pRrtd r'nLx¿ s]lGb|  t d'Vo lxdfnodf *,))) ld6/eGbf cUnf r'nLx¿ k5{g \ . t6jtL{ lxdfnosf]blIf0f /x]sf a[xQ/lxdfnL z[ªv \ nfdf ^,))) ld6/eGbf cUnf !,#!! r'r/' fx¿ /xs ] f 5g\  . ljZjsf] ;jf]R{ r lzv/ ;u/dfyf / t];f| ] pRr lxdlzv/ s~rghª\3fsf cltl/Qm Nxf]T;], dsfn', rf]– cf]o,' wjnflul/, dgf:n', cGgk"0f{;d]t ljZjsf b'O{ bh{g r'nLdWo] g]kfndf sl/a 8]9 bh{g r'r/' fx¿ /xs ] f 5g\  . s~rghª\3f, v'Da', dxfnª\u/' , /fN] jflnª\, 4÷g]kfn

kl/ro

df5fk'R5«] lxdfn, u08sL

u0f]z, uf]/vf, cGgk"0f{, wjnflul/, sfl~h/fj] f, ckL / ;}kfn lxdz[ªv \ nfcGt{ut ljZjsf !) ;jf]R{ r lzv/x¿dWo] cf7cf]6f lxdlzv/x¿ kb{5g\  . leqL lxdfnL If]q d'Vo lxdfnoaf6 pQ/ / ltAat t6jtL{ If]qaf6 blIf0flt/ of] If]q /xs ] f] 5  . gbL lgld{t pkTosfx¿ pRr lxdfnL If]qdf  lgs}/x]sf 5g\  . oxfF k'/fª\  u, x'Dnf, d'u,' nfªu', a'9L vf]6fª, s]?ª, Gofgd, /fª] u\ ;f/, v'Da', sdf{ cflb lxdj]li7t pkTosfx¿ 5g\  . pQ/df cUnf lxdfno / blIf0fdf xf]rf kj{tsf lardf /xs ] f oL pkTosf @,$))–%,))) ld6/;Ddsf prfOdf /xs ] f 5g\  . st}st} ulx/f] vf]r F / a]; F L /xs ] f 5g\  . x'Dnf, h'Dnf, d'u,' 8f]Nkf, d':tfª / dgfª j[li65fofdf kg]{x'bF f jiff{ Hofb}sd x'G5 . o; e]udf z'is hnjfo' kfOG5 . of] kj{tLo If]qdf lr;f] zLtf]i0f sf]0fwf/L jg x'g] x'Fbf 8fn]3fF; k|foM kfOFb}g . oxfFsf afl;Gbf vfBfGg, n'uf /cGo ;fdfgsf]9'jfgL vRr/, 3f]8f, rf}F/L cflb hgfj/af6 ug]{ ub{5g\  . hf}, ux'F, sf]bf] / cfn' #,))) ld6/ prfO;Dd kmN5  . lxpFbdf 7G8f x'g] x'Fbf dflg;x¿sf] a;f]af; of] If]qdf lgs} kftnf] 5  . ;LdfGt lxdfnL If]q of] cGt/lxdfnL z[ª\vnf ltAatsf] ;dfgfGt/ lsgf/L If]q sl/a !#) lsnf]ld6/ pQ/;Dd km}lnPsf] 5  . ;/b/ ^,))) ld6/ prfOb]lv sl/a &,))) ld6/;Dd /x]sf] ltAatL k7f/sf] ;d:ynL If]q uª\uf / ;fª\u kf] -a|Xdk'q_ sf] kfgL 9nf] If]qsf ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . pRr lxdz[ª\vnf l5rf]nL cfPsfn] of] If]qsf gbL -sfnLu08sL cflb_ lxdfnoeGbf k'/fgf  dflgG5g\  . dgfª, d':tfªdf  a:tL 5g\ / ef]6 lg:sg] eGHofªx¿ lgs} k5{g\  . j[li65fofdf kg]{ ePsfn] of] If]q d"ntM lxdfnL d?e"ldsf ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷5

tflnsf g+= [email protected] g]kfnsf k|d'v lxdlzv/ / ltgsf] prfO qm= ;+= ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( !) !! [email protected] !# !$ !% !^ !& !* !(

lxdlzv/

prfO -ld6/_ *,*$*=*^ *,%*^ *,%!^ *,$^# *,@)! *,!^& *,!^# *,)(! &,*%% &,%(! &,@#$ &,!^# &,!^! &,!#$ &,!#@ ^,((# &,)#! ^,**# ^,*[email protected]

lxdz[ª\vnf

lhNnf÷k|b]z

;u/dfyf v'Da'÷ dxfnª\u'/ ;f]n'v'Da'÷! s~rghª\3f s~rghª\3f tfKn]h'ª÷! Nxf]T;] v'Da'÷dxfnª\u'/ ;f]n'v'Da'÷! dsfn' s'Des0f{ ;ª\v'jf;ef÷! rf] cf]o' v'Da'÷dxfnª\u'/ ;f]n'v'Da'÷! wjnflul/ wjnflul/ DofUbL÷d':tfª÷u08sL dgf:n' u0f]z uf]/vf÷u08sL cGgk"0f{ cGgk"0f{ sf:sL÷u08sL g'K;] v'Da' ;f]n'v'Da'÷! zflGt lks v'Da' ;f]n'v'Da'÷! nfª6fª ln?ª nfª6fª /;'jf÷# u0f]z lxdfn u0f]z uf]/vf, wflbª÷# k'df]/L v'Da'÷dxfnª\u'/ ;f]n'v'Da'÷! uf}/Lzª\s/ /f]Njflnª bf]nvf÷# ckL u'/fF; bfr'{nf÷;'b'/klZrd df5fk'R5«] cGgk"0f{ sf:sL÷u08sL ;}kfn clk ;}kfn aemfª÷;'b'/klZrd sf~hL/f]jf sfl~h/f]jf 8f]Nkf÷s0ff{nL cdfbAnd v'Da'÷dxfnª\u'/ ;f]n'v'Da'÷! h'un @) ^,%#% h'un l;Gw'kfNrf]s÷# -e}/j 6fs'/f_ @! e[s'6L ^,#^$ bfdf]b/ d':tfª÷u08sL -v_ kxf8L k|b]z pQ/df lxdfn / blIf0fdf t/fO{lar /x]sf] dWoefu k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd cUnfxf]rf kxf8x¿, km/flsnf–;fFu'/f pkTosf, b"g, a]F;L tyf 6f/ / u/fo'Qm 6÷g]kfn

kl/ro

kfvfx¿n] 3gLe"t 5  . blIf0fdf ;d'b| ;txb]lv sl/a #)) ld6/b]lv pQ/df #,))) ld6/;Ddsf e"efux¿ cf]u6]/ &^ lsnf]ld6/b]lv [email protected]% lsnf]ld6/;Dd rf}8f eO{ lj:tfl/t ePsf 5g\  . ;a}eGbf a9L e"efu o; k|b]zn] cf]u6]sf] x'Fbf g]kfnnfO{ kxf8L d'n's klg elgG5 . o; If]qdf  Onfd, kfFry/, t]x|y'd, wgs'6f, ef]hk'/, vf]6fª, cf]vn9'ª\uf, sfe|]knf~rf]s, g'jfsf]6, tgx'F, ndh'ª, sf:sL, :ofª\hf, kj{t, kfNkf, u'NdL, c3f{vfFrL, DofUbL, afUn'ª, Ko'7fg, /f]Nkf, ¿s'd -klZrd_, ;Nofg, hfh/sf]6, b}n]v, c5fd, 8f]6L, 88]nw'/f / a}t8L u/L @( cf]6f lhNnf kb{5g\ . kxf8L k|b]znfO{ lgDg tLg >]0fLdf  ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 M r'/] kj{t >]0fL g]kfnsf] blIf0fdf cjl:yt k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd km}lnPsf] lxdfno kj{tdfnf eGbf lgs}kl5 ljsl;t /x]sf] ;d'b| ;txb]lv ^!) b]lv !*[email protected] ld6/sf] prfO;Dd ePsf] kj{tdfnfnfO{ r'/] kj{t elgG5  . o;nfO{ ;fdfGotM r'l/of jf r'/] kj{t elgG5  . afx\o lxdfno elgg] of] kj{t lzjflnssf] gfdn] ;d]t k|l;4 5  . of] gjLgtd kj{t xf]  . g]kfnsf] klZrddf cUnf] / k"j{df xf]rf] x'Fb} lanfPsf] r'/] dxfsfnLb]lv sf];L;Dd 5'§} >]0fL eP/ km}lnPsf] 5  . sf];Lk"j{ y'DsLsf] ¿kdf df]/ª / emfkfsf] pQ/df d}gfr'nL, r'nfr'nL 5g\  . r'/] kj{t >]0fLsf] w]/} efu hª\unn] 9fs]sf] 5  . bfª, b]pv'/L, /fKtL, lrtjg cflb pkTosf b"g cjf]Ggt (Synclinal) k|s[ltsf efu 5g\ . oxfF tftf]xfjfkfgL kfOG5 . of]If]qn]  [email protected]=& k|ltzt -!,*&(,))) x]S6/_ 9fs]sf] 5  . hnfwf/ If]qsf] prfO leGgtf &)) ld6/eGbf sd 5  . oxfFsf] df6f] jiff{sf] kfgL yfDg ;Sg] vfnsf] 5}g  . of] If]qdf x\jfQ af9L cfPh:tf] jiff{df vf]nfx¿ aU5g\  . jftfj/0fLo b[li6n] r'/] kj{t >]0fL cToGt ;+j]bgzLn dflgPsf] 5  . ;txL 9'ª\ufn] lzjflns If]qsf] kj{tLo e"efunfO{ lgoGq0f u/]sf] 5  . of] z[ª\vnf sdhf]/ Pjd\ cl:y/ 5  . sl/a (# k|ltzteGbf a9L e"efu Hofb} 7f8f] / cK7]/f] ePsfn] v]tLsf nflu pko'Qm 5}g  . lzjflns If]qdf v]tL x'g ;Sg]hldg sl/a @$ k|ltzt -%,@(,^)) x]S6/_ 5 . b"g pmi0f If]q eP klg oxfFsf] df6f] t/fO{eGbf leGg 5  . of] If]qdf kmnkm"n / t/sf/L sd} x'G5  . o; If]qdf cltqmd0fn] jgljgfz, e"Ifo / k|fs[lts jftfj/0f vnalng k'u]sf] 5  . lzjflns If]qsf] blIf0f Pp6f nfdf] k]6L k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd km}lnPsf] 5  . of] If]q afn'jf, sª\s8, 9'ª\uf / v's'nf v;|f kbfy{n] ag]sf] 5  . v's'nf] r§fgn] ag]sf] efa/df ;fnsf] jghª\un kfOG5  . ulx/f] 3fF6Ldf gbLn] y'kf/]sf df6fsf] efun] ag]sf d}bfgx¿ uª\uf d}bfgs} c+zsf ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\  . g]kfn kl/ro÷7

dxfef/t >]0fL k"j{–klZrd km}lnPsf] ;d'b| ;xtb]lv sl/a [email protected],))) lkm6;Dd prfOsf] of] kxf8L efu g]kfnsf] dxŒjk"0f{ efu xf]  . of] efu ;]n, :ofG8:6f]g, nfOd:6f]g, dfa{n, :n]6h:tf r§fgo'Qm 5  . 7'nf7'nf rf/ gbL s8f r§fg] kxf8 5]8]/ au]sf 5g\  . s0ff{nLn] lr;fkfgLdf, sfnLu08sLn] b]j3f6df, lqz"nLn] h'u/Ldf / sf];Ln] rt/fdf 5]8f] agfPsf] 5  . xf]rf] lxdfno (Lesser Himalaya) sf] gfdn] klg of] kj{t lrlgg] u5{  . oxfFsf] xfjfkfgL /d0fLo / :j:Yos/ x'g] x'Fbf dxfef/t kj{t >]0fLnfO{ g]kfnsf] Hill-Station klg elgG5  . ;}n'ª\u, 6\ofDs], h}ys, km"nrf]sL, lzjk'/L, l5Ds]Zj/L, bfdg, :ju{åf/L, ;flsg] 8fF8f, vf]Fr cflb oxfFsf k|d'v lzv/x'g\ . k"jL{ g]kfnsf t'ngfdf klZrdsf]efu a9L 7f8f]5 . dWoe"ld >]0fL dxfef/t kj{t >]0fL / lxdfno kj{t >]0fLx¿sf lardf /xs ] f 7'nf–7'nf 6f/, a]; + L / pkTosfx¿nfO{ dWoe"dL elgG5  . o;cGtu{t sf7df8fF,} kf]v/f, lqz'nL, kfFrvfn, df8L h:tf pkTosfx¿ kb{5g\  . g]kfnsf rd]lnof -;'b/" klZrd_, lqz"nL -dWo_, ;'gsf];L / c?0f tyf tdf]/ gbLåf/f lgld{t 7'nf pkTosf Pjd\ ;dy//pj{/If] q dWoe"ldcGtu{t k5{g  \ . oxfF t'lDnª6f/ -;ª\vj' f;ef_, ?Dhf6f/ -cf]vn9'ªu\ f_, a]N6f/ -pbok'/_ dª\un6f/ -sfe|k] nf~rf]s_, v'dn6f/ -nlntk'/_, a§f/ -g'jfsf]6_, ;Nofg6f/ -wflbª_, v}/g] L6f/ -tgx'_F , rf}/hxf/L6f/ -?s'd_ h/fof]6f/ -ef]hk'/_, v/fgL6f/ -g'jfsf]6_ h:tf 6f/ klg 5g\ . dWokj{tLo If]qn] g]kfnsf] @(=% k|ltzt -$,#%),#)) x]S6/_ hldg 9fs]sf] 5 . oxfFsf]hnjfo' jif}{le/s[lifsf nflu pko'Qm 5 . tfkqmd g a9L g 36L dWod k|sf/sf] 5  . hg;ª\of j[l4n] ubf{ e"lddfly a9L rfk k/]sf] 5  . oxfF *& k|ltzt v]tLof]Uo e"ld kj{tLo kfvfsf ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\ . dWokxf8L e"ldsf] u/fv]tL k|ljlw g} :yflkt k|ljlw xf]  . s[lif, jg / jfuafgLaf6 o;nfO{ ;3fp x'g]u/]sf] 5  . dWokxf8df lk|SoflDa|og (Precambraian), kmfOnfO6;\ (Phyllites), Sjf6{hfO6;\ (Quartzites), ce|v, lzi6 / u|g ] fO6 (Granite) h:tf ljljw r§fg kfOG5g\ . dWokxf8sf] blIf0f lsgf/fdf k|foM dxfef/t n]sh:tf p7]sf (Uplifted) kj{t 5g\  . of] efu Ct'Ifo ePsf u|g] fO6, r'g9'ªu\ f, 8f]nf]dfO6, ;]n, :ofG8:6f]g, :n6] / Sjf6{hfO6n] ag]sf] 5  . lzjflns h:tf] e"Ifosf] k|efj 5}g  . o; If]qsf s8f r§fg e"kfiff0f ePsf efu 7f8f]le/-#% l8u|L 9nf]eGbf  a9L_ / kftnf] df6fn] 9fs]sf] x'gfn] v]tLsf nflu pko'Qm 5}g  . kxf8L k|b]zdf ls/ft -/fO{, lnDa"_, tfdfª, du/, u'?ª, afx'g, If]qL, g]jf/ 8÷g]kfn

kl/ro

cflb ljleGg hfltsf dflg;x¿ a;f]af; u5{g\  . kxf8 cfkmF}df ljljwtfo'Qm ePsfn] oxfFsf] 3/ lgdf{0f, njfOvjfO, k];f cflbdf leGgtf kfOG5  . kmnkm"n v]tL /h8La'6Lsf nflu a9L pko'Qm jftfj/0f kfOG5 . kxf8sf blIf0f kfvfdf a:tL / v]tL w]/} e]l6G5g\  . o; e]sdf Onfd, wgs'6f, r}gk'/, ef]hk'/, cf]vn9'ª\uf, r/Lsf]6, ag]kf, sf7df8f}F, kf]v/f, h'Dnf, ;Nofg, l;nu9Lh:tf ;fgf7'nf a:tL 5g\  . kxf8L If]qsf] s'n a:tLdWo] !,))) ld6/;Ddsf] prfOdf !^=#& k|ltzt, !))!–@,))) ld6/;Dddf %(=) ( k|ltzt /o;eGbf dfly #,))) ld6/;Dddf !(=(( k|ltzt a:tLx¿ /x]sf] kfOG5  . ;jf{lws a:tLx¿ !))!–@))) ld6/;Dddf s]lGb|t 5g\  . cfly{s lqmofsnfkdf kxf8L If]q d"ntM kmnkm"n /vfBfGgsf nflu pko'Qm If]q xf]  . wfg, ds}, ux'F / u]8fu'8Ldf of] If]q ljljwtfo'Qm pTkfbgzLn If]q eP klg pj{/e"ldsf]sdLn]ubf{ vfBfGg cefj x'g]ub{5 . sf7df8f}F pkTosf sf7df8f}F, nlntk'/ / eQmk'/ u/L tLg lhNnfx¿ sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf 5g\  . tflnsf g+= !=# kxf8L k|b]zdf cjl:yt d'Vo pkTosfx¿ pkTosf prfO -dL=_ lhNnf sf7df8f}F !##& sf7df8f}F, nlntk'/ / eQmk'/ lqz"nL %&( g'jfsf]6 kf]v/f *!( sf:sL kfFrvfn *&! sfe|]knf~rf]s ag]kf !%%$ sfe|]knf~rf]s kf6g !%#$ a}t8L w'lga];L *%) wflbª bfª ^^# bfª ;'v]{t ^^$ ;'v]{t pbok'/ #^) pbok'/ -u_ t/fO{ k|b]z kxf8L efub]lv blIf0ftkm{ ef/tsf] ;Ldf;Dd k"jk{ lZrd km}lnPsf] g]kfnsf] ;dtn e"efu t/fO{ k|bz ] xf]  . o;nfO{ dw]; klg elgG5  . o; k|bz ] sf] rf}8fO @% g]kfn kl/ro÷9

lsnf]ld6/bl] v #) lsnf]ld6/;Dd 5  . t/fO{sf] l;/fg efa/ / r'/] xf]  . pQ/af6 blIf0flt/ xf]rf] x'bF } hfg' t/fO{sf] nIf0f xf]  . of] If]q pmi0f If]q xf]  . oxfFsf] hldg k|foM ;dyn 5  . ;g\ !(^) ;Dd of] If]qdf yf¿x¿sf] afx'No lyof]  . cf}nf] pGd'ngkl5 b"g pkTosf kxf8nufot cGo If]qsf hgtfsf]klg s]Gb|:yn eO{ of] If]q ax'hftLo If]q aGof]  . ;d'b; | txaf6 ^) b]lv ^)) ld6/sf] prfOdf /xs ] f] 5  . o;nfO{ g]kfnsf] cGge08f/ klg dflgG5  . o; If]qcGt{ut emfkf, df]/ª, ;'g;/L, ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, wg'iff, dxf]Q/L, ;nf{xL, /ft} x6, af/f, k;f{, gjnk/f;L -ab{3f6 ;':tf klZrd_, ¿kGb]xL, slknj:t,' afFs,] alb{of, s}nfnL / s~rgk'/ u/L !* lhNnfx¿ kb{5g\ . t/fO{ k|bznfO{ ] lgDg tLg >]0fLdf  ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5M vf; t/fO{ b]zsf] blIf0fL efudf blIf0ftkm{ xf]lrFb} uPsf] e"efunfO{ vf; t/fO{ elgG5  . ldxLg kfFuf] df6fn] ag]sf] of] If]q pj{/ /x]sf] 5  . lrtjgsf] blIf0fdf ;f]d]Zj/ kj{tdfnf / b]pv'/Lsf] blIf0fdf 8'G8'jf kj{tdfnfn] sf6]sfn] vf; t/fO{nfO{ tLg efu -k"jL{, dWo / klZrd_ df afF8\g] klg ul/Psf] 5  . emfkf, df]/ª, ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, wg'iff, dxf]Q/L, /f}tx6, af/f, k;f{sf] blIf0f, gjnk/f;Lsf] klZrd blIf0f, ¿kGb]xL / slknj:t'sf] blIf0f / afFs], alb{of, s}nfnL / s~rgk'/sf] blIf0fL If]qnfO{ g]kfnsf] vf; t/fO{ elgG5  . efj/ If]q vf; t/fO{sf] pQ/ / r'/] kj{tdfnfsf] blIf0fdf ;d'b|;txb]lv #*) ld6/sf] prfO;Dd km}lnPsf] ;fFu'/f] k]6LnfO{ efj/ If]q elgG5  . * b]lv !) dfOn;Dd rf}8fO ePsf] efj/ k|b]zn] d'n'ssf] s'n If]qkmnsf] $=% k|ltzt e"efu cf]u6]sf] 5  . leqL dw]; r'/] / dxfef/t kj{t >]0fLsf] lardf ;d'b| ;txb]lv ^!) ld6/sf] prfO;Dd rf/}lt/ kxf8 kj{tn] 3]l/O{ km}lnPsf ljzfn kmfF6nfO{ leqL dw]; jf b"g If]q elgG5 . #@ b]lv  ^$ ls=ld=;Dd nDafO /!^ ls=ld= ;Dd rf}8fO  ePsf] of] If]qn] d'n'ssf] s'n If]qkmnsf] *=% k|ltzt e"efu ;d]6]sf] 5  . leqL dw];nfO{ rf/ If]qdf afFl8Psf] 5  . o;df pbok'/ / l;Gw'nL pkTosfnfO{ k"jL{ leqLdw];Ù dsjfgk'/, lrtjg / gjnk/f;L -ab{3f6 ;':tf k"j{_nfO{ dWo leqL dw];Ù bfª b]pv'/LnfO{ klZrdL leqL dw]; / ;'v]{t pkTosfnfO{ dWoklZrd leqLdw]; elgG5 . [email protected][email protected] gbLsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] ljefhg -s_ sf];L If]q -k|b]z_ k"jd{ f s~rghª\3f lxdfnb]lv klZrddf nfª6fª lxdfn -uf];fO:yfg_ larsf] 10÷g]kfn

kl/ro

If]qnfO{ sf];L k|bz ] elgG5  . tdf]/, c?0f, lnv", b"wsf];L, tfdfsf];L, ;'gsf];L / OGb|fjtL ldn]/ ;Ktsf];L gbL ag]sf] 5  . of] g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] gbL xf]  . of] gbL [email protected]) ls=ld= nfdf] 5 eg] hnk|jfx Ifdtf cf};t !,%^$ So"ljs ld6/ k|lt ;]s0] 8 /xs ] f] 5  . o; gbLaf6 @@,))) d]ufjf6;Dd ljB't\ lgsfNg ;lsg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5  . sf];L k|bz ] sf] k|efj If]q emG8} ^) xhf/ ju{ ls=ld= /xs ] f] 5  . ;Ktsf];L gbLsf] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] ;xfos gbL c?0f xf] eg] ;a}eGbf ;fgf] gbL lnv' xf]  . -v_ u08sL If]q -k|b]z_ k"j{df nfª6fª lxdfnb] lv klZrddf wjnflu/ L lxdfn;Ddsf]u08sL gbL k|efljt If]qnfO{ u08sL k|b]z elgG5 . u08sL gbLsf ;ft k|d'v ;xfos gbLx¿ lqz"nL, a'9Lu08sL, b/f}bL, dfbL, d:of{ª\bL, ;]tL / sfnLu08sL x'g\  . uf08j Clifsf] gfdaf6 gfds/0f ul/Psf] dflgPsf] o; gbLnfO{ lrtjg lhNnfdf cfPkl5 -b]j3f6eGbf tn_ gf/fo0fL gbLsf] gfdn] lrlgG5  . of] gbL dWog]kfndf aUb5, h;sf] k|jfx If]q sl/a #*,))) ju{ ls=ld /x]sf] 5  . sl/a ##* ls=ld= nfdf] o; gbLsf] ljB't\ Ifdtf sl/a @!,))) d]=jf= /x]sf] dflgPsf] 5  . o;sf ;xfos gbLx¿dWo] sfnLu08sL ;a}eGbf 7'nf] / b/f}FbL ;a}eGbf ;fgf] xf]  . g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf ulx/f] of] gbLn] k|lt;]s]08 cf};t !&!# So'=ld= kfgL k|jfx ub{5 . -u_ s0ff{nL If]q -k|b]z_ k"j{df wjnflu/L lxdfnb]lv  klZrddf Jof; lxdfnlar s0ff{nL gbL k|efljt If]qnfO{ s0ff{nL k|bz ] elgG5 . s0ff{nL gbLsf ;ft k|d'v ;xfos gbLx¿ x'Dnf s0f{fnL, d'u' s0ff{nL, 7"nL e]/L, ;fgL e]/L, ltnf, a'9Luª\uf / ;]tL gbL x'g\  . o;nfO{ g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf nfdf] gbL klg elgG5  . of] gbL ef/tdf k'u]kl5 3f3F/f / ;/o" gfdn] ;d]t lrlgG5  . of] gbL sl/a [email protected],))) j=ls=ld= If]qkmn ;d]6]/ aUb5  . sl/a %)& ls=ld= nfdf] o; gbLsf] ljB't\ pTkfbg Ifdtf #@,))) d]=jf=/x]sf] dflgPsf] 5  . of] gbLsf] cf}ift hnk|jfx Ifdtf k|lt;]s]G8 !#!^ So'=ld= /x]sf] 5  . [email protected]=# xfjfkfgLsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] ljefhg g]kfnsf] xfjfkfgLnfO{ ef}uf]lns agfj6 / prfOsf] cfwf/df kfFr k|sf/sf xfjfkfgLdf ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . -s_ pmi0f dg;'gL xfjfkfgL (Sub Tropical Monsoon Climate) cw{pmi0f / pkf]i0f xfjfkfgL elgg] o:tf] xfjfkfgL g]kfnsf] t/fO{, efj/, b'g / r'/] If]qsf] !,@)) ld6/ -$,))) lkm6_ ;Ddsf] prfOdf kfOG5  . u|Lidofddf oxfFsf] tfkdfg #* b]lv [email protected] l8u|L ;]lG6u|8] ;Dd k'Ub5 eg] zLtsfndf !% b]lv g]kfn kl/ro÷11

% l8u|L;Dd cf]ln{G5  . jiff{ Ct'df lxGb dxf;fu/sf] aª\ufnsf] vf8Laf6 cfpg] dg;'gL xfjfn] jiff{ u/fpg] ub{5  . jiff{ ;fdfGotf k"ja{ f6 klZrd 36\b} hfg] / pQ/af6 blIf0f a9\b} hfg] ePaf6 k"jL{ t/fO{eGbf klZrdL t/fO{ k|bz ] df clws udL{ x'G5  . ljif]zt e}/xjf, g]kfnu~h tyf s}nfnLnufotsf t/fO{ If]qdf clws udL{ x'G5  . o;}u/L bfª, ;'vt{] h:tf leqL dw];df klg udL{ w]/} g} x'G5  . -v_ Gofgf] ;dzLtf]i0f xfjfkfgL (Warm Temperate Climate) r'/] kxf8 / dxfef/t kj{tsf] !,@)) b]lv @,!)) ld6/ -$,)))–&,))) lkm6_ ;Ddsf] prfOdf kfOg] o; k|sf/sf] xfjfkfgLdf u|Lid ofddf Gofgf] x'G5 eg]lzlz/df a9L 7G8f x'G5 . u|Lid Ct'df tfkqmd @$ b]lv  #!) l8u|L ;]lG6u|]8;Dd k'U5 eg] lxpbFdf ) l8u|L ;]= ;Dd cf]ln{G5  . g]kfndf kfgL kfg]{ dg;'gL xfjf blIf0fL efuaf6 aUg] x'Fbf blIf0fsf] le/fnf] 7fpFdf @%) ;]lG6ld6/;Dd jiff{ x'G5 eg] pQ/tkm{sf] le/fnf] kfvfdf !)) ;]lG6ld6/;Dd jiff{ x'G5  . -u_ 7G8f ;dzLtf]i0f xfjfkfgL (Cool Temperate Climate) dxfef/t kj{t z[ª\vnfsf] @,!)) b]lv #,#%) ld6/ -&,)))–!!,))) lkm6_ ;Ddsf] prfOdf kfOg] o:tf] xfjfkfgLdf u|Lid Ct'df Gofgf] x'G5 eg] lxpFbdf lgs} hf8f] x'G5  . oxfFsf] tfkqmd u|Liddf !%) b]lv @)) ;]lG6u|]8;Dd k'Ub5 eg] lxpFbdf )) ;]lG6u|]8;Dd cf]ln{G5  . oxfF jif{df !) ;]lG6ld6/;Dd kfgL kb{5 eg]lxpFbdf lxpF jlif{G5 . Go"g tfkqmd /Go"g jiff{sf]sf/0fn]oxfF v]tLkftL cToGt} sd x'G5  . oxfFsf] hghLjg si6s/ eP klg :jf:Yosf] b[li6n] o:tf] xfjfkfgL pko'Qm dflgG5  . -3_ n]sfnL xfjfkfgL (Alpine Climate) g]kfndf ;d'b|;txb]lv #,#%) b]lv %,))) ld6/ -!!,)))–!^,))) lkm6_ prfO;Ddsf] lxdfnL If]qsf] 7G8f xfjfkfgLnfO{ n]sfnL xfjfkfgL elgG5  . oxfFsf] tfkqmd r}t, j}zfv, h]7df !)) ;]lG6u|]8;Dd k'Ub5 eg] c¿ ;dodf -( dlxgfhlt_ ) l8u|L ;]lG6u|  ]8eGbf tn g}/xG5 . oxfF jiff{df #) ldlnld6/;Dd jiff{ x'G5 . oxfF v]tLkftL x'Fb}g, t/oxfFsf 7'nf lxdfnL kmfF6x¿df kz'r/g u/fOg] x'Fbf of] 7fpF kz'kfng / ko{6sLo ultljlw ;~rfngsf nflu pko'Qm 5 . -ª_ w|'jLo jf lxdfnL xfjfkfgL (Tundra Climate) lxdfnL If]qsf] cToGt} lr;f] / z'is xfjfkfgLnfO{ lxdfnL, w|'jLo jf 6'G8«f xfjfkfgL elgG5  . oxfF ;Fw}h;f] lxdkft eO/xG5 eg] jiff{sf ¿kdf lxpF g} kb{5 . %,))) xhf/dL=-!^))) lkm6_ eGbf dflysf]e"efusf]tfkqmd z"Go 12÷g]kfn

kl/ro

l8u|L ;]lG6u|]8eGbf sd x'g] xF'bf oxfF dWofGxkl5 lxpFsf] eLif0f x'/L rNb5  . oxfFsf]xfjfkfgLnfO{ lxdfnL d¿e"ld hnjfo' klg eGg]ul/G5 . !=# g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts ljefhg -;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo tx_ !=#=! ;ª\3 ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf] d"n ;+/rgf ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo tx u/L tLg txsf] x'g] Joj:yf 5  . ;ª\3Lo ;+/rgfsf] ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] PsfOsf] ¿kdf /xg] ;ª\3Lo txnfO{ ;ª\3sf ¿kdf kl/eflift ul/Psf] 5  . ;ª\3Lo ;/sf/nfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf gfdn] klg lrlgG5  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] cg';"rL % df ;ª\3sf] clwsf/sf] ;"rLsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5  . To:tf] clwsf/sf] k|of]u ;+ljwfg / ;ª\3Lo sfg'gadf]lhd x'g] 5  . To;}u/L cg';"rL & df ePsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;'rL / cg';"rL ( adf]lhdsf] ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] ;femf clwsf/ ;'rLsf] k|of]u klg ;ª\3 dfkm{t x'g] ub{5  . ;fy} cljlzi6 clwsf/sf] k|of]u ;ª\3Lo ;/sf/n] ug]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5  . !=#[email protected] k|b]z ;+ljwfg adf]lhd ;ª\3Lo PsfOdf ljefhg ul/Psf] g]kfnsf] ;ª\3Lo PsfOsf] If]q / :j¿knfO{ k|b]zsf ¿kdf kl/eflift ul/Psf] 5  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgsf] cg';"lr $ adf]lhd & k|b]z / ;DalGwt k|b]zdf /xg] lhNnfx¿sf] af/]df :ki6 u/]sf] 5  . h;cg';f/ ;ft k|b]znfO{ lgDgadf]lhd ;ª\lIfKt rrf{ ul/Psf] 5  . k|b]z g+ ! o; k|b]zsf] k"j{tkm{ ef/tsf] klZrd a+ufn / l;lSsd /fHo, blIf0ftkm{ laxf/ /fHo, pQ/tkm{ rLgsf] :jzfl;t If]q ltAat tyf klZrdtkm{ k|b]z g+ @ / afudtL k|b]z kb{5g\ . k|b]z g+ ! df tfKn]h'ª, kfFry/, Onfd, ;ª\v'jf;ef, t]/y'd, wgs'6f, ef]hk'/, vf]6fª, ;f]n'v'Da', cf]vn9'ª\uf, pbok'/, emfkf, df]/ª / ;'g;/L u/L !$ lhNnf /x]sf 5g\  . k|b]z g+= ! sf] s'n If]qkmn @%,()% j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] !&=^)%_ /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zsf] 7'nf] lhNnf tfKn]h'ª -#,^$^ j=ls=ld=_ / ;fgf] lhNnf t]x|y'd -^&( j=ls=ld=_ /x]sf 5g\  . xfn o; k|b]zsf] /fhwfgL lj/f6gu/ -df]/ª_ /x]sf] 5  . s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefusf cg';f/ o; k|b]zdf (,(@,$$% kl/jf/ ;ª\Vof 5 eg] s'n hg;ª\Vof $%,#$,($# -k'?if @!,^^,%#^ / dlxnf @#,^*,$)& /x]sf] 5 . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf]o; k|bzdf ] d'Vo ¿kdf a|fx\d0f, If]qL,  /fO{, lnDa', yf?, n]Krf, tfdfª, u'?ª, d]r], sf]r], ofbj, /fhj+zLnufotsf hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnL, d}lynL, ls/ftL, tfdfª, lnDa', u'?ª, n]Krf, du/ / yf? efiff d'Vo ¿kdf af]lnG5g\  . g]kfn kl/ro÷13

k|b]z g+= @ o; k|b]zsf] k"j{tkm{ k|b]z !, blIf0ftkm{ ef/t, pQ/tkm{ k|b]z ! / afudtL k|b]z / klZrdtkm{ afudtL k|b]z /x]sf 5g\  . k|b]z g+ @ df ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, wg'iff, dxf]Q/L, ;nf{xL, /f}tx6, af/f / k;f{ u/L cf7 lhNnfx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] s'n If]qkmn (,^^! j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] ^=%&%_ /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zsf] 7'nf] lhNnf ;Kt/L -!,#^# j=ls=ld=_ / ;fgf] lhNnf dxf]Q/L -!,))@ j=ls=ld=_ x'g\  . o; k|b]zsf] /fhwfgL hgsk'/ -wg'iff_ /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zdf s'n hg;ª\Vof %$,)$,!$% 5, h;df k'?ifsf];ª\Vof @&,!&,(#* / dlxnfsf] ;ª\Vof @^,*^,@)& -;|f]tM s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefu_ /x]sf] 5  . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf]o; k|b]zdf d'Vo¿kdf ofbj, u'Ktf, bf;, yf?, /fhj+zL, d';ndfg nufotsf hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5, eg] d}lynL, alHhsf, cjwL, pb'{, lxGbL,yf? /g]kfnL cflb efiff af]lnG5g\   . afudtL k|b]z o; k|b]zsf] k"j{tkm{ k|b]z !, klZrdtkm{ u08sL k|b]z, pQ/df rLg / blIf0ftkm{ k|b]z @ / ef/t /x]sf 5g\  . afudtL k|b]zdf bf]nvf, /fd]5fk, l;Gw'nL, sfe|]knf~rf]s, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, /;'jf, g'jfsf]6, wflbª, lrtjg, dsjfgk'/, eQmk'/, nlntk'/, sf7df8f}F u/L !# lhNnfx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] s'n If]qkmn @),#)) j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] !#=&(%_ . o; k|b]zsf] 7'nf] lhNnf l;Gw'kfNrf]s [email protected],%[email protected] j=ls=ld=_ / ;fgf] lhNnf eQmk'/ -!!( j=ls=ld=_ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] /fhwfgL x]6f}+8f -dsjfgk'/_ /x]sf] 5  . s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefusf cg';f/ o; k|b]zdf [email protected],&),&(& kl/jf/ ;ª\Vof 5 eg]s'n hg;ª\Vof %%,@(,$%@ -k'?if @&,$&,^## hgf /dlxnf @&,*!,*!( hgf_ /x]sf] 5  . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf] o; k|b]zdf d'Vo ¿kdf tfdfª, a|fx\d0f, If]qL, g]jf/ nufotsf hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnL, g]jf/L, tfdfª efiff d'Vo ¿kdf af]lnG5g\  . u08sL k|b]z u08sL k|bz ] sf] k"jt{ km{ afudtL k|bz ] , klZrdtkm{ s0ff{nL k|bz ] / n'lDagL k|bz ] , pQ/df rLg / blIf0ftkm{ n'lDagL k|bz ] / ef/tsf] laxf/ /fHo;Fu l;dfgf hf]l8Psf] 5  . u08sL k|b]zdf uf]/vf, ndh'ª, tgx'F, sf:sL, dgfª, d':tfª, kj{t, :ofª\hf, DofUbL, afUn'ª / gjnk/f;L -ab{3f6 ;':tf k"j{_ u/L !! lhNnfx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] s'n If]qkmn @!,&## j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] !$=^!%_ /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zsf] 7'nf] lhNnf uf]vf{ -#,^!) j=ls=ld=_ / ;fgf] lhNnf kj{t -$($ j=ls=ld=_ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] /fhwfgL kf]v/f -sf:sL_ /x]sf] 5  . 14÷g]kfn

kl/ro

s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefusf cg';f/ o; k|b]zdf %,&*,@!( kl/jf/ ;ª\Vof 5 eg]s'n hg;ª\Vof @$,)#,&%& -k'?if !),(),*)* /dlxnf !#,[email protected],($( hgf_ /x]sf] 5  . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf] o; k|b]zdf d'Vo¿kdf a|fx\d0f, If]qL, u'?ª, du/ nufotsf hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnL, u'?ª, du/efiff d'Vo ¿kdf af]lnG5g\ . n'lDagL k|b]z o; k|b]zsf] k"j{tkm{ u08sL k|b]z, klZrdtkm{ s0ff{nL k|b]z / ;'b"/klZrd k|b]z pQ/tkm{ u08sL k|b]z / s0ff{nL k|b]z / blIf0ftkm{ ef/t kb{5  . n'lDagL k|b]zdf gjnk/f;L -ab{3f6 ;':tf klZrd_, ¿kGb]xL, slknj:t', kfNkf, c3f{vfFrL, u'NdL, ?s'd -k"jL{ efu_, /f]Nkf, Ko'7fg, bfª, afFs]/alb{of u/L [email protected] lhNnfx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] s'n If]qkmn @@,@** j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] !%=!$%_ /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zsf] 7'nf] lhNnf bfª [email protected],(%% j=ls=ld=_ /;fgf]lhNnf gjnk/f;L ab{3f6 ;':tf  klZrd -^#$=** j=ls=ld=_ /x]sf 5g\ . o; k|bzsf] ] /fhwfgL efn'jfª -bfª_ /x]sf] 5 s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefusf cg';f/ o; k|b]zdf *,*%,@)# kl/jf/ ;ª\Vof 5 eg]s'n hg;ª\Vof $$,((,@[email protected] -k'?if @!,$),#!^ /dlxnf @#,%*,(%^ hgf_ /x]sf] 5  . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf] o; k|b]zdf d'Vo¿kdf a|fx\d0f, If]qL, du/, yf?, tfdfª, g]kfn, d';ndfgnufotsf hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; 5 eg] g]kfnL, yf?, cjlw, ef]hk'/L, pb'{, du/ efiff d'Vo ¿kdf af]lnG5g\  . s0ff{nL k|b]z s0ff{nL k|bz ] sf] k"jt{ km{ u08sL k|bz ] / n'lDagL kb{5  . klZrdtkm{ ;'b/" klZrd k|bz ] / rLg, pQ/tkm{ rLg / blIf0ftkm{ n'lDagL, ;'b/" klZrd k|bz ] /xs ] f] 5  . s0ff{nL k|b]zdf ?s'd -klZrd_, ;Nofg, 8f]Nkf,  h'Dnf, d'u', x'Dnf, sflnsf]6,  hfh/sf]6, b}n]v / ;'v]{t u/L !) lhNnfx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|bz ] sf] s'n If]qkmn @&,(*$ j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] !(=)!%_ /xs ] f] 5  . o; k|bz ] sf] 7'nf] lhNnf 8f]Nkf -&,**( j=ls=ld=_ / ;fgf] lhNnf ?s'd klZrd -!,@!#=$( j=ls=ld=_ /xs ] f 5g\  . o; k|bz ] sf] /fhwfgL jL/G] b|gu/sf] ;'vt{] df /xs ] f] 5  . s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefusf cg';f/ o; k|b]zdf @,(*,#%( kl/jf/ ;ª\Vof 5 eg]s'n hg;ª\Vof !%,&),$!* -k'?if &,^&,(@# /dlxnf *,)@,$(% hgf_ /x]sf] 5  . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf] o; k|b]zdf d'Vo ¿kdf a|fx\d0f, 7s'/L, If]qL, z]kf{, u'?ª, du/nufotsf hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnL, u'?ª, du/efiff d'Vo ¿kdf af]lnG5g\   . ;'b"/klZrd k|b]z ;'b"/klZrd k|b]zsf] k"j{tkm{ s0ff{nL k|b]z / n'lDagL k|b]z, klZrdtkm{ ef/t, g]kfn kl/ro÷15

pQ/tkm{ s0ff{nL k|b]z /rLg tyf blIf0ftkm{ ef/t kb{5 . ;'b"/klZrd k|b]zdf afh'/f, aemfª, 8f]6L, c5fd, bfr'{nf, a}t8L, 88]nw'/f, s~rgk'/ / s}nfnL u/L ( lhNnfx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] s'n If]qkmn !(,%#( j=ls=ld= -g]kfnsf] s'n If]qkmnsf] !#[email protected]*%_ /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zsf] 7'nf]lhNnf aemfª -#,[email protected]@ j=ls=ld=_ /;fgf]lhNnf a}t8L -!,%!( j=ls=ld=_ /x]sf 5g\  . o; k|b]zsf] /fhwfgL uf]bfj/L -s}nfnL_ /x]sf] 5  . s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefusf cg';f/ o; k|b]zdf $,^(,(&! kl/jf/ ;ª\Vof 5 eg]s'n hg;ª\Vof @%,%@,%!& -k'?if [email protected],%@,%!& /dlxnf !#,#$,^#) hgf_ /x]sf] 5  . hftLo tyf eflifs ljljwtf /x]sf] o; k|b]zdf d'Vo ¿kdf a|fx\d0f, If]qL, 7s'/L, yf? hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 eg] 8f]6]nL, v;, yf? efiff d'Vo ¿kdf af]lnG5g\ . !=#=# g]kfnsf :yfgLo tx g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfnnfO{ &%# :yfgLo txdf ljefhg u/]sf] 5  . h;cg';f/ dxfgu/kflnsf ^, pkdxfgu/kflnsf !!, gu/kflnsf @&^ / ufpFkflnsf $^) /x]sf 5g\  . tflnsf g+= !=$ dxfgu/kflnsf qm= lhNnf dxfgu/kflnsfsf] hg;ª\Vof If]qkmn j8f ;+= gfd -ju{ ls=ld=_ ;ª\Vof ! sf7df8f}F sf7df8f}F (,&%,$%# $(=$% #@ @ nlntk'/ nlntk'/ @,*$,(@@ #^[email protected] @( # sf:sL kf]v/f $,!$,!$! $^[email protected]$ ## $ lrtjg e/tk'/ @,*),%)@ $#@=(% @( % df]/ª lj/f6gu/ @,!$,^^# && !( ^ k;f{ jL/u~h @,$),(@@ !#@=)& #@ tflnsf g+= !=% pkdxfgu/kflnsf qm= pkdxfgu/kflnsfsf] hg;ª\Vof If]qkmn j8f lhNnf ;+= gfd -ju{ ls=ld=_ ;ª\Vof 1,40,517 93=78 20 ! O6x/L ;'g;/L 1,37,705 192=32 20 @ w/fg 16÷g]kfn

kl/ro

wg'iff dsjfgk'/ af/f ¿kGb]xL bfª afFs] s}nfnL

lhNnf tfKn]h'ª kfFry/ Onfd

emfkf

df]/ª

1,53,614 85=99 24 hgsk'/ 1,52,875 261=59 19 x]6f}+8f 1,23,659 108=94 27 sn}of 1,14,185 309=67 23 lhtk'/–l;d/f 1,38,742 101=61 19 a'6jn 1,41,528 384=63 19 t'n;Lk'/ 1,56,164 522=21 19 3f]/fxL 1,38,951 85=94 23 g]kfnuGh 1,47,741 261=75 19 wgu9L tflnsf g+= !=^ gu/kflnsf flnsfsf] hg;ª\Vof If]qkmn j8f qm=;+= gu/kgfd -ju{ ls=ld=_ ;ª\Vof 1 km'ª\ulng @^$)^ [email protected]%=%& !! 2 lkmlbd $(@)! !(@=% !$ 3 48536 173=32 12 Onfd 4 32927 191=63 9 b]pdfO{ 5 32576 246=11 10 dfO{ 6 56691 252=52 14 ;"of]{bo 7 111797 192=85 15 d]rLgu/ 8 75102 70=86 10 bds 9 40141 80=98 9 sGsfO{ 10 65543 96=35 10 eb|k'/ 11 60204 109=86 11 ch'{gwf/f 12 64596 145=87 11 lzj;tfIfL 13 53033 149=86 9 uf}/fbx 14 81878 78=24 10 ljtf{df]8 15 65892 132=79 11 a]naf/L 16 32053 119=23 9 n]6fª 17 62440 79=81 10 ky/L zlgZr/] 18 52013 111=78 9 /ª\u]nL

# $ % ^ & * ( !) !!

g]kfn kl/ro÷17

19 20 21 22 23

;'g;/L

24 25 26 27

wgs'6f

28 29

t]x|y'd

30 31 32 33

;ª\v'jf;ef

34 35 36

ef]hk'/ ;f]n'v'Da' cf]vn9'ª\uf

37 38 39 40 41

vf]6fª

42 43

pbok'/

44 45 46

18÷g]kfn

kl/ro

/t'jfdfO{ ;'gjifL{ pnf{af/L ;'Gb/x/}Frf Og?jf b'xjL /fdw'gL a/fx kflv|af; wgs'6f dxfnIdL Dofª\n'ª nfnLu'/fF; r}gk'/ wd{b]jL vfFbaf/L dfbL kfFrvkg ef]hk'/ if8fgGb ;f]n'b"ws'08 l;l4r/0f xn];Lt'jfr'ª lbQm]n ¿kfsf]6 dem'jfu9L s6f/L rf}b08Lu9L lqo'uf j]nsf

55380

142=15

10

50758

106=4

9

54696

74=62

9

80518

110=16

12

63593

77=92

10

56269

76=67

12

51752

91=69

9

77408

222=09

11

22078

144=29

10

36619

111

10

24800

129=39

9

19659

100=21

10

16970

90=27

9

27308

223=69

11

18235

132=82

9

31177

122=78

11

14470

110=1

9

17521

148=03

9

27207

159=51

12

31610

241=15

14

20399

538=09

10

28374

167=88

12

29532

280=17

11

46903

246=51

15

56146

424=89

14

48574

283=78

10

87557

547=43

16

42386

344=73

9

47

;Kt/L

48 49 50 51 52 53 54

%% 56 57 58

l;/fxf

59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66

wg'iff

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

/fhlj/fh s~rg¿k 8fSg]Zj/L af]b]a/;fOg v8s zDe'gfy ;'?ª\uf xg'dfggu/ sª\sflngL ;Ktsf];L nxfg wgu9LdfO{ l;/xf uf]nahf/ ldr}{of sNof0fk'/ sh{Gxf ;'lvk'/ lIf/]Zj/gfy u0f]zdfg rf/gfy wg'iff wfd gu/fOg ljb]x ldlynf ;lxbgu/ ;a}nf sdnf ldlynf ljxf/L x+;k'/

67262

52

15

35898

143=33

12

49788

77=83

11

65048

91=97

16

45367

96=77

11

33012

99=99

11

44221

107=04

11

45734

118=19

14

21131

60=25

11

91766

167=17

24

47449

159=51

14

82531

94=2

22

52137

111=94

13

50079

91=97

12

49288

76=81

12

30965

76=84

11

37592

54=78

10

47453

60=39

11

37300

244=31

11

45665

91=64

9

47628

49=19

10

38877

52=67

10

41030

181=90

10

43770

57=37

9

45879

64=47

13

65=85

9

33521

37=6

10

39145

48=71

9

g]kfn kl/ro÷19

75 76 77

dxf]Q/L

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

;nf{xL

91 92 93 94 95

l;Gw'nL /fd]5fk bf]nvf

96 97 98 99 100 101 102

l;Gw'kfNrf]s

103 104

20÷g]kfn

kl/ro

hn]Zj/ alb{af; uf}zfnf nf]x/k§L /fduf]kfnk'/ dg/f lz;jf dl6xfgL eFufxf anjf cf}/xL O{Zj/k'/ dnª\ujf nfnaGbL xl/k'/ xl/k"jf{ xl/jg j/xyjf an/f uf]8}6f afUdtL sljnfzL sdnfdfO{ b'wf}nL dGynL /fd]5fk lh/L eLd]Zj/ rf}t/f ;fFufrf]su9L afx|aL;] d]nDrL

58549

44=26

12

63912

315=57

13

66673

144=73

12

39579

50=06

9

29612

39=54

9

49692

49=73

10

31026

29=02

9

46754

77=21

9

42341

44=07

11

31751

35=76

9

59986

163=83

15

46516

30=44

12

59395

238=5

17

44342

73=45

10

51355

46=95

11

43924

86=12

11

69822

107=05

18

49452

52=1

12

43429

45=07

11

40399

101=18

10

42336

48=11

10

65064

482=57

14

65302

390=39

14

45416

211=78

14

28612

202=45

9

15515

211=27

9

32480

132=5

9

46501

165=25

14

26700

96=73

9

45343

158=17

13

105 106

sfe|]knf~rf]s

107 108 109 110

nlntk'/

111 112 113

eQmk'/

114 115 116 117 118 119 120

sf7df8f}F

121 122 123 124 125 126

g'jfsf]6 wflbª dsjfgk'/

127 128 129 130 131 132 133

/f}tx6

134 135 136

w'lnv]n ag]kf kgf}tL kfFrvfn gdf]a'4 dG8gb]pk'/ uf]bfj/L dxfnIdL rfFu'gf/fo0f eQmk'/ dWok'/ lydL ;"o{ljgfos sfu]Zj/L dgf]x/f sLlt{k'/ uf]s0f]{Zj/ rGb|flul/ 6f]vf tf/s]Zj/ blIf0fsfnL gfufh'{g a'9flgns07 zª\s/fk'/ ljb'/ a]nsf]6u9L w'lga]F;L gLns07 yfxf rGb|k'/ u?8f uf}/ af}lwdfO{ j[Gbfjg

32162

55

12

55628

55

14

46595

118

12

37997

103

13

29519

102

11

32659

89

12

78301

96=11

14

62172

26=51

10

55430

62=98

9

81728

6=89

10

83036

11=47

9

78490

42=45

10

60237

27=38

12

65602

14=76

10

107351

58=5

9

85198

43=92

15

99032

17=11

11

81443

54=95

11

24296

42=86

9

67420

29=85

10

107918

34=8

13

25338

60=21

9

54351

130=01

13

39888

155=6

13

31029

96=3

9

58515

197=7

14

41623

191=12

12

72058

249=96

10

50481

44=46

9

68476

51=3

13

36265

35=343

9

42735

95=4

9

g]kfn kl/ro÷21

137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

af/f

151 152 153 154

k;f{

155 156 157

lrtjg

158 159 160

uf]/vf

161 162 163

ndh'ª

164 165 166

22÷g]kfn

kl/ro

b]jfxL uf]gfxL u9LdfO{ u'h/f s6xl/of dfwjgf/fo0f df}nfk'/ kmt'jfljhok'/ Ozgfy k/f]xf /fhk'/ /fhb]jL sf]NxjL lghu9 dxfu9LdfO{ l;d|f}gu9 kr/f}tf kf]vl/of jx'b/dfO{ k;f{u9L sflnsf v}/xgL df8L /Tggu/ /fKtL uf]/vf kfn'ª\6f/ a];L;x/ dWog]kfn /fOgfz ;'Gb/ahf/

32143

33=99

9

40410

49=44

9

46592

150=33

9

38413

40=69

9

35175

48=53

9

26431

34=75

9

36533

65=24

11

41435

35=17

9

37453

37=45

9

31292

28=21

9

43036

157=4

11

35335

289=43

13

54474

55=32

11

49939

42=65

11

34175

44=01

11

55338

56=81

11

39673

31=55

9

68067

99=96

9

41442

149=08

11

56094

85=55

13

37683

218=24

9

69848

68=68

16

57107

212=31

13

49272

131=86

14

38174

158=62

10

39356

127=64

11

23385

113=86

10

18527

71=97

10

26861

72=05

11

167

tgx'F

168 169 170 171 172

:ofª\hf

173 174 175

DofUbL kj{t

176 178 178 179

afun'ª

180 181 182

u'NdL kfNkf gjnk/f;L k"j{

183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190

gjnk/f;L klZrd

191 192 193 194 195

¿kGb]xL

196 197 198

efg' ledfb Jof; z'Snfu08sL uNofª rfkfsf]6 k'tnLahf/ le/sf]6 jflnª a]gL s':df kmn]jf; afun'ª unsf]6 h}ldgL 9f]/kf6g d'l;sf]6 /];'Ëf /fdk'/ tfg;]g sfjf;f]tL u}F8fsf]6 b]jr'nL dWoljGb' ab{3f6 /fdu|fd ;'gjn b]jbx n'lDagL ;f+:sl[ ts ;}gfd}gf l;4fy{gu/ ltnf]Qdf

45792

184

13

31362

129

9

70335

248

14

48456

165

12

36967

122=71

11

26042

120=59

10

44876

147=21

14

25583

78=23

9

51143

128=40

14

33498

76=57

10

39600

93=18

14

24687

85=7

11

57823

98=01

14

33097

194=39

11

31430

118=71

10

26215

222=85

9

32802

114=74

9

32548

83=74

14

35396

123=34

10

50405

109=8

14

62421

108=34

17

58836

159=93

18

42603

112=72

17

54140

233=35

15

55382

162=05

16

59455

128=32

18

55424

139=1

13

53523

136=95

12

72497

112=21

13

55822

162=18

11

63483

36=03

13

100149

126=19

17

g]kfn kl/ro÷23

199 200

slknj:t'

201 202 203 204 205

c3f{vfFrL

206 207 208

Ko'7fg

209

/f]Nkf

210

?s'd klZrd

212

211 213 214

;Nofg

215 216 217

bfª afFs]

218 219 220 221

alb{of

222 223 224 225 226 227

;'v]{t

228 229 24÷g]kfn

kl/ro

slknj:t' a'4e"ld lzj/fh dx/fhu~h s[i0fgu/ jf0fuª\uf ;lGwvs{ zLtuª\uf e"ldsf:yfg Ko'7fg :ju{åf/L /f]Nkf d'l;sf]6 rf}/hxf/L cf7la;sf]6 zf/bf afurf}/ aguf8 s'lk08] ndxL sf]xnk'/ u'nl/of dw'jg /fhfk'/ 7fs'/afaf afF;u9L af/alb{of jL/]Gb|gu/ e]/Luª\uf u'ef{sf]6 k~rk'/L n]sa];L

76394

136=91

12

64949

366=67

10

66781

284=07

11

54800

112=21

11

62370

96=66

12

75242

233=68

11

41079

129=42

12

43373

610=43

14

32640

159=13

10

38449

128=96

10

30940

224=70

9

32759

270=42

10

32939

136=06

14

27438

107=38

14

33601

560=34

14

33730

198=34

15

34118

163=14

12

36053

338=21

12

47655

326=66

9

70647

184=26

15

66679

118=21

12

46437

129=73

9

59553

127=08

10

44361

104=57

9

55875

206=08

9

68012

226=09

11

100458

245=06

16

41407

256=2

13

43765

228=62

14

32231

329=9

11

30295

180=92

10

230

b}n]v

231 232 233 234

hfh/sf]6

235 236

8f]Nkf h'Dnf

237 238 239 240

sflnsf]6

241 242

d'u'

243 244

afh'/f

245 246 247

aemfª

248 249 250

c5fd

251 252 253

8f]6L

254 255 256

s}nfnL

257 258

gf/fo0f b'Nn' rfd'08f laGb|f;}gL cf7aL; e]/L 5]8fuf8 gnuf8 7'nL e]/L lqk'/f ;'Gb/L rGbggfy vfF8frqm /f:sf]6 ltnfu'kmf 5fofgfy /f/f a8Ldflnsf lqj]0fL a'9Luª\uf a'9LgGbf hok[YjL a'ª\un dª\un;]g sdnahf/ ;fFkm]au/ k~rb]jn ljgfos lbkfon l;nu9L lzv/ 6Lsfk'/ 3f]8f3f]8L nDsLr'xf

27037

110=63

11

41540

156=77

13

26149

90=6

9

29227

168

9

33515

219=77

13

35295

284=2

13

25597

387=44

13

8370

421=34

11

10104

395=54

11

19047

102=03

10

20288

133=29

11

16272

59=73

9

15766

262=56

11

20078

480=67

14

16818

276

9

18363

170=32

9

21677

59=2

10

18776

232=48

10

22191

166=79

11

33224

447=59

11

32331

210=14

14

23738

120=78

10

33788

166=71

14

27485

147=75

9

32941

126=62

9

31801

285=37

11

76084

118=33

9

75586

354=45

12

75425

225

10

g]kfn kl/ro÷25

259 260 261 262 263 264

s~rg'k/

265 266 267 268

88]Nw'/f

269

270 271 272

a}t8L

273 274

bfr'{nf

lhNnf

tfKn]h'ª

26÷g]kfn

kl/ro

275 276

ehgL uf]bfj/L uf}/Luª\uf eLdbQ k'gfjf{; j]bsf]6 dxfsfnL z'SnfkmfF6f a]nf}/L s[i0fk'/ cd/u9L k/z'/fd bz/yrGb kf6g d]nf}gL k'rf}{F8L dxfsfnL z}Nolzv/

51845

176=25

9

78018

308=63

12

55314

244=44

11

104599

171=8

19

53633

103=71

11

49479

159=92

10

39253

56=84

10

46834

162=57

12

53544

123=37

10

56643

252=75

9

21245

139=33

11

34983

414=07

12

34575

135=15

11

30435

219=26

10

22545

119=43

9

39174

198=52

10

21231

135=11

9

22060

117=81

9

tflnsf g+= !=& ufp“kflnsf flnsfsf] hg;ª\Vof If]qkmn j8f qm=;+= ufp“kgfd -ju{ ls=ld=_ ;ª\Vof cf7/fO{ lqj]0fL 1 !#&*$ **=*# % l;lbª\jf 2 [email protected])(( @)^ & kmQmfªn'ª 3 [email protected])!& !*%*=%! & ldSjfvf]nf 4 (!^) [email protected]=(^ % d]l/ªb]g 5 [email protected]%$* @!)=## ^ d}jfvf]nf 6 !!)#& !#* ^ kfyLe/f 7 !#%(! (#=&^ ^ ofªj/s l;l/hª\uf 8 !%*)^ $*!=)( *

9 10 11

kfFry/

12 13 14 15 16 17

Onfd

18 19 20 21 22 23 24

emfkf

25 26 27 28 29 30 31

df]/ª

32 33 34 35 36

kmfn]n'ª kmfNu'gGb lxlnxfª s'Ddfos ldSnfh'ª t'Dj]jf ofªj/s kmfskmf]sy'd r'nfr'nL dfO{hf]udfO{ dfª;]a'ª /f]ª ;Gbsk'/ sdn uf}/Lu~h afx|bzL emfkf a'4zflGt xNbLaf/L srgsjg a'9Luª\uf wgkfnyfg u|fdyfg hxbf sfg]kf]v/L s6x/L s]/faf/L ldSnfh'ª

@!**$ @$)^)

@)&=!$ !)&=%#

* &

22913

123=01

7

16118

129=3

5

24715

166=61

8

13419

117=34

5

18281

208=63

6

21619

108=79

7

20820

108=46

6

21044

172=41

6

18503

142=41

6

19135

155=06

6

16065

156=01

5

44365

104=57

7

33038

101=35

6

33653

88=44

7

34601

94=12

7

41615

79=78

7

29223

117=34

5

39535

109=45

41586

56=41

7

39394

70=26

7

32717

71=84

7

41819

62=38

7

38033

82=83

7

39775

51=59

7

30431

219=83

10

28708

158=98

9

g]kfn kl/ro÷27

37 38 39

;'g;/L

40 41 42 43 44

wgs'6f

45 46 47

t]x|y'd

48 49 50 51 52

;+v'jf;ef

53 54 55 56 57 58 59

ef]hk'/

60 61 62 63

;f]n'v'Da'

64 65

28÷g]kfn

kl/ro

b]jfgu~h sf];L u9L ah'{ ef]qmfxf g/l;+x xl/gu/f ;fFu'/Lu9L ;lxbe"ld 5y/ hf]/kf6L rf}la;] cf7/fO{ 5y/ km]bfk d]G5ofo]d ef]6vf]nf lrlrnf dsfn' ;efkf]v/L l;lnrf]ª 6]Ds]d}o'ª /fdk|;fb/fO{ c?0f kf}jfb'ªdf ;fNkfl;ln5f] cfdrf]s xt'jfu9L b'wsf];L v'Da' kf;fªNxfd' y'n'ª b'wsf];L

35073

53=56

7

4326

75=98

8

34852

67=7

6

31178

69=43

6

40509

63=37

8

40846

52=29

7

21536

166=44

10

18760

99=55

7

18322

102=83

6

19283

147=60

8

21747

167=07

7

16715

133=93

6

17700

110=83

5

8078

70=09

6

6576

639=01

5

7065

88=63

5

13204

519=45

6

10492

222=08

6

12174

293=26

5

17911

173=41

9

18848

158=83

8

17687

154=76

7

15394

118=86

6

13111

193=33

6

18720

184=89

10

20404

142=61

9

13414

167=67

7

8989

1539=11

5

19672

144=6

9

66 67 68 69 70 71 72

cf]vn9'ª\uf

73 74 75 76 77 78 79

vf]6fª

80 81 82 83 84 85

pbok'/

86 87 88 89 90

;Kt/L

91 92 93

g]rf;Nofg dfxfs'n'ª lnv' lks] ;f]tfª lvlhb]Djf rDkfb]jL lr;+v'u9L dfg]eGHofª df]n'ª lnv' ;'gsf];L P]F;]n'vs{ /fjfj];L hGt]9'ª\uf vf]6]xfª s]lknf;u9L lbk|'ª r'Or'Ddf ;fs]nf a/fxkf]v/L pbok'/u9L tfKnL /f}tfdfO{ lnDr'ªa'ª cUgL;fO/ s[i0ff;j/g l5Ggd:tf dxfb]jf anfgljx'n lt/x't

16129

94=49

6

11452

648=05

5

5534

124=38

5

9530

103

5

15106

179=77

9

18613

126=91

10

15196

126=91

8

21082

146=61

9

15862

112

8

14049

88=03

9

18550

143=75

10

16097

125=93

7

133=69

97=44

6

15444

128=68

6

22474

164=09

9

15288

191=55

7

20175

136=59

7

11594

79=99

5

14349

141=57

6

30731

269=51

8

14562

119=11

5

23481

204=08

8

11992

106=8

5

28481

77=08

5

33867

47=92

8

28542

34=97

6

26068

33=04

6

22010

37=81

5

g]kfn kl/ro÷29

94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

l;/fxf

103 104 105 106 107 108 109

wg'iff

110 111 112 113 114 115

dxf]Q/L

116 117 118 119

;nf{xL

120 121

30÷g]kfn

kl/ro

ltnf7L sf]Onf8L ¿kgL a]NxL rk]gf lji0f'k'/ eujfgk'/ cf}/xL lji0f'k'/ al/of/k§L nIdLk'/ ktf/L g/xf ;v'jfgfGsf/fs§L cg{df gj/fhk'/ hgs glGbgL a6]Zj/ d'lvofk§L d';x/ldof nIdLlgof wgf}hL cf}/xL Ps8f/f ;f]gdf ;fD;L dxf]Q/L lkk/f sf}8]gf rqm3§ rGb|gu/ wgsf}n

32389

32=91

8

26387

56=08

6

23982

38=7

5

22454

40=25

7

20957

33=03

5

23046

35=86

5

18522

26=34

5

25256

37=72

5

26913

42=33

6

19369

29=28

5

18558

32=84

5

22912

37=76

5

19019

32=18

5

25085

27=62

6

19679

28=14

5

25482

26=84

6

28251

30=66

7

21395

22

5

32294

36=32

8

38962

30=97

8

38747

57=77

8

33791

21=57

7

27430

28=08

6

35524

39=98

7

25=33

7

46805

43=36

13

33328

47=5

7

32881

46=06

9

122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129

l;Gw'nL

130 131 132 133 134 135

/fd]5fk

136 137 138 139 140 141 142

bf]nvf

143 144 145 146 147

l;Gw'kfNrf]s

148 149

a|Xdfk'/L /fdgu/ lji0f' k;f{ a;al/of uf]nGhf]/ £ofªn]v tLgkf6g lkmSsn dl/0f ;'gsf];L xl/x/k'/u9L pdfs'08 vfF8fb]jL uf]s'nuª\uf bf]/Daf lnv' tfdfsf];L ;'gfktL sflnGrf]s uf}/Lzª\s/ tfdfsf];L d]n'ª lau' j}t]Zj/ z}n'ª OGb|fjtL h'un kfFrkf]v/L yfªkfn

36169

40=56

9

40128

51=59

10

39204

39=87

12

23=12

6

23568

29=42

6

19329

184=13

7

13661

166=77

5

38395

280=26

11

16968

186=06

6

27822

324=55

8

21473

154=68

7

27727

343=9

8

17601

451=99

7

27761

150=7

9

20058

198=4

6

22738

140=88

7

23109

124=51

7

18141

186=98

5

22954

132=49

9

17062

681=39

9

18849

153=06

7

20210

86=54

7

18449

663=2

8

19876

80=41

8

20098

128=67

8

28517

105=09

12

19331

273=62

7

20860

187=29

8

g]kfn kl/ro÷31

150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158

sfe|]knf~rf]s

159 160 161 162 163

nlntk'/

164 165 166 167 168

/;'jf

169 170 171 172 173

g'jfsf]6

174 175 176 177 178

32÷g]kfn

kl/ro

an]kmL ef]6]sf];L ln;ª\v' ;'gsf];L x]nDa' lqk'/f;'Gb/L vfgLvf]nf rf}/Lb]p/fnL t]dfn a]yfgrf]s e'Dn' dxfef/t /f]zL sf]GHof];f]d afUdtL dxf+sfn pQ/uof sflnsf uf];fOFs'08 gf}s'08 cfdf 5f]lbª\df] ssgL ls:kfª tfbL tf/s]Zj/ b'Kr]Zj/ kGrsGof lnv' Douª

18909

61=60

8

17156

278=31

5

15155

98=61

7

16713

72=84

7

17671

287=26

7

15062

94=28

6

14398

132

7

20829

98

9

22712

89

9

16777

101

6

18916

91

10

18283

186

8

28746

176

12

9709

44=16

5

13049

111=49

7

9453

82=44

6

8255

104=51

5

9421

192=54

5

7143

978=77

6

11825

126=99

6

5490

682=23

5

27073

87=97

8

14861

82=57

5

17932

69=8

6

15719

72=62

6

22106

131=62

7

15945

53=47

5

16852

47=88

6

13479

97=83

6

179 180 181 182 183 184 185

wflbª

186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194

dsjfgk'/

195 196 197 198 199

/f}tx6

200 201 202 203

af/f

204 205 206 207

lzjk'/L ;"o{u9L vlgofaf; uh'/L uN5L uª\ufhd'gf Hjfnfd'vL yfqm] g]qfjtL a]gL3f6 /f]/fª ?jL EofnL l;4n]s lqk'/f;'Gb/L OGb|;/f]j/ s}nfz as}of afudtL eLdkm]bL dsjfgk'/u9L dgx/L /flS;/fª b'uf{eujtL od'gfdfO{ cfbz{ sf]6jfn s/}ofdfO{ b]jtfn la>fdk'/ k/jfgLk'/ k|;f}gL

20769

101=5

8

16800

49=09

5

12749

120=8

5

27084

138=66

8

27784

129=08

8

21784

152=72

7

23966

114=04

7

32914

96=41

11

12870

181=78

5

31475

29=17

10

95665

401=85

6

23729

106=09

7

22960

271=23

7

17585

97=34

5

23922

204=48

10

39620

393=75

12

30495

311=79

9

23344

245=27

9

25322

148=72

8

38399

199=52

9

26192

226=7

9

39288

30=41

8

23884

16=7

5

27552

36=25

8

26400

47=69

8

23223

23=31

7

23785

19=81

5

37795

29=25

9

33485

26=35

7

g]kfn kl/ro÷33

208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215

k;f{

216 217 218 219 220 221

lrtjg

222 223 224 225

uf]/vf

226 227 228 229 230 231 232

ndh'ª

233 234

34÷g]kfn

kl/ro

km]6f af/u9L ;'j0f{ hu/gfyk'/ wf]lagL l5kx/dfO{ ksxf d}gk'/ ljGbjfl;gL 7f]/L sflnsfdfO{ lh/fejfgL ;v'jf k|;f}gL k6]jf{ ;'uf}nL OR5fsfdgf af/kfs ;'lnsf]6 l;/fgrf]s clh/sf]6 cf?3f6 u08sL r'dg'j|L wfr]{ eLd;]g yfkf ;lxb nvg SJxf]nf;f]yf/ b"wkf]v/L bf]bL{ d:of{ª\bL

30786

26=1

8

27191

39=29

6

29602

36=84

8

31591

45=29

6

19911

24=41

5

26671

24=90

5

20717

21=26

5

24468

26=04

5

20296

128=67

5

21131

24=33

5

22765

55=39

5

32448

74=27

6

36226

103=11

7

25012

166=73

7

25389

200=63

8

23628

121=66

8

14802

198=05

5

23887

160=79

10

23253

123=86

8

6923

1648=65

7

13229

651=52

7

22033

101=25

8

27555

148=97

9

10032

175=37

9

10975

153=33

6

18392

350=93

9

18759

597=25

9

235 236

tgx'F

237 238 239 240 241 242

:ofª\hf

243 244 245 246 247

sf:sL

248 249 250 251

dgfª

252 253 254 255 256

d':tfª

257 258 259 260

DofUbL

261 262

cfa'v}/]gL l/l;ª l3l/ª b]j3f6 DofUb] aGbLk'/ ch'{g rf}kf/L cfFwLvf]nf sfnLu08sL km]bLvf]nf lj?jf xl/gf; cGgk"0f{ df5fk'R5«] dfbL ¿kf rfd] gfkf{e"ld gf;f] dgfª l8:ofª 3/kemf]ª yf;fª nf] 3]s/ bfdf]b/s'08 nf]dGyfª af/u'ª d'lQmIf]q cGgk"0f{ wjnflul/ dª\unf

20768

128

6

25870

215

8

19318

126

5

16131

159

5

22502

115

7

20013

102

6

16176

57=22

6

16589

69=61

6

21728

73=51

7

12341

56=73

5

18413

95=79

8

17343

87=48

7

23417

33=33

11

21868

544=58

9

18153

563

12

14519

94=81

7

1129

78=86

5

538

837=54

5

1938

709=58

2222

694=63

9

3029

316

5

2912

289

5

1423

1344

5

1899

727

5

2330

886

5

13315

556=41

8

14104

1037

7

16286

89

5

g]kfn kl/ro÷35

263 264 265 266 267

kj{t

268 269 270 271 272

afun'ª

273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280

u'NdL

281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289

kfNkf

290 291 292 36÷g]kfn

kl/ro

dflnsf /3'uª\uf hnhnf k}o'F dxflznf df]bL ljxfbL a/]ª sf7]vf]nf tdfgvf]nf tf/fvf]nf lg;Lvf]nf al8uf8 O:df sfnLu08sL u'NdLb/af/ ;TojtL rGb|sf]6 ?? If]q 5qsf]6 w'sf{]6 dbfg] dflnsf lg:bL k"j{vf]nf /Def dfyfu9L ltgfp augf;sfnL l/AbLsf]6

19458

147

7

15753

379

8

21454

82=26

9

15381

42=65

7

9857

49=38

6

21284

143=6

8

13403

44=8

6

14492

75=28

5

22865

82=88

8

10659

178=02

6

12009

129=53

5

20611

244=37

7

30906

178=68

10

20964

81=88

6

18876

101=04

7

22037

79=99

7

23807

115=92

8

21827

105=73

8

18581

67=38

6

21481

87=01

6

22454

86=32

7

21899

94=52

7

21729

92=49

8

22611

194=5

7

19589

138=05

6

20190

94=12

5

25017

215=49

8

11085

202

6

21361

84=17

9

18770

124=55

8

293 294

gjnk/f;L klZrd

295 296 297 298

gjnk/f;L k"j{

299 300 301 302 303 304 305

¿kGb]xL

306 307 308 309 310 311 312

slknj:t'

313 314 315 316

c3f{vfFrL

317 318

/}gfb]jL 5x/f ;':tf kfNxLgGbg k|tfkk'/ ;/fjn a'lnª6f/ ljgoL lqj]0fL af}bLsfnL x'K;]sf]6 u}+8xjf sGrg sf]6xLdfO{ dr{jf/L dfofb]jL cf]d;ltof /f]lx0fL ;Dd/LdfO{ l;o/L z'4f]wg dfofb]jL ozf]w/f z'4f]wg ljhogu/ 5qb]j kfl0fgL dfnf/fgL

26469

175=88

8

43797

112=17

7

35429

44=67

7

41315

87=55

9

38163

73=19

7

19122

147=68

6

25036

267=13

5

15734

91=87

6

25065

189=21

6

47565

96=79

9

33072

58=51

5

41006

58=26

7

38776

48=55

7

47196

72=44

8

34191

48=54

6

37175

64=62

7

38305

50=78

7

38466

66=17

7

34638

57=66

7

48218

88=53

8

37952

67=56

8

45201

91=69

6

36937

173=19

7

25336

87=62

8

26424

151=42

8

28044

101=06

9

g]kfn kl/ro÷37

319 320 321 322

Ko'7fg

323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330

/f]Nkf

331 332 333 334 335

?s'd k"j{

336 337 338

?s'd klZrd

339 340 341 342 343 344

;Nofg

345 346 347 38÷g]kfn

kl/ro

uf}d'vL df08jL ;?df/fgL dNn/fgL gf}alxgL lemd?s P]/fjtL lqj]0fL b'O{vf]nL df8L ?G6Lu9L n'ª\u|L ;'lsbx ;'g5xf/L ;'j0ff{jtL yjfª k'yf pQ/uª\uf e"d] l;:g] afFlkmsf]6 lqj]0fL ;fgLe]/L sfnLdf6L lqj]0fL sk''/sf]6 5q]Zj/L 9f]/rf}/ s'dfvdflnsf bfdf{

25421

139=04

7

15058

113=08

5

18627

157=97

6

17686

80=09

5

30292

213=41

8

27931

106=93

8

22392

156=75

6

22957

205=39

7

20778

163=01

6

17986

129=05

6

27929

232=69

9

23631

135=23

7

20009

124=38

7

16034

277=62

7

28213

156=55

8

10881

191=07

5

17932

560=34

14

18589

273=67

9

16497

327=12

8

18696

190=42

10

19404

85=49

10

22194

133=8

11

23005

500=72

7

16624

119=11

6

18204

119=21

6

21452

150=69

7

13593

89=36

5

24972

177=28

7

19966

81=46

6

348 349 350

bfª

351 352 353 354 355 356

afFs]

357 358 359 360

alb{of

361 362 363

;'v]{t

364 365 366 367 368 369

b}n]v

370 371 372 373 374

hfh/sf]6

375 376 377

aª\unfr'nL bª\lu;/0f u9jf /fhk'/ /fKtL zflGtgu/ aaO{ g/}gfk'/ /fKtL;f]gf/L a}hgfy vh'/f 8'8'jf hfgsL a9}oftfn u]?jf rf}s'g] a/fxtfn lrª\uf8 l;Dtf eujtLdfO{ u'/fF; 8'ª\u]Zj/ gf}d'n] dxfa' e}/jL 7fFl6sfFw s';] h'lgrfFb] af/]sf]6 lzjfno

24245

245=14

8

21484

110=7

7

38592

358=57

8

25037

577=33

7

40763

161=07

9

25203

116=02

7

27469

257=48

7

34942

172=34

6

59946

1041=73

9

54418

141=67

8

50961

101=91

8

37460

91=1

6

37839

63=32

6

47868

115=19

9

34871

78=41

6

25240

381=01

10

26802

455=09

10

17275

170=19

6

25845

241=64

9

18778

151=52

7

22033

164=79

8

15883

105=19

6

20802

228=59

8

19277

110=8

6

21233

110=46

7

18896

88=22

6

20621

273=97

9

21733

246=21

11

18083

577=5

9

15269

134=26

9

g]kfn kl/ro÷39

378 379 380

8f]Nkf

381 382 383 384 385 386 387

h'Dnf

388 389 390 391 392

sflnsf]6

393 394 395 396 397 398

d'u'

399 400 401 402 403

x'Dnf

404 405 406 40÷g]kfn

kl/ro

8f]Nkf] a'4 z] kmf]S;'G8f] hub'Nnf d'8\s]r'nf sfOs] 5fsf{ tfª;f]ª sgsf;'Gb/L l;Ghf lxdf ltnf u'7Lrf}/ tftf]kfgL kftf/f;L krfnem/gf ;fGgL lqj]0fL g/x/Lgfy sflnsf dxfj} knftf d'u'dsfdf{/f]Fu ;f]? vTof8 l;dsf]6 gfDvf vfk'{gfy ;s]{uf8 rª\v]nL cbfgr'nL tfFhfsf]6

2126

377=38

6

3099

123=07

9

2273

83=3

6

5129

250=08

9

3576

466=6

7

1451

345=57

6

12977

225=39

8

12395

153=29

6

10961

132=32

7

13607

175=49

9

9870

427

5

14638

525=56

8

14571

814=07

7

12343

166=92

9

12846

136=71

9

21366

143=86

9

14080

97=32

8

8323

322=07

7

15303

318=84

9

5396

2106=91

9

12238

365=8

11

17116

281=12

11

11557

785=89

8

3900

2419=64

6

6011

880

5

9868

306=7

8

5517

1310=41

6

7116

150=61

6

5964

159=1

5

407 408

afh'/f

409 410 411 412 413 414

aemfª

415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423

c5fd

424 425 426 427 428 429 430

8f]6L

431 432 433 434

uf}d'n kf08j u'kmf :jfldsflQs 5]8]bx lxdfnL tnsf]6 di6f vKt85fGgf ynf/f ljTy8lr/ ;"df{ 5lj;kflye]/f b'uf{ynL s]bf/:o'F ;fOkfn rf}/kf6L d]Nn]v afGgLu9L hou9 /fdf/f]zg 9sf/L t'df{vfFb k"jL{rf}sL a8Ls]bf/ hf]/fon ;fon cfbz{ s]=cfO{=l;+= af]u6fg km'ª\l;n

8515

314=66

6

9432

171=72

6

12748

110=55

5

18575

135=08

7

9214

830=33

7

11557

335=26

7

14951

109=24

7

15893

113=52

7

17952

105=51

9

17154

86=15

9

9022

170=8

5

16296

116=34

7

12972

61=83

7

21307

113=91

9

2182

1467=27

5

25149

182=16

7

24670

134=78

8

17359

58=26

6

25166

173=33

7

21562

227=88

8

24940

232=07

8

22483

117=66

7

16720

332=55

5

20814

419=09

6

19551

122=72

6

23945

128=47

7

20903

127=01

7

17902

300=22

7

g]kfn kl/ro÷41

435 436 437

s}nfnL

438 439 440

s~rgk'/

441 442 443 444 445

88]Nw'/f

446 447 448 449 450

a}t8L

451 452 453 454 455 456 457

bfr'{nf

458 459 460

hfgsL ab{uf]l/of df]xGofn s}nf/L hf]zLk'/ r'/] a]n8fF8L nfnemf8L cflntfn efu]Zj/ gjb'uf{ chod]? uGofkw'/f ;'g{of l;uf; lzjgfy k~r]Zj/ bf]u8fs]bf/ l8nf;}gL dflnsfh'{g clk lxdfn b'x'F gf}uf9 dfdf{ n]sd Aof;

48540

107=27

9

32683

77=26

6

22053

626=95

7

47987

233=27

9

36459

65=57

7

18924

493=18

6

21949

36=70

5

22569

154=65

6

18531

292=87

8

14129

233=38

5

19957

141=89

5

7066

148=9

6

15093

135=65

5

18549

124=52

8

21510

245=44

9

17115

81=65

6

18766

120=41

6

24632

126=38

8

22924

125=28

7

15581

100=82

8

6779

613=95

6

10818

65=35

5

15874

180=27

6

14956

208=06

6

14838

83=98

6

10347

839=26

6

;|f]t M ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno 42÷g]kfn

kl/ro

tflnsf g+= !=* gbL lsgf/df cjl:yt gu/x¿ gu/ sf7df8f}F ljb'/ kf]v/f bdf}nL j];L;x/ afUn'ª s':df a'6jn 3f]/fxL :ofª\hfahf/ a]gL hf]d;f]d rfd] dx]Gb|gu/ h'Dnf lbkfon e/tk'/ -gf/fo0fu9_ ufO3f6 rGb|u9L sfFs8le§f dGynL l;ldsf]6 w'Gr] x]6f}F8f

lhNnf sf7df8f}F g'jfsf]6 sf:sL tgx'F ndh'ª afUn'ª kj{t ¿kGb]xL bfª :ofª\hf DofUbL d':tfª dgfª s~rgk'/ h'Dnf 8f]6L lrtjg pbok'/ emfkf emfkf /fd]5fk x'Dnf /;'jf dsjfgk'/

gbL afUdtL lqz'nL ;]tLu08sL ;]tL÷dfbL d:of{ª\bL sfnLu08sL df]bL ltgfp aaO{ cfFwLvf]nf sfnLu08sL sfnLu08sL d:of{ª\bL dxfsfnL h'Dnf s0ff{nL -tLnf_ ;]tL gf/fo0fL -;Ktu08sL_ lqo'uf d]rL d]rL ;'gsf];L x'Dnfs0ff{nL lqz'nL /fKtL g]kfn kl/ro÷43

l;Gw'nLdf9L u'n/Lof dfGdf

l;Gw'nL abL{of sflnsf]6

sdnfdfO{ aaO{ h'Dnfs0ff{nL

!=$ g]kfnsf] k|fs[lts ;|f]t / ;fwgx¿ !=$=! e"ld g]kfnsf k|fs[lts ;|f]t / ;fwgdWo] e"ld Ps dxŒjk"0f{ ;|f]t xf]  . g]kfnsf] w/ftn / jg:kltdf leGgtf ePem}F oxfFsf] df6f]sf] cj:yf / u'0fdf klg w]/} leGgtf 5 . Land Resource Mapping Project -!(&*÷&(_ sf cg';f/ g]kfndf v]tLof]Uo e"efu !* k|ltzt /x]sf] 5  . g]kfndf cEof; ul/Psf s]xL e"ld Joj:yf /}s/ e"ld /}s/ zAbsf] Jo'TklQ b'O{ zAbsf] cy{af6 ePsf] xf]  . …/}Ú zAbn] /fHo / …s/Ú eg]sf] ;/sf/nfO{ ltg'{kg]{ clgjfo{ e'QmfgL xf]  . To;}n] /}s/ e"ld jf hUuf eGgfn] ;/sf/L :jfldTjdf /x]sf] / ef]urng ug]{ JolQmn] dfnkf]t ltg'{kg]{ hUufnfO{ hgfpFb5  . o:tf] hUuf cfˆgf] cwLgdf /fv]/ k|of]u ug]{ JolQmn] ;/sf/L /fh:jsf ¿kdf ;/sf/nfO{ dfnkf]t a'emfpg'kb{5  . ljtf{ e"ld s'g} ;/sf/L sd{rf/Ln] axfb'/Lk"j{s sfd u/]df jf s'g} JolQm d'n'sL zf;gsf] b[li6df /fd|f] ;fljt ePdf p;nfO{ …j[lQÚ :j¿k k|bfg ul/g] hUufnfO{ ljtf{ hUuf elgG5  . g]kfndf ljz]if u/L /f0ffzf;g sfndf o:tf] hUuf afF8\g] rng lyof]  . a|fXd0fnfO{ bfg :j¿k k|bfg ul/g] hUufnfO{ s'z ljtf{, s'g} ;/sf/L sd{rf/LnfO{ /fd|f] sfo{ u/]afkt k|bfg ul/g] hUufnfO{ lkmsb/ ljtf{, o'4 ubf{ub}{ d/]sf] ;}lgssf kl/jf/nfO{ lbg] hUufnfO{ d/j6 ljtf{ elgGYof]  . /f0ffsfndf pgLx¿sf]cg'ofoL h'g;'s}JolQmnfO{ klg ljtf{sf ¿kdf hUuf lbg]k|rng lyof] . o;n]ubf{ sl/a #% k|ltzt s[lifof]Uo  e"ld ljtf{sf ¿kdf ljt/0f ePsf] lyof]  . lj=;= @)!^ ;fndf ljtf{ pGd"ng P]g hf/L u/L ;Dk"0f{ ljtf{ hUufx¿nfO{ /}s/df kl/0ft ul/of]  . u'7L e"ld s'g}ljz] if ;fj{hlgs jf ;fd"lxs p2] Zo k"lt{sf nflu s'g}6«i6sf ¿kdf k|of]u ePsf];+:yfut hUufnfO{ u'7L hUuf elgG5 . u'7L zAbsf] pTklQ ;+:s[t zAbsf] …uf]i7LÚ af6 ePsf] xf]  . o;sf] cy{ …kl/ifb\Ú eGg] hgfpFb5 . g]kfndf  d7 dlGb/jf b]jfnodf  k"hfcfhf ug{sf nflu tyf 44÷g]kfn

kl/ro

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-u_ /ftf] km';|f] df6f] dxfef/tsf 7f8f le/x¿df 6'lqmPsf r§fgdf ;8]sf emf/kft ldn]/ ag]sf] df6f]nfO{ /ftf] km';|f] df6f] elgG5  . o; df6f]sf] h}ljs kbfy{ / cf]hgLs[t kmnfdsf] dfqf sd x'g] x'Fbf o; If]qsf] df6f]sf] /ª /ftf], km';|f] jf kx]Fnf] x'G5  . r"g, gfO6«f]hg / km:kmf]/;h:tf vlgh tTj sd x'g] / df6f]sf] ulx/fO klg sd x'g]x'Fbf o; lsl;dsf]df6f]df wfg, pv', ;gkf6, ;"tL{ cflb v]tL  k|foM ul/Fb}g  . t/ o:tf] df6f]df cDn, kmnfdh:tf vlgh tŒj x'g]x'Fbf kmnkm"n, lrof, cfn', ds}, sf]bfsf] v]tL ug{ of] pkof]uL x'G5  . -3_ tn}of df6f] pkTosfsf tfn ;'s/]  ag]sf] df6f]nfO{ tn}of df6f] elgG5  . o; lsl;dsf] df6f]df k|z:t ;8]sf emf/kft ldn]sf] x'bF f df6f]sf] /ª sfnf] x'G5  . df6f]sf] ulx/fO a9L x'gsf ;fy} h}ljs kbfy{ klg k|z:t x'g] x'bF f tn}of df6f] s[lifsf nflu ;jf]Q{ d dflgG5  . vf; u/L of] df6f]df wfg, ux',F ;fukft /fd|/L ;lk|G5g\  . o; lsl;dsf] df6f]df sd jiff{df klg v]tL ug{ ;lsG5  . sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf o:t} df6f] kfOG5  . -ª_ lxdfnL df6f] lxdgbLn] y'kf/]sf] df6f], afn'jf, sª\s8, kTy/ cflb ldn]/ lxdfnL df6f] aGb5  . vf;u/L g]kfnsf] leqL / pRr lxdfnL If]qsf] km]bLdf o; lsl;dsf] df6f] kfOG5  . xfjfkfgL 7G8f / z'is x'g] tyf df6f]sf] ulx/fO Pjd\ h}ljs kbfy{ sd x'g] x'bfF o;sf] pj{/f zlQm Go"g x'G5  . of] df6f]df ds}, hf}, cfn', kmfk/h:tf afnLdfq nufOG5  . [email protected] g]kfndf e"ld;DaGwL sfg'gL Joj:yf / e"pkof]u e"ld / e"pkof]u M e"ld eGgfn]k[YjLsf];tx, ;tx eGbf l;wf tn k[YjLsf]s]Gb|  ;Dd /;tx eGbf dfly k[YjLsf] u'?Tjfsif{0fn] e]6\g] ;Ldf ;Ddsf] efu ;Demg'k5{, -e"pkof]u P]g, @)&^_  . e"pkof]u eGgfn] hUufsf] pkof]u cg';f/ ljleGg If]qdf ljleGg k|sf/n] hUufsf] ljefhg u/L k|of]udf Nofpg] k|s[of xf]  . d'n'ssf] cfly{s ljsf;df b|'tt/ult Nofpg e"ldaf6 lgliqmo k'FhL /hg;ª\Vofsf]ef/lemsL cy{ Joj:yfsf] cGo If]qdf nufpg / s[lif of]Uo e"ldsf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f /s[lif ;DalGw cfjZos 1fg /;fwg ;'ne u/fO{ e"lddf cfl>t jf:tljs ls;fgx¿sf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg, s[lif pTkfbgdf clwstd j[l4 ug{ k|f]T;fxg k}bfg u/L ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] ;'ljwf / cfly{s lxt sfod /fVg e"ldsf] plrt Joj:yfkg u/L ul/jL Go"gLs/0f u/L ;du| cfly{s ljsf; ug{ e"ld ;DalGw g]kfndf ljleGg sfg'gL Joj:yf ljBdfg 5g\ . 46÷g]kfn

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-!_ g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg M g]kfnsf] jt{dfg ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @% df df}lns xs cGtu{t …;DklQsf] xsÚsf] pkwf/f -$_ df e"ldsf] pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj j[l4 ug{,s[lifsf] cfw'lgsLs/0f / Joj;foLs/0f, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, Jojl:yt cfjf; tyf ;x/L ljsf; ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu /fHon] sfg'gadf]lhd e"ld ;'wf/, Joj:yfkg / lgodg ug{ ;Sg] 5 eGg] :ki6 k|fjwfg /x]sf]5  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f %! df /fHosf gLltx¿ cGtu{t s[lif / e"ld;'wf/ gLlt lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf]5, h;df M -!_ e"lddf /x]sf] bf]xf]/f] :jfldTj cGTo ub}{ ls;fgsf] lxtnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL j}1flgs e"ld;'wf/ ug]{, [email protected]_ cg'kl:yt e":jfldTjnfO{ lg?T;flxt ub}{ hUufsf] rSnfaGbL u/L pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj j[l4 ug{], -#_ ls;fgsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ub{} s[lifsf] pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj a9fpg e"pkof]u gLltsf] cjnDag u/L e"ldsf] Joj:yfkg / s[lifsf] Jofj;foLs/0f, cf}Bf]lusLs/0f, ljljwLs/0f / cfw'lgsLs/0f ug{], -$_ e"ldsf] pTkfbgzLntf, k|s[lt tyf jftfj/0fLo ;Gt'ng ;d]tsf cfwf/df lgodg / Joj:yfkg ub}{ To;sf] ;d'lrt pkof]u ug]{, -%_ s[ifssf nflu s[lif ;fdu|L, s[lif pkhsf]plrt d"No /ahf/df kx'Frsf] Joj:yf ug]{  . @_ e"ld ;DaGwL P]g, @)@! d'n'ssf]cfly{s ljsf;df b|'tt/ult Nofpg e"ldaf6 lgliqmo k'FhL / hg;ª\Vofsf] ef/ l´sL cy{ Joj:yfsf] cGo If]qdf nufpg, s[lif of]Uo e"ldsf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f / s[lif;DaGwL cfjZos 1fg / ;fwg ;'ne u/fO{ e"lddf cfl>t jf:tljs ls;fgx¿sf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg / s[lif pTkfbgdf clwstd a[l4 ug{ k|f]T;fxg k|bfg u/L ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] ;'ljwf / cfly{s lxt sfod /fVg of] P]g agfOPsf] xf]  . e"ld;DaGwL P]g, @)@! df !! cf]6f kl/R5]b / ^$ cf]6f bkmf /x]sf 5g  . lhldGbf/L pGd"ng, hUufsf] xbaGbL tf]lsPsf] 5, hUufsf] ljs|L ljt/0f;DaGwL Joj:yf, df]xL;DaGwL Joj:yf, s"tsf] Joj:yf / e"dL;DaGwL ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ cfof]u u7g ug{ ;Sg] h:tf Joj:yf 5g\ . of]P]g lj=;+= @)@! ;fndf cfPkl5 ;dofg's'n ¿kdf lj=;+= @)&^ ;Dd & -;ft_ k6s ;+zf]wg  ePsf]5 . #_ e"pkof]u P]g, @)&^ e"ldsf] juL{s/0f, ;d'lrt pkof]u / k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkgsf] dfWodaf6 g]kfn kl/ro÷47

clwstd / lbuf] nfe xfl;n ug]{ ;DaGwdf cfjZos Joj:yf ug{ g]kfnsf] ;ª\3Lo ;+;b\n] of] P]g agfPsf] 5  . e"pkof]u P]g, @)&^ df ^ cf]6f kl/R5]b / #$ bkmf 5g\  . of] P]g e"ldsf] juL{s/0f, ;d'lrt pkof]u / k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkgsf] dfWodaf6 clwstd / lbuf] nfe xfl;n ug{ cfjZos b]lvG5  . e"pkof]u sfo{qmd ;~rfng, e"pkof]u If]q lgwf{/0f, e"ldsf] juL{s/0f, e"pkof]u of]hgf agfpg] / e"ld a}ª\ssf] :yfkgf ug]{ h:tf Joj:yf of] P]gdf 5g\  . g]kfn ;/sf/n] @)[email protected] ;fndf e" pkof]u gLlt Nofof]  . o;}sf] cfwf/df @)&^ ;fndf e" pkof]u P]g, @)&^ hf/L u/]sf] 5  . jt{dfg sf]le8—!( dxfdf/Lsf] cj:yfdf gful/sx¿sf] /f]huf/L u'd]sf] / u'Dg ;Sg] cj:yf /x]sf], j}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf uPsf o'jf hgzlQm /f]huf/L u'dfP/ :jb]zdf kms{g ;Sg] cj:yf, j}b]lzs /f]huf/Laf6 kms]{sf ;d]t hg;ª\Vofsf] rfkn] x'g] vfBfGg cfk"lt{sf] ;d:of, hgzlQmsf] cefjaf6 pTkfbg of]Uo hldg afFemf] /x]sf] cj:yfdf pTkfbg of]Uo hldg v08Ls/0f Pjd\ 38]/L ljsf; eO{ 3/ ag]sf hUufdf afFemf] /xg] ;d:of ;/sf/nfO{ s[lif If]qdf g} /f]huf/L l;h{gf ug{'kg]{ cfjZostf, hnjfo' kl/jt{g, k|b'if0f lgoGq0f, k|sf]k Joj:yfkg rSnfaGbL, e"Ifo lgoGq0f, pTkfbsTj j[l4, a]df};dL v]tL k|0ffnL, l;rfO{ k|j4{g, cf}Bf]lus ljsf; cflbnfO{ ;d]t Wofgdf /fvL e"pkof]u P]g, @)&^ cfPsf] 5  . o; P]gdf ePsf vf; vf; k|fjwfg / ljz]iftfx¿ b]xfocg';f/ 5 M P]gsf] bkmf $ n] e"pkof]u If]qsf] juL{s/0f u/]sf] 5  . s_ s[lif If]q v_ cfjf;Lo If]q u_ Jofj;flos If]q 3_ cf}Bf]lus If]q ª_ vfgL tyf vlgh If]q r_ jg If]q 5_ gbL, vf]nf, tfn, ;Ld;f/ If]q h_ ;fj{hlgs pkof]usf] If]q, em_ ;f+:s[lts tyf k'/ftflŒjs dxŒjsf] If]q `_ g]kfn ;/sf/af6 cfjZostfcg';f/ tf]lsPsf] cGo If]q oL dflysf If]q afx]s klg :yfgLo txn] tf]lsPadf]lhd pk If]qx¿df juL{s/0f ug{ l;kmfl/; e} cfPdf juL{s/0f x'g ;Sg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5  . o; P]gadf]lhd ;ª\3Lo ;/sf/, dGqfnon] k|To]s :yfgLo txsf] e"pkof]u If]q gS;f tof/ ul/lbg] Joj:Yff /x]sf] 5  . h;n] ubf{ gS;f tof/ ug{] sfddf k|b]z ;/sf/ / :yfgLo txn] s'g} ;d:of ef]Ug'kg{] 5}g  . o;} u/L P]gsf] 48÷g]kfn

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sf7df8f}F pkTosf hndo ePsf] cj:yfdf dGh'>Ln] v8\un] sf6]/ jf eujfg >Ls[i0fn] rqm k|xf/ u/L rf]ef/sf] uN5L sf6]/ kfgL aflx/ k7fPkl5 oxfFsf gfux¿ klg aflx/ hfg'kg]{ cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf]n] rf]ef/ e"tv]n eGg] 7fpFdf kf]v/L agfO{ ;f]xL 7fpFdf gfux¿sf /fhf ssf]{6snfO{ a:g] 7fpF lbOPsf]n] 6f}bxnfO{ ssf]{6s gfusf] jf:f:yfg klg elgG5  . of] *$ /f]kgL hnIf]q;lxt (^ /f]kgL hUufdf km}lnPsf] 5  . bh{gf}F k|sf/sf kIfLx¿ oxfF kfOg] x'Fbf r/fx¿sf]cWoog /cg';Gwfgsf nflu of]7fpF cfs{ifs 5 . 3f]8f3f]8L tfn s}nfnL lhNnfcGt{ut dx]Gb| /fhdfu{sf] pQ/tkm{ xTs]nfsf] cfsf/df !=% x]S6/ If]qkmndf km}lnPsf] 3f]8f3f]8L tfn /x]sf] 5  . o; tfnsf] larlardf rf/kfFrcf]6f y'Dsf y'DsLx¿ ag]sf 5g\  . of] tfnsf] 5]pdf 3f]8f3f]8L dlGb/ /x]sf]n] ;f]xL dlGb/sf] cfwf/df tfnsf] gfds/0f ul/Psf] xf]  . of] tfnsf] 5]psf] hª\undf b'n{e kIfL wg]zsf cltl/Qm cg]sfF} kz'kIfLx¿ kfOG5g\  . tfnleq df5f, uf]xL, s5'jf cflb kz'kIfLx¿ kfOG5g\ . a]ugf; tfn

a]ugf; tfn, sf:sL ¿kftfn;Fu} kre}of 8fF8fsf] csf]{ kfvfdf a]ugf; tfn /x]sf] 5  . ;d'b|L ;txaf6 ^&& ld6/ prfOdf cjl:yt &=% ld= ulx/f] of] tfn @@% x]S6/df km}lnPsf] 5  . uf];fOFs'08 hg}k"l0f{dfsf] lbg d]nf eg{ xhf/f}F wdf{jnDaLx¿ cfpg] ;fy} wfld{s tLy{:ynsf] ¿kdf ;d]t kl/lrt /x]sf] uf];fOFs'08 afUdtL k|b]zsf] /;'jf lhNnfdf kb{5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷57

lxdfnL sfnf]s8f r§fgdf lgd{n hno'Qm of]tfn ;d'b| ;txaf6 sl/a $,#^) ld6/ prfOdf /x]sf] 5  . ;"o{s'08 -k"j{_ / pQ/L em/gfaf6 uf];fO{s'08 aGg k'u]sf] xf]  . ¿kf tfn sf:sL lhNnf kf]v/fsf] k"j{ pQ/L efudf kre}of kj{tsf] km]bdf ¿kf tfn 5  . ;d'b|L ;txaf6 &)! ld6/sf] prfOdf cjl:yt $=% ld6/ ulx/fO ePsf] ¿kf tfn [email protected]) x]S6/ If]qkmndf km}lnPsf] 5  . of] tfndf xfn dT:okfng u/L cfly{s nfe lng yflnPsf]5 . tflnsf g+=!=!) g]kfnsf s]xL k|l;4 tfn, s'08 / kf]v/Lx¿ qm=;+= tfn, s'08, kf]v/L :yfg -lhNnf_ ! /f/f tfn d'u' @ km]jf tfn sf:sL #

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sf:sL

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3f]8f3f]8L tfn

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!& !* !( @) @! @@ @# @$ @% @^ @& @* @( #) #! #@=

lt/L5f] -ltlnrf]_ tfn vKt8 bx uf];fO{s'08 OGb|;/f]j/ 6f}bx /fgLkf]v/L gfubx uª\uf;fu/ dxf/fhf ;'GjifL{ kf]v/L dfOlbof kf]v/L ;'df{ ;/f]j/ kGrf;] tfn lu/L bx ;'gf bx u'kmf kf]v/L, ;efkf]v/L dfO{ kf]v/L

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!=% g]kfnsf] hg;ª\Vof g]kfndf ljqmd ;+jt\ !(^* -;g\ !(!!_ b]lv hgu0fgf ug]{sfo{ ;'? ePsf]xf]  . To;kl5 nueu k|To]s  !)÷!) jif{sf]cGt/df hgu0fgf sfo{qmd ;~rfng x'Fb}cfPsf]5 . lj=;+= !((* ;Dd ;~rfng ePsf hgu0fgf ;fdfGo JolQm u0fgf (Head Count) sf ¿kdf dfq ;Lldt lyP eg]lj=;+= @))(÷!! -;g\ !(%@÷%$_ b]lv  ;~rfng ePsf hgu0fgfx¿ cGt/f{li6«o ¿kdf t'ngfof]Uo  cfw'lgs -j}1flgs_  hgu0fgf dflgG5g\ . o; qmddf lj=;+= @)^* sf]/fli6«o hgu0fgf g]kfnsf] P3f/f}F / hgu0fgfsf] Oltxf;df !)) jif{sf] hgu0fgf xf]  . c;f/ * ut]nfO{ hgu0fgf lbj; (Census Day) dflgPsf]5 . /fli6«o hgu0fgf @)^* cg';f/ g]kfnsf] hg;ª\Vof @,^$,($,%)$ /x]sf] 5 ., h;dWo]k'?if $*=%) k|ltzt -!,@*,$(,)$!_ /dlxnf %!=% k|ltzt !,#^,$%,$^#_ /x]sf 5g\  . o; cg';f/ n}ª\lus cg'kft (Sex Ratio) ($=!^ /x]sf] 5  . hg;ª\ofsf] jflif{s j[l4b/ klg 36\b} uPsf] 5  . @)%* g]kfn kl/ro÷59

;fnsf] hgu0fgfn] hg;ª\Vofsf] j[l4b/ @[email protected]% k|ltzt b]vfPsf] lyof] eg] @)^* sf] hgu0fgfn] hg;ª\Vof j[l4b/ !=#% k|ltzt dfq /x]sf] tYo k|sfzdf NofPsf]5 . @)^* ;fnsf] hgu0fgfcg';f/ lxdfnL If]qsf] hg;ª\Vof !&,*!,&(@ -^=&# k|ltzt_ 5 eg] kxf8L If]qsf] !,!#,($,))& -$# k|ltzt_ / t/fOsf] hg;ª\Vof !,##,!*,&)% -%)[email protected]& k|ltzt_ /x]sf] 5  . To;}u/L ljsf; If]qcg';f/ k"jf{~rndf %*,!!,%%% [email protected]!=(# k|ltzt_, dWodf~rndf (^,%^,(*% -#^=$% k|ltzt_, klZrdf~rndf $(,@^,&^% -!*=^) k|ltzt_, dWoklZrdf~rndf #%,$^,^*@ -!#=#( k|ltzt_ /;'b"/klZrdf~rndf  @%,%@,%!& -(=^# k|ltzt_ hg;ª\Vof /x]sf] tYo pQm hgu0fgfn] b]vfPsf] 5  . lhNnfut hg;ª\Vof ljt/0fsf] n]vfhf]vf ubf{ ;a}eGbf a9L sf7df8f}F lhNnfdf -!&,$$,@$)_ /x]sf] 5 eg] To;kl5 bf];|f] / t];|f] :yfg qmdzM df]/ª -(,^%,#&)_ / ¿kGb]xL -*,*),!(^_ n] cf]u6]sf 5g\  . csf]{tkm{, ;a}eGbf sd hg;ª\Vof x'g]tLg lhNnfx¿df qmdzM dgfª -^,%#*_, d':tfª -!#,$%@_ /8f]Nkf  lhNnf -#^,&))_ kb{5g\ . g]kfndf ;x/Ls/0fsf] k|lqmof a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5  . g]kfndf xfn @&^ gu/kflnsfx¿ 5g\  . gu/kflnsfleq a;f]af; ug]{ hg;ª\VofnfO{ ;x/L hg;ª\Vofsf] ¿kdf kl/eflift ul/Psf] 5  . o:t} hg;ª\Vofsf] b[li6sf]0fn] sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsf (,&%,$%#, kf]v/f dxfgu/kflnsf $,!$,!$!, nlntk'/ dxfgu/kflnsf @,*$,(@@, e/tk'/ dxfgu/kflnsf [email protected],*),%)@_, jL/u~h dxfgu/kflnsf @,$),(@@ / lj/f6gu/ dxfgu/kflnsf @,!$,^^# qmdzM klxnf], bf];f| ,] t];f| ,] rf}yf], kfrf}F / 5}6f}F 7'nf ;x/sf ¿kdf /xs ] f 5g\  . g]kfnsf] ;fIf/tfsf] l:yltdf klg lgs} k|ult ePsf] kfOG5  . @)^* ;fnsf] hgu0fgfcg';f/ ;fIf/tf b/ -% jif{ / ;f]eGbfdflysf] hg;ª\Vof_ ^%=( k|ltzt 5  . !) jif{ cufl8 ;fIf/tf b/ %$ k|ltztdfq} lyof]  . o:t} k'?if ;fIf/tf b/ &%=! k|ltzt / dlxnf ;fIf/tf b/ %&=$ k|ltzt k'u]sf] 5  . o;}u/L, ;fIf/tf b/k"jf{~rndf ^^[email protected] k|ltzt, dWodf~rndf ^#=(@ k|ltzt, klZrdf~rndf &)=(* k|ltzt, dWoklZrdf~rndf ^[email protected]! k|ltzt /;'b"/klZrdf~rndf  ^#=$* k|ltzt /x]sf] 5  . lhNnfut cfwf/df sf7df8f}F lhNnf *^=# k|ltzt ;fIf/tf b/;lxt klxnf] :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 eg] x'Dnf lhNnf -$&=* k|ltzt_ clGtd :yfgdf kg{ uPsf]5 . hg;ª\Vofsf] j[l4b/, ef}uf]lns, If]qut tyf lhNnfut ljj/0f, u|fdL0f tyf ;x/L hg;ª\Vofsf] ljj/0f cflb tnsf tflnsfx¿df lbOPsf] 5  . 60÷g]kfn

kl/ro

jflif{s hg;ª\Vof j[l4b/

hg;ª\Vof bf]Aa/ x'g nfUg] cjlw -jif{_

n}lª\us cg'kft

hg3gTj

tflnsf g+= !=!! hg;ª\Vof kl/jt{g / j[l4b/

2009-11

82,56,625

1972976

31.4

2.28

31

96.8

56

2018

94,12,996

1156371

14.0

1.64

42

97.0

64

2028

1,15,55,983

2142987

22.77

2.05

34

101.4

79

2038

1,50,22,839

3466856

30.0

2.62

26

105.0

102

2048

1,84,91,097

3468258

23.09

2.08

33

99.5

126

2058

2,31,51,423

4660326

25.2

2.25

31

99.8

157

2068

2,64,94,504

3343081

14.44

1.35

52

94.16

180

cGt/ u0fgf ;ª\Vof jif{ -lj=;+=_

hg;ª\Vof

ylkPsf] ;ª\Vof

k|ltzt

tflnsf g+= [email protected] ef}uf]lns If]q cg';f/ hg;ª\Vof ljt/0f u0fgf jif{ -lj=;++_

%

lxdfn

%

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tflnsf g+= !=!# ef}uf]lns If]q cg';f/ hg;ª\Vof ;"rs [email protected])^*_ ;"rs hDdf hg;ª\Vof

lxdfn k'?if dlxnf

n}ª\lus cg'kft

kxf8

t/fO{

1781792

11394007

13318705

862592

5440067

6546382

919200

5953940

6772323

93.84

91.37

96.66

g]kfn kl/ro÷61

jflif{s hg;ª\Vof j[l4b/ hg3gTj hDdf ;fIf/ hg;ª\Vof % k'?if dlxnf ckfª\utf ePsf] hg;ª\Vof

0.54

1.06

1.72

34

186

392

60.45

72.33

61.16

71.62

81.43

70.34

50.09

64.15

52.36

53240

251780

208301

k'?if

dlxnf

jflif{s hg;ª\Vof j[l4b/

hg3gTj

hDdf

k'?if

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1

tfKn]h'ª

127461

60552

66909

-0.55

35

71.3

79.29

64.15

3730

2

kfFry/

191817

90186

101631

-0.52

155

75.58

80.35

65.78

5049

3

Onfd

290254

141126

149128

0.26

170

77.91

84.16

72.05

7636

4

emfkf

812650

385096

427554

1.66

506

75.09

82.34

68.65

15376

5

;ª\vj' f;ef

158742

75225

83517

-0.03

46

67.38

77.47

62.20

4054

6

t]/y'd

101577

47151

54426

-1.08

150

74.62

83.53

67.04

2626

7

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163412

76515

86897

-0.19

183

74.37

82.4

67.41

4881

8

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182459

86053

96406

-1.07

121

69.34

78.39

61.38

4618

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466712

498658

1.35

520

70.63

78.73

63.13

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763487

371229

392258

1.99

607

68.46

76.96

60.49

10409

11

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105886

51200

54686

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32

64.22

73.39

55.69

2609

12

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147984

68687

79297

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138

64.43

74.33

56.01

3490

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206312

97092

109220

-1.15

130

68.83

77.67

61.1

5328

14

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317532

149712

167820

0.99

154

68.82

77.18

61.47

6781

15

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639284

313846

325438

1.14

469

54.5

66.98

42.57

8044

16

l;/fxf

637328

310101

327227

1.07

536

50.15

61.85

39.20

8465

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186557

87003

99554

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85

62.78

73.34

53.64

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18

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202646

93386

109260

-0.47

131

62.24

72.64

53.47

4418

19

l;Gw'nL

296192

142123

154069

0.57

119

60.53

69.80

52.10

6466

20

wg'iff

754777

378538

376239

1.17

640

50.44

60.61

40.23

8412

hg;ª\Vof qm= ;=

lhNnf

62÷g]kfn

kl/ro

;fIf/ hg;ª\Vof k|ltzt

ckfª\utf ePsf] hg;ª\Vof

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tflnsf g+= !=!$ lhNnfut hg;ª\Vof ;"rs [email protected])^*_

21

dxf]Q/L

627580

311016

316564

1.26

626

46.44

56.55

36.55

10166

22

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769729

389756

379973

1.91

611

46.30

55.76

36.60

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23

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43300

21475

21825

-0.33

28

53.60

60.85

46.50

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24

wflbª

336067

157834

178233

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174

62.86

71.08

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277471

132787

144684

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248

59.8

67.95

52.41

4690

26

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287798

138351

149447

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113

59.59

67.97

51.88

6608

27

sfe|]knf~rf]s

381937

182936

199001

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274

69.8

79.59

60.92

6670

28

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1744240

913001

831239

4.78

4416

86.25

92.18

79.77

17122

29

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468132

238082

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3.26

1216

82.53

90.11

74.72

4934

30

eQmk'/

304651

154884

149767

3.01

2560

81.68

90.48

72.65

3204

31

lrtjg

579984

279087

300897

2.06

261

76.98

83.87

70.68

12937

32

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420477

206684

213793

0.69

173

67.85

75.41

60.59

8467

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k;f{

601017

312358

288659

1.9

444

55.9

66.93

43.89

6215

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336464

2.07

578

51.96

62.75

40.67

11649

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686722

351079

335643

2.31

610

41.69

50.88

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8698

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271061

121041

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66.34

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59.44

6269

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323288

143410

179878

0.25

209

74.83

83.68

67.93

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2877

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3

74.84

83.02

64.22

204

39

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167724

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99

71.11

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63.33

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236385

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2.57

244

82.38

90.1

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9219

41

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289148

125833

163315

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248

76.61

86.05

69.55

5714

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146590

65301

81289

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297

73.85

83.42

66.38

3653

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113641

51395

62246

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49

71.87

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6122

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13452

7093

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4

66.21

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452

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268613

117997

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151

71.88

80.59

65.29

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280160

120995

159165

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244

72.56

81.35

65.94

7671

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197632

86266

111366

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166

72.59

81.76

65.79

5165

48

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261180

115840

145340

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190

76.22

84.88

69.52

6537

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880196

432193

448003

2.17

647

69.78

79.22

60.79

9890

50

gjnk/f;L k=

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160896

171008

51

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311604

142997

168825

52

slknj:t'

571936

285599

286337

1.71

329

54.91

64.94

44.97

7333

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53

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53184

24980

28204

54

?s'd k=

155383

74179

81204

55

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224506

103100

121406

0.67

119

60

71.55

50.48

7458

56

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242444

115969

126475

1.27

166

64.04

73.88

55.17

6233

57

Ko'7fg

228102

100053

128049

0.71

174

67.01

78.18

58.63

5930

58

bfª

552583

261059

291524

1.78

187

70.32

78.88

62.78

12881

59

b}n]v

261770

126990

134780

1.5

174

62.47

72.84

52.86

7607

60

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171304

85537

85767

2.39

77

57.27

65.9

48.7

6848

61

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350804

169421

181383

1.95

143

73.12

82.04

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10291

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491313

244255

247058

2.42

210

62.39

69.96

54.95

7468

63

alb{of

426576

205080

221496

1.09

211

65.39

73.54

57.95

8197

64

8f]Nkf

36700

18238

18462

2.17

5

54.15

67.86

40.62

1602

65

x'Dnf

50858

25833

25025

2.25

9

47.82

62.06

33

2411

66

h'Dnf

108921

54898

54023

1.97

43

54.66

68.24

41.84

3248

67

sflnsf]6

136948

68833

68115

2.6

79

56.83

67.89

45.73

5262

68

d'u'

55286

28025

27261

2.3

16

51.25

65.17

36.92

1917

69

aemfª

195159

92794

102365

1.56

57

55.55

72.99

40.12

4976

70

afh'/f

134912

65806

69106

2.15

62

55.68

68.84

43.33

5895

71

8f]6L

211746

57252

114494

0.22

105

56.35

73.41

52.34

7302

72

c5fd

257477

120008

137469

1.07

153

55.65

70.7

42.87

8602

73

s}nfnL

775709

378417

397292

2.29

240

66.32

76.16

57.05

15378

74

bfr'{nf

133274

63605

69669

0.88

57

65.36

79.26

52.88

3669

75

a}t8L

250898

117407

133491

0.68

165

62.97

79.01

49.22

7788

76

88]Nw'/f

142094

66556

75538

1.19

92

65.31

79.66

52.94

5150

77

s~rgk'/

451248

216042

235206

1.77

280

70.67

81.35

61.02

9072

tflnsf g+= !=!% k|b]zut cfwf/df g]kfnsf] hg;ª\Vof lhNnf / :yfgLo tx

3/w'/L

hDdf

992,445

64÷g]kfn

kl/ro

hDdf k|b]z g+= ! 4,534,943

hg;ª\Vof k'?if

dlxnf

2,166,536 2,368,407

dxfgu/kflnsf pkdxfgu/kflnsf gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf ;+:yfut lhNnf / :yfgLo tx

47,798

214,663

108,827

105,836

66,487

278,222

131,237

146,985

484,031

2,147,061

393,434

1,859,946

885,480

974,466

695

35,051

30,733

4,318

1,010,259 1,136,802

hg;ª\Vof

3/w'/L

hDdf

k'?if

dlxnf

k|b]z g+= @ hDdf dxfgu/kflnsf pkdxfgu/kflnsf gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf ;+:yfut lhNnf / :yfgLo tx hDdf dxfgu/kflnsf pkdxfgu/kflnsf gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf ;+:yfut

932,308

5,404,145 2,717,938

2,686,207

39,286

240,922

127,227

113,695

70,948

402,290

206,649

195,641

571,005

3,240,347

1,611,048

1,629,299

250,848

1,507,790

761,154

746,636

221

12,796

11,860

936

3/w'/L

hg;ª\Vof hDdf afudtL k|b]z

1,270,797

k'?if

dlxnf

5,529,452 2,747,633

2,781,819

393,583

1,540,877

791,766

749,111

34,270

152,875

74,964

77,911

526,552

2,258,109 1,102,003

1,156,106

314,739

1,481,957

703,861

778,096

1,653

95,634

75,039

20,595

g]kfn kl/ro÷65

hg;ª\Vof k'?if

lhNnf / :yfgLo tx

3/w'/L

hDdf dxfgu/kflnsf gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf ;+:yfut

578,219

2,403,757

1,090,808

1,312,949

105,630

402,995

192,977

210,018

255,622

1,042,011

462,022

579,989

216,430

932,348

414,476

517,872

537

26,403

21,333

5,070

lhNnf / :yfgLo tx

3/w'/L

hDdf u08sL k|b]z

hDdf

hg;ª\Vof k'?if

dlxnf

dlxnf

n'lDagL k|b]z hDdf pkdxfgu/kflnsf gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf ;+:yfut lhNnf / :yfgLo tx

885,203

4,499,272

2,140,316

2,358,956

128,651

575,385

278,169

297,216

350,619

1,749,672

829,039

920,633

405,487

2,140,128

1,003,390

1,136,738

446

34,087

29,718

4,369

3/w'/L

hDdf

hg;ª\Vof k'?if

dlxnf

s0ff{nL k|b]z hDdf gu/kflnsf ufpFkflnsf ;+:yfut

66÷g]kfn

kl/ro

298,359

1,570,418

767,923

802,495

155,748

774,316

373,610

400,706

142,426

780,926

380,331

400,595

185

15,176

13,982

1,194

lhNnf / :yfgLo tx

3/w'/L

hg;ª\Vof hDdf

k'?if

dlxnf

;'b"/klZrd k|b]z hDdf

469,971

2,552,517

1,217,887

1,334,630

29,143

147,741

73,462

74,279

gu/kflnsf

255,278

1,355,814

641,811

714,003

ufpFkflnsf

185,282

1,027,433

483,053

544,380

268

21,529

19,561

1,968

pkdxfgu/kflnsf

;+:yfut

;|f]tM s]lGb|o tYofÍ ljefu

!=^ g]kfnsf] /fli6«o lgs'~h, jGohGt' cf/If, lzsf/ cf/If, ;+/If0f If]q tyf g]kfndf ;+/lIft lhjhGt'x¿ tflnsf g+= !=!^ /fli6«o lgs''~h qm= ;++=

!

/fli6«o lgs'~hsf] gfd

lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h

:yfkgf ldlt

@)#)

qkmn ef}uf]lns If]-ju{ If]q -lhNnf_ ls=ld=_

lrtjg, dsjfgk'/, k;f{, gjnk/f;L -k"j{_

kfOg] k|l;4 hgfj/ tyf k|d'v k|fs[lts ;Dkbfx¿

Psl;Fu] u}8+ f, kf6] af3, lrt'jf, /tj' f, lrQn, 3l8ofn uf]xL, du/ uf]xL, ;f]; + , clhË/, uf}/L ufO{, sf7]efn', nu'gf, rf}l;Fuf tyf ljljw hftsf r/fx¿ -g]kfnsf] 3f]lift klxnf] /fli6«o (%@=^# lgs'~h_ . @)#).)^.)$ ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ (#@ ju{ ls=ld= If]qkmn sfod ePsf]df ldlt @)&#.)&.)! ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf cg';f/ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] If]qkmn (%@=^# ju{ ls=ld= sfod ePsf] . g]kfn kl/ro÷67

s[i0f;f/

@

#

$

nfª6fª /fli6«o lgs'~h

;u/dfyf /fli6«o lgs'~h

/f/f /fli6«o lgs'~h

68÷g]kfn

kl/ro

@)#@

@)#@

@)#@

/;'jf, g'jfsf]6 / l;Gw'kf~rf]s

;f]n'v'Da'

d'u', h'Dnf

!&!)

lrt'jf, xfa|] -/ftf] k08f_ s:t/' L d[u, /tj' f, emf/n, 3f]/n, yf/, hª\unL e]8+ f, efn', nª\u/'  afFb/ -h}ljs ljljwtfsf b[li6sf]0fn] ljZjs} cu|0fL :yfg_  . @)#@[email protected])( ut]sf] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  .

!!$*

s:t/' L d[u, lxdfnL efn', 8fFkm], lrlnd], sfnLh, nfnr'Rr], lxFp lrt'jf, yf/ . -;jf{lws prfOdf /xs ] f] /fli6«o lgs'~h_  . @)##.)$.)$ ut]sf] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  .

!)^

lxdfnL efn', yf/, 3f]/n, aFb]n / ljljw hftsf r/fr'?ËL -;a}eGbf ;fgf] /fli6«o lgs'~h_  . @)#$.)@$ ut]sf] /ftkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  .

%

^

&

alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h

@)#@

;] kmf]S;'G8f] /fli6«o @)$) lgs'~h

vKt8 /fli6«o lgs'~h

@)[email protected]

alb{of

8f]Nkf, d'u'

(^*

#%%%

aemfª, afh'/f, 8f]6L, @@% c5fd

af3, efn', lrt'jf, s[i0f;f/, afx|l;ª\u,] 3f]8ubfx, h/fof], hª\unL xfQL, u}8F f, uf]xL, ;f]; F tyf ljljw hftsf r/fx¿ /xg]  . @)#@[email protected]% ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf cg';f/ zfxL s0ff{nL lzsf/ cf/If ¿kdf 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . @)$!.)%.!! ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf cg';f/ zfxL alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] ¿kdf gfdfs/0f eO{ If]qkmn (^* ju{ ls=ld= sfod ePsf]  . lxpF lrt'jf, ltAatL v/fof], gfp/, lgnf] e]8f, s:t'/L, d[u, hª\unL ofs, AjfF;f], ltAatL uwf, lr?  . -z]–kmf]S;'G8f] tfn_ -g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] /fli6«o lgs'~h_  . @)$!.)[email protected]@ ut]sf] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  . /t'jf, s:t'/L d[u, 3f]/n, r/Laf3, lrt'jf, hª\unL s's'/, jg la/fnf], ;fy} 8fFkm], d'gfn h:tf r/fx¿ kfOg]  . @)$#.)#.)( ut]sf] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  .

g]kfn kl/ro÷69

*

dsfn' a?0f /fli6«o lgs'~h

(

@)$(

;ª\v'jf;ef / ;f]n'v'Da'

!%))

lzjk'/L gfufh'{g /fli6«o lgs'~h

@)%*

sf7df8f}F, g'jfsf]6, l;Gw'kf~rf]s / wflbª

!%(

s] /fli6«o !) afF lgs'~h

@)^&

afFs], ;Nofg, bfª

%%)

s~rgk'/

#)%

!!

z'SnfkmfF6f /fli6«o lgs'~h

70÷g]kfn

kl/ro

@)#!

ljZjsf b'n{e jg:klt / lxdfnL sfnf] efn'h:tf k|f0fLx¿ -klxn] gb]lvPsf] l5s]{lds]{ /]g a]An/, cf]lnkm u|fpG8, jfj{ne/_, @)$*.)*.)@ ut]sf] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  . sf7df8f}d F f b}lgs !) nfv So'ljs ln6/kfgL pknAw x'g] ;fy}, WjfF;] lrt'jf, cf;fdL afFb/, ;fns tyf cGo ljljw hftsf hLjhGt' kfOg] . @)%*.!!.)^ ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf cg';f/ o; lgs'~hsf] If]qkmn !$% ju{ ls=ld= /xs ] fdf @)^%[email protected] ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf cg';f/ o; lgs'~hsf] If]qkmn !%( jut{ ls=ld= sfod ePsf]  . af3, x'F8f/, ;fns, rf}l;ª\uf tyf ljljw hftsf kIfLx¿ . @)^&.)#[email protected]* ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . afx|l;ª\u,] Ps l;ª\u] u}8F f, xfQL, kf6]af3, efn', lrtjf, n3'gf, uf]xL, Pjd\ r/fr'?ËL  . @)##.)$.)$ ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf cg';f/ z'SnfkmfF6 jGohGt' / cf/Ifsf] ¿kdf 3f]if0ff ePsf]df @)&#÷!!÷!( ut]sf] ;"rgfcg';f/ /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] ¿kdf :yflkt  .

;fns, x'F8f/, rf}l;+uf, kf6]af3, Psl;+u] u}F8f, uf}/L ufO{, clhª\u/, ;'g uf]xf]/f]  . @)$!.)@.)* lrtjg, ut]sf] /fhkqsf] ;"rgf dsjfgk'/ / ^@&=#( cg';f/ k;f{jGohGt' cf/Ifsf] ¿kdf 3f]if0ff k;f{sf s]xL ePsf]df g]kfn ;/sf/ efux¿ dGqL kl/ifbsf] ldlt @)&$÷)@÷!( ut]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] ¿kdf :yflkt_ !!,*)^=)@

k;f{ /fli6«o @)$) lgs'~h

[email protected]

hDdf

tflnsf g+= !=!& lzsf/ cf/If qm= ;+=

!

:yfkgf If]qkmn ef}uf]lns jif{ -ju{ ls=ld=_ If]q

lzsf/ cf/If

9f]/kf6g lzsf/ cf/If

@)$$

!#@%

?s'd, afUn'ª tyf DofUbLsf] s]xL efu

kfOg] k|l;4 hgfj/x¿ / /fhkqfg';f/ 3f]if0ff ljj/0f gfp/, emf/n, yf/, lxdfnL efn' lgnf] e]8f cflb . @)$$.)!.!$ ut]sf] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf]  .

tflnsf g+= !=!* ;+/If0f If]q qm= ;+=

;+/If0f If]q

:yfkgf jif{

If]qkmn -ju{ ls=ld=_

ef}uf]lns kfOg] k|l;4 hgfj/x¿ / cjl:ylt If]q /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ljj/0f

!

cGgk"0f{

@)$(

&^@(

ndh'ª, dgfª d':tfª, DofUbL, sf:sL

@

s~rghª\3f @)%$

@)#%

tfKn]h'ª

lxdfnL b'n{e hLjhGt', jg:klt tyf ;f+:s[lts ;Dkbfx¿sf] ;+/If0f  . @)$(.)$.)% ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . lxpF lrt'jf, s:t/' L d[u, lxdfnL v}/f] efn', AjfF;f], gfp/, 3f]/n, xfa|,] r/Laf3 cflb  . @)%$.)$.)^ ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . g]kfn kl/ro÷71

#

dgf:n'

@)%%

!^^#

@)^%

!^=(%

% uf}/Lzª\s/ @)^^

@!&(

^

!()#

$ s[i0f;f/

clk–gfDkf @)^&

lxpF lrt'jf, s:t'/L, d[u , gfp/, emf/nnufot ljleGg uf]/vf r/fx¿ / ;k{ hfltx¿  . @)%%.)(.!# ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ePsf]  . s[i0f;f/, x'F8f/ clhª\u/  . alb{of @)^%[email protected])# ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . lxFp lrt'jf, s:t'/L d[u, /fd]5fk, r/Laf3, 8fFkm], d'gfn cflb  . bf]nvf / @)^^.)([email protected]& ut]sf] /fhkq l;Gw'kfNrf]s cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . lxFp lrt'jf, 3f]/n, sfnf] efn", yf/, h/fd;L, of;f{ bfr'{nf u'Daf, kfFr cf}Fn] cflb  . @)^&.)#[email protected]* ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  .

tflnsf g+= !=!( dWojtL{ If]qx¿ qm= ;++=

dWojtL{ If]q

3f]lift jif{

If]qkmn -ju{ ls=ld=_

/fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff ljj/0f

@)%#.)*.!& ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]qsf] If]qkmn @)%# [email protected](=#& &%) ju{ ls=ld= 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]df @)[email protected])&.)! ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ ;f] If]qkmn [email protected](=#& ju{ ls=ld= sfod ul/Psf]  .

!

lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h

@

nfd6fË /fli6«o @)%% lgs'~h

[email protected])

@)%%.)!.!$ ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  .

#

;u/dfyf /fli6«o lgs'~h

@)%*

@&%

@)%*.)(.!& ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  .

$

/f/f /fli6«o lgs'~h

@)^#

!(*

@)^#.)^.)( ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  .

72÷g]kfn

kl/ro

%

^ & * ( !) !!

[email protected]

!#

alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~h z]–kmf]S;'08f] /fli6«o lgs'~h vKt8 /fli6«o lgs'~h lzjk'/L gfuf{h'g /fli6«o lgs'~h afFs] /fi6«o lgs'~h dsfn' j?0f /fli6«o lgs'~h z'SnfkmfF6 /fli6«o lgs'~h k;f{ /fli6«o lgs'~h

@)%#.)*.!& ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] jl/k/Lsf] #@& ju{ ls=ld= If]qkmn ePsf] If]qnfO{ alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] @)%# %)& dWojtL{ If]q 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]df @)^&.)$.#! ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ ;f] dWojtL{ If]q lj:tf/ u/L %)& ju{ ls=ld= sfod ul/Psf]  . @)%%.)&.)@ ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff @)%% !#$( ul/Psf]  . @)^#.)&.!# ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff @)^# @@% ul/Psf]  . @)[email protected] !!*=^! @)^& @)%% @)^!

@)^@

@)[email protected][email protected]!% ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  .

@)^&.)#[email protected]* ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]  . @)%%.!)[email protected]% ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff *#) ul/Psf]  . @)^!.)@.)( ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff @$#=% ul/Psf]  . @)^@.)#.!# ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ 3f]if0ff ePsf] / @)[email protected])%.)& ut]sf] /fhkq cg';f/ @*%=# WojtL{ If]qsf] ;Ldfgf x]/km]/ eO{ k;f{ jGohGt' cf/Ifsf] dWojtL{ If]qsf] If]qkmn @*%=# ju{ ls=ld= sfod ePsf] . @)^!.)%.!$ ut]sf] /fhkqcg';f/ 3f]if0ff !&# ul/Psf]  . %^*&=&* #$#

sf];L6Kk' @)^! jGohGt' cf/If hDdf s'n hDdf If]qkmn -ju{ #$,$!(=&% ls=ld=_

tflnsf g+= [email protected]) jGohGt' cf/If qm=;+= jGohGt' cf/If

:yfkgf jif{

sf]]zL6Kk' ! @)#@ jGohGt' cf/If

If]qkmn ef}uf]lns -ju{ If]q ls=ld=_ !&%

kfOg] k|l;4 hgfj/x¿

b'n{e cgf{, 3l8ofn tyf ;'g;/L du/uf]xL, ;f]; tyf ljleGg df5f tyf r/fr'?ª\uL . g]kfn kl/ro÷73

tflnsf g+= [email protected]! /fd;f/ ;fO6df ;"rLs[t g]k fnsf ;Ld;f/ If]qx¿M qm= gfd ;+= ! sf];L6Kk' @ aL; xhf/L tfn

If]qkmn ;"rLs[t ldlt lhDd]jf/ :yfgLo -x]=_ -O:jL ;Djt_ Joj:yfkg lgsfo !&%)) !(*&–[email protected]–!& sf];L6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If #@))

# 3f]8f3f]8L tfn If]q

@%^#

$ hubLzk'/ hnfzo

@@%

% /f/f tfn ^ kmf]S ;'08f] tfn

!%*# $($

& uf];fO{s'08 tyf !)#) cf;kf;sf tfnx¿ * uf]Sof] tyf cf;kf;sf &&&) tfnx¿ ( dfO{ kf]v/L ()

@))#–)*–!#

lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h lhNnf jg sfof{no, @))#–)*–!# s}nfnL lhNnf jg sfof{no, @))#–)*–!# slknj:t' @))&–)(–@# /f/f /fli6«o lgs'~h z]–kmf]S;'08f] /fli6«o @))&–)(–@# lgs'~h @))&–)(–@# nfª6fË /fli6«o lgs'~h @))&–)(–@# ;u/dfyf /fli6«o lgs'~h @))*–!)–@*

!) kf]v/f pkTosfsf (Pokhara valley Lake cluster) tfnx¿

@^!)^ @)!^–)@–)@

lhNnf jg sfof{no, Onfd lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, sf:sL lhNnf jg sfof{no, sf:sL

tflnsf g+= [email protected]@ ;+/lIft :gtwf/L jGohGt' != @= #= $= %= ^= &=

cf;fdL afFb/ (Macaca Assamensis) ;fns -Manis pentadactyla_ / (Manis crassicaudata) lxl:k8 v/fof] (Caprolagus hispidus) ;f]+; (Platanista Gangetica) AjfF;f] (Canis lupus) lxdfnL v}/f] efn' (Ursus arctos) xfa|] (Ailurus fulgens)

74÷g]kfn

kl/ro

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lnª;fª÷l;n' (Prionodon pradicolor) r/L af3 (Prionailurus bengalensis) lnªs; (Felis lynx) WjfF;] lrt'jf (Pardofelis nebulosa) af3 (Panthera tigris tigris) lxpF lrt'jf (Panthera uncia) hª\unL xfQL (Elephas maximus) Ps l;Ë] u}F8f (Rhinoceros unicornis) k'8\s] aFb]n (Sus salvanius) s:t'/L d[u (Moschus chrysogaster) afx|l;Ëf (Cervus duvauceli) uf}/LufO{ (Bos gaurus) hª\unL ofs (Bos mutus) cgf{ (Bubalus arnee) gfog (Ovis ammon) lr? (Pantholops hodgsoni) s[i0f;f/ (Antilope cervicapra) rf}sf (Tetracerus quadricornis) x'F8f/ (Hyaena hyaena)

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kIfL sfnf] u?8 (Ciconia nigra) ;]tf] u?8 (Ciconia ciconia) ;f/; (Grus antigone) rL/ sflnh (Catreus wallichii) 8fFkm] (Lophophorus impejanus) df]gfn (Tragop-an satyra) v/ d'h'/ (Houbarpsis bengalensis) ;fgf] v/ d'h"/ (Sypheotides indica) /fh wg]z (Buceros bicornis) g]kfn kl/ro÷75

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;+:s[t efiff gLkM -kj{tkfb_ zAbdf pk;u{ cfn -:yfg_ hf]8]/ g]kfn ePsf] cg'dfg 5  . lxdfn / k~rfn h:t} gLkM -km]bL_ / cfnoM -lgjf;_ af6 kj{t km]bLsf] lgjf;sf ¿kdf g]kfn gfd /x]sf] eflifs JofVof klg ul/Psf] 5  . oh'j]{bdf k|o'Qm j}lbs zAbdf …gLkMÚ sf] cy{ pkTosf lgjf;L x'G5  . g]kfn zAbsf] d"n …gLkÚ elgG5  . …gLkMÚ eg]sf] czf]s -sb+a_ j[If klg xf]  . ;++:s[tdf lzjsf] z}j ePem}F g]kfnsf] g}kfn zAb k|of]u ePsf] e]l6G5  . kf/:kl/s cfVofgdf efiffut zflAbs ;flgWo /WjGofTds ;ª\ult b]lvP  tfklg pko'{Qm ;lGw zAbfy{ 7f]; /k|dfl0ft rflxF ePsf 5}gg\ . tfdfª efiff tfdfª hfltsf Ps dxfk'?if ltAat;Fu Jofkf/ub{y]  . oL tfdfª nfdfs}gfOs] ag]  . tfdfª nfdf af]nLdf …g]Ú eg]sf] :tg xf]  . k[YjLsf] :tg:j¿k kj{taf6 kflnt g]kfnaf6 Jofkf/ ug]{ dxfk'?if kj{ts} gfddf lrlgP / kj{tsf] gfdaf6 g} g]kfn elgof]  . @[email protected][email protected] hfltut cfwf/ -s_ g]kfn dxfTDocg';f/ …g]Ú gfdsf] Clifn] oxfFsf hgtfsf] nfng kfng u/]sf]n] o; b]zsf] gfd g]kfn /xg uPsf] dflgG5  . -v_ blIf0f ef/tsf] s]/nf If]qdf a:g] dfnaf/ hflt g]jf/, l;d|f}gu9sf ;+:yfks gfGob]jsf] ;fy oxfF cfPsf lyP  . logLx¿sf] cfudgkZrft\ oxFfsf] gfd g]kfn /xg uof]  . g]kfnsf k|frLg zf;s uf]kfnj+zLx¿nfO{ ælgkÆ elgGYof]  . pgLx¿sf] cfno -3/_ nfO{ g]kfn elgof]  . …gLkÚ zAbsf] pNn]v j}lbs u|Gydf / kfl0fgLsf] ci6fWoflodf ;d]t ePsf] kfOG5  . -u_ ef]6df g]kfnnfO{ (Balyal) cyjf jfKnf] elgGYof] eg] lrlgof ofqLn] lg–kf]–nf] eGg] uy]{  . ls/ftx¿sf] k|d'v a:tL ePsfn] af}4 wd{u|Gyx¿df oxFfsf] gfd -g]jfn_ / c+u|]hLdf NIPAUL, NEPAUL, NIPAL / NEPAL zAbsf ;fy} ef/tLox¿åf/f -g]kfn_ zAbsf] k|of]u x'g] u/]sf] 5  . o:tf ljljw cfwf/ / dfGotf eP tfklg jf:tjdf g]kfn gfd o;} sf/0fn] x'g uPsf]] egL ls6fg ug{ eg] ;lsPsf] 5}g  . tyflk df}lns ;Eotf, ;+:sl[ t / snfn] ubf{ g]kfnsf] :jtGq / cljl5Gg :j¿k eg] sfod /xs ] f] s'/fdf eg] dtfGt/ 5}g  . @=# g]kfn pkTosfsf] pTklQ lnR5ljsfneGbf cl3sf] k|frLg Oltxf; e/ kbf]{ ;|f]tx¿sf] cefjdf g]kfn kl/ro÷79

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k|efjn] g]kfndf ls/ft /fhfnfO{ lht]/ lnR5lj /fhj+z rNof]Ú egL n]lvPsf] 5 eg] kz'klt k'/f0fdf klg …ls/ftx¿nfO{ af]lnjrgn] ljZjf;df kf//]  tyf o'4df k/f:t u//]  j}zfnLsf :jfdL jf kltx¿n] cfˆgf] zf;g;Qf sfod u/s ] f]Ú eGg] pNn]v o;}ks | f/sf] ;Gbe{ lxdjTv08df klg kfOG5  . h;df j}zfnLsf :jfdLx¿n] ls/ftx¿nfO{ lht]/ g]kfndf zf;g ;'? u/s ] f] pNn]v 5  . o;k|sf/ g]kfndf lnR5lj zf;g Joj:yfsf] yfngL ls/ftLx¿sf] zf;gkl5 nuQ} ;'? ePsf] b]vfkb{5  . uf]kfn j+zfjnLcg';f/ clGtd ls/ftL /fhf …lvu'Ú, efiff j+zfjnLcg';f/ …uflnhÚ, /fO6 j+zfjnLcg';f/ ls/ft /fhf …ul:tÚ nfO{ k/f:t u//]  jf wkfP/ lnR5lj /fhj+zn] g]kfndf zf;g ;'? u/s ] f] b]lvG5  . lnR5lj /fhj+zsf] yfngL s'g ;dob]lv eof], o;af/] olsg ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g  . Oltxf;ljb\ afa'/fd cfrfo{sf cg';f/ …oxfFsf] ls/ft /fHonfO{ eª\u u/L cfˆgf] :jtGq lnR5lj /fHo :yfkgf ug{ O:jL ;+jt\ @%) sf] cf;kf;lt/ lnR5ljx¿ ;dy{ ePsf]b]lvG5   . lnR5ljx¿ g] kfndf cfpg'eGbf cufl8 ef/tsf] d'hˆkm/k/'  gu/sf] a;f9 eGg] j}zfnLdf :jtGq u0ftGqfTds zf;g k|0ffnLcg';f/ zf;g rnfpg] ub{y ] . Tof] efudf /fhtGqfTds zf;g k|0ffnL ;'b9[ x'bF } uPsf] / /fhf chftzq'af6 k/flht eO{ O;fsf] k|yd ztfAbLlt/ z/0ffyL{sf ¿kdf lnR5ljx¿ g]kfn k|jz ] u/s ] f lyP  . j}zfnLdf zf;g rnfPsf lnR5ljx¿n] oxfFsf e'/,] 6fs'/,] ;fdGt /fhfx¿nfO{ x/fO{ zf;gdf sAhf ug]{

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yk]/ cUnf] / eJo t'NofPsf] pNn]v 5  . o;} u/L /fhf ;'ki' kn] e"ld jf hUuf;DaGwL dof{bf afFws ] f] s'/fsf] pNn]v uf]kfn /fhj+zfjnLd} kfOG5  . dfgb]j zf;g ;~rfngdf s'zn dfgb] j k|ydsf] zf;g sfndf cfP/ g]kfn /fHo cem Jojl:yt, ljsl;t / alnof] aGof]  . zf:q hfGg], hgtfnfO{ cfkm\g} kl/jf/ 7fGg]h:tf /fhu'0fx¿n] o'Qm oL /fhfn] /fHodf cfly{s pGglt / zflGt Joj:yfåf/f $! jif{ -lj=;+= %@!–%^@, O{=;+= $^$–%)%_ ;Dd cfˆgf] zf;gdf l:y/tf sfod u/ ] . cfˆgf] /fHodf d'bf| sf] Joj:yfsf] cltl/Qm snf / ljBf If]qsf] ;d]t ljsf; u/ ] . k|yd /fhb/af/ dfgu[xh:tf] eJo ejg …>L dfgf+sÚ / …>L ef]lugLÚ cª\lst g]kfnsf] k|yd d'bf| logs}sfndf tof/ ePsf] lyof]  . logs} ;dob]lv k|frLg ho jdf{sf] d"lt{ g]kfnsf] Oltxf; klg a9L :ki6 / e/kbf]{ ePsfn] k|yd k|dfl0fs /fhf log}nfO{ dflgG5  . logsf] /fHo k"j{df sf];L, klZrddf u08sL -sfnLu08sLkf/L dNnk'/L_ / pQ/df lxdfno;Dd km}lnPsf] lyof]  . clen]v / :jtGq 6s cflb k|fdfl0fs s'/fx¿ dfgb]jsf] kfnfb]lv kfOPsf 5g\  . rfFu'gf/fo0fsf] dfgb]j g[ksf] clen]v lj=;+= %@! -O{=;+=$^$_ eGbf dfnLufpFdf k|fKt hoadf{sf]O{=;+= !^# -;+jt\ !)&_ nfO{ k|fKt ;j{k|frLg k|fdfl0fs clen]v dflgG5  . o;/L ljs|dsf] 5}6f}F ztfAbLb]lv g]kfnsf] k|fdfl0ft Oltxf; k|f/De ePsf] kfOG5  . dfgb]jkl5 dlxb]j, j;Gtb]j cflb /fhf eP  . j;Gtb]j afns ePsfn] dGqLx¿ /lju'Kt / qmdnLn zlQmzfnL eP  . ;+o'Qm zf;g / km]/abn l56f] ePsfn] O{=;+= %#^ b]lv %$% ;Dd /fhgLlts cl:y/tf JofKt ePsf] kfOG5  . o;kl5 ef}du'Kt, u0fb]j, u+ufb]j / lzjb]jh:tf ef/bf/x¿lar zlQm ;ª\3if{h:t} eof]  . lzjb]jn] cfˆgf] eflgh c+z'jdf{sf] d2taf6 u'Kt k|efj arfP klg c+z'jdf{sf] k|e'Tj a9]/ lzjb]j lg:t]h aGg k'u]  . kmn:j¿k c+z'jdf{ /fhf eP  . dGqLn] /fHoflwsf/ lnPsf] of] klxnf] 36gf lyof]  . 86÷g]kfn

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c+z'jdf{ c+zj' df{sf] zf;gsfn -O{=;+= ^)%–^@!_ df g]kfndf v]tL, kz'kfng / Jofkf/dfq x}g k//fi6« ;DaGw / /Iff Joj:yfh:tf rf}tkmL{ ljsf;sf sfo{x¿ eP  . pgn] s}nfzs'6 b/af/ cToGt snfTds eJo / k|z; + gLo tj/n] tof/ u/fPsf lyP  . k//fi6« gLlt -ltAat /rLg;Fu_ pgs};dodf ;kmntfk"js { ;~rflnt eP . pgsf] ;dodf ef/tdf xif{j4{g / ltAatdf ;|fª] rªuDkf]n] zlQmzfnL ;fd|fHo v8f u/s ] f x'gfn] ltAat;Fu pgn] ;fF7ufF7 u/ ] . ltAatL /fhf ;|fª] rªuDkf];uF pgn] /fhs'df/L e[s6' L -lrh'_ sf] ljjfx u/fPsf] s'/f rlr{t 5  . pgsf] ;dodf k|hfn] wfld{s pbf/tf tyf :jfoQ zf;g;d]t k|fKt u/sf ] lyP . snf tyf ljBfsf];d]t ljsf; eO{ hghLjg ;';ª\ul7t / pGgt x'bF } uPsf] lyof]  . oL ;a pGglt k|ultsf] sf/0faf6 g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df pgL g} ;j{ky| d …dxf/fhflw/fhÚ pkflwk|fKt zf;s aGg k'u ] . ljlwjt\ o'j/fh 3f]if0ff ug]{ rng klg ;j{ky| d logs} ;dob]lv rNof]  . lxGb" /fhfsf] ¿kdf pgn] …kz'kltkfbfg'ux[ LtÚ pkflw;d]t wf/0f u/s ] f lyP  . …kh | flxt ;dfwfgtTk/Ú tyf …sy+ d] k|hf ;'lvgf ej]tÚ h:tf ljz]iftfo'Qm 7s'/L j+zsf logn] …zAb ljBfÚ -Jofs/0f_ klg tof/ u/s ] f] a'lemG5  . lj=;+= ^&* lt/ pgsf] d[To' eof]  . g/]Gb|b]j zf;g ;~rfngdf s'zn g/]Gb|b]jsf] sfo{sfndf O:jLsf] ;ftf}F ztfAbLsf] dWod -O{=;+= ^$%–^&(_ tfsf ef]6 -ltAat /rLg_ ;Fu Jofkfl/s ;DaGw :yfkgf x'g'sf cltl/Qm g]kfnsf k"j{ / klZrd e]usf Jofkfl/s a:tL -b|Ë_ x¿sf] k|f/De x'g uO{ g]kfn s]xL ;do;Dd cGt/f{li6«o Jofkfl/s s]Gb| aGof]  . g/]Gb|b]jn] dxf/fhflw/fhsf] kbjL lnP / …k/d e§f/sÚ sf] k|l;l4 klg kfPsf lyP  . pgn] eb|flwjf; /fhb/af/ klg agfP  . pgsf] cf;gdf l;+xsf] cfs[lt ePsf]n] l;+xf;g k|rlnt ePsf] a'lemG5  . hob]j låtLo hob]j låtLo -O{=;+= &!#–[email protected]#_ slj x'g'sf cltl/Qm d'n's lj:tf/ ug]{ dxfŒjfsfª\IfL;d]t ePsfn] lnR5lj zf;sx¿df pgsf] lqmofsnfk klg pNn]vgLo /x]sf] 5  . pgL slj/fhfsf cltl/Qm …k/rqmsfdÚ -csf{sf] b]z lhTg] clenfiff_ h:tf] pkgfdn] lje"lift lyP  . pgsf] sljtf kz'klt lznfn]vdf cª\lst 5 . lnR5ljsfnsf k|d'v /fhfx¿ o; k|sf/lyP M ;'k'ik, hob]j k|yd, xl/bQ jdf{, j[ifb]j, z+s/b]j, wd{b]j, dfgb]j k|yd, dlxb]j, ;Gtb]j, a;Gtb]j, pbob]j, dfgb]j låtLo, lzjb]j k|yd, c+z'jdf{, g]kfn kl/ro÷87

g/]Gb|b]j, hob]j låtLo, lzjb]j låtLo, hob]j t[tLo @=$=% k"j{dWo sfn hob]j låtLosf] zf;gsfnkl5 pgsf pQ/flwsf/Lsf] ¿kdf /xs ] f -clen]vdf pQ/flwsf/L egL lsl6Psf_ ljhob]jsf] zf;g klg g]kfndf lglZrt ¿kn] rn]sf] eg] kfOG5  . ljhob]jkl5sf zf;sx¿af/d] f ;j{;fw/0fåf/f /flvPsf clen]v, x:tlnlvt u|Gy, j+zfjnLcg';f/ u'0fsfdb]j, dfgb]j t[tLo, anL/fh, anb]j, dfgb]j rt'y{ -*&& O{=_ sf ;fy} /f3jb]j -O{=;=*&(_ /fhf ePsf] kfOG5  . u'0fsfdb]j O{=;+= (*& / (() ;Ddsf @ cf]6f clen]vx¿df u'0fsfdb]jn] sf7df8fF}F pkTosfdf zf;g u/]sf] pNn]v 5  . Oltxf;sf/ ss{kfl6«ssf cg';f/ logsf] zf;gsfn !* jif{ /x]sf] lyof]  . logn] pdfdx]Zj/sf] d"lt{ :yfkgf ug'{sf ;fy} kz'kltgfy dlGb/ kl/;/df /x]sf] Ozfg]Zj/ dlGb/df tfdfsf] 5fgf, ;Qn tyf ;'Gwf/f agfPsf lyP  . logn] sfi7d08k, d?;Qn / d?lx6L;d]tsf] lgdf{0f u/]sf lyP  . @=$=^ l;d|f}gu9sf] s0ff{6s /fHo

l;d|f}gu9df /x]sf] :tDe, af/f l;d|f}gu9 gf/fo0fL c~rnsf] af/f lhNnfdf kb{5  . o;sf] k|frLg gfd l;d/f– jgu9 lyof]  . To; a]nf 7'nf a:tL ePsf ;a} If]qx¿ ;'/Iffsf] lx;fan] u9 -lsNnf_ sf] ¿kdf kl/0ft ul/Psf x'Gy]  . o:tf lsNnfx¿ hËnsf] lardf ;d]t ag]sf x'Gy]  . jgleq ag]sf] u9nfO{ …jgu9Ú jf …jgb'u{Ú elgGYof]  . h'g 7fpFsf] jgdf ;f] u9 ag]sf] x'GYof] ToxL gfd ljz]if k|rlnt x'GYof]  . l;d/fsf] 88÷g]kfn

kl/ro

jgdf /x]sf] u9¿ksf] a:tL ePsfn] g} …l;d/f–jgu9Ú elgPsf] xf]  . oxL zAb kl5 cke|+z eO{ l;d|f}gu9 ePsf] xf]  . l;d|f}gu9 j/k/sf] ;Dk"0f{ If]q To;a]nf lt/x'tsf] gfdn] k|l;4 lyof]  . sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf tTsflns k|df0fx¿df eg] of] If]qnfO{ …8f]o/fHoÚ elgPsf] kfOG5  . klZrdsf] v; /fHosf] :yfkgf ePtfsf g} blIf0f / k"jL{ t/fO{ e]s ;d]6]/ s0ff{6sj+zsf] 8f]k -lt/x't]_ /fHo v8f ePsf] kfOG5  . o;sf] /fhwfgL l;d|f}gu9 -l;d/f jgu9_ cyf{t l;d/fdf lyof]  . lt/x'tdf :yflkt s0ff{6s /fHo gfGob]jn] lj=;= !!%$ -O{=;=!)(&_ df :yfkgf u/]sf lyP  . of] :jtGq /fHosf] cl:tTj sl/a @@( jif{ hlt /x\of] /O{=;= !#@^ df lj36g x'g uof] . o; /fHodf zf;g ug]{k|d'v zf;sx¿ gfGob]j / xl/l;+xb]j lyP  . gfGob]j blIf0fL ef/tsf] s0ff{6s If]qsf lgjf;L lyP  . logL blIf0fL ef/tsf rfn'So zf;ssf ;]gfklt lyP  . rfn'Son] pQ/L ef/ttkm{ ljho cleofg rnfpFbf Gofob]j o;tkm{ cfPsf lyP  . kl5 logL cfkm}n] l;d|f}gu9nfO{ s]Gb| agfO{ o; If]qdf /fHo :yfkgf u/]sf] kfOG5  . gfGob]jkl5 qmdzM uËfb]j, g/l;+xb]j, /fdl;+xb]j, zlQml;+xb]j, e'kfnl;+xb]j / xl/l;+xb]j cflb zf;sx¿n] l;d|f}gu9df zf;g u/]  . xl/l;+xb]j s0ff{6sj+zsf clGtd zf;s x'g\  . logsf] zf;gsfndf lbNnLsf d';ndfg afbzfx uof;'2Lg t'Unsn] cfqmd0f u/]/ ;f] /fHo Wj:t kf/]sf lyP  . pkTosfsf dNn /fhfx¿sf] s'nb]jLsf ¿kdf k"hf ul/g] t'nhf ejfgL jf:tjdf s0ff{6 /fhfx¿s} s'nb]jL x'g\  . xl/l;+xb]jsL /fgL b]jnb]jL z/0ffyL{sf] ¿kdf pkTosf k:bf cfkm"l;t t'nhf ejfgLsf]snz klg lnP/cfPsL lyOg\ . b]jnb]jL / pgsf 5f]/f hutl;+xsf] pkTosf k|j]zkl5 s0ff{6ssf] k|efj pkTosfdf k/]sf] lyof] h'g :jefljs g} lyof]  . xl/l;+xb]jsf] d[To' ePtfsf pkTosfdf ¿b| dNn / cl/ dNnsf] ;+o'Qm zf;g rln/x]sf] lyof]  . cl/ dNn gfd dfqsf zf;s lyP  . ¿b| dNnn] xl/l;+xb]jsf] d[To'kl5 pgsL /fgL b]jnb]jL / 5f]/f hutl;+xnfO{ cfˆgf] b/af/df z/0f lbPsf lyP  . b]jnb]jLn] cfˆgf] ;fydf NofPsf tn]h'sf] snz b/af/df :yflkt ul/g\  . kl5 g]kfnsf zf;sx¿ klg tn]h'sf pkf;s ag]  . b]jnb]jLsf 5f]/f s'df/ hutl;+xsf] ljjfx dNn /fhs'df/L gfosb]jL;Fu ;DkGg eof] / o; hf]8Laf6 /fhNnb]jLsf] hGd eof]  . log} /fhNnb]jL;Fu hol:ylt dNnsf] ljjfx ePsf] xf]  . @=$=& s0ff{nL k|b]zsf] v; dNn /fHo k"j{df g'jfsf]6, klZrddf s]bf/, pQ/df ltAat, blIf0fdf t/fO{ e"v08;Dd v; dNn /fHo lj:tfl/t lyof]  . v; dNn /fHosf] åf/ s}nfnL s~rgk'/sf] g]kfn kl/ro÷89

dNnjf/ lyof]  . ltAatsf s]xL efu;d]t o; /fHosf] k|efjdf k/]sf lyP  . klZrddf u9jfn, s'dfpFb]lv k"j{df uf]/vfsf] ;fFw;Dd km}lnPsf] v; ;fd|fHo tTsfnLg g]kfnsf] 7'nf] e"v08 lyof]  . v; /fHosf] /fhwfgL l;Ghf lyof]  . ltAatsf] vf8L k|b]zaf6 cfPsf gfu/fhn] s0ff{nL k|b]zdf :jtGq v; /fHo :yfkgf u/]sf] dflgG5  . of] ;do [email protected] cf}+ ztfAbLlt/ -O{=;=!!%)_ ePsf] cg'dfg 5 . ltJatL j+zfjnL, lj=;+= !$!$ sf]b'Nn' clen]v  tyf uf]kfn/  fhj+zfjnL cflb ;|f]tx¿af6 g} To; If]qsf] Oltxf;af/] hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5  . o; /fHosf zf;sx¿df gfu/fh, qmfrNn, czf]s rNn, lhtf/L dNn, l/k' dNn, cflbTo dNNf, k'0o dNn / k[YjL dNn cflb /x]sf] kfOG5  . of] /fHosf] cl:tTj s/La @@^ jif{ hlt /Xof]  . v; /fHosf] ktgkl5 ;'b"/ klZrddf aemfª, 8f]6L, hfh/sf]6h:tf afO;] /fHo hGd]sf x'g\  . jt{dfg ;dodf ;a}eGbf cljsl;t tyf lk5l8Psf] dflgPsf] of] If]q dWosfndf lgSs} zlQmzfnL /fHosf] ¿kdf /x]sf] lyof]  . klZrdL v; /fHosf] ;a}eGbf k|d'v / dxŒjk"0f{ of]ubfg efiff;DaGwL of]ubfg xf]  . jt{dfg g]kfnL efiffsf] pTklQ v; dNn /fHod} ePsf] lyof]  . To;}n] o; efiffnfO{ …v;s'/fÚ jf …l;+hfnL efiffÚ ;d]t eGg] ul/G5  . v; dNn /fhfx¿n] o; efiffnfO{ /fhsfhsf] dfWod agfP/ /fi6« efiffsf] :yfg lbPsf] x'gfn] g} of] efiff lg/Gt/ kl/dflh{t / ljsl;t x'Fb} uof]  . v; dNn /fHosf] lj36gkl5 v8f x'g k'u]sf afO;] / rf}aL;] /fHox¿df ;d]t o;} efiffnfO{ Jofks k|of]udf NofOof]  . afO;] / rf}aL;] /fHox¿df /fHo efiffsf ¿kdf o;} efiffn] :yfg kfof] / ljzfn g]kfnsf] PsLs/0fkl5 g]kfnsf] /fi6« efiff aGg k'Uof]  . @=$=* slknj:t'sf] zfSo zfl;t /fHo slknj:t' lhNnfdf ltnf}/fsf]6 gfds :yfg /xs ] f] 5  . k|fKt tYox¿sf] cfwf/df of] ltnf}/fsf]6 g} zfSox¿sf] k|frLg slknj:ts ' f] /fhwfgL lyof]  . k|frLg u0f/fHox¿dWo] zfSox¿sf] of] /fHo ljz]if pNn]vgLo lyof], lsgeg] qms'5Gb, sgsd'lg, l;4fy{ uf}tdnufotsf a'4x¿sf] hGd oxL :yfgdf ePsf] lyof]  . pg} l;4fy{ uf}td a'4wd{sf k|jt{s dxfTdf uf}td a'4sf] ¿kdf kl/lrt 5g\  . k|frLg slknj:t' gu/ k~re'hfsf/ lsNnfsf] ¿kdf a;fOPsf] gu/ lyof]  . To; avt Jofkfl/s /fhdfu{sf ¿kdf pQ/bl] v blIf0fk"j{ xFb' } >fj:tLb]lv /fhlu/;Dd k'Ug] /fhdfu{ w]/h } ;f] slknj:t' /fHoleq} kb{Yof]  . zfSox¿sf] /fHo u0f/fHosf] ¿kdf ePsf] x'gfn] slknj:t' u0f/fHosf] zf;g Joj:yf k|frLg pQ/ ef/tLo u0f/fHox¿sf] zf;g Joj:yfcg'¿k g} lyof]  . zf;g ;~rfngfy{ ;fwf/0f ;ef / ef/bf/L ;ef u/L b'O{ PsfOx¿ lyP  . ;fwf/0f ;efn] /fHosf] sfo{sf/L ;efsf] ¿kdf sfo{ ub{Yof] / o:tf] sfo{sf/L ;efsf 90÷g]kfn

kl/ro

ltnf}/fsf]6 k"jL{åf/, slknj:t' d'Vo JolQmnfO{ g} /fhf elgGYof]  . a'4sf] hGdtfsf sfo{sf/L ;efsf d'Vo JolQm ;'4f]wg lyP  . /fhf z'4f]wgkl5 sfo{sf/L ;efsf] d'Vo JolQm jf /fhfsf] ¿kdf dxfgfdfnfO{ lgjf{lrt ul/Psf] lyof]  . slknj:t' /fHosf] l5d]sdf kg]{ sf]zn /fHosf /fhflj¿4sf] cfqmd0fdf k//]  slknj:t' /fHosf] ktg x'g k'Uof]  . @=% dWosfn lj=;= (#^ df …g]kfn ;+jt\Ú ;'? ePkl5 g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df …dWosfnÚ k|f/De ePsf] dflgPsf] 5  . lj=; (#^ b]lv g]kfnsf] PsLs/0f ePsf] cjlw !*@% ;Dd / lnR5ljsfnsf] ;dflKtkl5 / dNnsf] ktg x'g'cl3;Ddsf] sl/a ()) jif{ nfdf] ;donfO{ g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df dWosfn elgG5  . jf:tjdf dWosfn eGgfn] g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df …dNnsfnÚ sf] ¿kdf cWoog ug]{ k|rng 5  . o; sfnsf s]xL ztfAbL;Dd g]kfn klxnfsf] lnR5lj /fHohq} ljzfn /x]sf] t/ kl5 qmdzM 7fpF7fpFdf ;fgf :jtGq /fHox¿ ag]sf b]lvG5g\  . lar–lardf PsLs/0fsf] k'gM k|of; / lj:tf/ klg ePsf] lyof]  . t;y{ dWosfnLg g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns l:ylt slxn] PsLs[t, slxn] ljvl08t, slxn] lj:tfl/t / slxn] ;ª\s'lrt ePsf]kfOG5 . @=%=! dNn j+zsf] kl/ro t]x|f}F ztfAbLsf] cf/Deb]lv g]kfn pkTosfdf dNnx¿sf] zf;g Joj:yf sfod ePsf] dflgG5  . o; j+zsf klxnf] zf;s eg]/ cl/dNnsf] gfd lnOG5  . tyflk cl/dNneGbf w]/} cufl8b]lv zf;gdf dNnx¿sf] ;lqmotf lyof]  . g]kfn kl/ro÷91

cl/dNneGbf Ps ztfAbLcl3b]lv g} dNnx¿ s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf zf;gdf ;lqmo ePsf] s'/f uf]kfn /fhj+zfjnL tyf s]xL clen]vx¿df ;d]t kfOG5  . dNnx¿ k|frLg hflt dflgG5g\ . k|frLg ;+:s[t jfª\dox¿df dNnx¿sf]pNn]v ljlzi6 ju{sf If]qLosf] ¿kdf ul/Psf] 5  . dxfef/t, ljleGg af}4 ;flxTox¿, dg':d[ lt tyf cGo ljleGg k'/f0fdf dNnx¿sf];Gbe{ kfpg ;lsG5 . dxfef/tdf sf];nx¿sf] ;fydf dNnx¿sf] klg ;dfg rrf{ ul/Psf] kfOG5  . dfs{08]o k'/f0fdf ldlynfsf ljb]xx¿;Fu dNnx¿ bfFlhPsf 5g\ . kfrf}F, 5}6f}F ztfAbL O{=k"= sf ;ª\ul7t u0f/fHosf] ;~rfng u/]/ a;]sf w]/} /fhj+zx¿ kl5 qmdzM /fhtGqfTds zf;gcGtu{t rn]sf /fHox¿sf] ;fd|fHo lj:tf/sf] rk]6fdf k/]/ g]kfnsf] e"efudf k;]sf pbfx/0fx¿ ljleGg k|frLg ;|f]tx¿n] lbPsf 5g\  . lnR5lj, sf]nLo, zfSo, dNn cflb ;a} g} g]kfndf z/0ffyL{ ¿kdf k;]sf lyP  . zfSox¿ nlntk'/ If]qdf a;]sf lyP eg] sf]lnox¿ sflGtk'/ -cfhsf] s]n6f]n_ df a;f]af; ub{y]  . To:t}, dNnx¿n] ;'?df u08sL If]qdf / kl5 pkTosfdf st} g st} a;f]af; u/]sf] kfOG5  . @=%[email protected] dNnx¿sf] g]kfn cfudg pQ/ ef/tdf duwsf u'Kt ;d||f6sf] lblUjhon] j}zfnLsf lnR5ljx¿ ToxfF l6Sg g;sL sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf cfPh:t} ef/tsf] s'zLgu/ / To;sf] 5]p5fp d"n ePsf dNnx¿ klg z/0ffyL{x¿sf ¿kdf g]kfnsf] u08sL If]qdf cfPsf lyP  . /fhNnb]j / s7o dNnn] nlntk'/sf] blIf0fdf cjl:yt rDkflul/ -rfkfufFp_ a:tL a;fPsfn] dNnx¿n] sf7df8f}Fdf cfˆgf] /fhg}lts k|efj a9fpg] k|of; u/]sf] b]lvG5  . dfgb]jåf/f dNn k|b]zdf cfqmd0fsf] d'Vo p2]Zo dNnx¿sf] dxŒjsfª\IffnfO{ bafpg' g} lyof]  . s]Gb|df lnR5lj zf;g sdhf]/ x'g yfn]kl5 dNnx¿sf] s]Gb|df zf;g ug]{ cfsfª\Iff a9\of]  . o;df cl/b]j -cl/_ dNn ;kmn eP  . lj=;= [email protected]!) df hGd]sf cl/b]j lj=;[email protected]%* df /fhf eO{ !% jif{ hlt /fHo u/]/ lj=;= [email protected]&$ df b]x Tofu u/]  . cl/ dNnkl5 ceo dNn lj=;+= [email protected]&$ df /fhf eP . pgn]#* jif{;Dd zf;g rnfP . @=%=# dNn /fHosf] ljefhg dNnsfndf PsLs[t g]kfn pkTosfsf] /fhwfgL eQmk'/ lyof] / /fhfx¿ …o'ylgDxdÚ / …lqk'/Ú b/af/df /xL zf;g rnfpFy]  . cGo d'n'ssf] cfqmd0faf6 aRg ;lsg] u/L rf/kf6] lsNnfsf ¿kdf b/af/ agfPsf] x'GYof] h;nfO{ :yfgLo efiffdf rf}SjfF7 elgG5  . g]kfn pkTosfsf] ;ª\ul7t dNn /fHosf clGtd dNn /fhf oIf dNn lyP . oIf dNnsf]zf;gsfnkl5 g]kfn  pkTosf sflGtk'/, kf6g /efbufpFsf ¿kdf ljeflht eP . sflGtk'/df  xg'dfg 9f]sf 92÷g]kfn

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b/af/sf] lgdf0f{ O:jLsf] afx|f}F ztfAbLdf /fhf u'0fsfdb]jsf kfnfdf ePsf] s'/f jzf+jnLdf pNn]v 5  . k|tfk dNnn] sflGtk'/sf] o; b/af/df w]/} v08 / rf]sx¿ yk]/ ljzfn ¿k lbPsf lyP  . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx sflGtk'/sf] /fhu2Ldf cf?9 ePkl5 s]xL k'/fgf] v08 / rf]s x6fpg], gofF rf]sx¿ / v08x¿ yKg] sfd ePsf] lyof]  . tflnsf g+= @=! pkTosfsf dNn /fhfx¿ sflGtk'/sf dNn /fhfx¿ !_ /Tg dNn @_ ;"o{ dNn #_ cd/ dNn $_ dx]Gb| dNn %_ lzjl;+x dNn ^_ nIdLg/l;+x dNn &_ k|tfk dNn *_ g[kGb| ] dNn (_ kfly{j]Gb| dNn !)_ e"kfn]Gb| dNn !!_ efis/dNn [email protected]_ hoHho dNn !#_ hok|sfz dNn





kf6gsf dNn /fhfx¿ !_ /0f dNn @_ lji0f' dNn #_ g/l;+x dNn, k'/Gb/l;+x dNn, p4jl;+x dNn $_ xl/x/l;+x dNn %_ l;l4g/l;+x dNn ^_ >Llgjf; dNn &_ of]ug/]Gb| dNn *_ nf]sk|sfz dNn (_ OGb| dNn !)_ dxLGb| dNn !!_ jL/g/l;+x dNn [email protected]_ Cl4g/l;+x dNn !#_ efis/ dNn !$_ of]uk|sfz dNn !%_ lji0f' dNn !^_ /fHok|sfz dNn !&_ ljZjlht dNn !*_ hok|sfz dNn !(_ /0flht dNn @)_ t]hg/l;+x dNn

!_ /fo dNn #_ k|f0f dNn

efbufp“sf dNn /fhfx¿ @_ ;'j0f{ dNn $_ ljZj dNn g]kfn kl/ro÷93

%_ huHof]lt{ dNn &_ hutk|sfz dNn (_ e"ktLGb| dNn

^_ g/]Gb| dNn *_ lhtfldq dNn !)_ /0flht dNn tflnsf g+= @[email protected] s]xL dNn /fhfx¿sf d'Vo s[ltx¿

/fhf

d'Vo s[ltx¿÷sfo{x¿

hol:ylt dNn

k];fut xslxtsf] ;+/If0f, hUufnfO{ cAan, bf]od, l;d / rfxf/ u/L rf/ efudf ljefhgÙ 3/, hldg a]rljvg ug{ / aGws /fVg klg kfOg] Joj:yfÙ dfgf, kfyL, 9s t/fh'df ;'wf/Ù rf/j0f{ 5lQ; hftsf] ;fdflhs Joj:yf, hftLo k];f / klx/gsf] Joj:yfÙ uf]kfn /fhj+zfjnLsf] /rgf

oIf dNn

eQmk'/ tf}d8L 6f]nsf] dlGb/, bQfqo dlGb/, oIfZj/ dlGb/, nlntk'/sf] eLdgfy dlGb/ :yfkgf,

/Tg dNn

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dlxGb| dNn

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nIdLg/l;+x dNn

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k|tfk dNn

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@=^ cfw'lgs sfn cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts Oltxf; lj=;= !*@% -O{=;=!&^*_ b]lv k|f/De x'G5  . zfxj+zLo /fhf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] pkTosf ljho k|fKt u/]kl5 g} cfw'lgs sfn ;'? ePsf] dflgFb} cfPsf] 5  . g]kfnsf] cfw'lgs Oltxf; / e"uf]nsf k|jt{s k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] cfˆgf lbJo pkb]zdf æd]/f ;fgf b'vn] cfHof{sf] d'n's xf]Og, g]kfn rf/ hft 5QL; j0f{sf] km"naf/L xf] ;a}nfO{ r]tgf eofÚ eGg] Pstfaf]wsf] ;Gb]z;d]t lbPsf 5g\  . ljzfn g]kfn lgdf{0fdf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxnfO{ PsLs/0f clwi7ftf dflgG5 . ;fgf–;fgf y'd / 6fs'/] /fHodf ljeQm e"–v08nfO{ ;d]6L zlQmzfnL /fHodf PsLs[t / ;ª\ul7t ug{ lj=;= !*)! -O{=;= !&$$_ sf]g'jfsf]6 ljhob]lv  lj=;= !*&# -O{=;=!*!^_ sf] ;'uf}nL ;lGw;Dd s/La &# jif{ nfu]sf] lyof]  . @=^=! zfxj+zsf] kl/ro zfxj+zsf] k|frLg Oltxf;af/] ljleGg j+zfjnLx¿n] cnu–cnu ¿kdf j0f{g u/s ] f 5g\ tfklg xfn;DDf k|fKt ljljw tYox¿sf] cfwf/df x]bf{ uf]/vf–/fhj+zsf] ;DaGw ef/tsf] lrtf}8sf l;;f}lbof /fhk'tx¿l;t sfod /xs ] f] a'lemG5  . d';ndfgL cfqmd0faf6 lrtf}8sf]  ktg ePkl5 ToxfFsf zf;sx¿ klg efu]/  oqtq nfu]  . s]xL jif{kl5 oxL /fhj+zsf e"kfnn] g]kfnsf] l/8L / kl5 le/sf]6df a;f]af; u/s ] f] a'lemG5  . oL e"kfnsf b'O{ 5f]/fx¿ xl/x/l;+x / chol;+xn] klxnf]kN6 cfP/ kxf8L Onfsfdf cf–cfˆgf] :jtGq /fHosf] :yfkgf u/ ] . oL b'j} efOx¿n] tTsfnLg ef/tjif{sf zf;sx¿n] lnP ;/x dfg kbjL wf/0ff u/s ] f lyP  . To;}n] Oltxf;df logLx¿ vfFrf vfg / ldrf vfg eg]/ klg lrlgG5g\ . sfG5f chol;+xsf]j+zdf logLkl5 ljlrq vfg, s'nd08g cflb eP . s'nd08gn]lbNnLsf afbzfxaf6 zfx kbjL kfPsf]s'/f j+zfjnLdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5  . o;y{ s'nd08gsf] kfnfb]lv g} o; /fhj+zn] cfˆgf] g]kfn kl/ro÷95

gfdsf] ;fy zfx k|of]u ug{ yfn]sf] dflgG5  . s'nd08g zfxsf] ;dodf ndh'ªsf] /fhu2L vfnL ePsf]n] ndh'ªsf] cg'/fw] df logsf sfG5f 5f]/f ozf]aX| d zfxnfO{ ToxfFsf] /fhf agfOof]  . ozf]ax| d \ zfxsf b'O{ efO 5f]/fx¿ lyP  . h]7f g/xl/ zfx / sfG5f b|Jo zfx . ozf]a| Dx zfxsf sfG5f 5f]/f b|Jo zfxn] uf]/vfdf ljho u//]  cfˆgf] /fHo :yflkt u/s ] f x'g \ . uf]/vf /fHo rf}la;]s} ju{df k/] klg o;sf] cfˆg} cl:tTj / dxŒj lyof]  . k|f/Dedf uf]/vfdf v8\sfx¿n] /fHo uy] { . ndh'Ë] /fhf o;f]aX| dsf 5f]/f /fhf b|Jozfx lj=;=!^!^ -O{=;= !%%(_ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx df uf]/vfsf] /fhu2Ldf a;]kl5 g} uf]/vf zfxj+zLo /fHosf] ¿kdf ljsf; eof]  . @=^[email protected] uf]/vf /fHosf] :yfkgf uf]/vfdf zfxj+zsf] :yfkgf x'g'eGbfcl3 /hfOF ul//x]sf v8\sf /fhfx¿nfO{ hftLo e]befj, bdg / wfld{s pR5[ª\vntfsf] sf/0fn] uf]/vfsf a'h|'sx¿ qm'4 eO{ /fHoRo"t u/fO{ s'g} ;'of]Uo JolQmnfO{ /fhf agfpg rflx/x]sf] cj:yfdf b|Jo zfxsf] ;Dks{ uf]/vfnL hgtf;Fu x'g uof]  . uf]/vfnL hgtf pgsf] cf]h:jL JolQmTjaf6 k|efljt eO{ pgnfO{ /fhf agfpg] t/v/df nfu]  . Tof] ;dodf lnulnu] eGg] 7fpFdf 3n] y/sf u'?ªx¿n] /fHo ub{y]  . ToxfF k|To]s jif{ ljhofbzdLsf] lbg bf}8df k|yd x'g]nfO{ /fhf agfpg] k|rng lyof]  . To; pT;jnfO{ x]g{ pkl:yt ePsf] a]nf b|Jo zfxn] ck|Toflzt ¿kdf cfqmd0f u/L ToxfF cfˆgf] k|e'Tj sfod u/]  . lnulnudfly ljho xfl;n u/]nut} uf]/vfdf cfqmd0f u/], t/ uf]/vfnLx¿n] b|Jo zfxsf] tLj| k|lt/f]w u/]  . !% lbg;Dd o'4 ubf{ klg ljho x'g g;s]sf]sf/0fn]b|Jo zfx lnulnu kms{g afWo x'g'k¥of]  . b|Jo zfx lgs} dxŒjfsf+IfL ePsf]n] k|yd k/fhon] pgsf] pT;fxnfO{ bdg ug{ ;s]sf] lyPg eg] eflu/y kGt, u0f]z kf08], ;j]{Zj/ vgfn, u+uf/fd /fgf, uhfgGb e§/fO{, s]zj af]x/f, d'/fnL vjf;x¿n] pgsf] pT;fxnfO{ 96÷g]kfn

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a9fO/x]sf lyP  . b|Jozfxsf ;}lgsx¿ yfkf, e'iffn, df:s], /fgfx¿;d]tn] uf]/vfsf /fhfsf] b/af/nfO{ 3]/L cfqmd0f u/]  . b|Jo zfxsf] xftaf6 v8\sf /fhfn] jL/ult k|fKt u/]  . o;k|sf/ lj=;=!^!^ efb| @% df b|Jo zfx uf]/vfsf /fhf eP  . b|Jo zfxsf ;Gtfg /fd zfx !^^# lt/ uf]/vfsf /fhf eP  . logL Gofo lbg]/fhfsf ¿kdf k|l;4 lyP . tflnsf g+= @=# k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxk"j{sf /fhfx¿ qm=;+= ! @ # $ % ^ & * (

/fhfx¿ b|Jo zfx k'/Gb/ zfx 5q zfx /fd zfx 8Da/ zfx s[i0f zfx ?b| zfx k[YjLklt zfx g/e"kfn zfx

;dofjlw -lj=;+=_ !^!^–!^@& !^@&–!^^@ !^^@–!^^# !^^#–!^() !^()–!&)@ !&)@–!&!* !&!*–!&#) !&#)–!&&# !&&#–!&((

@=^=# k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx / g]kfn PsLs/0f cleofg k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx g/e"kfn zfxsf 5f]/f x'g\  . pgsf] hGd !&&( kf}if @& ut] uf]/vfdf ePsf] lyof]  . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx Ps k|tfkL /fhf lyP  . b|Jo zfx lj=;=!^!^ df uf]/vfsf] /fhu2Ldf a;]kl5 g} uf]/vf zfxj+zLo /fHosf] ¿kdf ljsf; ePsf] lyof]  . uf]/vfsf] :yfkgfkl5 dfq k"j{sf ;]g /fHox¿, sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf dNn /fHox¿, afO;L, rf}la;]eGbf uf]/vf /fHo ;zQm / ;ª\ul7t ePsfn] PsLs/0fsf] cleofg o;n] ;kmntfk"j{s ;~rfng u¥of]  . s]xL /fHox¿ uf]/vfeGbf alnof eP klg dWosfnsf] …u'xf/ o'u] /fhgLltÚsf] km]/f]kmGbf]df k/L dha't x'g;s]sf lyPgg\  . uf]/vfn] s"6gLlts rfnafhL ;'?b]lv g} ub}{ lyof]  . o; /fHodf b|Jo zfx, /fd zfx, g/e"kfn zfx / k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxh:tf k|tfkL /fhfx¿n] /fHo u/]sf lyP  . g]kfn PsLs/0fsf] k|of; dWosfnLg g]kfndf ePklg cfw'lgs g]kfnsf]yfngLkl5 dfq of]sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . g]kfn kl/ro÷97

ndh'ª / eQmk'/;“u d}qL ;DaGw sfod k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf cfqmd0f ug'{cufl8 ndh'ª;Fu d}qL ;lGw u/]  . ;g\ !&$) sf] hgj/L dlxgfdf ePsf] of] ;lGwdf cfk;df cgfqmd0f / csf]{ b]zn] cfqmd0f u/]df b'j} b]z Ps eP/ n8\g] s'/f pNn]v lyof]  . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx l5d]sL b'Zdg /fHo;Fu d}qL ;lGw ug{ ;kmn ePsfn] pkTosf cfqmd0f ug]{ of]hgf /fd|/L cufl8 a9]sf] xf]  . To;} u/L ;g\ !&$! df k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] eQmk'/sf /fhf /0fhLt dNnsf 5f]/f jL/g/l;+x dNn;Fu ldt]/L ;fOgf] ufF;]/ csf]{ l5d]sL;Fu d}qL ;DaGw :yfkgf u/]sf lyP  . g'jfsf]6dfly cfqmd0f / ljho k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] ;g\ !&$# df g'jfsf]6 cfqmd0f u/]  . g'jfsf]6 To; ;dodf sf7df8f}Fsf /fhf hok|sfz dNnsf] clwgdf lyof] / pgLx¿;Fu uf]/vfnLsf eGbf /fd|f / cfw'lgs xltof/x¿ ePsfn] k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] g'jfsf]6 cfqmd0f c;kmn ePsf] lyof]  . bf];|f] k6s @% ;]K6]Da/ !&$$ O{= df uf]/vfnL ;]gfn] lqz"nL laxfg} kf/ u/L g'jfsf]6sf] ;aeGbf cUnf] :yn dxfd08ndf b'O{lt/af6 cfqmd0f u/]/ g'jfsf]6nfO{ cfˆgf] agfof]  . o;} qmddf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] a]nsf]6dfly klg ljho k|fKt u/]  . pkTosf gfsfaGbL ug]{k|of; pkTosfdf ;f]em} cfqmd0f ug'{eGbf klxn] o;nfO{ rf/}lt/af6 3]g]{ k|of; eof]  . o; qmddf uf]/vfn] sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf /fHox¿ Pjd\ ndh'ª;Fu d"7e]8 ug'{k/]sf] lyof]  . pQ/–klZrd / blIf0flt/af6 sf7df8f}F pkTosfnfO{ 3]/]/ cfly{s gfsfaGbL ug]{ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] of]hgf nueu ;kmn ePkl5 pkTosfsf]k"j{lt/af6 gfsfaGbL ug'{ cfjZos lyof] . o; qmddf @# cS6'a/ !&^# df xl/jz+ pkfWofo, sflnbf; v8\sf / /fds[i0f s'Fj/n] w'lnv]n, v8\k', rf}sf]6, kgf}tL, ag]kf,  gfnf, ;fFuf cflb ;ft ufpFdf cfqmd0f u/L ljho k|fKt u/]  . @ gf]e]Da/ !&^# df o'4 gul/sg g} kmlk{ª uf]/vfsf] cwLgdf cfof]  . sf7df8f}F pkTosf ca k"j{tkm{af6 klg 3]l/of]  . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] rf/}lt/af6 pkTosfnfO{ 3]/]/ g'g, skf;, vfBfGg Pjd\ cGo ;fdfgx¿ pkTosfleq k|j]z ug{ k"0f{ k|ltaGw nufO lbP . l;¥xfgrf]s u9Lsf] o'4 d] !&%% O{= df rf}aL;L /fHox¿sf] ;+oQ ' m ;]gfn] r]kg] bL t/L uf]/vfsf] l;¥xfgrf]s u9Ldf xdnf u/ ] . uf]/vfnL ;]gf sfn' kf08]sf] g]tT[ jdf xdnfjf/x¿nfO{ k|lt/fw] ug{ To;tkm{ nfUof]  . b'jt} km{sf ;]gfx¿lar 3df;g o'4 eof]  . b'jt} km{ w]/} xtfxt eP  . cGTodf ljho uf]/vfnL kmf}hs} xft nfUof]  . 98÷g]kfn

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sf7df8f}“ / uf]/vflarsf] ;lGw ltAat;Fu Jofkf/ ug]{ d'Vo 3fF6L s]?ª / s'QL uf]/vfsf] lgoGq0fdf eP tfklg uf]/vfn] vf; Jofkf/df nfe lng kfPsf] lyPg  . pkTosfsf /fhfx¿sf lardf km'6 u/fpg klg sf7df8f}F;  Fu ;lGw ug{ cfjZos lyof] . To;sf/0f sflGtk'/;Fu ;g\ !&%* df ltAat;Fu ePsf] Jofkf/sf] nfe b'j} b]zn] kfpg] s'/f pNn]v ePsf] ;lGw ul/of]  . dsjfgk'/ ljho uf]/vfn] lj=;=!*!( efb| ( ut] /ftL dsjfgk'/dfly ljho k|fKt u¥of]  . To; avt ef/tsf] lrQf}8df lbNnLsf ;'Ntfg cnfp2Lg lvhnLn] cfqmd0f u/]sf lyP  . cGTodf /fhk't /fhfx¿n] xf/ :jLsf/ u/]/ cfˆgf ar]sf] ;]gf ;fydf lnP/ lxdfnosf sGb/ftkm{ k|:yfg u/]  . rf}aL;L /fHox¿sf] bf];|f] cfqmd0f dsjfgk'/sf /fhf lbUaGwg ;]g uf]/vfdf gh/aGb eP  . sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf rf/}tkm{af6 cfly{s gfsfaGbL eO{ xfxfsf/ dlRrPsf] a]nf rf}la;L /fHox¿ uf]/vfdf n8fOF ug{ ;+o'Qm ¿kn] h'6]  . rf}la;L /fHox¿sf] ;+o'Qm ;]gfn] uf]/vfsf] lgoGq0fdf /x]sf xgL{, le/sf]6, w'nfsf]6, Bf}/fnL cflbdf cfqmd0f u/]  . To;sf] k|Tofqmd0f ug{ cufl8 a9]sf uf]/vf ;]gfsf] cufl8 rf}la;L /fHosf] ;+o'Qm ;]gf l6Sg ;s]g  . n8fOFsf] d}bfg 5f]8L efufefu eP  . sLlt{k'/dfly ljho uf]/vfnL kmf}hn] kmlk{ª, af]8] / vf]sgf sAhf ul/;s]kl5 O=!&%& df sLlt{k'/dfly xdnf u/]  . hok|sfz dNnsf] kmf}h Pjd\ sLlt{k'/sf hgtfsf] ;+o'Qm k|Tofqmd0faf6 uf]/vfnL kmf}hn] g/fd|f] lsl;dn] k/flht x'g'k¥of]  . o'4df ;]gfklt sfn' kf08]n] jL/ult k|fKt u/]  . hLjg yfkf / nf6f vqLh:tf uf]/vfnL ;}lgssf] d[To' eof]  . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] hLp hf]ufpg klg xDd]xDd] k/]sf] lyof]  . lj=;= !*@! cflZjg $ ut] ;"/k|tfk zfxsf] g]t[Tjdf uf]/vfnL kmf}hn] sLlt{k'/dfly bf];|f] k6s cfqmd0f u¥of]  . o; o'4df ;"/k|tfk zfxsf] cfFvf km'6\of]  . bnhLt zfx 3fOt] eP / w]/} uf]/vfnL ;]gf dfl/P  . afFr]sf ;}lgs Hofg hf]ufO{ bxrf]s k'u]  . lj=;+= !*@@ r}q # ut] uf]/vfn] t]>f] k6s crfgs cfqmd0f u/L sLlt{k'/dfly ljho k|fKt u¥of] . sf7df8f}“ pkTosf ljho sLlt{k'/ ljhokl5 k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] sf7df8f}F /fHodf cfqmd0f ug]{ of]hgf agfP  . uf]/vfnL kmf}håf/f sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf lj=;+= !*@% efb|z'Sn rt'b{zL g]kfn kl/ro÷99

cfOtaf/ -OGb|hfqf_ sf lbg eLd;]g :yfg, 6'F8Lv]n / g/b]jL u/L tLglt/af6 cfqmd0f u/L sf7df8f}Fdfly ljho k|fKt u/]  . nlntk'/ ljho kf6g ljho ug]{l;nl;nfdf >Lxif{ kGtnfO{ b"t agfP/kf6g k7fpFbf kf6gsf k|wfgx¿n] k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] zf;g :jLsf/ u/L cfTd;dk{0f u/s ] fn] uf]/vfnL kmf}hn] ;g\ !&^* cS6'a/ ^ sf lbg nlntk'/dfly xdnf u/L sAhf u¥of]  . eQmk'/ ljho sf7df8f}F / nlntk'/ uf]/vf /fHon] sAhf u/k] l5 b'j} /fHosf /fhfx¿ qmdzM hok|sfz dNn / t]hg/l;+x dNn eQmk'/sf /fhf /0flht dNnsf z/0fdf k'u ] . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] oL b'j} /fhfnfO{ ;'kb' u{ L ug{ eQmk'/sf /fhf;Fu cfu|x u/] t/ z/0fsf] d/0f ug'{ dfgjf]lrt gePsf] s'/f b;f{pbF } uf]/vfnL cfu|xnfO{ /0fhLt dNnn] :jLsf/ gu/s ] f] x'bF f lj=;=!*@^ sflQs z'Sn åfbzLsf lbg uf]/vfnL kmf}hn] eQmk'/dfly xdnf u/ ] . cGTodf pkTosfsf tLg} /fhfn] cfTd;dk{0f u/ ] . k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] k"jL{ g]kfnsf] sf];L If]qsf] ljho cleofgdf sf:sL / ndh'ªsf s'Fj/If]qLx¿n]clws dfqfdf efu lnPsf lyP . k"jL{ ljhokl5 k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn]/fds[i0f s'Fj/nfO{ Ko'7fg k7fP . ToxfF pgL af?bvfgf tof/ug{ nufpFb}lyP, To;}a]nf @! dfr{ !&&! O{=df pgsf]d[To' eof]  . /fds[i0f s'Fj/sf] d[To'kl5 !* jifL{o pgsf 5f]/f /0flht sF'j/ gjljlht h'Dnfsf xflsd lgo'Qm eP . ToxfF zflGt ;'Joj:yf /fd|f]ug{ ;kmn ePsfn] pgnfO{ g]kfnsf rf/sfhLdWo] Ps sfhL agfOof]  . /0flht s'Fj/sf tLg 5f]/f lyP M afngl;+x s'Fj/, an/fd s'Fj/ / /]jGt s'Fj/  . /0faxfb'/ zfxsf xTof/f z]/axfb'/ zfxnfO{ l7s df}sfdf df/]afkt\ afng/l;+x s'Fj/ sfhL agfOP  . pgsf] dfg / hflu/ pgsf pQ/flwsf/Lx¿n] klg kfpg] eP . sfhL afng/l;+x @$ l8;]Da/  !*!$ O{=df lbjª\ut eP . tflnsf g+= @=$ g]kfnsf zfxj+zLo /fhfx¿ qm=;+= ! @ # $

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@=& /f0ffzf;g sfn afng/l;+x s'Fj/sf 5f]/f h+uaxfb'/ s'Fj/n] sf]tkj{kl5 /fHo zf;g xTofP  . e08f/vfn kj{ / cnf} kj{kl5 h+uaxfb'/ zlQmzfnL ag] / ndh'ª / tgx'Fsf] >L # ag] / /f0ff zf;gsf] hu a;fn]  . k|wfgdGqL tyf ltgsf] d'Vo of]ubfg != hª\uaxfb'/-!()$–!(##_ M lj=; !(!) df Gofo Joj:yf tyf ck/fw sfg'g tf]lsPsf] d'n'sL P]g klxnf] k6s hf/L  . b/af/ xfO:s'nsf] :yfkgf  . gofF d'n's k|fKt . @= /0ff]2Lk -!(##–!([email protected]_ M x'nfs 3/sf] :yfkgf, dfnkf]t p7fpg] gofF aGbf]a:t ul/Psf]  . #= jL/ ;d;]/ -!([email protected]–!(%&_ M efbufFp / sf7df8f}Fdf jL/wf/fsf] Joj:yf, k'nx¿sf] lgdf{0f, jL/ c:ktfn -lj=;=!(&$_, jL/ k':tsfnosf] :yfkgf, 306f3/sf] lgdf{0f  . $= b]j ;d;]/ -!(%&–!(%*_ M uf]/vfkqsf] k|sfzg k|f/De, ;/sf/L ;do !)–% ah] lgwf{/0f, ;/sf/L labfsf] Joj:yf, kf7zfnfx¿sf] :yfkgf  . %= rGb| ;d;]/ -!(%*– !(*^_ M ;tL k|yfsf] pGd"ng, bf;df]rg, klxnf] k6s lah'nL aQLsf] Joj:yf, klxnf] sn]h lq–rGb| sn]hsf] :yfkgf, uf]/vf efiff k|sflzgL ;ldltsf] :yfkgf, g]kfnsf] gS;f lgdf{0f  . ^= eLd ;d;]/ -lj=;=!(*^–!(*(_ M g'g /skf;df eG;f/dfkmL, skf; v]tLnfO{ k|f]T;fxg  . g]kfn kl/ro÷101

&= h'4 ;d;]/ -lj=;=!(*(–@))@_ M klxnf] a}ª\s -g]kfn a}ª\s_ :yfkgf, 3/]n' pBf]usf] ljsf;, pRr cbfnt, h'4 af?0f oGq, Do'lhod / lrl8ofvfgfsf] :yfkgf  . *= kß ;d;]/ [email protected]))@–@))%_ M klxnf] ;+ljwfg hf/L, sf7df8f}F Do"lgl;kfln6L :yfkgf  . (= df]xg ;d;]/ [email protected]))%–@))*_ M cfsfzjf0fLsf] :yfkgf, /fli6«o cfly{s ;ldltsf] u7g  . @=* /f0ffsfnkl5sf] /fhgLlts ljsf;qmd k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx uf]/vfsf] /fhf x'Fbf ef/tdf O:6 OlG8of sDkgLsf] gfddf cª\u|]h ;/sf/sf] :yfkgf / lj:tf/ eO/x]sf] lyof]  . ljutsf] PsLs[t g]kfn ljljw sf/0fn] afO;] rf}la;] /fHodf ljeflht eO{ Ps cfk;df zq'tfk"0f{ Jojxf/ / o'4df ;Lldt lyP  . Psftkm{ b]zsf] /fli6«o cv08tf ;ª\s6df lyof] eg] csf]{tkm{ cfly{s ljsf; cj?4 lyof]  . o; r'gf}tLk"0f{ 38Ldf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] /fli6«o PsLs/0fsf] >Lu0f]z u/L PsLs[t cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] :yfkgf u/]  . g]kfnsf] PsLs/0f ug{ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] ;kmn s"6gLlt, /0fgLlt / o'4gLlt cjnDag u/]sf lyP  . PsLs/0fsf] cfGbf]ng ;'uf}nL ;lGwkZrft\ /f]lsof]  . To;kl5 /fhb/af/df if8\oGqn] :yfg lnof]  . sf]tkj{kl5 hËaxfb'/n] /f0ff zf;g :yfkgf u/]  . cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts Oltxf;sf] ljsf; /f0ff zf;glj¿4sf] cfGbf]ngaf6 ;'? x'G5  . lj=;+= @))& ;fn c;f]h & / * ut] ef/tsf] j}/ugLofdf ePsf] g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf] ;Dd]ngn] g]kfndf /f0ffzf;gsf] cGTo / k|hftGqsf] :yfkgfsf nflu ;z:q ;ª\3if{ ug]{ lg0f{o u/]cg'¿k @))& ;fn sflQs @% ut]b]lv dft[sfk|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] g]t[Tjdf g]kfnL sfª\u|];n] ;z:q ;ª\3if{ ;'? u¥of]  . @))& ;fn kmfu'g $ ut] /fhf lqe'jg ;kl/jf/ g]kfn kms]{kl5 & ut] zfxL 3f]if0ffåf/f k|hftGq :yfkgf ul/of]  . @=*=! @))& b]lv  @)!& ;fn;Ddsf]36gfqmd @))& ;fnsf] 3f]if0ff / ;+o'Qm dlGqd08nsf] u7g M lbNnL ;Demf}tfkl5 @))& ;fn kmfu'g & ut] g]kfndf /f0ff zf;gsf] cGTo eO{ k|hftGq :yfkgf ePsf] P]ltxfl;s 3f]if0ff ul/of]  . pQm 3f]if0ffdf lgDg a'Fbfx¿ lyPM s= hg lgjf{lrt j}wflgs  ;efn]u0ftGqfTds ljwfg th{'df ug]{5 . v= gofF ljwfg th'{df gx'Gh] n;Dd k|zf;g ;~rfng ug{ cGtl/ d dlGqd08n u7g ug]{ h;df /f0fftkm{sf] % / g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf] 102÷g]kfn

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tkm{af6 % hgf ;b:o lgo'Qm x'g]5g\ . u= @))& ;fn r}q @) ut]leq  ;a}/fhgLlts aGbLx¿nfO{ cfd dfkmL x'g] 5 / To:tf /fhgLlts aGbLx¿n] cfˆgf] vf]l;Psf] ;DklQ lkmtf{ kfpg] 5g\  . /f0ff / sfª\u|]; ;lDdlnt of] ;+o'Qm ;/sf/ gf} dlxgfeGbf a9L l6Sg ;s]g / @))* ;fn dª\l;/@! ut]lj36g eof] . sf“u|];sf] Psdgf dlGqd08n @))* ;fn dª\l;/ ! ut] dft[sfk|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] k|wfgdGqLTjdf g]kfnL sfª\u; ]| sf] Psdgf dlGqd08n u7g ul/of]  . o; cjlwdf ;jf]R{ r Gofofno, klAns ;le{; sld;g, cfo Joo lg/LIf0f k|wfg c8\8fsf]:yfkgf eof] . @))( ;fn h]7df ;DkGg g]kfnL sf+u; ]| sf] clwj]zgdf jL=kL= sf]O/fnfsf] 7fpFdf dft[sfk|;fb sf]O/fnf sfª\u; ]| cWoIf 5flgP  . ;/sf/ cfGtl/s ljjfbdf kmF:b} uPkl5 @))( ;fn >fj0f @^ ut]of];/sf/klg lj36g eof] . @))( ;fn >fj0f #) ut] /fhf lqe'jgaf6 cfkm\g} dWo:ytfdf ^ ;b:oLo zfxL k/fdz{bfqL ;/sf/ u7g eof]  . @)!) ;fn c;f/ ! ut];Dd of] ;/sf/ cl:tTjdf /xo\ f]  . o;kl5 lj=;= @)!) c;f/@ ut]/ fli6«o k|hfkf6L{sf cWoIf dft[sfk|;fb sf]O/fnfnfO{ k'gM k|wfgdGqL agfOof]  . @)!) kmfu'gdf dlGqd08ndf x]/km]/ u/L 6+sk|;fb cfrfo{ / l8NnL/d0f /U] dLnfO{ ;d]t ;f]xL ;/sf/df ;fd]n ul/of]  . ax'bnLo ;+o'Qm dlGqd08n g]kfnL /fli6«o sfª\u|];, k|hfkl/ifb\ / hgsfª\u|]; u/L tLgcf]6f ;fgf kf6L{sf] ;xeflutfdf k'gM dft[sfk|;fb sf]O/fnfs} k|wfgdGqLTjdf lj=;= @)!) kmfu'gdf csf]{ ;/sf/ u7g eof]  . o;df 6ª\sk|;fb cfrfo{ / l8NnL/d0f /]UdL ylkP  . /fhf lqe'jgn] dft[sfsf] dlGqd08n lj=;= @)!! df lj36g u/L /fHo Joj:yfsf] cleef/f :jo+df lnO{ ;f]em} ;~rfng ug{ yfn]  . /fhf lqe'jgsf] d[To'kl5 /fhf dx]Gb|sf]] /fHo/f]x0f lj=;= @)!! r}q ! ut] ePsf] lyof]  . lj=;+= @)!# df dx]Gb|sf] /fHoleif]s eof]  . zfxL ;Nnfxsf/ ;/sf/ lj=;+= @)[email protected] ;fn j}zfv ! ut] /fhf dx]Gb|n] u'Ghdfgl;+xsf] cWoIftfdf zfxL ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldlt u7g u/L zf;g ;~rfng ug{ yfn]  . of] ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltdf % hgf ;b:o lyP . k|hfkl/ifb\sf] dlGqd08n ljqmd ;+jt\ @)[email protected] ;fn df3 !# ut] /fhf dx]Gb|af6 k|hfkl/ifb\sf g]tf 6+sk|;fb cfrfo{sf] k|wfgdGqLTjdf # hgf :jtGq ;b:o;d]t ;dfj]z ePsf] g]kfn kl/ro÷103

;ft ;b:oLo dlGqd08nsf] 3f]if0ff eof]  . of] ;/sf/n] @)!# c;f]h % ut]sf lbg rLg;Fu zflGt tyf d}qL ;lGw u¥of]  . of] ;/sf/ @)!$ c;f/;Dd l6Sof]  . 8f= s]= cfO{= l;+xsf] ;/sf/ @)!$ ;fn >fj0f !! sf lbg ;+oQ' m k|hftflGqs kf6L{sf]cWoIf 8f= s]= cfO{= l;+xsf] g]tT[ jdf P3f/ ;b:oLo dlGqd08n u7g eof]  . t/, /fhf dx]Gb|sf] zfxL 3f]if0ffdfkm{t\ @)!$ sflQs @( sf lbg pQm dlGqd08n eª\u ul/of] . /fhf dx]Gb|sf] k|ToIf zf;g ldlt @)!$ sflQs @( ut]b] lv  >L % dx]Gb|  af6 k|ToIf zf;g ;'? eof]  . ldlt @)!% h]7 @ ut] ;'j0f{;d;]/sf] cWoIftfdf cGtl/d dlGqkl/ifb\sf] u7g ul/of]  . @)!% ;fn kmfu'g & ut] cfd r'gfj ug]{ 3f]if0ff eof]  . @)!% ;fnsf] dxflgjf{rg / To;sf] kl/0ffd k|ltlglw ;efsf]r'gfjsf nflu d'n'snfO{ !)( lgjf{rg If]qdf  ljefhg ul/Psf] lyof]  . dxflgjf{rg Ps–;b:oLo lgjf{rg If]qdf cfwfl/t lyof]  . @! jif{ pd]/ k'u]sf k|To]s aflnu g]kfnL dtbftf lyP  . /fli6«o bnsf] ¿kdf dfGotf k|fKt ug{ sd;]sd @@ l;6sf nflu pDd]bjf/ v8f u/fpg' cfjZos lyof]  . o; dfkb08cg';f/ g]kfnL sfª\u|];, ;+o'Qm k|hftflGqs kf6L{, uf]/vf kl/ifb\, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / k|hftflGqs dxf;efdfq /fli6«o :t/sf /fhgLlts bn dflgP . !)( l;6sf nflu hDdf &*^ pDd]bjf/v8f ePsf lyP . pQm r'gfjdf g]kfnL sfª\u|];n] &$, uf]/vfkl/ifb\n] !(, ;+o'Qm k|hftGq kf6L{n] %, g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] $ / k|hfkl/ifbn] # l;6df ljho xfl;n u/]sf lyP eg]:jtGq $ :yfgdf ljhoL ePsf lyP . klxnf] lgjf{lrt ;/sf/ ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj u/fpg] 3f]if0ff /fhf lqe'jgn] lj=;+= @))& kmfu'g & ut] u/]sf lyP  . lj=;= @)!% kmfu'g & ut] ;+;b\\sf] tNnf] ;bgsf nflu cfdlgjf{rg ;'? eO{ lj=;+= @)!^ j}zfv  @* ut]glthf k|sflzt eof] . o; r'gfjdf cTolws ax'dt k|fKt ug]]{ sfª\u|]; g]tf ljZj]Zj/k|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] g]t[Tjdf lj=;+= @)!^ h]7 !# ut] gofF ;/sf/ aGof]  . lj=;+= @)!^ c;f/ !^ df k|ltlglw;efsf] k|yd clwj]zg ;'? eof]  . o;} ;fn c;f]hdf ljtf{ k|yf pGd"ng ljw]os kfl/t eof]  . lhNnfdf ljsf; af]8{ u7g ul/of]  . /fhf dx]Gb|n] @)!& ;fn k'; ! ut] ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f %% sf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L aL=kL=sf]O/fnfsf] dlGqd08n lj36g tyf ;+;b\\sf] b'j} ;bg eË u/L ;+ljwfgsf cg]sf}F wf/fx¿;d]t lgnDag ub}{ zf;gclwsf/ cfˆgf] xftdf 104÷g]kfn

kl/ro

lnP  . o;/L @))& ;fnsf] zfxL 3f]if0ffdfkm{t\ cfPsf] k|hftGqsf] cj;fg @)!& ;fnsf] zfxL sbd;Fu} eof]  . @=*[email protected] lj=;+= @)!& b]lv @)#& ;fn;Ddsf b'O{ bzs lj=;+= @)!& k'if ! ut]bnut /fhgLlts k|0ffnL lj36g ePkl5 gofF zf;g ;~rfngsf] ;"rgf k'; ( ut] hg;dIf cfof]  . k'if [email protected] ut] /fhf dx]Gb|sf] cWoIftfdf gf}–} ;b:oLo dlGqkl/ifb\ u7g eof]  . k'if @@ df ;a} /fhgLlts kf6L{ cj}w 3f]lift eO{ k|ltalGwt;d]t eP  . g]kfndf k|hftGqsf] hu tnaf6} alnof] t'Nofpg k~rfot Joj:yf NofOg]3f]if0ff eof] . o;cg'¿ ' k lj=;+= @)!* df ufFp k~rfotsf]lgjf{rg eof]  . lj=;+= @)!* df3df hgsk'/ad sf08 eof]  . lj=;= @)!( k'if ! ut]gofF k~rfotL Joj:yf cg'sn ' ;+ljwfgsf]3f]if0ff eof]  . ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] cGTokl5 /fhf dx]Gb|af6 lj=;= @)!& ;fn kf}if @@ ut] k~rfotL k/Dk/f yfngL ePsf] 3f]if0ff u/L pQm 3f]if0fdf b]zsf] ;j{Qf]dv ' L ljsf; tyf lgdf{0fsf lglDt gofF zlQmsf]d"n km'6fpg bl/b|tf, c1fgtf /lk5l8Psf] cj:yfnfO{ x6fO{ g]kfnsf] df6f]df h/f xfNg ;Sg] oxfFs} xfjfkfgL ;'xfpFbf] k|hftGqsf] la?jf :j¿k k~rfotsf] lahf/fk] 0f ul/Psf] elgof]  . ;a} bnx¿dfly k|ltaGw nufO{ k~rfot k4lt g}k|hftGqsf]hu ePsf]/dflyaf6 nflbPsf] k|hftGq b]zdf ckmfkl;4 ePsf] tyf k|hftGqsf] hu tn}af6 alnof] t'Nofpg :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf ;+:yfåf/f hgtfnfO{ k|zf;gdf ;l/s u/fO{ b]zsf] ;d:of / k|ultdf hg cle?lr a9fpg] p2]Zon] k~rfotsf] lbzfaf]w u/fpg vf]lhof]  . lj=;= @)!( ;fn kf}if ! ut]k~rfotL Joj:yfg'sn ' gofF ;+ljwfg hf/L eof] . b]zsf] ;jf]{Rr ljwflosf /fli6«o k~rfotsf] pb\3f6g ;j{k|yd /fhf dx]Gb|af6 lj=;= @)@) df eof]  . lj=;= @)@# df ;+ljwfgsf]k|yd ;+zf]wg  eO{ k~rfot lgb{nLo Joj:yf aGg k'Uof]  . @)!& ;fnb]lv ;'? ePsf] k~rfotL zf;g k|0ffnLdf /fhf dx]Gb| / jL/]Gb|sf] k|ToIf zf;gdf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] cWoIftf ug]{ df}sf 8f= t'n;L lu/L, ;"o{axfb'/ yfkf -k~rfot Joj:yfcGtu{t k|yd k|wfgdGqL_, sLlt{lglw lji6, gu]Gb|  k|;fb l/hfn, dl/rdfg l;+x / nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGbn] k|fKt u/]  . @)#^ h]7 !) ut] hgdt;ª\u|xsf] 3f]if0ff eof]  . @)#& ;fn j}zfv @) ut] ;DkGg hgdt ;ª\u|xdf k~rfotsf]] ljho eof]  . /fli6«o lgb]{zg dGqfnosf]] :yfkgf ljleGg If]qdf lgwf{l/t nIo k|flKtsf lglDt ;fd"lxs zlQmnfO{ ;ª\ul7t / ljsl;t ug{ lj=;= @)!& kmfu'g & ut]/fli6«o lgb]{zg dGqfno v8f eof] . /fli6«o lgb]{zg P]g, @)!& cg';f/ pRr:t/Lo /fli6«o lgb]{zg kl/ifb\ klg u7g ul/of]]  . ljleGg ju{nfO{ ;dGjo u/L /fli6«o hLjgdf k|jflxt ug]{h:tf g]kfn kl/ro÷105

sfd st{Jo ePsf]of]dGqfno lj=;= @)!( r}}q @) df k~rfot dGqfnodf ufleof] / lj=;= @)@) ;fndf ;f] kl/ifb\ lj36g eof]  . k~rfot ;'wf/sf k|of;x¿ ;j{ky| d lj=;= @)!* ;fn kmfu'g & ut]b] lv ufFp /gu/k~rfot txdf lgjf{rg k|f/De eof]  . /fli6«o k~rfotsf] k|yd clwj]zgkl5 lj=;= @)@) h]7df klxnf] k6s k~rfot ljsf; ;Dd]ng  eof] ] . lj=;= @)@) ebf}! df gofF d'ns ' L P]g nfu' eof]  . lj=;= @)@! dª\l;/ * ut] e"ld;'wf/ P]g hf/L ePsf] lyof]  . lj=;= @)@$ c;f]h ^ ut] /fhf dx]Gb|af6 /fli6«o k~rfotnfO{ Ps ;Gb]z k7fO{ k~rfotsf] ljsNKf ;f]wgL x'bF f /fli6«o k~rfotsf] a}7sn] ;j{;Ddltaf6 c;f]Hf !! ut] of] lglj{sNk 5 eGg] k|:tfj kfl/t u/L c;f]h !# ut] bz;"qLo of]hgf agfOof]  . h;df b]z ljsf;sf nflu u|fdL0f ljsf;nfO{ hf]8 lbOg] s'/fx¿ pNn]v ul/Psf lyP  . @)## ;fn ebf} / c;f]hdf klxnf]k6s /fli6«o:t/df k~re]nf cfof]hgf ePsf] lyof]  . o; e]nfdf k~rfotsf] l;4fGt Jojl:yt ul/Psf] lyof]  . hgdt ;ª\u|x, @)#& lj=;[email protected])!& b]lv  @)#^ ;Ddsf]!( jifL{o k~rfotL zf;gaf6 /fhgLlts jftfj/0f z'4 x'g g;s]sf], hLjg:t/ pNn]vgLo ¿kdf p7\g g;s]sf], dxFuL a9\b} uPsf], k~rfotsf sfo{stf{ hglk|o x'g g;s]sf h:tf cg]sf}F lj/f]wsf cfjfhx¿ ;Qf ;~rfns tyf ;j{;fwf/0fdfem;d]t p7\g yfn]  . lj=;= @)#^ h]7 !) ut] /fhf jL/]Gb|af6 zfxL 3f]if0ff u/L g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ;'wf/;lxtsf] k~rfotL Joj:yfnfO{ sfod} /fVg] xf] jf ax'bnLo zf;g k4lt rfxg] xf] ;f]dWo] PsnfO{ /f]Hg nf]s;Ddltsf nflu aflnu dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df /fi6«JofkL hgdt u/fpg] s'/f 3f]if0ff eof]  . o;kl5 lj=;= @)#& j}zfv @) ut] ;DkGg ePsf] hgdt ;ª\u|xsf] kl/0ffd @)#& h]7 ! ut] 3f]if0ff ul/of]  . s'n ;b/ dt $* nfv !# xhf/$ ;o 5of;LdWo]@$,##,$%@ -%$=* k|ltzt_ dt k|fKt u/L k~rfot kIf ljhoL eof] . @=*=# hgdt ;ª\u|xb]lv hgcfGbf]ng;Dd hgdt ;ª\u|xkl5 ;+j}wflgs  ;'wf/Pjd\ aflnu dtdf cfwfl/ t r'gfj ;DkGg eof]  . lgjf{rgkl5 k~rfotsf] klxnf] @& ;b:oLo dlGqd08n [email protected]) hgf /fli6«o k~rfot ;b:ox¿åf/f lglj{/f]w lgjf{lrt ;"o{axfb'/ yfkfsf] k|wfgdlGqTjdf lj=;[email protected])#* c;f/@ df /kl5 lj=;= @)#( c;f]h @$ ut] s]xL x]/km]/;fy #% ;b:oLo dlGqd08n aGof]  . t/ lj=;= @)$) c;f/ @& ut] !)* ;b:osf] ax'dtåf/f k|wfgdGqL ;"o{axfb'/ yfkfn] cfˆgf] kbsf] lhDd]jf/L Odfgbf/Lk"j{s k"/f gu/]sf] eGg] /fli6«o k~rfotaf6 kfl/t cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj /fhfaf6 :jLs[t ePkl5 lj=;= @)$) c;f/ @& ut] 106÷g]kfn

kl/ro

yfkf ;/sf/ lj36g eof]]  . nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGb !)& ;b:osf] ax'dtåf/f lglj{/f]w 5flgP / /fli6«o k~rfots} l;kmfl/;df /fhfaf6 c;f/ @* ut] pgnfO{ k|wfgdGqLsf] kbdf lgo'lQm ul/of] tyf @( ut] @! ;b:oLo dlGqd08n u7g eof] . @=*=$ @)$^ sf] hgcfGbf]ng / To;kl5sf] /fhgLlt @)!& ;fn k'; ! ut] /fhf dx]Gb|sf] zfxL 3f]if0ffdfkm{t\ :yflkt k~rfotL Joj:yf tL; jif{;Dd l6Sof] / @)$^ sf] hgcfGbf]ng;Fu} tx;gx; eof]  . @)$^ ;fn df3 % ut]b]lv & ut];Dd g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf g]tf u0f]zdfgl;+xsf] 3/df g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf sfo{stf{x¿sf] b]zJofkL ;Dd]ng eof]  . pQm ;Dd]ngdf ef/tsf al/i7 g]tfx¿ rGb|z]v/, xl/ls;g l;+x ;'/lht, Pd=h]= csa/ cflbn] ;d]t efu lnPsf lyP  . g]kfnL sfª\u|]; / ;+o'Qm afddf]rf{ ldn]/ ;+o'Qm ¿kdf @)$^ ;fn kmfu'g & ut]b]lv pkTosfleq / aflx/sf lhNnfdf klg b]zJofkL hgcfGbf]ng rsf{P  . kmfu'g * ut] sf7df8f}Fnufot k|d'v ;x/x¿ aGb eP  . cGt/f{li6«o ;~rf/ hutn] k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;dfrf/ k|rf/k|;f/ ug{ yfn]  . @)$^ ;fn r}t !( ut] tTsfnLg k|=d= dl/rdfg l;+xsf] l;kmfl/;df dlGqd08n k'gu{7g eof] t/ cfGbf]ngsf] ult /f]lsPg  . sLlt{k'/, kf6g / a'6jndf uf]nL rNof]  . @)$^ ;fn r}t @$ ut] /fhf jL/]Gb|af6 /]l8of] g]kfndfkm{t 3f]if0ff eof] h;cg';f/ nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGbsf] cWoIftfdf $ ;b:oLo dlGqkl/ifbsf] u7g eof]  . hg cfGbf]ng g/f]lsPkl5 cGttM @)$^ ;fn r}q @^ ut] /flt !!M$% ah] /]l8of] g]kfn / g]kfn 6]lnlehgdf Ps lj1lKt k|sflzt eof]  . h;df g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( df /x]sf] bnljxLg zAb x6fO{ bndflysf] k|ltaGw km's'jf eof]  . gofF ;+ljwfg agfpg ;+ljwfg ;'wf/ ;'emfj cfof]uåf/f k|ltj]bg k]; ug]{ eGg] lj1lKt k|sflzt eof] . k~rfot lj36gkZrft\ s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{sf] cWoIftfdf cGtl/d ;/sf/ u7g eof]  . @)$& ;fn sflQs @# ut] g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& hf/L eof]  . o;kl5 @)$* ;fn j}zfv @( ut] cfdlgjf{rg eof]  . k|ltlglw;efsf] @)% l;6dWo] g]kfnL sf+u|];n] ;jf{lws !!) l;6 k|fKt u¥of]  . lj=;= @)$* h]7 !% ut] ax'dtk|fKt bn g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf ;+;bLo bnsf g]tf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] k|wfgdlGqTjdf Psdgf dlGqkl/ifb\ u7g eof]  . k|d'v k|ltkIfsf ¿kdf ^* l;6 kfPsf] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ -Pdfn]_ /xg k'Uof]  . ax'bnLo ;/sf/x¿ g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf tTsfnLg dxfdGqL lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfnfO{ /fhf jL/]Gb|af6 @)$* h]7 !% sf lbg k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm u/L !% hgfsf]dlGqd08n u7g g]kfn kl/ro÷107

ul/of]  . @)%! sflQ{s @( df dWofjlw lgjf{rg eof]  . k|ltlglw ;ef lj36gsf] l;kmfl/; ePkl5 ;DkGg of] cfd lgjf{rgdf g]kfnL sfª\u|];n] *#, g]skf -Pdfn]_ n] ** / /fk|kfn] @) l;6 k|fKt u/]sf lyP  . dWofjlw lgjf{rg, @)%! df :ki6 ax'dt s'g} klg bnn] k|fKt gu/]sfn] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] bnsf] x}l;otdf g]skf Pdfn]sf cWoIf Pjd\ ;+;bLo bnsf g]tf dgdf]xg clwsf/L k|wfgdGqLdf lgo'Qm eP . of]k|ltlglw ;ef h]7 #), @)%@ df k'gM lj36g x'g k'Uof]]  . t/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] ebf} [email protected], @)%@ df o;nfO{ k'g:yf{lkt u¥of] / ebf} @) df k|ltlglw ;efsf] ljz]if clwj]zg a;L g]kfnL sfª\u|];sf g]tf z]/axfb'/ b]pjfn] dgdf]xg clwsf/Lpk/ cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj k]; u/]  . lj=;= @)%@ ebf} @% df cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj kfl/t ePkl5 of] ;/sf/ 9Nof]  . To;kl5 @)%@ ebf} @^ df z]/axfb'/ b]pjf k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm eP  . pgs} k|wfgdGqLsfndf @)%@ ;fn kmfu'g ! ut]b]lv cfˆgf dfux¿pk/s'g} Wofg glbPsf] eGb} tTsfnLg hgdf]rf{sf g]tf 8f=afa'/fd e§/fO{nufotn] bL3{sfnLg hgo'4sf nflu ;z:q ljb|fx] sf] 3f]if0ff u/L e"ldut /fhgLltsf] yfngL u/]   . Pdfn]sf] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfjn] ubf{ lj=;= @)%# kmfu'g @# ut] z]/axfb'/ b]pjf ;/sf/sf] lj36g eof] / /fk|kfsf g]tf nf]sG] b|axfb'/ rGb k|wfgdGqL ag]  . of] ;/sf/n] klg sfª\u; ]| sf]] cljZjf; k|:tfjsf sf/0f lj=;+= @)%$ c;f]h !* df ;Qfaf6 xft w'gk' ¥of]  . sfª\u; ]| sf] ldn]dtf]df /fk|kfsf] cWoIf ;"oa{ xfb'/ yfkf @) c;f]h @)%$ df k|wfgdGqL eP . pgn]k|ltlglw;ef lj36g /lgjf{rg tf]Sg l;kmfl/; u/ ] . t/ k|ltlglw;efsf] ljz]if clwj]zgn] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj ljkmn kf¥of]  . r}t @*, @)%$ df pgn] /flhgfdf lbP  . o;kl5 g]kfnL sf+u; ]| sf g]tf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] g]tT[ jdf cNkdtsf] ;/sf/ r}q #), @)%$ df u7g eof]  . o; ;/sf/df g]skf-dfn]_ klg ;lDdlnt lyof]  . t/ dfn] l56} aflxl/Psfn] Pdfn] ;lDdlnt eO{ dlGqd08n k'gu{ 7g eof]  . Joj:yflksfsf] lgjf{rgkl5 lj=;+= @)%^ h]7 !# df g]kfnL sfª\u; ]| sf g]tf s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{sf] g]tT[ jdf dlGqd08n u7g eof]  . of]] ;/sf/n] r}t # ut] /flhgfdf lbPkl5 % r}t, @)%^ df lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf k'gM k|wfgdGqL ag]  . @)%* ;fn h]7 !( ut] gf/fo0flx6L /fhb/af/df 36]sf] csNkgLo 36gfdf /fhf jL/]Gb|sf] j+zgfz ePkl5 1fg]Gb| /fhf eP / pgn] cfˆgf 5f]/f kf/;nfO{ o'j/fh agfP  . z]/axfb'/ b]pjfsf] k|wfgdGqLTjdf ;~rflnt ;/sf/n] lj=;= @)%* dª\l;/ !! df dfcf]jfbLnfO{ cftÍsf/L 3f]lift u/L @)%( h]7 !) ut];Dd ^ dlxgfsf] ;Í6sfn nfu' u¥of]  . @)%( ;fn h]7 * ut] k|wfgdGqL z]/axfb'/ b]pjfsf] l;kmfl/;df tTsfnLg ;+ljwfgsf] k|fjwfgcg';f/ /fhfaf6 k|ltlglw;efsf] lj36g Pjd\ sflQs @& df 108÷g]kfn

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dWofjlw r'gfj ug]{ 3f]if0ff ePsf] lyof]  . lgwf{l/t ldltdf r'gfj ug{ g;s]sf] axfgfdf @)%( c;f]h !* ut] /fhf 1fg]Gb|n] b]pjfnfO{ …c;IfdtfÚ sf] cf/fk] nufP/ kbRo't u/ ] . pgn] sflQs @& ut] ug]{ elgPsf] r'gfj klg :yug u/L csf]{ Joj:yf geP;Ddsf nflu g]kfnsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ cfkm};uF /fvL kfFr lbgleq gofF dlGqd08n u7g ug]{ 3f]if0ff u/s ] f lyP  . c;f]h !* b]lv @$ ;Dd g]kfn k|wfgdGqL Pjd\ dlGqkl/ifb\/lxt eof] / c;f]h @% df nf]sG] b|axfb'/ rGbsf] k|wfgdlGqTjdf ( ;b:oLo dlGqkl/ifb\ u7g eof]  . lj=; @)%@ kmfu'g ! ut]b]lv ;z:q hgo'4 k|f/De u/L e"ldut ePsf] dfcf]jfbL;Fu ul/Psf lj=;= @)%* ;fpg * ut]] k|yd r/0fsf] jftf{, ebf} @^ df bf];|f] r/0fsf] jftf{ / sflQs @* df t];|f] r/0fsf] jftf{x¿ c;kmn ePkl5 lj=;+= @)%* dª\l;/ * df dfcf]jfbLåf/f bfª / :ofª\hfdf ul/Psf] cfqmd0fn] ;'/Iff l:ylt yk hl6n agfof]  . lj=;+= @)%* dª\l;/ !! b]lv d'n'sle/ ;Í6sfn 3f]if0ff ul/of]  . lj=;+= @)%( h]]7 !! df ;Í6sfnsf] cGTo eP klg h]7 !# df k'gM nfu' eO{ ebf}[email protected] df ;dfKt eof] . df3 !% df dfcf]jfbLåf/f tTsfn o'4lj/fdsf] 3f]if0ff Pjd\ ;/sf/af6 g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ nfO{ cftª\ssf/L egL ul/Psf] 3f]if0ff / lu/ˆtf/Lsf] …/]8 sg{/ gf]l6;Úh:tf k"j{lg0f{o lkmtf{ lnPkl5 g]kfnL /fhgLltn] gofF df]8 lnof]  . bf];|f] hgcfGbf]ng @)^@÷^#

bf];|f] hgcfGbf]ng @)^@÷^# sf] emns @)%( c;f]h !* kl5 1fg]Gb|n] slxn] nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGbnfO{ t slxn] ;"o{axfb'/ yfkfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL agfP/ cfkm"v';L zf;g ug{ yfn]  . g]kfnL sfª\u|];, g]skf -Pdfn]_ nufot kfFr bnn] o;nfO{ zfxL k|ltudgsf] ;+1f lbb} g]kfn kl/ro÷109

bafad"ns lj/f]w sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ug{ yfn]  . c;f/ !* ut] /fhf 1fg]Gb|n] @)^! ;fn r}t d;fGtleq k|ltlglw;efsf] r'gfj ug]{ zfxL cfb]z;lxt z]/axfb'/ b]pjfnfO{ k|wfgdGqLdf k'gM lgo'Qm u/]  . of] ;/sf/nfO{ !( df3df avf{:t ul/of] / /fhf 1fg]Gb|sf] k|ToIf zf;g ;'? eof]  . !( df3kl5 zfxL zf;glj¿4 g]kfnL sfª\u|]; -k|hftflGqs_ / ;+o'Qm jfddf]rf{nfO{;d]t ;d]6]/ ;ft bnsf] cfGbf]ngsf/L u7aGwg aGof] / @)^@ j}zfvdf o;n] k|ltlglw;ef k'g:yf{kgfsf] af6f] x'Fb} g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ n] ;~rfng u/]sf] ;z:q ljb|f]xsf] /fhgLlts lgsf; lbg ;+ljwfg;ef;Dd k'Ug];femf ;xdlt /k|lta4tfnfO{ ;fj{hlgs u¥of]  . o;kl5 g} dfcf]jfbL;Fu ;ft bnsf] jftf{ / ;dembf/Ln] 7f]; cfsf/ / uGtJo lng yfn]sf] xf]  . !( df3 @)^! df /fhf 1fg]Gb|n] bf];|f] k6s lg/ª\s'z Pjd\ k|ToIf zf;g ;'? u/]kl5 To;sf] k|lt/f]wdf cfGbf]ngcl3 a9fpg g]kfnL sfª\u|];, g]skf Pdfn], g]kfnL sfª\u|]; -k|hftflGqs_, hgdf]rf{ g]kfn, g]kfn dhb'/ ls;fg kf6L{, g]kfn ;b\efjgf kf6L{ -cfgGbLb]jL_ / ;+o'Qm afddf] rf{;lxt @% j} zfv @)^@ df ;j{k|yd ;ftbnLo u7aGwg lgdf{0f eof]  . g]kfnL sfª\u|];, g]=s=kf=Pdfn] / g]=s=kf= dfcf]jfbLlar @)^@ dª\l;/ & ut] ef/tsf] gofF lbNnLdf [email protected] a'Fb] ;Demf}tf eof]  . zflGt ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ / g]skf dfcf]jfbL;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf cGtl/d Joj:yflksf–;+;b\\ ag]kl5 of] u7aGwg cf7bnLo ePsf] lyof]  . To;kl5 @)^# dª\l;/ % ut] ;ft bnsf] ;/sf/ / g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ lar lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf ;DkGGf ePsf] lyof]  . @)^@ ;fn r}t @$ ut]b]lv @)^# ;fn j}zfv !! ut];DDf !( lbg rn]sf]

lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ ub}{ zflGtk"0f{ hgcfGbf]ng @)^@÷)^# df g]kfnL hgtfsf] ckf/ ;xeflutfn] o;nfO{ Pp6f lg0ff{os ljGb'df k'¥ofPsf]lyof] . kmn:j¿k @)^# df3 ! ut] g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# hf/L eof]  . hgcfGbf]ng @)^@÷)^# kl5 jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;ª\qmd0fsf] Joj:yfkg / ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ug]{ 110÷g]kfn

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lhDd]jf/L kfPsf ;ft /fhgLlts bnsf] ;xdltcg';f/ @* r}t @)^$ df ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfjsf] ltly t];|f] k6s lgwf{/0f ul/of]  . ;ft /fhgLlts bnn] * k'; @)^$ df u/]sf] @# a'Fb] ;xdltkl5 r}t dlxgfleq ;+ljwfg;efsf] r'gfj ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf lyP  . g]kfndf P]ltxfl;s ¿kdf ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjfr{g lj=;[email protected])^$ r}q @* df ;DkGg eof]  . ;+ljwfg;efdf hDdf ^)! hgf ;b:o lyP h;dWo] ##% ;b:o ;dfg'kflts k|0ffnLaf6 / @$) ;b:o k|ToIf lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 lgjf{lrt ePsf /afFsL @^ hgf ;b:o dlGqkl/ifb\n] dgf]gLt u/]sf] lyof]  . h]7 !%, @)^% df a;]sf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] klxnf] a}7sn] u0ftGq g]kfnsf] 3f]if0ff u¥of] / u0ftGq g]kfnsf k|yd /fi6«klt 8f= /fd j/0f ofbj / pk/fi6«klt k/dfgGb emf lgjf{lrt x'g'eof]  . tflnsf g+= @=% g]kfnsf k|wfgdGqLx¿ -cjlwsf cfwf/df_ qm=; gfd led;]g yfkf ! -d'lVtof/_ k+= /Ëgfy kf}8]n @ -d'lVtof/_ # k'is/ zfx -d'lVtof/_ $ /0fhË kf08] -d'lVtof/_ % kmQ]hË zfx -d'lVtof/_ ^ dfYfj/ l;+x yfkf & hËaxfb'/ /f0ff * adaxfb'/ /f0ff ( /0f]f2Lk l;+x !) jL/;d;]/ h=a=/f= !! b]j;d;]/ h=a=/f= [email protected] rGb|;d;]/ h=a=/f= !# led;d;]/ h=a=/f

;dofjlw -lj=;+=_ lj=;+= !*^#–!*($ lj=;+= !*($–!*(% lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+= lj=;+=

!*(%–!*(^ !*(^–!*(& !*(&–!()), !()@–!()# !())–!()@ !()#–!(!#, !(!$–!(## !(!#–!(!$ !(##–!([email protected] !([email protected]–!(%& !(%&–!(%* !(%*– !(*^ !(*^–!(*( g]kfn kl/ro÷111

!$ !% !^ !& !* !( @) @!

h'å;d;]/ h=a=/f kß;d;]/ h=a=/f df]xg;d;]/ h=a=/f dft[sfk|;fb sf]O/fnf 6ª\sk|;fb cfrfo{ 8f=s]=cfO{=l;+x ;'j0f{ ;d;]/ h=a=/f= ljZj]Zj/k; | fb sf]O/fnf

@@ 8f= t'n;L lu/L @# ;"o{axfb'/ yfkf @$ sLlt{lglw lji6 @% gu]Gb|k|;fb l/hfn @^ nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGb @& dl/rdfgl;+x >]i7 @* s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{ @( lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf #) dgdf]xg clwsf/L #! z]/axfb'/ b]pjf #@ k'iksdn bfxfn -k|r08_ ##

dfwjs'df/ g]kfn

112÷g]kfn

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lj=;+= !(*(–@))@ lj=;+= @))@–@))% lj=;+= @))%–@))* lj=;+= @))* –@))(, @)!)–@)!! lj=;+= @)[email protected] –@)!$ lj=;+= @)!$ –@)!$ lj=;+= @)!% –@)!^-cWoIf dGqLkl/ifb\_ lj=;+= @)!^ –@)!& lj=;+= @)!(–@)@! -cIoIf dGqLkl/ifb\_, lj=;+= @)#@–@)#$ -k|wfgdGqL_ cIoIf dGqLkl/ifb M– lj=;+= @)@! –@)@#, k|wfgdGqL M– lj=;[email protected])@#–@)@%, @)#^– @)$), @)%$–@)%$, @)^)–@)^! lj=;[email protected])@% –@)@^, @)@*–@)#), @)#$–@)#^ lj=;+= @)#)–@)#@, @)[email protected] lj=;+= @)$) – @)[email protected], @)$^–@)$&, @)%#–@)%$, @)%(–@)^) lj=;+= @)$# –@)$^ lj=;+= @)$& –@)$*, @)%^–@)%^ lj=;+= @)$*–@)%!, @)%$–@)%%, @)%%–@)%^, @)%^–@)%*, @)^#–@)^% lj=;+= @)%! – @)%@ lj=;+= @)%@ –@)%#, @)%*–@)%(, @)^!–@)^!, @)&$.)@[email protected]$–@)&$.!!.)# lj=;+= @)^%–@)^^, @)&#.)$.!(– @)&$.)@[email protected]# lj=;+= @)^^÷@÷!!–@)^&÷ !) ÷@@

#$ emngfy vgfn #% afa'/fd e§/fO{ #^

lj=;+= @)^& df3 @# – @)^* ebf}!! lj=;+= @)^* ebf}[email protected]–@)^( kmfu'g #)

lvn/fh /]UdL lj=;+= @)^( r}q !–@)&) df3 @* -dlGqkl/ifb\sf cWoIf_

#& ;'zLn sf]O/fnf #* s]kL zdf{ cf]nL

lj=;+= @)&) df3 @* – @)[email protected] c;f]h @$ lj=;+= @)[email protected] c;f]h @%–@)&# ;fpg !(, @)&$ kmfu'g # b]lv  xfn;Dd ;|f]t M k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] sfof{no

tflnsf g+= @=^ g]kfnsf] yk k|d'v P]ltxfl;s 36gfqmd P]ltxfl;s 36gfqmd ljkZjL a'4sf] g]kfn cfudg

ldlt÷sfn ;Too'u

d~h'>Ln] bxsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] kfgL sf6L aufP/ a:tL a;fPsf]

q]tfo'u

g]kfnsf k|yd /fhf wdf{s/ 5}6f}F ls/ftL /fhf x'dtL

lnR5lj j+zsf] pbo

q]tfo'u dxfef/tsf] o'4sfn ;ftf}F ls/ftL /fhf lht]bf:tLsf kfnfdf rf}wf}F ls/ftL /fhf y"ªsf]sf kfnfdf Nfueu ;g\ !!)

k|yd lnR5lj /fhf hob]jsf] zf;gsfn

O{zfsf] ;'?lt/

j;Gtb]jsf] /fHof/f]x0f dfgb]jsf] zf;gsfn c+z'jdf{sf] pbo

lj=;= %^# zfs] ;+jt\ #*^ b]lv $!# lj=;=^^@

uf}td a'4sf] g]kfn cfudg ;d|f6 czf]ssf] g]kfn cfudg

g]kfn kl/ro÷113

Gffu/fhåf/f v; /fHosf] :yfkgf v; ;fd|fHosf qmfrNnsf] /fHo/f]x0f v; /fhf lhtf/L dNnåf/f sf7df8f}F pkTosf cfqmd0f cflbTo dNnåf/f pkTosf cfqmd0f gfGob]j lt/x'tdf -l;d|f}gu9_ s0ff{6s /fHosf] :yfkgf dNnsfnsf] pbo k|yd dNn /fhf cl/ dNnsf] /fHosfn l;d|f}gu9sf clGtd /fhf xl/l;+xb]jdfly lbNnLsf d';ndfg afbzfx uof;'l2g t'unsåf/f cfqmd0f hol:ylt dNnsf] /fHo/f]x0f aª\ufnsf zf;s ;d';'l2g Olnof;åf/f g]kfndfly cfqmd0f oIf dNnsf] /fHosfn /Tg dNnsf] /fHosfn b|Jo zfxåf/f uf]/vf /fHosf] :yfkgf uf]/vfsf /fhf /fd zfxsf] /fHosfn k|tfk dNnsf] /fHosfn dx]Gb| dNnsf] /fHof/f]x0f l;l4g/l;+x dNnåf/f kf6gsf] s[i0fdlGb/sf] :yfkgf e"kltGb| dNnsf] /fHosfn k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxåf/f g'jfsf]6dfly klxnf] cfqmd0f k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxåf/f g'jfsf]6dfly bf];|f] cfqmd0f tyf ljho sLlt{k'/dfly klxnf] cfqmd0f 114÷g]kfn

kl/ro

O{=!!%) lj=;= [email protected]^$ lj=;= !#$$ k';,!#$% kmfu'g,!#$^ kmfu'g lj=;=!#*$ lj=;=!!%$ lj=;[email protected]%& lj=;[email protected]%& –[email protected]&$ s0ff{6s /fHo Wj:t lj=;=!#*! lj=;=!#*) lj=;=!$)^ lj=;[email protected]*–!%#( lj=;=!%$!–!%&& lj=;=!^!^ lj=;=!^^#–!^() lj=;=!^(*–!&#! lj=;=!^!& lj=;= !^(# lj=;= !&%#–!&&( lj=;=!*)) lj=;=!*)! lj=;=!*!$ h]7 !(

dsjfgk'/dfly ljho a+ufnsf gjfa ld/sfl;dåf/f u'/lug vfFsf] g]t[Tjdf k7fOsf ;]gfdfly uf]/vfnLsf] ljho sLlt{k'/dfly bf];|f] cfqmd0f sLlt{k'/dfly t];|f] cfqmd0f tyf ljho hok|sfz dNnsf] ;xof]usf nflu lsgnssf] g]t[Tjdf k7fPsf] c+u|]h kmf}hdfly uf]/vfnL cfqmd0f tyf ljho sf7df8f}F ljho nlntk'/ ljho eQmk'/ ljho k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] lgwg g]kfn / ltAatlar Jofkfl/s ;lGw g]kfn / u9jfnlarsf] zflGt ;Demf}tf g]kfn ltAatlar klxnf] o'4 g]kfn ltAatlar s]?ª ;lGw g]kfn ltAatlar bf];|f] o'4

lj=;=!*!( efb| ( ;g\ !&^# hgj/L #) lj=;=!*@! c;f]h $ lj=;=!*@@ r}t # lj=;=!*@$ lj=;=!*@% efb|z'Sn /ljjf/ -OGb|hfqf_ sf lbg lj=;=!*@% lj=;=!*@^ sflQs z'SnåfbzL lj=;=!*#! ;g\ !&&% ;]K6]Da/ ;g\ !&(! ;g\ !&**–!&*( ;g\ !&*( h'g @ ;g\ !&(@ cS6'a/

g]kfn / O:6 OlG8of sDkgLlar Jofkfl/s lj=;= !*$( j}zfv # ;lGw uf]/vfkq k|sfzg af;¶Lx/0f jf latf{x/0f g]kfn–cª\u|]h o'4 ;'uf}nL ;lGw -g]kfn c+u|]hlar_

lj=;+= !(%* lj=;= !*^@ ;g\ !*!$–!*!^ lj=;= !*[email protected] kmfu'g @$

klxnf] /fhb"t P8j8{ uf8{g/, a]nfot

;g\ !*!^ d]

g]kfn–ltAatlar t];|f] o'4

;g\ !*%%–!*%^ g]kfn kl/ro÷115

yfkfynL ;lGw g]kfn–ltAatlar sf]tkj{ e08f/vfn kj{ cnf} kj{ hª\uaxfb'/nfO{ >L # sf] pkflw

lj=;+= !([email protected] r}q lj=;= !()# c;f]h @ ut] ;g\ !*$^ cS6'a/#!, -!()# sflQs [email protected]_ lj=;=!()$ j}zfv lj=;=!(!# >fj0f

;g\ !*&% sf] ef/t ljb|f]xkl5 h+uaxfb'/n] c+u|]h;Fu ;Demf}tf u/L afFs] lj=;+= !(!^ abL{of, s}nfnL, s~rgk'/ …If]qÚ c+u|]haf6 lkmtf{ NofPsf g]kfnsf] klxnf] d'n'sL P]g ;tL k|yf pGd"ng Dfs} kj{ lqrGb| sn]h :yfkgf bf; k|yf pGd"ng cfo{ k|rf/df k|ltaGw nfOa|]/L kj{ k|r08 uf]/vf kj{ g]kfn k|hfkl/ifb\sf] :yfkgf clvn ef/tLo g]kfnL sfª\u; ]| sf] :yfkgf g]kfnL k|hftGq sfª\u|];sf] :yfkgf hf]ujgL ;Dd]ng k|yd dhb'/ x8\tfn hot' ;+:s[td\ /f0ffzf;glj?4 ;Tofu|x g]kfnsf] j}wflgs sfg'g 3f]if0ff g]kfn k|hf k~rfot 116÷g]kfn

kl/ro

lj=;=!(!) lj=;=!(&& lj=;=!(&& lj=;+= !(&% lj=;=!(*! lj=;=!(*& lj=;= !(*& lj=;=!(** lj=;=!((# h]7 @) lj=;[email protected]))@ df3 [email protected] ;g\ !($( lj=;[email protected]))$ h]7 lj=;[email protected]))# kmfu'g !! lj=;[email protected]))$ j}zfv ! lj=;+= @))$ df3 !# lj=;[email protected]))% cflZjg

g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] :yfkgf g]kfn–ef/t d}qL ;lGw k|hftGqsf] 3f]if0ff g]kfnsf] cGtl/d zf;g ljwfg klxnf] cfdlgjf{rg k~rfotL Joj:yfsf] :yfkgf g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( 3f]if0ff ufpFkms{ cleofg zflGt If]q k|:tfj hgdt ;ª\u|xsf] 3f]if0ff hgdt ;ª\u|x ;Tofu|x ;+o'Qm jfddf]rf{sf] u7g ax'bnLo Joj:yfsf] k'ga{xfnL g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& g]skf -Pdfn]_ sf] :yfkgf k|hftGq k'g{axfnLkl5sf] klxnf] cfdlgjf{rg dWofjlw lgjf{rg g]skf dfcf]jfbLåf/f ;z:q ljb|fx] ;'? cfdlgjf{rg @)%^ /fhb/af/ xTofsf08 /fhf 1fg]Gb|af6 zfxL 3f]if0ff g]kfn ;/sf/ / dfcf]jfbLlar lj:t[t zflGt;Demf}tfdf x:tfIf/ g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# hf/L

lj=;[email protected]))^ efb| #) lj=;[email protected]))& >fj0f lj=;[email protected]))& kmfu'g & lj=;[email protected]))& kmfu'g & lj=;[email protected])!% lj=;= @)!& k'; ! lj=;+= @)!( k'; ! lj=;= @)@* lj=;[email protected])#! kmfu'g !# lj=;[email protected])#^ h]7 !) lj=;+= @)#& j}zfv @) lj=;[email protected])[email protected] lj=;[email protected])$^ df3 @ lj=;[email protected])$^ r}q @^ lj=;= @)$& sflQ{s @# lj=;[email protected])$& k'; @@ lj=;[email protected])$* j}zfv @( lj=;[email protected])%! sflQ{s @( lj=;[email protected])%@ kmfu'g ! lj=;[email protected])%^ j}zfv @ / # lj=;[email protected])%* h]7 !( lj=;[email protected])^! df3 !( lj=;= @)^# dª\l;/% lj=;+= @)^# df3 ! g]kfn kl/ro÷117

g]kfndf P]ltxfl;s ;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg ;+ljwfg;efsf] klxnf] a}7s÷u0ftGqsf] 3f]if0ff zfxj+zLo /fhtGqsf] cGTo /fhf 1fg]Gb|af6 gf/fo0flx6L b/af/ 5f8]sf] /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg u0ftGq g]kfnsf k|yd /fi6«klt 8f=/fdj/0f ofbjsf] ;ky u|x0f g]=s=kf= dfcf]jfbLsf g]tf k'iksdn bfxfn -k|r08_sf] cWoIftfdf klxnf] u0ftflGqs ;/sf/ u7g klxnf] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36g cGtl/d r'gfjL dlGqkl/ifb\sf] u7g bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;efsf] klxnf] a}7s c7f/f}+ ;fs{ lzv/ ;Dd]ng, sf7df8f}F ;To lg¿k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u / a]kQf kfl/Psf JolQmsf] 5fglag cfof]u u7g g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg u0ftGq g]kfnsf bf];|f] /fi6«kltdf >L ljBfb]jL e08f/L lgjf{lrt g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgsf] klxnf] ;+zf]wg /fi6«kltdf >L ljBfb]jL e08f/L k'gMlgjf{lrt g]kfnsf] gofF gS;f hf/L ldlt lll

118÷g]kfn

kl/ro

lj=;= @)^$ r}q @* lj=;= @)^% h]7 !% lj=;+= @)^% h]7 @( lj=;= @)^% ;fpg ^ lj=;+= @)^% ;fpg * lj=;= @)^% efb| lj=;+= @)^( h]7 !$ @)^( r}q ! $ dª\l;/ @)&) lj=;+= @)&) df3 * dª\l;/ !!–[email protected], @)&! lj=;++ @)&!, df3 @^ lj=;+= @)[email protected], c;f]h  # lj=;+= @)[email protected], sflQs !! lj=;+= @)[email protected], kmfu'g !^ lj=;+= @)&$ kmfu'g, @( @)&& h]7 %

kl/R5]b M tLg

g]kfnsf] ;+j}wflgs ljsf;qmd #=! g]kfnsf] ;+j}wflgs ljsf;qmd /f0ff zf;gsf]cGTolt/@))$ ;fn df3 !$ sf lbg /f0ff k|wfgdGqL kß ;d;]/n] hf/L u/s ] f] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] j}wflgs sfg'g g} g]kfnsf] klxnf] ;+ljwfg xf]  . o;cl3 g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df s'g} klg lnlvt jf clnlvt ;+l+ jwfgsf] ¿k/v ] f kfOFbg}   . g]kfnsf] ;+jw} flgs ljsf;nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M #=!=! g]kfn ;/sf/sf] j}wflgs sfg'g, @))$ of] g]kfnsf] klxnf] ;+ljwfg xf]  . lj=;+= @))$ df3 !# ut] ljzfngu/ b/af/af6 3f]lift of] ljwfg lj=;+= @))% j}zfv ! ut]bl] v nfu' ul/g] egL pNn]v ul/Psf] lyof]  . t/ @))$ kmfu'g !* ut] k|wfgdGqL kß ;d;]/ ef/tsf] k|jf;df uPsf / pgL g]kfn gkmsL{ pxLFaf6 /fhLgfdf k7fPsf lyP  . pgsf pQ/flwsf/L df]xg ;d;]/ hgtfnfO{ s'g} clwsf/ lbg] kIfdf g/xs ] f]n] of] ljwfg nfu' x'g ;s]g  . of]j}wflgs sfg'g lgdf{0fsf nflu ef/tLo ;+ljwfg ljz]if1x¿ >Lk|sfz, 8f= /fd pu| l;+x / /3g' fy l;+xnfO{ af]nfOPsf] lyof]  . b]zdf Jofks kl/jt{g ug{ @))% j}zfv ! ut]bl] v nfu' x'g] u/L 3f]if0ff ePsf] of] ;+ljwfg klxnf] lyof]  . of]j}wflgs  sfg'gdf ^ efu, ^* wf/f /! cg';r " L lyP . #[email protected] g]kfnsf] cGtl/d zf;g ljwfg, @))& /f0ff zf;gsf]cGTokl5 lj=;+= @))& ;fn kmfu'g & ut]/fhf lqe'jgaf6 g]kfnsf] cGtl/d zf;g ljwfg @))& 3f]if0ff eof]  . o;df /fHosf gLlt, lgb]{zs l;4fGtx¿, dlGqd08n, cfly{s sfo{ k|0ffnL, k|wfg Gofofno, nf]s  ;]jf cfof]u, lgjf{rg cfof]u, ;+;b\\ ;efsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof]  . o;df & g]kfn kl/ro÷119

efu, &$ wf/f / $ kl/R5]b lyP  . @))& r}q @( ut]b]lv k"0f{ ¿kdf nfu' eO{ sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] of] ;+ljwfgdf ^ k6s;Dd ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] lyof]  . #=!=# g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)!% lj=;+= @)!$ r}q # ut]sf lbg eujltk|;fb l;+xsf]cWoIftfdf ul7t a]nfotL  ;+ljwfgljb\ ;/ cfOe/ h]lgª;d]t ;+nUg ePsf] kfFr–;b:oLo ;+ljwfg d:of}bf ;ldltn] !) dlxgfsf] cjlwdf d:of}bf tof/ u/L /fhf dx]Gb|;dIf k|:t't u/]  . o; sldzgsf cGo ;b:ox¿ xf]/fk|;fb hf]zL, /fd/fh kGt / ;"o{k|;fb pkfWofo lyP . of];+ljwfg /fhf dx]Gb|  af6 @)!% ;fn kmfu'g ! ut] hf/L eof]  . ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f &# / &% t'?Gt nfu' eP eg] afFsL wf/fx¿ @)!^ ;fndf nfu' eP . o;};+ljwfgsf]cfwf/df kmfu'g &, @)!% b]lv d'n'sdf k|yd cfd lgjf{rg eof] . o;df !)( ;b:oLo k|ltlglw;ef, dlGqd08n k|ltlglw;efk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g], sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf, :jtGq Gofokflnsf, nf]s;]jf cfof]u, lx;fa hfFr / gful/sx¿sf] df}lns clwsf/x¿sf] Joj:yf lyof]]  . !) efu, && wf/f / # cg';"rL ePsf] of] ;+ljwfg /fhf dx]Gb|af6 lj=;+= @)!( df vf/]h eof]  . #=!=$ g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( @)!& k'; ! sf] /fhf dx]Gb|sf] zfxL sbdn] @)!% ;fnsf] ;+ljwfg ckb:t eof]  . lj=;+= @)!( j}zfv @^ ut]sf lbg Clifs]z zfxsf] cWoIftfdf zDe'k|;fb 1jfnL, k|sfzaxfb'/ vqL, cª\u'/afaf hf]zL, 8Da/gf/fo0f ofbj ;b:ox¿ / s'nz]v/ zdf{ ;b:o–;lrj ePsf] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f ;ldltn] tof/ u/]sf] d:of}bfdf dlGqd08nsf ;b:ox¿sf] ;d]t /fo ;Nnfx lnO{ of] ;+ljwfg lj=;+= @)!( kf}if ! ut] /fhf dx]Gb|af6 3f]if0ff eof]  . nf]s ;Ddltdf cfwfl/t zf;g Joj:yf, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / lgb{nLo k~rfotL Joj:yf o;sf nIox¿ lyP . o;df gful/sx¿sf]df}lns xs /st{Jo, k~rfot k|0ffnLsf gLlt lgb]{zs l;4fGt, /fh;ef, dlGqkl/ifb\, nf]s;]jf cfof]u, sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf / :jtGq Gofokflnsfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof]  . o;df @)@# df3 !$ ut] klxnf] ;+zf]wg, @)#@ ;fn dª\l;/ @^ ut] bf];|f] ;+zf]wg / @)#& ;fn kf}if ! ut] t];|f] ;+zf]wg ePsf] lyof]  . @) efu, (& wf/f / ^ cf]6f cg';"rL ePsf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg, @)!( 5ofnL; ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ng cl3;Dd rNof] / @)$& ;fndf g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& n] o;nfO{ lj:yflkt u¥of]  . #=!=% g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& hgcfGbf]ngsf] kmn:j¿k lgb{nLo k~rfotL Joj:yf @)$^ r}q @^ ut] w/fzfoL eof] / @)$& j}zfv ^ ut] g]kfnL sfª\u; ]| sf sfo{jfxs ;efklt s[i0fk|;fb 120÷g]kfn

kl/ro

e§/fO{sf] cWoIftfdf !! ;b:oLo cGtl/d dlGqkl/ifb\sf] u7g eof]  . o;} dlGqkl/ifb\sf] sfo{sfndf g]kfnsf] kfrf}F ;+ljwfgsf] ¿kdf lj=;+= @)$& sflQs @# ut] z'qmaf/sf lbg g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& hf/L ePsf] lyof]  . @)$^ ;fnsf] P]ltxfl;s hgcfGbf]ndfkm{t #) jif]{ k~rfotL Joj:yfsf] ;dflKtkl5 b]zdf gofF ;+ljwfgsf] lgdf{0fsf] lgldQ /fhf jL/]Gb|af6 ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf GofofwLz ljZjgfy pkfWofosf] cWoIftfdf gf}–;b:oLo æ;+ljwfg ;'wf/ ;'emfj cfof]uÆ u7g ePsf] s'/f @)$& j}zfv @* ut] 3f]if0ff ul/Psfdf o;sf] tLj| lj/f]w eof]  . @)$& h]7 ! ut] k|wfgdGqLsf] ;'emfjadf]lhd dlGqkl/ifb\sf] k/fdz{nfO{ ;d]t Wofgdf /fvL /fhfaf6 lj=;+= @)$& h]7 !^ ut]# dlxgfleq cfˆgf];'emfj k]z ug{ k'gM ljZjgfy pkfWofosf]cWoIftfdf gf}–;b:oLo ;+ljwfg ;'emfj cfof]u u7g ul/Psf] lyof]  . ;+jwflgs } /fhtGq, ax'bnLo k|hftGq, ;+;bLo zf;g k|0ffnL, hgtfdf lglxt ;fj{ef}d;Qf, :jtGq / lgikIf GofokflnsfnfO{ ckl/jt{gLo ¿kdf :yfkgf u/]sf] of] ;+ljwfgn] gful/sx¿sf] df}lns xs / :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0fdf hf]8 lbPsf]lyof] . o; ;+ljwfgdf @# efu, !## wf/f /# cg';"rL lyP . o;df gful/ssf] df}lns xs, /fHosf lgb]{zs l;4fGt tyf gLltx¿, >L %, /fhkl/ifb\, sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf, Gofokflnsf, clVtof/ b'¿kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u, dxfn]vf k/LIfs, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u, lgjf{rg cfof]u, dxfGofolwjQmf cflbsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof]  . o; ;+ljwfgsf cfwf/e"t ljz]iftfx¿  o; k|sf/lyP M != ;+ljwfg b]zsf] d"n sfg'gsf] ¿kdf :jLsfl/Psf] @= ;fj{ef}d;Qf g]kfnL hgtfdf lglxt #= g]kfnnfO{ Ps ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs, k|hftflGqs, cljefHo, ;fj{ef}d;Qf  ;DkGg, lxGb", ;+jw} flgs /fhtGqfTds clw/fHosf] ¿kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf], $= gful/ssf df}lns xs / clwsf/sf] Joj:yf %= /fHosf lgb]{zs gLlt tyf l;4fGtsf] :ki6 Joj:yf ul/Psf] ^= sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ >L % / dlGqkl/ifb\df /xg] Joj:yf &= :jtGq Gofokflnsfsf] Joj:yf u/L Gofo ;Dkfbg ug]{ clwsf/ cbfntnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] *= /fhkl/ifb\, nf]s;]jf cfof]u, dxfn]vf k/LIfs, lgjf{rg cfof]u, clVtof/ b'¿kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]uh:tf ;+j}wflgs lgsfosf] Joj:yf u/L sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/sf] :ki6 Joj:yf ul/Psf] (= /fhgLlts bn;DaGwL Joj:yf u/L % k|ltzt dlxnf pDd]bjf/ g]kfn kl/ro÷121

p7fpg'kg]{ / /fli6«o bnsf] dfGotf kfpg hDdf v;]sf] dtsf] tLg k|ltzt dt Nofpg'kg]{ Joj:yf !) ;ª\s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff ug]{ clwsf/ /fhfnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] !!= ;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\ / /fli6«o ;'/Iff kl/ifb\sf] Joj:yf cflb lj=;+= @)^@÷^# sf] hgcfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntf;Fu;Fu} of] ;+ljwfg klg lgis[o eof]  . #=!=^ g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# bf];|f] hgcfGbf]ngsf] ;kmntfsf] kmn:j¿k g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df klxnf] k6s hgtfsf tkm{af6 g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# df3 ! ut] hf/L eof]  . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& kl5 5}6f}F ;+ljwfgsf ¿kdf g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# hf/L ePsf] xf]  . o; ;+ljwfgsf] d:of}bf ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf k"j{GofowLz Pjd\ @)$& ;fnsf] ;+ljwfgsf] d:of}bf ;ldlt ;b:o nId0fk|;fb cof{nsf] ;+of]hsTjdf ul7t !^ ;b:oLo d:of}bf ;ldltn] tof/ u/]sf] xf]  . @% efu, !^& wf/f ePsf] o; ;+ljwfgdf $ cg';"rLx¿ /x]sf lyP . o; ;+ljwfgnfO{ cGtl/d Joj:yflksf–;+;b\\n]lj=;+= @)^# df3 ! sf] /flt !!=#% ah] cg'df]bg u¥of]  . of] ;+ljwfg !# k6s ;+zf]wg ul/Psf] lyof]  . g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# sf ljz]iftf M != hgcfGbf]ng @ sf] efjgf Pjd\ ;f] cfGbf]ngsf ;xefuL cf7 /fhgLlts bnsf];fd"lxs k|of;af6 lgld{t @= g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df klxnf] k6s hgtfaf6 3f]if0ff ePsf] ;+ljwfg #= g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf Pjd\ /fhsLo;Qf g]kfnL hgtfdf lglxt $= g]kfnnfO{ wd{ lg/k]If /fi6«sf] ¿kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] %= sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ dlGqkl/ifb\df lglxt ^= u0ftGqsf] :yfkgf &= /fi6«fWoIfsf] ¿kdf /fi6«kltsf] Joj:yf *= Joj:yflksfsf] sfd ;+ljwfg;efn] ug]{ (= ;+ljwfg;efsf] u7g x'g] cfwf/sf] Joj:yf u/L ^)! hgf ;b:o /xg] k|fjwfg !)= /fli6«o dfgjclwsf/ cfof]unfO{ ;+j}wflgs cËsf ¿kdf dfGotf, !!= lgjf{rgsf]lglDt bnbtf{ ubf{ slDtdf !) xhf/dtbftfsf];dy{g ;lxtsf] x:tfIf/ cfjZos [email protected]= k|wfg;]gfkltsf] lgo'lQm, dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltaf6 x'g] !#= k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf /Iff, u[x / k|wfdGqLn] tf]s]sf tLghgf dGqL 122÷g]kfn

kl/ro

/xg] u/L /fli6«o ;'/Iff kl/ifb\sf] u7g !$= ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg Joj:yflksf–;+;b\\sf] b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dtaf6 x'g ;Sg], !%= k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf k|wfgGofwLz, ;efd'v, ljkIfL bnsf] g]tf / k|wfgdGqLn] tf]s]sf tLg hgf dGqL;lxtsf] ;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\ u7g x'g] Joj:yf !^= h'g;'s}cbfnt, ljz]if cbfnt, ;}lgs  of cGo s'g}cbfnt of Goflos lgsfoaf6 u/]sf ;hfonfO{ dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltn] dfkmL d'NtjL, kl/jt{g jf sd ug{ ;Sg] !&= dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltn] g]kfnL /fhb"t / cGo ljz]if k|ltlglwsf] lgo'lQm ug]{ !*= /fHosf tkm{af6 lbOg] pkflw, ;Ddfg / lje"if0f dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltaf6 k|bfg ug]{ !(= /fli6«o dxŒjsf]s'g}klg ljifodf hgdt ;ª\u|x ug{ ;lsg]k|fjwfg @)= afwf c8sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/ dlGqkl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltdf /xg] / To;sf] cg'df]bg ! dlxgfleq ;+;b\\n] ug]{ #=!=& g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg g]kfnL hgtfn] cfkm\gf] ;+ljwfg cfkm}F agfpg] bzsf}+ nfdf] rfxgfnfO{ d't{¿k lbFb} bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;efåf/f lgdf{0f ul/Psf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg @)[email protected] c;f]h # ut] cfOtaf/ hf/L eof]  . o; ;+ljwfgn] ax'nafbdf cfwfl/t ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds ;+;bLo zf;g Joj:yf c+lusf/ u/]sf] 5  . #=!=&=!= g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgsf ljz]iftfx¿ != bf];|f] ;+ljwfg;efn] agfPsf] ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg /fi6«kltaf6 @)[email protected] ;fn c;f]h # ut] hf/L ePsf] @= g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df klxnf]kN6 ;+ljwfg;efn] lgdf{0f u/L hf/L u/]sf] ;+ljwfg #= g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf Pjd\ /fhsLo;Qf g]kfnL hgtfdf lglxt $= o; ;+ljwfgdf ljleGg #! cf]6f df}lns xsx¿sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] %= k|To]s gful/ssf nflu rf/ cf]6f st{Jox¿ tf]lsPsf] ^= ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs  u0ftGq g]kfnsf]d"n ;+/rgf ;ª\3, k|b]z tyf :yfgLo tx u/L tLg txsf] x'g] / g]kfndf ;ftcf]6f k|b]z /xg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] &= g]kfnsf] /fHozlStsf] k|of]u ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txn] ;+ljwfg tyf g]kfn kl/ro÷123

sfg'gadf]lhd ug]{ Joj:yf *= ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txlar /fHozlStsf] afF8kmfF8 ul/Psf]  . (= /fi6«fWoIfsf] ¿kdf /fi6«klt /xg] Joj:yf !) g]kfnsf] sfo{sfl/0fLsf] clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / sfg'gadf]lhd dlGqkl/ifb\df lglxt /xg] Joj:yf !!= /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg km/skm/s lnª\u jf ;d'bfosf] k|ltlglWfTj x'g] u/L ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf [email protected]= @&% ;b:oLo k|ltlglw;ef / %( ;b:oLo /fli6«o;ef gfdsf b'O{ ;bg;lxtsf] Ps ;ª\3Lo Joj:yflksfsf] Joj:yf !#= ;ª\3Lo ;bgdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{k|To]s  /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf] sDtLdf PsltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g'kg]{ k|fjwfg !$= k|ltlglw;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'vdWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g]u/L lgjf{rg ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] !%= /fli6«o;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIfdWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g]u/L lgjf{rg ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf !^= k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ePsf] klxnf] b'O {jif{;Dd / Psk6s /fv]sf] cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj c;kmn ePsf] Psjif{leq cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj k]z ug{ gkfpg] Joj:yf !&= g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}ldstf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf / hgtfdf lglxt ;fj{ef}d;Qfsf] k|lts'n x'g] u/L of] ;+ljwfg ;+zf]wg ug{ g;lsg] !*= k|b]zsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / k|b]z sfg'gadf]lhd k|b]z dlGqkl/ifb\df lglxt x'g] !(= k|To]s k|b]zdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] k|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf /fi6«kltåf/f lgo'Qm k|b]z k|d'v /xg] Joj:yf @)= k|b]zsf] dlGqkl/ifb\ d'VodGqLsf] cWoIftfdf u7g x'g] @!= k|b]zsf] Joj:yflksf Ps;bgfTds x'g] / o;sf] gfd k|b]z;ef /xg] @@= k|b]z ;efsf ;f7L k|ltzt ;b:ox¿ klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnLadf]lhd / rfnL; k|ltzt ;b:ox¿ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLadf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Joj:yf @#= :yfgLo txsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / ;ª\3Lo sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL ufpFkflnsf jf gu/kflnsfdf lglxt x'g] @$= lhNnfleqsf ufpFkflnsf /gu/ kflnsfx¿lar ;dGjo ug{ lhNnf;efsf] Joj:yf 124÷g]kfn

kl/ro

@%=

clVtof/ b'¿kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u, dxfn]vf k/LIfs, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u, lgjf{rg cfof]u, /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]u, /fli6«o k|fs[lts ;|f]t tyf ljQ cfof]u, /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]u, /fli6«o blnt cfof]u, /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]u, cflbjf;L hghflt cfof]u, dw];L cfof]u, yf¿ cfof]u / d'l:nd cfof]usf] Joj:yf @^= g]kfndf af]lng] ;a} dft[efiffx¿ /fi6«efiff x'g] / b]jgfu/L lnlkdf n]lvg] g]kfnL efiff g]kfnsf] ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiff tf]lsPsf] @&= /fli6«o dxŒjsf]s'g}klg ljifodf hgdt ;ª\u|xaf6 lg0f{o lng ;Sg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] #[email protected]= g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf pNn]lvt df}lns xs / st{Jo g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgsf] efu # df lgDgfg';f/sf df}lns xsx¿ / st{Jox¿sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 M != ;Ddfgk"j{s af“Rg kfpg]xs -wf/f !^_ @= :jtGqtfsf] xs -wf/f !&_ #= ;dfgtfsf]xs -wf/f !*_ $ ;~rf/sf] xs -wf/f !(_ %= Gofo;DaGwL xs -wf/f @)_ ^= ck/fw kLl8tsf] xs -wf/f @!_ &= oftgflj?4sf]xs -wf/f @@_ *= lgjf/s gh/aGblj?4sf] xs -wf/f @#_ (= 5'jf5't tyf e]befjlj?4sf]xs -wf/f @$_ !)= ;DklQsf] xs -wf/f @%_ !!= wfld{s :jtGqtfsf] xs -wf/f @^_ [email protected]= ;"rgfsf] xs -wf/f @&_ !#= uf]kgLotfsf] xs -wf/f @*_ !$= zf]if0flj?4sf] xs -wf/f @(_ !%= :jR5 jftfj/0fsf] xs -wf/f #)_ !^= lzIff;DaGwL xs -wf/f #!_ !&= efiff tyf ;+:s[ltsf]xs -wf/f #@_ !*= /f]huf/Lsf] xs -wf/f ##_ g]kfn kl/ro÷125

!(= @)= @!= @@= @#= @$= @%= @^= @&= @*= @(= #)= #!=

>dsf] xs -wf/f #$_ :jf:Yo;DaGwL xs -wf/f #%_ vfB;DaGwL xs -wf/f #^_ cfjf;sf] xs -wf/f #&_ dlxnfsf] xs -wf/f #*_ afnaflnsfsf] xs -wf/f #(_ blntsf] xs -wf/f $)_ Ho]i7 gful/ssf] xs -wf/f $!_ ;fdflhs Gofosf] xs -wf/f [email protected]_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] xs -wf/f $#_ pkef]Qmfsf] xs -wf/f $$_ b]z lgsfnflj?4sf] xs -wf/f $%_ ;+j}wflgs pkrf/sf] xs -wf/f $^_

#=!=&=# ;ª\3Lo zf;sLo :j¿k -s_ ;ª\3Lo sfo{kflnsf &$= zf;sLo :j¿k M g]kfnsf] zf;sLo :j¿k ax'njfbdf cfwfl/t ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds ;+;bLo zf;g k|0ffnL x'g] 5  . &%= sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ M -!_ g]kfnsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / sfg'g adf]lhd dlGqkl/ifbdf lglxt x'g] 5  . [email protected]_ of] ;+ljwfg / sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL g]kfnsf] zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;fdfGo lgb]{zg, lgoGq0f / ;~rfng ug]{ cleef/f dlGqkl/ifbdf x'g] 5  . -#_ g]kfnsf] ;ª\3Lo sfo{sfl/0fL ;DaGwL ;Dk"0f{ sfd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gfddf x'g] 5  . -$_ pkwf/f -#_ adf]lhd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gfddf x'g] lg0f{o jf cfb]z / tT;DaGwL clwsf/kqsf] k|df0fLs/0f ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd x'g] 5  . &^= dlGqkl/ifbsf] u7g M -!_ / fi6«kltn]k|ltlglw ;efdf ax'dt k|fKt 126÷g]kfn

kl/ro

;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 / lghsf] cWoIftfdf dlGqkl/ifbsf] u7g x'g] 5  . [email protected]_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd k|ltlglw ;efdf s'g} klg bnsf] :ki6 ax'dt g/x]sf] cj:yfdf k|ltlglw ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ b'O{ jf b'O{eGbf a9L bnx¿sf];dy{gdf ax'dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;b:onfO{ /fi6«kltn] k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5  . -#_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff ePsf] ldltn]tL; lbgleq pkwf/f [email protected]_ adf]lhd k|wfgdGqL lgo'lQm x'g ;Sg] cj:yf gePdf jf To;/L lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df /fi6«kltn] k|ltlglw ;efdf ;a}eGbf a9L ;b:ox¿ ePsf] bnsf] ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 . -$_ pkwf/f [email protected]_ jf -#_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] To;/L lgo'Qm ePsf]ldltn]tL; lbgleq k|ltlglw ;efaf6 ljZjf;sf]dt k|fKt ug'{ kg]{5 . -%_ pkwf/f -#_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df pkwf/f [email protected]_ adf]lhdsf] s'g} ;b:on] k|ltlglw ;efdf ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] cfwf/ k|:tt' u/d ] f /fi6«kltn] To:tf] ;b:onfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug{5 ]  . -^_ pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf]dt k|fKt ug'{ kg]{5 . -&_ pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df  jf k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm x'g g;s]df k|wfgdGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltn] k|ltlglw ;ef lj36g u/L 5 dlxgfleq csf]{ k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg x'g] u/L lgjf{rgsf] ldlt tf]Sg] 5  . -*_ o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd ePsf] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff ePsf] jf k|wfgdGqLsf] kb l/Qm ePsf] ldltn] k}Flt; lbgleq o; wf/fadf]lhd k|wfgdGqL lgo'lQm ;DaGwL k|lqmof ;DkGg ug'{ kg{]5 . -(_ /fi6«kltn] k|wfgdGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df ;ª\3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:odWo]af6 ;dfj]zL l;4fGtadf]lhd k|wfgdGqL ;lxt a9Ldf g]kfn kl/ro÷127

klRr; hgf dGqL /x]sf] dlGqkl/ifb u7g ug]{ 5  .

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If]qL, a|fx\d0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg'k5{ . -#_ pkwf/f [email protected]_ adf]lhd /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ckf+utf ePsf] JolQmsf] ;d]t k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ug{'kg{] 5  . -$_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:osf] lgjf{rg sfg'g adf]lhd uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f x'g] 5  . -%_ c7f/ jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf] k|To]s g]kfnL gful/snfO{ ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd s'g} Ps lgjf{rg If]qdf dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/ x'g] 5  . -^_ k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b: osf nflu x'g]lgjf{rgdf dtbfg ug{ clwsf/ kfPsf] wf/f *& adf]lhd of]Uotf k'u]sf] JolQm ;ª\3Lo sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL s'g} klg lgjf{rg If]qaf6 pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] 5  . t/ Pp6} JolQm PseGbf a9L lgjf{rg If]qdf Ps} k6s pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] 5}g  . -&_ k|ltlglw ;efsf]sfo{sfn 5 dlxgfeGbf a9L cjlw afFsL 5Fb} s'g} ;b:osf] :yfg l/Qm ePdf To:tf] :yfg h'g lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 k"lt{ ePsf] lyof] ;f]xL k|lqmofåf/f k"lt{ ul/g] 5  . -*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;ª\3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g'kg]{ 5  . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f [email protected]_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf]bnaf6 ;ª\3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{kg]{5 . -(_ k|ltlglw ;efsf]lgjf{rg /tT;DaGwL cGo ljifo ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd x'g] 5  . *%= k|ltlglw ;efsf]sfo{sfn M -!_ o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd  cufj}lj36g ePsf]df afx]s k|ltlglw ;efsf] sfo{sfn kfFr jif{sf] x'g] 5  . [email protected]_ pkwf/f -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+s6sfnLg g]kfn kl/ro÷129

cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z nfu' /x]sf] cj:yfdf ;ª\3Lo P]g adf]lhd k|ltlglw ;efsf] sfo{sfn Ps jif{df ga9\g] u/L yk ug{ ;lsg]5 . -#_ pkwf/f [email protected]_ adf]lhd yk ul/Psf] k|ltlglw ;efsf] sfo{sfn ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z vf/]h ePsf] ldltn] 5 dlxgf k'u]kl5 :jtM ;dfKt x'g] 5  . -u_ Gofokflnsf [email protected]^= Gofo ;DaGwL clwsf/cbfntaf6 k|of]u x'g]M -!_ g]kfnsf] Gofo ;DaGwL clwsf/of];+ljwfg, cGo sfg'g /Gofosf dfGo l;4fGt adf]lhd  cbfnt tyf Goflos lgsfoaf6 k|of]u ul/g]5 . [email protected]_ d'2f dfldnfsf] /f]xdf cbfntn] lbPsf] cfb]z jf lg0f{osf] ;a}n] kfng ug'{kg]{5 . [email protected]&= cbfntx¿ M -!_ g]kfndf b]xfo adf]lhdsf cbfntx¿ /xg] 5g\ M– -s_ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt, -v_ pRr cbfnt, / -u_ lhNnf cbfnt . [email protected]_ pkwf/f -!_ df n]lvPb]lv afx]s sfg'g adf]lhd d'2f x]g{ :yfgLo :t/df Goflos lgsfo jf ljjfb ;dfwfgsf j}slNks pkfo cjnDag ug{ cfjZostf cg';f/cGo lgsfo u7g ug{ ;lsg] 5  . [email protected]*= ;jf]{Rr cbfnt M -!_ g]kfndf  Ps ;jf]{Rr cbfnt x'g]5 . [email protected]_ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt clen]v cbfnt x'g]5 . o; ;+ljwfgdf cGoyf Joj:yf ePsf]df afx]s ;a} cbfnt / Goflos lgsfox¿ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt dftxt /xg] 5g\  . ;+ljwfg / sfg'gsf] JofVof ug{] clGtd clwsf/ ;jf{]Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g] 5  . -#_ ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] cfˆgf] / cfˆgf] clwsf/ If]qleq kg]{ cbfnt, ljlzi6Ls[t cbfnt jf cGo Goflos lgsfox¿sf]Gofo k|zf;g jf Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ljifodf lg/LIf0f, ;'kl/j]If0f u/L cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg ;Sg] 5  . -$_ d'2f dfldnfsf /f]xdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] u/]sf] ;+ljwfg / sfg'gsf] JofVof jf k|ltkfbg u/]sf] sfg'gL l;4fGt ;a}n] kfng 130÷g]kfn

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afx]s cGo GofofwLzn] ug{] 5g\  . -%_ pRr cbfntn] z'¿ sf/afxL / lsgf/f u/]sf] d'2fsf] k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg] / ;+ljwfg / sfg'gsf] JofVof ;DaGwL k|Zg ;dfj]z ePsf] ;fj{hlgs dxŒjsf]ljifo jf ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 lg0f{o x'g' pko'Qm 5 egL pRr cbfntn] cfˆgf] /fo;lxt l;kmfl/; u/]sf] d'2fsf] lg¿k0f ug]{ clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g] 5  . -^_ ;jf{]Rr cbfntsf] cGo clwsf/ / sfo{ljlw ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd x'g] 5  . !#(= pRr cbfnt M -!_ k|To]s k|b]zdf Ps pRr cbfnt /xg] 5  . [email protected]_ pRr cbfntn]cfˆgf]/cfˆgf dftxtsf cbfnt jf Goflos lgsfox¿af6 x'g] Gofo ;Dkfbgsf] sfo{df s;}n] cj/f]w u/]df jf cfb]z jf k}m;nfsf] cj1f u/]df ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd cjx]ngfdf  sf/afxL rnfO{ ;hfo ug{ ;Sg]5 . -#_ k|To]s  pRr cbfntdf d'Vo GofofwLzsf cltl/Qm ;ª\3Lo sfg'gdf Joj:yf eP adf]lhdsf] ;ª\Vofdf GofofwLzx¿ /xg] 5g\  . !$*= lhNnf cbfnt M -!_ k|To]s  lhNnfdf Ps lhNnf cbfnt x'g]5 . [email protected]_ k|b]z sfg'g adf]lhd :yflkt :yfgLo :t/sf Goflos lgsfo lhNnf cbfntsf] dftxtdf /xg] 5g\  . lhNnf cbfntn] cfˆgf] dftxtsf Goflos lgsfox¿sf] lg/LIf0f Pjd\ ;'kl/j]If0f ug{ / cfjZos lgb{zg ] lbg ;Sg]5 . #=!=&=$ k|fb]lzs zf;sLo :j¿k M -s_ k|b]z sfo{kflnsf !^@= k|b]zsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ M -!_ k|b]zsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / k|b]z sfg'g adf]lhd k|b]z dlGqkl/ifb\df lglxt x'g] 5  . t/ ;ª\3Lo zf;g nfu' ePsf] sf/0faf6 k|b]z sfo{sfl/0fL sfod g/x]df g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lgb{]zg adf]lhd k|b]z k|d'vn] k|b]zsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ k|of]u ug]{5  . [email protected]_ of] ;+ljwfg / cGo sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL k|b]zsf] zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;fdfGo lgb]{zg, lgoGq0f / ;~rfng ug]{ cleef/f k|b]z dlGqkl/ifbdf /xg] 5  . -#_ k|b]zsf] sfo{sfl/0fL sfo{x¿ k|b]z ;/sf/sf gfddf x'g] 5g\  . -$_ of] ;+ljwfgsf] cwLgdf /xL k|b]zsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ 132÷g]kfn

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cg';"rL–^, cg';"rL–& / cg';"rL–( adf]lhdsf] ;"rLdf pNn]v eP adf]lhd x'g] 5  . t/ ;ª\3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ljifosf ;DaGwdf of] ;+ljwfg / ;ª\3Lo sfg'gdf :ki6 pNn]v ePsfdf afx]s k|b]z dlGqkl/ifbn] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/sf] k|of]u ubf{ g]kfn ;/sf/;Fu ;dGjo u/L ug'{kg]{ 5  . -%_ pkwf/f -#_ adf]lhd k|b]z ;/sf/sf] gfddf x'g] lg0f{o jf cfb]z / tT;DaGwL clwsf/kqsf] k|df0fLs/0f k|b]z sfg'g adf]lhd x'g] 5  . !^*= k|b]z dlGqkl/ifbsf] u7g M -!_ k|b]z k|d'vn] k|b]z ;efdf ax'dt k|fKt ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ d'VodGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 / lghsf] cWoIftfdf k|b]z dlGqkl/ifbsf] u7g x'g] 5  . [email protected]_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd k|b]z ;efdf s'g} klg bnsf] :ki6 ax'dt g/x]sf] cj:yfdf k|b]z ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ b'O{ jf b'O{eGbf a9L bnx¿sf] ;dy{gdf ax'dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] k|b]z ;efsf] ;b:onfO{ k|b]z k|d'vn] d'VodGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5  . -#_ k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff ePsf] ldltn] tL; lbgleq pkwf/f [email protected]_ adf]lhd d'VodGqL lgo'lQm x'g ;Sg] cj:yf gePdf jf To;/L lgo'Qm d'VodGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df k|b]z k|d'vn] k|b]z ;efdf ;a}eGbf a9L ;b:ox¿ ePsf] ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ d'VodGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 . -$_ pkwf/f [email protected]_ jf -#_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm d'VodGqLn] To;/L lgo'Qm ePsf]tL; lbgleq k|b]z  ;efaf6 ljZjf;sf]dt k|fKt ug'{kg]{ 5 . -%_ pkwf/f -#_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm d'VodGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df pkwf/f [email protected]_ adf]lhdsf] s'g} ;b:on] k|b]z ;efdf ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] cj:yf ePdf k|b]z k|d'vn] To:tf] ;b:onfO{ d'VodGqL lgo'Qm ug{]5  . -^_ pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm d'VodGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf]dt k|fKt ug'{kg]{5 . -&_ pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhd lgo'Qm d'VodGqLn] ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df jf d'VodGqL lgo'Qm x'g g;s]df d'VodGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df g]kfn kl/ro÷133

k|bz ] k|dv ' n] k|bz ] ;efnfO{ lj36g u/L 5 dlxgfleq csf]{ k|bz ] ;efsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg x'g] u/L lgjf{rg ldlt tf]Sg] 5  . -*_ o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd ePsf] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff ePsf] jf d'VodGqLsf] kb l/Qm ePsf] ldltn] k}+tL; lbgleq o; wf/f adf]lhd  d'VodGqL lgo'lQm ;DaGwL k|lqmof ;DkGg ug'{ kg{5 . ] -(_ k|b]z k|d'vn] d'VodGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df k|b]z ;efsf ;b:odWo]af6 ;dfj]zL l;4fGt adf]lhd d'VodGqL ;lxt k|b]z ;efsf s'n ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf] aL; k|ltzt eGbf a9L gx'g] u/L] k|b]z dlGqkl/ifb u7g ug]{5  . :ki6Ls/0f M o; efusf] k|of]hgsf nflu ædGqLÆ eGgfn] dGqL, /fHo dGqL /;xfos dGqL ;Demg' k5{ . -!)_ d'VodGqL /dGqL ;fd"lxs ¿kdf k|b] z ;efk|lt pQ/ bfoL x'g] 5g\ / dGqLx¿ cfˆgf] dGqfnosf] sfdsf nflu JolQmut ¿kdf d'VodGqL / k|b]z ;efk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g] 5g\  . -v_ k|b]z Joj:yflksf !&%= k|b]z Joj:yflksf M k|b]zsf] Joj:yflksf Ps;bgfTds x'g] 5 h;nfO{ k|b]z ;ef elgg] 5  . !&^= k|b]z ;efsf] u7g M -!_ k|To]s k|b]z ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;ª\Vofdf ;b:o /xg] 5g\ M– -s_ ;DalGwt k|b]zaf6 k|ltlglw ;efdf klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf] bf]Aa/ ;ª\Vofdf x'g cfpg] ;b:o, -v_ v08 -s_ adf]lhd  sfod x'g];b:o ;ª\VofnfO{ ;f7L k|ltzt dfgL afFsL rfnL; k|ltztdf ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o  . [email protected]_ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhdsf] ;b:o lgjf{rgsf nflu e"uf]n / hg;ª\Vofsf] cfwf/df ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd lgjf{rg If]q sfod ul/g] 5  . -#_ k|b]z ;efsf ;f7L k|ltzt ;b:ox¿ klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd / rfnL; k|ltzt ;b:ox¿ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd  lgjf{lrt x'g]5g\ . 134÷g]kfn

kl/ro

-$_



pkwf/f -#_ adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;ef ;b:osf] lgjf{rg sfg'g adf]lhd jflnu dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f x'g] 5  . -%_ c7f/ jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf] k|b]zsf] If]qleq a;f]af; ug]{ k|To]s g]kfnL gful/snfO{ sfg'g adf]lhd s'g} Ps lgjf{rg If]qdf dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/ x'g] 5  . -^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf nflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;ª\Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;ª\3Lo sfg'gadf]lhd x'g] 5  . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lbFbf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{5 . ] :ki6Ls/0f M o; efusf] k|of]hgsf nflu -v; cfo{_ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fx\d0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ . -&_ pkwf/f -^_ adf]lhd /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ckf+utf ePsf JolQmsf] ;d]t k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ug{' kg{]5  . -*_ k|b]z ;efsf]sfo{sfn 5 dlxgf eGbf a9L cjlw afFsL 5Fb}s'g} ;b:osf] :yfg l/Qm ePdf To:tf] :yfg h'g lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 k"lt{ ePsf] lyof] ;f]xL k|lqmofåf/f k"lt{ ul/g] 5  . -(_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg k|b]z ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;ª\Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g'kg]{ 5  . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/ f -!_ sf]v08 -s_ adf] lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt gePdf To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] ;f]xL pkwf/fsf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 k|b]z ;efdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{kg]{ 5  . -!)_ k|b]z ;efsf] ;b:osf nflu x'g] lgjf{rgdf dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/ kfPsf] wf/f !&* adf]lhd of]Uotf k'u]sf] s'g} klg JolQm sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL k|b]zsf] s'g} klg lgjf{rg If]qaf6 pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] 5  . t/ Pp6} JolQm Ps eGbf a9L lgjf{rg If]qdf Ps} g]kfn kl/ro÷135

k6s pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] 5}g  . -!!_ k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rg;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;ª\3Lo sfg'g adf]lhd x'g] 5  . #=!=&=%= :yfgLo zf;sLo :j¿k M -s_ :yfgLo sfo{kflnsf M @!$= :yfgLo txsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ M -!_ :yfgLo txsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / ;ª\3Lo sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL ufpF sfo{kflnsf jf gu/ sfo{kflnsfdf lglxt /xg] 5  . [email protected]_ :yfgLo sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ cg';"rL–* / cg';"rL–( adf]lhdsf] ;"rLdf pNn]v eP adf]lhd x'g] 5  . -#_ of] ;+ljwfg / cGo sfg'gsf] cwLgdf /xL ufpFkflnsf / gu/kflnsfsf] zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;fdfGo lgb]{zg, lgoGq0f / ;~rfng ug]{ cleef/f ufpF sfo{kflnsf / gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] x'g] 5  . -$_ ufpFkflnsf / gu/kflnsfsf sfo{sfl/0fL sfo{ ufpFsfo{kflnsf / gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] gfddf x'g] 5   . -%_ pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ufpF sfo{kflnsf / gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] gfddf x'g] lg0f{o jf cfb]z / tT;DaGwL clwsf/kqsf] k|df0fLs/0f :yfgLo sfg'g adf]lhd x'g] 5  . -v_ Goflos ;ldlt @!&= Goflos ;ldlt M -!_ sfg'g adf]lhd cfˆgf] clwsf/If]q leqsf ljjfb lg¿k0f ug{ ufpFkflnsf jf gu/kflnsfn] k|To]s ufpFkflnsfdf pkfWoIfsf] ;+of]hsTjdf / k|To]s gu/kflnsfdf pkk|d'vsf] ;+of]hsTjdf tLg ;b:oLo Ps Goflos ;ldlt /xg] 5  . [email protected]_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] Goflos ;ldltdf ufpF ;ef jf gu/ ;efaf6 cfk"mdWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/]sf b'O{ hgf ;b:ox¿ /xg] 5g\  . -u_ :yfgLo Joj:yflksf @@!= :yfgLo txsf] Joj:yflksLo clwsf/ M -!_ o; ;+ljwfgsf]cwLgdf /xL :yfgLo txsf] Joj:yflksLo clwsf/ ufpF ;ef / gu/ ;efdf lglxt /xg] 5  . [email protected]_ ufpF ;ef / gu/ ;efsf] Joj:yflksLo clwsf/ cg';"rL–* / 136÷g]kfn

kl/ro

cg';"rL–( adf]lhdsf] ;"rLdf pNn]v ePadf]lhd x'g] 5  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf cg';"rL % b]lv cg';"rL ( ;Dd ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf Psn tyf ;femf clwsf/sf ;"rLsf] lgDgfg';f/ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5  . cg';"rL–% -wf/f %& sf] pkwf/f -!_ / wf/f !)( ;“u ;DalGwt_ ;ª\3sf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL qm=;+= ! @ # $ % ^ & *

ljifox¿ /Iff / ;]gf ;DaGwL s_ /fli6«o Pstf / ef}uf]lns cv08tfsf] ;+/If0f v_ /fli6«o ;'/Iff ;DaGwL o'4 / k|lt/Iff xftxltof/, v/vhfgf sf/vfgf tyf pTkfbg ;DaGwL s]Gb|Lo k|x/L, ;z:q k|x/L an, /fli6«o u'Ktr/ tyf cg';Gwfg, zflGt ;'/Iff s]Gb|Lo of]hgf, s]Gb|Lo a}ª\s, ljQLo gLlt, d'b|f / a}+lsª\u, df}lb|s gLlt, ljb]zL cg'bfg, ;xof]u / C0f k//fi6« tyf s"6gLlts dfldnf, cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw / ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3 ;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tf, ;'k'b{uL, kf/:kl/s sfg'gL ;xfotf / cGt/f{li6«o ;Ldf, cGt/f{li6«o ;Ldf gbL, b"/;~rf/, /]l8of] lk|mSj]G;Lsf] afF8kmfF8, /]l8of], 6]lnlehg / x'nfs

(

eG;f/, cGtMz'Ns, d"No clej[l4 s/, ;+:yfut cfos/, JolQmut cfos/, kfl/>lds s/, /fxbfgL z'Ns, le;f z'Ns, ko{6g b:t'/, ;]jf z'Ns b:t'/, b08 hl/afgf

!)

;ª\3Lo lghfdtL ;]jf, Gofo ;]jf / cGo ;/sf/L ;]jf

g]kfn kl/ro÷137

!! [email protected] !# !$ !% !^ !& !* !( @) @! @@ @# @$ @% @^ @& @* @( #)

hn;|f]tsf] ;+/If0f / ax'cfoflds pkof]u ;DaGwL gLlt / dfkb08 cGt/b]zLo tyf cGt/k|b]z ljB't\ k|;f/0f nfOg s]Gb|Lo tYof+s -/fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o dfgs / u'0f:t/_ s]Gb|Lo :t/sf 7'nf ljB't\, l;+rfO / cGo cfof]hgf tyf kl/of]hgf s]Gb|Lo ljZjljBfno, s]Gb|Lo:t/sf k|1f k|lti7fg, ljZjljBfno dfkb08 / lgodg, s]Gb|Lo k':tsfno :jf:Yo gLlt, :jf:Yo ;]jf, :jf:Yo dfkb08, u'0f:t/ / cg'udg, /fli6«o jf ljlzi6 ;]jf k|bfos c:ktfn, k/Dk/fut pkrf/ ;]jf, ;?jf /f]u lgoGq0f ;ª\3Lo ;+;b, ;ª\3Lo sfo{kflnsf, :yfgLo tx;DaGwL dfldnf, ljz]if ;+/rgf cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/, ljlgdo, aGb/ufx, Sjf/]G6fOg xjfO{ p8\8og, cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn /fli6«o oftfoft gLlt, /]n tyf /fli6«o nf]sdfu{sf] Joj:yfkg ;jf]{Rr cbfnt, pRr cbfnt, lhNnf cbfnt tyf Gofo k|zf;g ;DaGwL sfg'g gful/stf, /fxbfgL, le;f, cWofudg cf0fljs pmhf{, jfo'd08n / cGtl/If;DaGwL af}l4s ;DklQ -k]6G] 6, l8hfOg, 6]8« dfs{ / k|ltlnlk clwsf/ ;d]t_ gfk–tf}n vfgL pTvgg /fli6«o tyf cGt/fl{ i6«o jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg, /fli6«o lgs'~h, jGohGt' cf/If tyf l;d;f/ If]q, /fli6«o jg gLlt, sfa{g ;]jf ladf gLlt, lwtf]kq, ;xsf/L lgodg e"pkof]u gLlt, a:tL ljsf; gLlt, ko{6g gLlt, jftfj/0f cg's'ng kmf}hbf/L, b]jfgL sfg'gsf] lgdf{0f

138÷g]kfn

kl/ro

#! #@ ## #$ #%

;'/lIft 5fkfvfgf ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / ul/aL lgjf/0f ;+j}wflgs lgsfox¿, /fli6«o dxŒjsf cfof]ux¿ k'/ftflTjs dxŒjsf :yfg / k|frLg :df/s ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rLdf jf ;femf ;"rLdf pNn]v gePsf] s'g} ljifo tyf of] ;+ljwfg / ;ª\3Lo sfg'gdf gtf]lsPsf] ljifo

cg';"rL–^ -wf/f %& sf] pkwf/f [email protected]_, wf/f !^@ sf] pkwf/f -$_, wf/f !(&, wf/f @#! sf]pkwf/f -#_, wf/f @#@ sf] pkwf/f -&_, wf/f @&$ sf] pkwf/f -$_ / wf/f @(^ sf] pkwf/f -$_ ;“u ;DalGwt_ k|b]zsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL qm=;+= ljifox¿ != k|b]z k|x/L k|zf;g / zflGt ;'/Iff g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] gLlt cg'¿k ljQLo ;+:yfx¿sf] ;~rfng, @= ;xsf/L ;+:yf, s]Gb|sf] ;xdltdf j}b]lzs cg'bfg / ;xof]u #= /]l8of], Pkm= Pd, 6]lnlehg ;~rfng 3/ hUuf /lhi6«];g z'Ns, ;jf/L ;fwg s/, dgf]/~hg s/, lj1fkg $= s/, ko{6g, s[lif cfodf s/, ;]jf z'Ns b:t'/, b08 hl/jfgf %= k|b]z lghfdtL ;]jf / cGo ;/sf/L ;]jf ^= k|b]z tYofª\s &= k|b]z :t/sf] ljB't\, l;rfO / vfg]kfgL ;]jf, kl/jxg *= k|b]z ljZjljBfno, pRr lzIff, k':tsfno,  ;+u|xfno (= :jf:Yo ;]jf !)= k|b]z ;ef, k|b]z dlGqkl/ifb\;DaGwL !!= k|b]zleqsf] Jofkf/ [email protected]= k|b]z nf]sdfu{ !#= k|b]z cg';Gwfg Ao'/f] g]kfn kl/ro÷139

!$= !%= !^= !&= !*= !(= @)= @!=

k|bz ] ;/sf/L sfof{nox¿sf] ef}lts Joj:yfkg / cGo cfjZos ljifo k|b]z nf]s ;]jf cfof]u e"ld Joj:yfkg, hUufsf] clen]v vfgL cGj]if0f / Joj:yfkg efiff, lnlk, ;+:s[lt, nlntsnf / wd{sf] ;+/If0f / k|of]u k|b]zleqsf] /fli6«o jg, hn pkof]u tyf jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg s[lif tyf kz' ljsf;, snsf/vfgf, cf}Bf]lusLs/0f, Jofkf/ Joj;fo, oftfoft, u'7L Joj:yfkg

cg';"rL–& -wf/f %& sf] pkwf/f -#_, wf/f !)(, wf/f !^@ sf] pkwf/f -$_, wf/f !(& ;“u ;DalGwt_ ;ª\3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL qm=;+=

ljifox¿

!=

kmf}hbf/L tyf b]jfgL sfo{ljlw / k|df0f / zky -sfg'gL dfGotf, ;fj{hlgs sfo{ / clen]v / Goflos k|lqmof_

@=

cfjZos j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] cfk"lt{, ljt/0f, d"No lgoGq0f, u'0f:t/ / cg'udg

#=

b]zsf] ;'/Iff;Fu ;DalGwt ljifodf lgjf/s gh/aGb, sf/fuf/ tyf lx/f;t Joj:yfkg / zflGt ;'/Iffsf] Joj:yf

$=

Ps k|b]zaf6 csf]{ k|b]zdf cleo'Qm, y'g'jf / s}bLsf] :yfgfGt/0f

%=

kfl/jfl/s dfldnf -ljjfx, ;DklQ x:tfGt/0f, ;DaGw ljR5]b, nf]kf]Gd'v, 6'x'/f, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL pQ/flwsf/ / ;+o'Qm kl/jf/_ ;DaGwL sfg'g

140÷g]kfn

kl/ro

^= &= *= (= !)=

;DklQ k|flKt, clwu|x0f / clwsf/sf] ;[hgf s/f/, ;xsf/L, ;fem]bf/L / Ph]G;L ;DaGwL 6f6 kN6]sf] / bfdf;fxL;DaGwL cf}iflw / ljifflb of]hgf, kl/jf/ lgof]hg / hg;ª\Vof Joj:yfkg

!!=

;fdflhs ;'/Iff / /f]huf/L, 6«]8 o'lgog, cf}Bf]lus ljjfbsf] ;dfwfg, >ldssf xs, clwsf//ljjfb ;DaGwL sfo{

[email protected]=

sfg'g Joj;fo, n]vfk/LIf0f, OlGhlgol/ª, lrlsT;f, cfo'j{]b lrlsT;f, kz' lrlsT;f, cfDrL /cGo k]zf 

!#= !$= !%= !^=

k|b]z ;Ldf gbL, hndfu{, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, h}ljs ljljwtf ;~rf/ dfWod ;DaGwL pBf]u tyf vlgh / ef}lts k"jf{wf/ Sofl;gf], lr7\7f

!&=

k|fs[lts tyf u}/ k|fs[lts ljkb k"j{ tof/L, p4f/ tyf /fxt / k'gnf{e

!*= !(= @)= @!= @@=

ko{6g, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO rnlrq, l;g]df xn, v]ns'b aLdf Joj;fo ;~rfng / Joj:yfkg ul/aL lgjf/0f / cf}Bf]uLs/0f j}1flgs cg';Gwfg, lj1fg k|ljlw /dfgj ;+;fwg ljsf;

@#=

cGt/k|fb]lzs ¿kdf km}lnPsf] hª\un, lxdfn, jg ;+/If0f If]q hn pkof]u

@$= e"ld gLlt /;f];DaGwL sfg'g @%= /fh ] uf/L / a]/f]huf/ ;xfotf

g]kfn kl/ro÷141

cg';"rL–* -wf/f %& sf] pkwf/f -$_, wf/f @!$ sf] pkwf/f [email protected]_, wf/f @@! sf] pkwf/f [email protected]_ / wf/f @@^ sf] pkwf/f -!_ ;“u ;DalGwt_ :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL qm=;+

ljifox¿

!=

gu/ k|x/L

@=

;xsf/L ;+:yf

#=

Pkm= Pd ;~rfng

:yfgLo s/ -;DklQ s/, 3/ axfn s/, 3/ hUuf /lhi6]«zg z'Ns, ;jf/L ;fwg s/_, ;]jf z'Ns b:t'/, ko{6g z'Ns, lj1fkg s/, $= Joj;fo s/, e"lds/ -dfnkf]t_, b08 hl/jfgf, dgf]/~hg s/, dfnkf]t ;~rfng %=

:yfgLo ;]jfsf] Joj:yfkg

^=

:yfgLo tYofª\s / clen]v ;ª\sng

&=

:yfgLo :t/sf ljsf; cfof]hgf tyf kl/of]hgfx¿

*= cfwf/e"t / dfWolds lzIff (= cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo / ;/;kmfO !)= :yfgLo ahf/ Joj:yfkg, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / h}ljs ljljwtf !!= :yfgLo ;8s, u|fdL0f ;8s, s[lif ;8s, l;+rfO ufpF ;ef, gu/;ef, lhNnf ;ef, :yfgLo cbfnt, d]nldnfk  / [email protected]= dWo:ytfsf] Joj:yfkg !#= :yfgLo clen]v Joj:yfkg !$= 3/ hUuf wgL k'hf{ ljt/0f !%= s[lif tyf kz'kfng, s[lif pTkfbg Joj:yfkg, kz' :jf:Yo, ;xsf/L 142÷g]kfn

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!^= Ho]i7 gful/s, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm / czQmx¿sf] Joj:yfkg !&= a]/f]huf/sf] tYof+s ;~rfng !*= s[lif k|;f/sf] Joj:yfkg, ;+rfng / lgoGq0f !(= vfg]kfgL, ;fgf hnljB't\ cfof]hgf, j}slNks pmhf{ @)= ljkb\ Joj:yfkg @!= hnfwf/, jGohGt', vfgL tyf vlgh kbfy{sf] ;+/If0f @@= efiff, ;+:s[lt / nlntsnfsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf; cg';"rL–( -wf/f %& sf] pkwf/f -%_, wf/f !)(, wf/f !^@ sf] pkwf/f -$_, wf/f !(&, wf/f @!$ sf] pkwf/f [email protected]_, wf/f @@! sf] pkwf/f [email protected]_ / wf/f @@^ sf] pkwf/f -!_ ;“u ;DalGwt_ ;ª\3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;femf ;"rL qm=;+= != @= #= $= %=

ljifox¿ ;xsf/L lzIff, v]ns'b / kqklqsf :jf:Yo s[lif ljB't\, vfg]kfgL, l;FrfO h:tf ;]jfx¿

^=

;]jf z'Ns, b:t'/, b08 hl/jfgf tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]taf6 k|fKt /f]oN6L, ko{6g z'Ns

&=

jg, h+un, jGohGt', r/fr'?ª\uL, hn pkof]u, jftfj/0f, kof{j/0f tyf h}ljs ljljwtf

*= (=

vfgL tyf vlgh ljkb Joj:yfkg g]kfn kl/ro÷143

!)= !!= [email protected]= !#= !$= !%=

;fdflhs ;'/Iff / ul/aL lgjf/0f JolQmut 36gf, hGd, d[To', ljjfx /tYof+s k'/ftTj, k|frLg :df/s / ;+u|xfno ;'s'Daf;L Joj:yfkg k|fs[lts ;|f]taf6 k|fKt /f]oN6L ;jf/L ;fwg cg'dlt

lll

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kl/R5]b M rf/

g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g /fHo zf;g k|0ffnLsf] piffsfnb]lv g} ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cl:tTj /x]sf] kfOG5  . b]zdf cdgrog sfod ug'{ / hgtfnfO{ /fHoaf6 lgwf{l/t ;]jf / ;'/Iff k|bfg ub}{ /fHo / gful/slarsf] ;DaGw ;'b[9 ug'{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] k|d'v p2]Zo Pjd\ bfloTj xf]  . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;nfO{ cWoog ubf{ sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf uf]kfn j+z, dlxifkfn j+z, ls/ft j+z, lnR5lj j+z, dNn j+z / zfx j+zn] /fHo u/]sf]Ù klZrd g]kfndf v; j+zn] /fHo u/]sf]Ù blIf0f klZrd t/fO{If]q slknj:t'df zfSo j+zÙ blIf0fk"j{t/fO{ If]qdf s0ff{6 j+zLx¿n] /fHo u/]sf] kfOG5  . sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] /fhwfgL sf7df8f}F, v; /fHosf] /fhwfgL l;Fhf, slknj:t'sf] /fhwfgL n'lDagL / s0ff{6 j+zLsf] 8f]o -lt/x't_ sf] /fhwfgL l;d|f}gu9 lyof]  . ;fy} bfªdf yf¿ hflt tyf hgsk'/df ldlynf

l;+xb/af/, sf7df8f}F g]kfn kl/ro÷145

efifLn] zf;g u/]sf] klg kfOG5  . k|frLg g]kfndf ef}uf]lns 6fs'/f, If]q / e"efudf ;;fgf /fHox¿ ePsf / tL /fHox¿df cfcfkm\g} k|sf/sf] k|zf;g k|0ffnL cljsl;t cj:yfdf /x]sf] kfOG5  . g]kfnsf] PsLs/0fkZrft\ g]kfndf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ljsf; ePsf] b]lvG5  . g]kfnsf] k|zf;gnfO{ ;do cjlwsf b[li6sf]0fn]  rf/;d"xdf ljefhg u/L cWoog ug{ pko'Qm x'G5 . -!_ k|frLg sfn -PsLs/0fk"j{_ [email protected]_ dWosfn -/f0ff zf;gsf] cGt;Dd_ -#_ cfw'lgs sfn -k|hftGqsf] :yfkgfkl5 nf]stGqsf] :yfkgf;Dd_ -$_ pQ/cfw'lgs sfn -nf]stGqsf] :yfkgfkl5 xfn;Dd_ $=! k|frLg sfn -lj=;+= !*@% cufl8_ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] k|frLgsfn PsLs/0fk"j{sf] sfn ePsf]n] o;n] sf7df8f}F, v; k|b]z, slknj:t', 8f]o /fHo, ldlynf k|b]z, yf¿ If]qsf] k|zf;gnfO{ ;d]6\g'kg]{ x'G5  . ;/n zAbdf eGbf o; sfnsf] k|zf;g s:tf] lyof] eGg] kIf vf]hsf] ljifo s} ¿kdf /x]sf] kfOG5  . oBlk o; ;dosf] k|zf;g /fhf s]lGb|t x'GYof]  . /fhf wd{u|GynfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ zf;g ub{y]  . /fhfsf ljZjf; kfqnfO{ o'4 / /fhZj ;ª\sngsf] lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] x'GYof]  . kb / sfdsf] ljefhg lyPg  . ;}lgs ansf] ljsf;df hf]8 lbOGYof]  . k|frLg g]kfn ;dosf] ult;Fu} tLg v08 sf7df8f}F, lt/x't / v; /fHodf ljeQm x'g k'u]sf] lyof]  . h;nfO{ cGwsf/sf] ;do klg elgG5  . Oltxf;nfO{ s]nfpFbf lnR5lj sfndf /fhfn] zf;g rnfpg dlGqkl/ifb\ u7g ug]{ uy]{  . dlGqkl/ifb\df cdfTo / dGqLx¿ lgo'Qm ul/Gy]  . zf;gdf ;xof]u ug{ ;j{b08gfos, b08gfos, dxfk|ltxf/, k|ltxf/h:tf clwsf/L lgo'Qm x'Gy]  . /fHonfO{ ljleGg b«ª -lhNnf_, u|fd -ufpF_ /tn -ahf/_ df ljefhg u/L ljs]lGb|t zf;g ul/GYof]  . :yfgLo txdf zf;g kf~rfnL -JolQmx¿sf] ;d"x_ n] ub{Yof]  . dNnsfndf klg /fhf ;j]{;jf{ lyP  . /fhfkl5 /fhs'df/ x'Gy]  . oBlk zf;gdf ;xof]u k'¥ofpg dGqL, ;]gfklt  lgo'Qm ub{y]  . cfk;L k|lt:kwf{df afFRgsf nflu dNn /fhfx¿n] ;]gfdf w]/} vr{ ug]{ ub{y]  . k|frLgsfndf /fhtGqfTds zf;g k|0ffnL lyof]  . /fhfx¿ wfld{s u|Gy, gLlt zf:q Pjd\ wd{1fsf] cfwf/df zf;g ub{y]  . ;f/df k|frLgsfnLg k|zf;g Gofo, ;}lgs / lghfdtL kbdf :ki6 ljefhg gePsf], sd{rf/Lsf] sfd, st{Jo, lgo'lQm, ;?jf a9'jf zf;ssf] :jljj]sdf cfwfl/t /x]sf] kfOG5  . 146÷g]kfn

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lnR5jLsflng lgsfox¿M s'y]/ clws/0f M hUuf hldgsf] s't p7fpg] jf dfnkf]tsf] sfo{ ug]{ lgsfo dfKrf]s M ljjfx, kf/kfr's];DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ lgsfo ln+ujn M s'nf], k}gL, afFw, af6f]3f6f] ;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ lgsfo z'NnL÷zf]Nn clws/0f M k~rk/fw -rf]/L, xTof, k/:qLudg, /fhb|f]x / o;df ;3fpg]_ sf] 5fgljg u/L Gofo lbg] lgsfo  . lnR5jL sfndf lqs/k|rlnt lyof]h;df efus/M e"ld jf s[lifdf nfUg]s/ ef]us/ M kz'kfngdf nfUg] s/ s/ M pBf]u, jfl0fHo, Jofkf/df nfUg] s/ cGo s/x¿df M l;s/ M kmlg{r/df nfUg] s/ r}ns/ M sk8fdf nfUg] s/ t}ns/ M t]ndf nfUg] s/ cfk0fs/ M k;ndf nfUg] s/ dNno'4s/ M ;fFw]h'wfO, dgf]/~hgdf lnR5jLsfnsf kbx¿ dxf;j{b08gfos M k|wfg Gofoflwz ;j{b08 gfos M GofofwLz b08gfos M k|x/L k|d'v e§ M l;kfxL k|wfg M u|fdk|zf;s ;fdGt M k|zf;s k|;fbflws[t M sfof{no k|d'v e6\6gfos M ;]gfWoIf jnfWoIf M ;]gfklt dxfjnfWoIf M k|wfg;]gfklt uf]lNds M ;]gfgfos cdfTo M dGqL:t/Lo clwsf/L k|ltxf/ M /fhb/jf/ x]g]{ clws[t dxfk|ltxf/ M /fhb/af/ x]g]{ k|d'v 9'6s M /fh3f]if0ff k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{ o'j/fh M efjL /fhf g]kfn kl/ro÷147

b't M s[lif, jg, l;FrfO Jofkf/x]g]{ . dNnsflng kbx¿M rf}tf/f M k|wfgdGqL cdfTo M dGqL;/xsf] kb åf/] M ufpFsf] emu8f x]g]{ k|wfg M 6f]n x]g]{ clwsf/L v/bf/ M b]zel/sf] e|d0f u/L Gofo lbg]  ysfnL M k~rsf]d'Vo JolQm pd/f M ;}lgs clws[t sf]6gfos M lsNnf /Ifs ;fdGt M k|zf;s peo M ;}lgs clwsf/L 5]e08]n M /fhfsf] e08f/ jf cGgsf] Joj:yf ug]{ rl/bf/ M cg';Gwfg clws[t sf]tjfn M zflGt ;'/Iff x]g]{ 6S;f/L M l;Ssf 5fKg] uDle/ ck/fw rf]/L, k/:qLx/0f, /fhb|f]x, uf}xTof, jfnxTof, :qLxTof, lkt[xTof, u'?xTof lgsfox¿ 9fNkf M s'nf], gx/ cflbsf] /]vb]v ug]{ lgsfo ljifo M lhNnf k~r;d'Rro M ;fgfltgf emu8f x]g]{, a'9fkfsfsf] ;d"x, ef/bf/L;ef M /fh;ef 6s;f/L M d'b|f 6s;/L ug]{ :yfg [email protected] dWosfn -lj=;+= !*@%–@))&_ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] g]kfnsf] klxnf] r/0fsf] PsLs/0f lj=;+= !*@^ -;g\ !&^*_ df k"/f u/]sf lyP  . To; a]nf /fhfx¿n] lxGb"wd{cg';f/ zf;g ub{y]  . /fhf k|zf;gsf ;j]{;jf{ lyP  . zf;g s]Gb|Ls[t lyof]  . /fhfn] cfˆgf lk|okfqnfO{ k|zf;gsf dxŒjk"0f{ kbdf lgo'lQm ub{y]  . o; sfnsf] cGtlt/ g} /fhfnfO{ zlQmxLg agfP/ /f0ff kl/jf/sf] lg/+s'z hxflgofF zf;g rn]sf] lyof]  . b|Jo zfxnfO{ uf]/vf ljho ug{ ;3fPsf cof{n, kf08], vgfn, kGt, af]x/f / /fgf 5 y/x¿nfO{ k|zf;gsf dxŒjk"0f{ kbdf klxnf] df}sf lbOGYof]  . /f0ffsfnsf] pbokl5 y/3/sf] :yfgdf s'Fj/ -/f0ff_, a:g]t / yfkfsf] jr{Zj sfod ePsf] lyof]  . o;sfndf sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf / Gofokflnsfsf] 148÷g]kfn

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5'§} Joj:yf lyPg  . ;a} clwsf/ /fhf jf /f0ffdf lglxt lyof]  . oBlk zf;g ;~rfngdf ;Nnfx / k/fdz{ lng ef/bf/sf] Joj:yf lyof] eg] b}lgs sfo{ ;~rfngsf nflu k|zf;gsf] Joj:yf lyof]  . ef/bf/L kbdf lgo'lQm x'g] sd{rf/L t'ngfTds ¿kdf /fhf÷/f0ffsf glhs x'Gy]  . To:tf kbdf u'?, rf}tfl/of, sfhL, ;/bf/, sk/bf/, vhf~rL, bbf, åf/] lyP  . k|zf;sLo wdf{lwsf/, k'/fl] xt, sKtfg, dL/dG' ;L, jlsn, ;'Aaf, l8¶f, v/bf/, d'lvof sf]tafn, ljrf/L, b/fu] f, txljnbf/ pd/fcf], sf]t] hdbf/h:tf kbx¿ lyP . o; sfndf ul/Psf dxŒjk"0f{ k|zf;sLo sfo{ o;k|sf/ /xs ] f 5g\ M • k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] of]Uo / ;Ifd JolQmnfO{ lgo'lQm / kbf]Gglt ub}{ hfg] p2]Zon] ;}lgs ;]jf dfkm{t khgL k|0ffnLsf] ;'?jftsf ;fy} o'4df jL/ult k|fKt ug]{ ;}lgsx¿sf kl/jf/x¿nfO{ pgsf ;Gtfgx¿ gx'ls{pGh]n;Dd eQfsf] ¿kdf hUuf k|bfg ug]{ d/j6 gLlt canDag u/]sf, • /f0ff k|wfgdGqL /0ff]låk l;+xn] sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ gub C0f lbg] p2]Zon] t]hf/y c8\8f :yfkgf, • jL/;d;]/n] bf}8fxf k|yfsf] ;'?jft u/L k|zf;g ;'wf/sf] k|oTg u/]sf, • lj=;+= !(%) df k|zf;sLo sfo{ Jojl:yt ug{ t/fO{df [email protected] /kxf8df @# u/L #% lhNnfdf b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ljefhg jL/ ;d;]/n] u/]  . h;cg'¿k lhNnfdf k|d'v k|zf;ssf] ¿kdf j8f xflsdsf] Joj:yf, • b]j;d;]/n] sfof{no ;do !)–)% lgwf{/0f u/]sf, • lj=;+= !(&$ df v8\u lgzfgsf] 5fk rGb|;d;]/n] rngdf NofP, • ;/sf/L ;]jfdf k|j]z ug{ rf/ kf; ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf u/L sd{rf/LnfO{ tflnd lbg] Joj:yfsf] ;'?jft, • eLd ;d;]/n] zlgaf/ labf lbg] / sfof{no ;do !) ah] laxfgb]lv $ ah] ;fFem;Dd sfod ug's { f ;fy} sf7df8f}s F f] l8NnLahf/df 5l/P/ /xs ] f ;/sf/L c8\8fx¿nfO{ Ps} 7fpFdf /fVg] Joj:yf ub}{ rf/vfn c8\8fsf] :yfkgf, • h'4 ;d;]/n] ;}lgs b|Jo sf]if v8f u/]  . ;}lgs / lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ lgj[lQe/0f lbg] Joj:yf u/]  . ljz]iftf /fHo ;~rfngsf] ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ /fhfdf lglxt lyof]  . k|zf;gsf dxŒjk"0f{ kbx¿ ^ y/3/sf JolQmx¿nfO{ zfx /fhfx¿n] ;'/lIft u/]sf lyP  . /f0ff sfndf o:tf kbx¿ /f0ff kl/jf/sf ;b:ox¿nfO{ ;'/lIft ul/Psf lyP  . sd{rf/Lsf] khgL jflif{s ¿kdf ul/GYof] / sd{rf/LnfO{ lhG;L -afnL_ / gub tna lbOGYof]  . ;]gf, Gofo / lghfdtL kbdf Ps} kbflwsf/L /xg] ub{y]  . /f0ffsfndf vr{ eO{ ar]sf] /sd k|wfgdGqLsf] lghL 9's'6Ldf hfGYof]  . g]kfn kl/ro÷149

k|zf;lgs lgod, sfg'g k4lt :ki6 lyPg, rfs8L k|yf pRr ¿kdf lyof] . zf;ssf] OR5fdf sd{rf/Lsf] lgo'lQm, ;?jf a9'jf, ;]jf ;'ljwf lgwf{/0f x'Gy]  . vf;u/L k|zf;g s]Gb|Ls[t, k/dk/fjfbL / JolQmd'vL lyof]  . /f0ff sfndf kb z[ª\vnf k|wfgdGqL, d'lVtof/L, 8fO/]S6/ hg/n, a8fsfhL, sfhL, ;/bf/, dL/;'Aaf, ;'Aaf, gfoj ;'Aaf, vl/bf/, l8¶f, d'lvof, gfoa d'lvof, /fO6/, gfoa /fO6/, alxbf/ sfod ul/Psf] lyof]  . zfxsfnLg kbx¿ M sfhL M ljefusf k|d'v /If]qLo  k|d'v rf}tfl/of M hª\uL ;]jfsf If]qLo / s]Gb|Lo k|d'v vhf~rL M ;/sf/L vhfgfsf] xflsd dGqL M /fhfnfO{ ;Nnfx lbg]sfo{kflnsf k|d'v ;/bf/ M cl86/ cf}ifwfnosf] k|d'v sk/bf/ M /fhkl/jf/sf] sk8f, uxgfsf] Joj:yf ug]{ ld/d'G;L M ljb]zL jf l5d]sL d'n's;Fu ;DaGw :yflkt ug]{ rf]jbf/ M rf}sLbf/, b/afg jlsn Ml5d]sL d'n'sdf g]kfnsf /fhfsf] k|ltlglw ;'Aaf M lhNnfsf lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx¿sf]k|d'v åf/] M ;/sf/L sfo{nosf kfn], kx/]bf/ cflb /f0ffsfnLg k|zf;lgs c8\8f M v8\u lgzfgf c8\8f M >L # sf];lrjfno ÷k|wfgdGqLsf]sfof{no -rGb|;d;]/_ d'G;Lvfgf M k//fi6« dfldnf;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{ c8\8f -eLd;]g yfkf, /0f axfb'/ zfx_ s'df/Lrf]s M n]vfk/LIf0f / lgoGq0f;Fu ;DalGwt -k[YjLgf/f0f zfx_ hª\uL a:bf]j:tL c8\8f M ;}lgs k|zf;g;DaGwL sdf08/L lstfjvfgf M ;/sf/L sd{rf/Lsf] clen]v /fVg] ljlGtkq lgS;f/L c8\8f M Gofo;DaGwL sfo{ ug]{;jf]{Rr c8\8f d'n'sL aGbf]j:tL c8\8f M b]zsf] k|zf;g ;~rfng / lg/LIf0f ug]{ s8]+nrf]s M u/uxgfsf] Joj:yf ug]{ -h+uaxfb'/ /fhf_ $=# cfw'lgs sfn -lj=;++= @))&–@)^#_ dWosfnLg lg/ªs \ z ' tGq rfs8L, eg;'g, dgk/L9ª\un] lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] egf{, cj}1flgs  a9'jf Pjd\ ;?jf /cfjZos of]Uotf  ePsf sd{rf/L cflbsf] cefjsf] cj:yfaf6 d'ns ' k|hftflGqs zf;g k|0ffnLdf k|jz ] ubf{ b]zdf k|zf;lgs If]q dha't lyPg  . o;} tYonfO{ dgg u/L @))& ;fnsf] /fhgLlts 150÷g]kfn

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;/sf/L lgsfon] j]a;fO{6 k|of]u ug],{ sDKo'6/st[ ;"rgf k|ljlwnfO{ Jojxf/df Nofpg]nufotsf Joj:yfdfkm{t ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] ;'b9[ Ls/0f u/s ] f] 5  . @)^% ;fndf g]kfnnfO{ ;ª\3Lo u0ftGqsf] 9fFrfcg';f/sf] k|zf;lgs ;+oGq / ;+/rgf agfpg ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{sf nflu ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf pRr:t/Lo k|zf;g k'gM;+/rgf cfof]u u7g ePsf], h;n] g]kfnL ;]gf / g]kfn k|x/Lafx]s ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g If]qsf] ;du| ;'wf/sf nflu ;/sf/;dIf dxŒjk"0f{ l;kmfl/;x¿ k]z u/s ] f] lyof]  . ;fy} @)&) df k|zf;sLo cbfntsf cWoIf sfzL/fh bfxfnsf] ;+of]hsTjdf pRr:t/Lo k|zf;g ;'wf/ ;'emfj ;ldlt, @)&) u7g ePsf] . ;f];ldltn]k|zf;g ;'wf/sf nflu ;du| zf;g Joj:yfdf kl/jt{gsf nflu ;'emfj k|ltj]bg k|:tt' u/s ] f] 5  . of] k|ltj]bg sfof{Gjog nufotsf ;'wf/sf sfo{x¿ ug{sf nflu lgoldt ;+/rgfsf]  ¿kdf sfo{ ug{ :yfoL k|sl[ tsf]k|zf;g ;'wf/sfof{Gjog tyf cg'udg ;ldlt u7g ePsf] 5  . @)[email protected] c;f]h  # df ;+ljwfg;efaf6 ;+ljwfg hf/ L eP;Fu } g]kfn  ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqdf k|jz ] u/s ] f] 5  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] g]kfnsf] d"n ;+/rgf ;ª\3, k|bz ] / :yfgLo tx u/L tLg txsf] x'g] Joj:yf u/s ] f] 5  . ;f]xL adf]lhd tLg txx¿lar :jzf;g / ;femf zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff cg'¿k /fHozlQmsf] jfF8kmfF8 ;d]t ul/Psf] 5  . jt{dfg ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @*% n] ;ª\3Lo ;/sf/, k|bz ] ;/sf/ / :yfgLo ;/sf/n] cf–cfkm\gf] k|zf;g ;~rfngsf nflu lghfdtL / cGo ;/sf/L ;]jfsf] u7g / ;~rfng ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ lbPsf] 5  . sd{rf/L ;dfof]hg P]g, @)&% adf]lhd lghfdtL ;]jfdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx¿nfO{ ;ª\3, k|bz ] / :yfgLo txdf ;dfof]hg u/L ;ª\3Lo 9fFrfcg'¿k g} k|zf;gsf] k'gM;+/rgf ;DkGg ePsf] 5  . h;cGtu{t s]Gb|df ;ª\3Lo ;/sf/, ;ft k|bz ] ;/sf/ / &%# :yfgLo txcGtu{t ljljw lgsfox¿ v8f u/L k|zf;lgs Joj:yf ;~rfng ul/Psf] 5 / ;]jfk|fKt ug'{ cfd gful/ssf] xs xf] eGg] dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{k|zf;lgs ;+oGqnfO{ ;]jfu|fxLd'vL agfpg]k|of; klg ePsf]5 . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g b]zsf] hg;ª\Vofsf] t'ngfdf 7'nf] 5}g  . o;n] ;/sf/sf lg0f{ox¿ sfof{Gjog ug]{ / hgtfnfO{ ;]jf k'¥ofpg] sfo{ /fhgLlts pynk'yn Pjd\ sdhf]/ cfly{s cj:yfdf klg lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ;Dkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] 5  . jt{dfgdf ;ª\3Lotf cjnDag;Fu} gful/ssf] 3/cfFugdf clwsf/;DkGg k|zf;lgs lgsfosf] Joj:yf ePsf] 5  . o;af6 gful/sx¿n] glhs}sf] lgsfoaf6 lgoldt, ljsf;fTds / cfsl:ds ;]jfnufotsf zf;sLo nfex¿ ;/n, ;xh, ldtJooL, u'0f:t/Lo / k|efjsf/L¿kdf k|fKt ub}{k|zflgs ;+oGqsf];lqmotfdfkm{t zf;g k|0ffnLdf clws hg;xeflutf g]kfn kl/ro÷153

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g]kfnsf] cfly{s ljsf; g]kfn ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n's xf]  . ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3n] ;g\ !(&! df g]kfn cltsd ljsl;t /fi6« ePsf] pNn]v u/]sf] lyof]  . g]kfndf Go"g k|ltJolQm cfo, /fli6«o cfDbfgLsf] c;dfg ljt/0f, clwsf+z hgtfx¿ s[lifdf lge{/ /xg' tyf /f]huf/Ld"ns Jofj;flos lzIffsf] cefj cflb sf/0fx¿n] ubf{ g]kfn ljZjsf ul/a d'n'sx¿df /xFb} uPsf] xf]  . ul/aLsf cGo sf/0fx¿df a;fOF;/fO, lzIffsf] cefj, hgr]tgfsf] cefj, cTolws hg;ª\Vof j[l4, e"kl/j]li7t cy{tGq, cfoftdf a9L hf]8 tyf k|fs[lts ;fwgx¿sf] plrt ;b'kof]usf] cefj cflb /x]sf 5g\  .

wfg /f]Kgsf nflu v]t ;Dofpb} ls;fg g]kfn kl/ro÷155

s[lifdf cfwfl/t hg;ª\Vof, ljk|]if0fdf cfwfl/t cy{tGq, ul/aL, e"kl/j]li7t cy{tGq, cNkljsl;t b]z, /fli6«o cfosf] c;dfg ljt/0f, c;Gt'lnt If]qLo ljsf;, k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] cNk pkof]u, ;fgf] cfsf/sf] j}b]lzs Jofkf/, ldl>t cy{tGq, ljb]zL  ;xfotfdf lge{/cy{tGq, dfgj ;+;fwgsf]Go"g ljsf;, k|r'/ ;Defjgflar Go"g ko{6sLo Joj;fo, ;f+:s[lts ;Dkbfsf]Go"g pkof]u, Go"g pmhf{ pkof]u, Go"g cfly{s ljsf; b/cflb jt{dfg g]kfnsf]pGgt cfly{s ljsf;df afwssf] ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\  . %=! g]kfndf of]hgfa4 ljsf; lglZrt nIo tyf p2]Zok|fKt ug{ lglZrt ;dofjlwleq s]Gb|Lo clwsf/Lx¿åf/f lgof]lht ¿kn] ul/g] cy{tGqdflysf] lgoGq0f tyf lgb]{zg g} of]hgf xf]  . of]hgfdf k"0f{ /f]huf/L, c;dfgtf 36fpFb} hfg], ul/aL 36fpg], ;fwg;|f]tsf] ;b'kof]u ug]{, cfly{s ljsf;sf] ult tLj| agfpg], ;Gt'lnt ljsf; k|f]T;flxt u/fpg], cfTdlge{/tftkm{ pGd'v x'g], ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / cfly{s l:y/tf k|bfg ug]{ h:tf p2]Zox¿ cGtlg{lxt x'G5g\  . g]kfndf of]hgfsf] Oltxf; Tolt w]/} k'/fgf] 5}g  . !)$ jif{;Dd g]kfnsf] zf;gsf] afu8f]/ /f0ffx¿n] xftdf lnP klg of]hgfa4 ljsf;sf nflu vf; sbdx¿ rfn]gg\  . oBlk /f0ff k|wfgdGqL h'4;d;]/n] @) jifL{o of]hgfsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf lyP  . t/ o;nfO{ sfof{Gjogdf NofOPg  . /fhg}lts l:y/tf / lbzfaf]w :ki6 gePsf sf/0fn] ubf{ @))& ;fnkl5 cfly{s of]hgfsf] ;'¿jft geP tfklg o; ;DaGwdf k|z:t u[xsfo{x¿ eP . @))* ;fndf klxnf]kN6  ah]6sf] Joj:yf eof]  . lj=;+= @)!# ;fnb]lv g]kfndf of]hgfa4 ljsf;sf] yfngL ePsf] xf]  . oL ljleGg of]hgfx¿nfO{ ;ª\If]kdf tn k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 M %=!=! k|yd k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])!#–@)!*_ k|yd k~rjifL{o of]hgf lj=;+= @)!# ;fn cflZjg ! ut]b]lv ;'? eO{ @)!* ;fn >fj0f d;fGt;Dddf k"/f ePsf] lyof]  . p2]Zo -s_ pTkfbg / /f]huf/L j[l4 ug]{ -v_ e]befj/lxt tl/sfn] hgtfsf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg] -u_ eljiodf of]hgfx¿sf nflu k"jf{wf/tof/ug]{qmddf cfjZos cfly{s ;j]{If0fx¿ ;DkGg ug]{ k|fyldstf -s_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ 156÷g]kfn

kl/ro

-v_ l;FrfO pmhf{ /jg -u_ s[lif tyf s[lifhGo -3_ ;fdflhs ;]jf -ª_ pBf]u, vfgL / ko{6g %[email protected] bf];|f] lqjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])!(–@)@@_ bf];|f] lqjifL{o of]hgf @)!( ;fnb]lv ;'? eO{ @)@@ ;fndf k"/f eof]  . p2]Zo -s_ a9\bf] hg;ª\Vofsf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ s[lif tyf cf}Bf]lus If]qsf] pTkfbg j[l4 ug]{ -v_ d"No l:y/tf sfod u/L ljsf;sf] jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug]{ -u_ >dd"ns k|ljlwsf] k|of]u u/L /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x¿ a9fpg] -3_ Gofof]lrt ;fdflhs Joj:yf sfod ug]{ k|fyldstf -s_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ -v_ ;fdflhs ;]jf -u_ pBf]u, vfgL tyf ko{6g -3_ s[lif, l;FrfO, jg tyf vfg]kfgL -ª_ pmhf{ (Energy) -r_ ljljw %=!=# t];|f] k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])@@–@)@&_ t];|f]k~rjifL{o of]hgf  lj=;+= @)@@ ;fndf ;'? eO{ @)@& ;fndf ;dfKt ePsf] lyof]  . o; of]hgfn] !% jif{leq /fli6«o pTkfbgnfO{ bf]Aa/ ug]{ nIo lnPsf] lyof]  . o;cg';f/ /fli6«o cfodf !( k|ltzt, k|ltJolQm cf};t cfo ( k|ltzt, vfBfGg pTkfbgdf !% k|ltzt /gub]afnLdf  &# k|ltztn]j[l4 ug]{ nIo /x]sf] lyof]  . p2]Zo -s_ s[lif If]qsf] vfBfGg pTkfbgdf j[l4 Nofpg] -v_ s[lifdf Joj:yfd"ns ;'wf/ ug]{ -u_ cfwf/e"t If]qx¿ ljsf; ub}{ n}hfg] -3_ cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf] k"jf{wf/ l;h{gf ug]{ g]kfn kl/ro÷157

-ª_ j}b]lzs Jofkf/df ljljwtf Nofpg] -r_ ;fdflhs cfjZostf k"/f ub}{ hfg] k|fyldstf -s_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ -v_ s[lif, l;FrfO, jg tyf vfg]kfgL  -u_ pBf]u -3_ ;fdflhs ;]jf -ª_ cGo -ljljw_ %=!=$ rf}yf] k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])@&–@)#@_ rf}yf] k~rjifL{o of]hgf lj=;+= @)@& ;fndf ;'? u/L @)#@ ;fndf k"/f eof]  . p2]Zo -s_ pTkfbg j[l4df clwstd hf]8 lbg] -v_ ljsf;sf cfwf/e"t cfjZostfx¿ k"/f ub}{ n}hfg] -u_ Jofkf/ ljljwLs/0f / Jofkf/ lj:tf/df clws dxŒj k|bfg ug]{ -3_ cfly{s l:y/tf / ljsf; ultdf ultzLntf Nofpg] -ª_ >dzlQmsf] clwstd pkof]u / hg;ª\Vof lgoGq0ftkm{ Wofg lbg] -r_ zf]if0f/lxt ;dfh l;h{gfsf] cfwf/ tof/ kfg]{ k|fyldstf -s_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ -v_ s[lif, e"ld;'wf/tyf jg -u_ pBf]u, jfl0fHo, vfgL tyf ljB't\ -3_ k~rfot, lzIff, :jf:Yo / cGo ;fdflhs ;]jfx¿ -ª_ tYofª\s %=!=% kf“rf}“ k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])#@–@)#&_ p2]Zo -s_ hg;fwf/0fx¿sf nflu cfjZos kg]{pTkfbg j[l4df hf]8 lbg] -v_ >dzlQmsf] clwstd pkof]u ug]{ -u_ k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ng sfod u/L k|fb]lzs PsLs/0ftkm{ hf]8 lbg] k|fyldstf -s_ s[lif, e"ld;'wf/, l;FrfO, jg, e";+/If0f / k'gjf{; 158÷g]kfn

kl/ro

-v_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ -u_ pBf]u, jfl0fHo, ljB't\ tyf vfgL -3_ ;fdflhs ;]jf -lzIff, :jf:Yo cflb_ %=!=^ 5}6f}“ k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])#&–@)[email protected]_ p2]Zo -s_ pTkfbg j[l4b/df tLj|tf Nofpg] -v_ pTkfbgzLn /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x¿ l;h{gf ug]{ -u_ hgtfsf] Go"gtd cfwf/e"t cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ k|fyldstf -s_ s[lif, l;FrfO tyf jg -v_ pBf]u, vfgL / ljB't\ -u_ ;fdflhs ;]jfx¿ -3_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ gLltx¿ -s_ s[lif If]qsf] ljsf;tkm{ ljz]if hf]8 lbOg] -v_ ;fgf, 3/]n' / s'6L/ pBf]ux¿sf] ljsf;nfO{ dxŒj lbg] -u_ lgsf;L Jofkf/ / ko{6gsf] ljsf;df hf]8 lbg] -3_ k|fs[lts ;|ft] ;Dkfbsf] ;+/If0f / hn;|ft] sf] ljsf;tkm{ ljz]if Wofg lbOg] -ª_ tof/L cfwf/zLnfsf] k"0f{ pkof]u ul/g] -r_ cy{tGqsf] ;f]rg Ifdtf -Absorptive Capacity_ lj:tf/ / hg;ª\Vof lgoGq0f ug]{ gLltx¿ cg';/0f ul/g] 5 /0fgLlt -s_ cfly{s lg0f{o ljs]Gb|Ls/0f -v_ ;+:yfut cfwf/x¿sf] ljsf; -u_ ;'b[9 tyf ;Ifd ljsf; k|zf;g -3_ tflnd k|fKt hgzlQm ljsf; -ª_ lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf]cfk"lt{df j[l4 %=!=& ;ftf}“ k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])[email protected]–@)$&_ ;ftfF} k~rjifL{o of]hgf lj=;+= @)[email protected] ;fnb]lv ;'? eO{ @)$& ;fndf k"/f eof] . g]kfn kl/ro÷159

p2]Zo -s_ pTkfbg b/df j[l4 Nofpg] -v_ pTkfbgzLn /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x¿ l;h{gf ug]{ -u_ hgtfsf] Go"gtd cfjZostfx¿ k"/f ub}{ n}hfg] k|fyldstf -s_ s[lif, l;FrfO tyf jg -v_ pBf]u / ljB't\ -u_ ;fdflhs ;]jfx¿ -3_ oftfoft / ;~rf/ gLltx¿ -s_ s[lif If]qsf] ljsf;df ;jf]{kl/ k|fyldstf lbOg] -v_ jg;Dkfbsf] ljsf; / e";+/If0fdf hf]8 lbg] -u_ hn;|f]tsf] ljsf;df hf]8 lbg] -3_ 3/]n' pBf]usf] ljsf; tyf lj:tf/ k|f]T;flxt ul/g] -ª_ lgsf;L Jofkf/ k|j4{gsf nflu clws hf]8 lbg] -r_ ko{6g ljsf;df hf]8 lbg] -5_ hg;ª\Vof j[l4b/df lgoGq0f ul/g] -h_ cfly{s PsLs/0f ug]{  -em_ ljsf; k|zf;gnfO{ ;'b[9 /;Ifd agfpg] %=!=* cf7F}“ k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])$(–@)%$_ cf7f}F k~rjifL{o of]hgf lj=;+= @)$( b]lv @)%$ ;Dd ;~rfng ePsf] lyof]  . o; of]hgfsf] k|d'v p2]Zox¿ lgDgfg';f/ lyP M !_ lbuf]cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ug]{ @_ ul/aL 36fpg] #_ If]qLo c;Gt'ng sd ug]{ k|fyldstf -s_ s[lif ;3gtf / ljljwLs/0f -v_ pmhf{ ljsf; -u_ u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf; -3_ /f]huf/L l;h{gf / hgzlQm ljsf; 160÷g]kfn

kl/ro

-ª_ hg;ª\Vof j[l4df lgoGq0f -r_ cf}Bf]lus ljsf; / ko{6g k|j4{g -5_ lgof{t lj:tf/, ljljwLs/0f -h_ ;dli6ut cfly{s :yfloTj -em_ ljsf; k|zf;gdf ;'wf/ -`_ cg'udg / d"Nofª\sg If]qut gLltx¿ -s_ s[lif pTkfbg j[l4df ef}uf]lns If]qLo -Agro-ecological zone_ pko'QmtfnfO{ clws k|fyldstf lbOg] -v_ nfebfos / lgof{td"ns s[lif pkhsf] Jofj;foLs/0f / ljljwLs/0ftkm{ hf]8 lbg] -u_ cf}Bf]lus afnL pTkfbgdf pRr k|fyldstf k|bfg ug]{ -3_ s[lif k|;f/ sfo{df k|efjsfl/tf Nofpg] -ufpFn], s[ifs sfo{stf{x¿ pkof]u ul/g]_ -ª_ s[lif pTkfbg / pTkfbgsf ;fwgx¿af/]df lghL If]qsf] ;xeflutf j[l4tkm{ clws dxŒj k|bfg ul/g] -r_ s[lif cg';Gwfg tyf s[lif k|;f/tkm{ hf]8 lbOg] -5_ s[lif nufgL k|lqmofnfO{ ;s];Dd ;/n agfpg] -h_ ;xsf/Lsf] ljsf; tyf lj:tf/df hf]8 lbOg] %=!=( gjf}“ k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])%$–@)%(_ p2]Zo /fi6«sf] ljsf; cufl8 a9fpFb} n}hfg] p2]Zocg'¿k @) jif]{ bL3{sfnLg ljsf; cjwf/0ff;Fu tfbDo sfod u/L /fi6«sf] k|d'v r'gf}tLsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] ul/aLnfO{ bL3{sfnLg / k|efjsf/L ¿kdf 36fpg …ul/aL lgjf/0fÚ ug]{ Psdfq d"n p2]Zo gjf}F of]hgfn] /fv]sf] lyof]  . k|fyldstf -s_ s[lif tyf jg -v_ hn;|f]t -u_ dfgj ;+;fwg /;fdflhs ljsf; -3_ cf}Bf]uLs/0f, ko{6g ljsf; / cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/ -ª_ ef}lts k"jf{wf/ g]kfn kl/ro÷161

gLlt -s_ cfly{s ;'wf/sf] k|lqmof cyjf k4lt ;'b[9 kfb}{ cfly{s j[l4b/ km/flsnf] agfpFb} nlug] -v_ bL3{sfnLg s[lif of]hgf sfof{Gjog u/L s[lif If]qsf] ljsf; tyf lj:tf/ sfo{qmd cufl8 a9fpg] -u_ e"–:jfldTjsf] ;d:of lg/fs/0f ub}{ e"lddfly e"ldxLg ls;fgsf] kx'Fr a9fpFb} s[lifsf] pTkfbsTj a9fpg] tyf s[lifdfly cfwfl/t pBf]ux¿sf] ljsf; tyf lj:tf/åf/f cfDbfgL / /f]hfuf/Lsf cj;/x¿ l;h{gf u/L ul/aLsf] ;d:of sd ub}{ n}hfg] -3_ hg;xeflutfnfO{ d'Vo cfwf/ agfpFb} ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, :yfgLo ljsf; tyf dfgjLo ;+;fwg ljsf;sf]dfWodaf6 lk5l8Psf hflt hghfltx¿sf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs pTyfg ug]{ -ª_ pBdzLn / l;kd"ns tflndsf] ;~rfng tyf lj:tf/åf/f :j/f]huf/L / /f]huf/sf cj;/x¿ k|fKt ug{ ;dy{jfg\ hgzlQm pTkfbg ul/g]  . To:tf sfo{qmdx¿nfO{ ul/aL lgjf/0fsf]k|d'v dfWod agfO{ k|fljlws ;xfotf, ;/;Nnfx, C0f k|jfxh:tf ;]jfx¿ Jofks ¿kdf u|fdL0f tx;Dd lj:tf/ ul/g] -r_ s[lif, 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u / ko{6g If]qsf] ljsf;nfO{ u|fdL0f tx;Dd lj:tf/ u/L cfo cfh{g / /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x¿df Jofkstf Nofpg]  . -5_ ;fwgsf] ;Lldttftkm{ Wofg lbO{ ;fwgnfO{ ;s];Dd l56f] / Hofbf k|ltkmn lbg], /f]huf/Ld"ns Gofof]lrt ljt/0fnfO{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] vfnsf s[lif, ;fgf pBf]u / ko{6gtkm{ s]lGb|t ul/g] -h_ j}b]lzs Jofkf/df lgsf;L Jofkf/nfO{ clwstd k|f]T;flxt ul/g]  . Jofkf/ ljljwLs/0fsf] gLlt cg';/0f ubf{ t'ngfTds nfe / k|lt:kwf{Tds jftfj/0f tof/ ug{ sfg'gL / ;+:yfut k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ub}{ nlug] -em_ cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/sf] Jofks ljsf; tyf lj:tf/åf/f cy{tGqsf] pTkfbg / pTkfbg Ifdtf a9fpFb} n}hfg] %=!=!) b;f}“ k~rjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])%(–@)^$_ p2]Zo != b]zdf ljBdfg ul/aLsf] cj:yfaf6 pGd'lQm;lxt Ps ;';:+ st[ , cfw'lgs Pjd\ k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtfo'Qm hg;dfh l;h{gf ug]{-bL3{sfnLg p2]Zo_ .  @= ;/sf/, :yfgLo lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L If]q, lghL If]q / gful/s ;dfhsf] ;+o'Qm ;xeflutfdf ;|f]t ;fwgx¿sf] ;d'lrt kl/rfng ub}{ cfly{s cj;/ 162÷g]kfn

kl/ro

Pjd\ /f]huf/Lsf If]qx¿ lj:tf/ ug]{ / ;zQmLs/0f, dfgjLo ljsf;, ;'/Iff tyf nlIft sfo{qmddfkm{t dlxnf, blnt, b'u{d If]qsf afl;Gbfnufot clt ul/a Pjd\ lk5l8Psf ju{sf];fwg tyf cfly{s pknlAwx¿df kx'Fr j[l4 ub}{ cfly{s, dfgjLo Pjd\ ;fdflhs kl/;"rsx¿sf] ;'wf/ u/L ul/aL 36fpg]  . -cNksfnLg cyjf b;f}F of]hgfsf] p2]Zo_ ljz]if hf]8 lbPsf If]qx¿M /fli6«o k|fyldstf, ljBdfg ;d:of / ljsf; ;Defjgfsf cfwf/df b;f}F of]hgfdf ljz]if hf]8 lbOg] lgDgcg';f/sf If]qx¿ klxrfg ul/Psf lyPM s_ s[lif ljsf;, k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg tyf h}ljs ljljwtf v_ u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/x¿sf]ljsf; tyf u|fdL0f pmhf{ u_ hg;ª\Vof Pjd\ ;fdflhs ;]jf / cfwf/e"t ;fdflhs ;'/Iff 3_ gLlh If]qsf] e"ldsfdf ko{6g, hn;|f]t, ;"rgf k|ljlw tyf cf}Bf]lus Pjd\ Jofkfl/s If]qx¿sf] ljsf; ª_ dfgjLo ;+;fwgsf] ljsf; / dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f r_ blnt, hghflt tyf ljkGg ju{sf] pTyfg Pjd\ /f]huf/L tyf cfwf/e"t ;'/Iffsf nflu nlIft sfo{qmd 5_ :yfgLo ljsf; tyf u}/;/sf/L Pjd\ ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx¿sf] ;'b9[ Ls/0f h_ b'u{d If]q Pjd\ If]qut ljsf;df hf]8 em_ u|fdL0f k|ljlwdf kl/dfh{g Pjd\ pRr k|ljlwsf]k|of]u `_ ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt / clej[l4 6_ jftfj/0f ;+/If0f tyf k|j4{g 7_ /fli6«o Pjd\ If]qLo:t/sf k"jf{wf/x¿sf] ljsf; /0fgLlt != pRr, lbuf] / km/flsnf] cfly{s j[l4 [email protected]_ ;fdflhs If]q / k"jf{wf/ ljsf; -#_ nlIft sfo{qmd -$_ ;'zf;g %=!=!! P3f/f}F lqjifL{o cGtl/d of]hgf [email protected])^$÷^%–@)^^÷^&_ hgcfGbf]ng @)^@–^# kl5sf] lqjifL{o cGtl/d of]hgfn] ;d[4, cfw'lgs / Gofok"0f{ g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ bL3{sfnLg ;f]rcg'¿k /f]huf/Ld"ns, ul/aL lgjf/0f pGd'v km/flsnf] cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ug]{Ù ;'zf;g k|j4{g tyf ;]jf k|jfxdf k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg ef}lts  k"jf{wf/ljsf;df nufgL j[l4 g]kfn kl/ro÷163

ug]{, ;fdflhs ljsf;nfO{ hf]8 lbg]Ù ;dfj]zL ljsf; / nlIft sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ug]{ p2]Zox¿ lnPsf] lyof]  . ef}lts ;+/rgfx¿sf] k'glg{df0f / k'gM:yfkgfÙ åGå k|efljtx¿nfO{ /fxt, k'gM:yfkgf tyf ;fdflhs PsLs/0f / ;dfof]hgÙ ljsf;sf ;a} ;+/rgf, If]q / k|lqmofx¿df pk]lIft ;d'bfo, If]qsf] ;dfj]zLs/0fÙ s[lif, ko{6g tyf pBf]unfO{ 6]jf k'Ug] ljB't\ ljsf;, ;8s, l;FrfO tyf ;~rf/h:tf ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; tyf lzIff, :jf:Yo, vfg]kfgL ;/;kmfOsf] ljsf;dfkm{t dfgj ;+;fwgsf] ljsf;nfO{ of]hgfn] k|fyldstf lbPsf] lyof]  . %[email protected] afx|f}“ lqjifL{o of]hgf [email protected])^&÷^*–@)^(÷&)_ bL3{sfnLg ;f]r cfufdL b'O{ bzsleqdf g]kfnnfO{ clt sd ljsl;t d'n'saf6 ljsf;f]Gd'  v d'n'sdf ¿kfGt0f u/ L qmdzM ;d[4, zfGt, Gofok"0f{ g]kfn  agfpg]o; of]hgfsf] bL3{sfnLg ;f]r /x]sf] 5  . o; cj:yfdf g]kfndf pRr cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n eO{ ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf] hg;ª\Vof Go"g /xg] 5 / g]kfn Ps ;d[4 cfw'lgs /fi6«sf] ¿kdf ljsl;t ePsf] x'g] 5  . b]zsf ;a} If]qdf zflGt / ;'zf;g sfod ePsf] cj:yf x'g] 5  . ;a} g]kfnLx¿n] cfˆgf] eljio ;'lglZrt ug{sf nflu ;dfg cj;/ pkof]u u/]sf x'g] 5g\  . ;dfhdf sfg'gL, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, eflifs, wfld{s, cfly{s, hftLo, n}+lus, zf/Ll/s / ef}uf]lns;d]tsf ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b / c;dfgtf cGTo ePsf] x'g] 5  . nIo ;g\ @)!% ;Dddf ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIox¿ k|fKt ug{ ;Ddfghgs /nfehGo /f]huf/L l;h{gf ug]{, cfly{s c;dfgtf 36fpg], If]qLo ;Gt'ng xfl;n ug{ / ;fdflhs jl~rtLs/0fnfO{ x6fpFb} cfd g]kfnLsf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/ Nofpg] / lbuf] cfly{s j[l4dfkm{t ul/aLnfO{ @! k|ltztdf k'¥ofpg] nIo /x]sf] lyof]  . p2]Zo /f]huf/L s]lGb|t ;dfj]zL tyf ;dGoflos cfly{s j[l4 u/L ul/aL lgjf/0f / lbuf] zflGt :yfkgfdf ;3fp k'¥ofpFb} cfdhgtfsf] hLjgdf kl/jt{gsf] k|ToIf cg'e"lt lbnfpg' o; of]hgfsf] k|d'v p2]Zo /x]sf] lyof]  . /0fgLlt o; of]hgfn] ;dli6ut /0fgLltdf /f]huf/L s]lGb|t km/flsnf] cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ug]{ efjL ;ª\3Lo k|b]zx¿ / If]qLo ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofgdf /fVb} ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x¿ l;h{gf ug]{Ù ;dfj]zL tyf ;dGoflos ljsf; ug]{Ù 164÷g]kfn

kl/ro

d'n'ssf] cfly{s ;fdflhs ¿kfGt/0fnfO{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg]Ù ;'zf;g Pjd\ ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] / ljsf;df d"n k|jfxLs/0f ug]{;d]tsf lgDg /0fgLltx¿ cl3 ;f/]sf] lyof] M != ;/sf/L, lghL, ;fd'bflos / ;xsf/L ;a} If]qsf] ;+o'Qm k|of;df /f]hfu/Ld"ns tyf ul/aL lgjf/0fpGd'v lbuf] / km/flsnf] cfly{s ljsf; xfl;n ug]{ @= b]zsf] efjL ;ª\3Lo :j¿knfO{ 6]jf k'¥ofpg] / k|fb]lzs cfly{s j[l4;d]tnfO{ ;xof]u k'Ug] u/L ef}lts k"jfwf{/ tof/ ug]{ #= lbuf]zflGt xfl;n ug{ ;dfj]zL tyf ;dGoflos ljsf;nfO{ hf]8 lbg] $= cfly{s, ;fdflhs ;]jf ;'b[9 u/L /fHosf] cfly{s ;fdflhs ¿kfGt/0fdf ;3fp k'¥ofpg] %= ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt u/]/ ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ k|efjsf/L t'NofpFb} ljsf; sfo{nfO{ glthfd"vL agfpg] ^= lghL tyf ;fd'bflos / ;xsf/L If]qsf] ljsf; / cf}Bf]uLs/0f, Jofkf/ tyf ;]jf If]qnfO{ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] k|of;df d"nk|jfxLs/0f u/L cfly{s j[l4 / :yfloTj ;'b[9 ug]{ k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿ o; of]hgfn] lgDglnlvt k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿sf] klxrfg u/]sf] lyof] M != ef}lts tyf ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/x¿sf] ;Gt'lnt ljsf; @= s[lif If]qsf] ljsf;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbFb} ko{6g, pBf]u / lgof{t Jofkf/nfO{ dxŒj lbO{ /f]huf/L l;h{gf / cfly{s j[l4 ug]{ #= pk]lIft ;d'bfo, If]q / lnËsf] ;dfj]zLs/0f u/L ljsf;df 6]jf k'¥ofpg nufgL a9fpg] $= dfgjLo hLjgofkgsf]lgldQ cTofjZos ;] jf -vfgkfgL, pmhf{, ljB't,\ ;8s, ;~rf/, vfB ;'/Iff, cf}ifwf]krf/, lzIff_ sf] pknAwtf / lg/Gt/tfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{ oL If]qx¿df cfjZos nufgL clej[l4 ug]{ %= ;'zf;gsf] clej[l4 u/L hgtfnfO{ k'¥ofpg] ;]jf ;'ljwf u'0f:t/o'Qm agfO{ ;'ky d"Nodf ;dodf pknAw u/fpg hf]8 lbg] ^= jftfj/0f ;+/If0f u/L hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 kg]{ c;/ Go"g ug]{ / cj;/x¿sf] pkef]udf Wofg lbOg] &= /fli6«o :t/df k|fyldstf k|fKt dxŒjk"0f{ / cfdhgtfnfO{ k|ToIf /fxt lbg] sfo{qmd / cfof]hgfx¿nfO{ pRr k|fyldstf lbg] g]kfn kl/ro÷165

%=!=!#= t]/f}“ of]hgf -cfly{s jif{ @)&)÷&!—@)[email protected]÷&#_ k[i7e"ld M g]kfn cem} klg clt sd ljsl;t d'n'ssf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . /fhgLlts k|lta4tf;lxt ljsf; sfo{df yk k|efjsfl/tf Nofpg ;lsPdf g]kfnnfO{  clt sd ljsl;t /fi6«af6 dWod cfo ePsf]ljsf;zLn /fi6«sf];"rLdf :t/f]Gtlt ug{ ;lsg] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5  . o;sf ;fy} ;x;|fAbL ljsf; NfIo Pjd\ blIf0f Pl;ofnL If]qLo  ;xof]u ;ª\u7gsf ljsf; nIo xfl;n ug]{/ lbuf] ljsf;nufotsf ljifox¿nfO{ ;Daf]wg u/L xl/t cy{tGqnfO{ k|j4{g ub}{ ul/aL Go"gLs/0f ug]{tkm{ of] of]hgfnfO{ s]lGb|t ul/Psf] kfOG5  . bL3{sfnLg ;f]r M ljqmd ;+jt\ @)&( -;g\ @)@@_ leq g]kfnnfO{  cltsd ljsl;t /fi6«af6 ljsf;zLn /fi6«df :t/f]Gtlt ug]{ p2]Zo M b] zdf JofKt cfly{s tyf dfgjLo ul/ aL 36fO{ cfdhgtfsf] hLjg:t/df k|ToIf kl/jt{gsf] cg'e"lt lbnfpg] of]hgfsf] k|d'v nIo M ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf] hg;ª\Vof !* k|ltztdf emfg]{ . cGo nIox¿ tflnsf %=! df lbOPsf]5 . tflnsf g+= %=! qm= ;+=

;"rs

! jflif{s cf}ift  cfly{s j[l4 b/-k|ltzt_ s[lif If]qsf] jflif{s cf};t j[l4 b/ @ -k|ltzt_ u}/sl[ if If]qsf] jflif{s cf};t j[l4 b/ # -k|ltzt_ $ jflif{s cf};t /fh ] uf/L j[l4 b/ -k|ltzt_ % ck]lIft cfo' -jif{_ ^ ;fIf/tf b/ -!%–@$ jif{_ & hg;ª\Vof j[l4 b/-k|ltzt_ * dft[ d[To' b/-k|ltnfv hLljt hGd_ 166÷g]kfn

kl/ro

cf=j= @)^(÷&) sf] l:ylt #=%

t]x|f}“ of]hgfsf] nIo ^=)

!=!

$=%

$=^

^=&

@=( ^*=* *&=% !=#% @*!

#[email protected] &!=) ()=) !=#% !#$

( vfg]kfgL ;]jf k'us ] f] hg;ª\Vof -k|ltzt_ *% (^[email protected]% ;/;kmfO ;'ljwf k'u]sf] hg;ª\Vof !) ^@ ()=% -k|ltzt_ k|fylds tx -sIff !–%_ df v'b egf{ b/ !! (%=# !)) -k|ltzt_ ;8s oftfoft hf]l8Psf] lhNnf ;b/d'sfd [email protected] &# &% -;ª\Vof_ !# 6]lnkmf]g, df]afOn;d]t -k|lt;o 3gTjdf_ &!=% !)) !$ ljB't\ pTkfbg -hl8t Ifdtf_ -d]ufjf6_ &%* !,[email protected]^ !% ljB'td\ f kx'r F k|fKt hg;ª\Vof -k|ltzt_ ^&=# *& !^ l;FrfO -x]S6/_ !#,!!,))) !,$*&,@&% !& jg hª\unn] 9fs]sf] If]q -k|ltzt_ #(=^ $) !* ;8s oftfoftsf] s'n nDafO -lsnf] ld6/_ @%,!## @*,!## /0fgLlt pk/f]St p2]Zo / nIo xfl;n ug{ of] of]hgfn] b]xfosf /0fgLltx¿ ckgfPsf] 5 M -!_ ljsf; k|lqmofdf lghL, ;/sf/L / ;xsf/L If]qsf] of]ubfg clej[l4 u/L ;dfj]zL, km/flsnf] Pjd\ lbuf] cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ug]{ [email protected]_ ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; ug]{ -#_ ;fdflhs ;]jfsf If]qx¿df kx'Fr, pkof]u / u'0f:t/ clej[l4 ug]{ -$_ ;fj{hlgs tyf cGo If]qx¿df  ;'zf;g clej[l4 ug]{ -%_ nlIft ju{, If]q / ;d"xsf] cfly{s / ;fdflhs ;zQmLs/0fdf clej[l4 ug]{ -^_ hnjfo' kl/jt{g;Fu cg'sn ' g x'g] u/L ljsf; sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng ug]{ k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿ of] of]hgfn] tf]s]sf k|fyldstfsf If]qx¿ b]xfocg';f/ 5g\ M -!_ hnljB't\ tyf cGo pmhf{ ljsf; [email protected]_ s[lif If]qsf] pTkfbsTj j[l4, ljljwLs/0f / Jofj;foLs/0f -#_ ko{6g, pBf]u / Jofkf/ If]qsf] ljsf; -$_ cfwf/et" lzIff tyf :jf:Yo, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO If]qsf] ljsf; -%_ ;'zf;g k|j4{g g]kfn kl/ro÷167

-^_ ;8s tyf cGo ef}lts k"jf{wf/ljsf; -&_ k|fs[lts ;|f]t / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f %=!=!$ rf}wf}“ of]hgf [email protected])&#÷&$ – @)&%÷&^_ ;f]r M :jfwLg, ;d'Ggt tyf ;dfhjfb pGd'v /fli6«o cy{tGq Pjd\ ;d[4 g]kfnL nIo M ;fdflhs Gofo;lxtsf] nf]ssNof0fsf/L /fHo x'Fb} dWod cfo ePsf d'n'ssf] :t/df k'Ug] p2]Zo M pTkfbgzLn /fh ] uf/L pGd'v / Gofok"0f{ ljt/0f;lxtsf] pRr cfly{s j[l4åf/f ›'t ul/aL Go"gLs/0f ub}{ cfly{s ;fdflhs ¿kfGt/0f ug'{ tflnsf g+= %[email protected] rf}wf}+ of]hgfsf] k|d'v cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ef}lts nIo

cf=j= rf}wf}+ of]hgfsf] ;"rs÷nIo @)[email protected]÷&# nIo sf] l:ylt [email protected])&%÷&^ df_ jflif{s cf};t cfly{s j[l4b/ -Ü_ )=* [email protected] ! s[lif If]q -Ü_ !=# $=& u}/s[lif If]q -Ü_ )=^ *=$ @ ufx{:Yo k|ltJolQm cfDbfgL -?= xhf/df_ &(=$ !!^=% # ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lgsf] hg;ª\Vof -Ü_ @!=^ !&=) $ dfgj ljsf; ;"rsfª\s )=%$ )=%& % n}ª\lus ;zQmLs/0f ;"rsfÍ )=%^ )=%* ^ ck]lIft cfo' -jif{_ ^( [email protected] & vfg]kfgL ;]jf k'u]sf] hg;ª\Vof -Ü_ *#=^ ()=) * dfWolds txdf v'b egf{b/-Ü_ #&=& $%=) ( ljB't\ pTkfbg -hl8t Ifdtf, d]ufjf6_  *%! @#)! !) ljB't\df kx'Fr k|fKt hg;ª\Vof -Ü_ &$=) *&=) !! l;FrfO -x]S6/ nfvdf_ !#=( !%[email protected] [email protected] OG6/g]6 ;]jfdf kx'Fr k|fKt hg;ª\Vof -Ü_ $$=$ ^%=) qm= ;+=

168÷g]kfn

kl/ro

of]hgfsf /0fgLlt != s[lif If]qsf] ¿kfGt/0f, ko{6g, cf}Bf]lus Pjd\ ;fgf tyf demf}nf Joj;fosf] lj:tf/dfkm{t pTkfbg j[l4 ug]{ @= pmhf{, ;8s tyf xjfO{ oftfoft, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf//u|fdL0f–;x/L tyf lqb]zLo cfa4tf ljsf;sf nflu k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ug]{ #= ;fdflhs ljsf; / ;fdflhs ;'/Iff Pjd\ ;fdflhs ;+/If0fdf hf]8 lbFb} dfgj ljsf;df pRr tyf lbuf] ;'wf/ ug]{ $= cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pjd\ zf;sLo ;'wf/, s'zn Pjd\ hjfkmb]xL  ;fj{hlgs ljQ, :jR5, kf/bzL{ / hgd}qL ;fj{hlgs ;]jf Pjd\ dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / k|j4{g ub}{ ;du| ;'zf;g k|j4{g ug]{ %= n}ª\lus ;dfgtf, ;dfj]zLs/0f, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, lj1fg tyf k|ljlwsf] pRrtd k|of]u tyf ;+:yfut Ifdtf a9fpg] %=!=!% bL3{sfnLg ;f]r @!)) k[i7e"ld ;ª\3, k|bz ] / :yfgLo txsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg eO{ d'ns ' df /fhgLlts :yfloTj k|fKt ePsf] 5  . /fhgLlts :yfloTjsf] hudf tLj| cfly{s ljsf; / ;d[l4sf] b"/ufdL ;f]r ;lxtsf] /fli6«o nIox¿ lgwf{/0f ug{k' g]5 {   . cfo j[l4, u'0f:t/Lo dfgjk'h F L lgdf{0f / cfly{s hf]lvdsf] Go"gLs/0f ub}{ lj=;+= @)&( ;Dddf clt sd ljsl;t b]zaf6 ljsf;zLn b]zdf :t/fG] glt ug]{ / lj=;+= @)*& ;Dddf lbuf] ljsf; nIo xfl;n ub}{ pRr dWod cfo:t/ ePsf] d'ns ' df :t/fG] glt x'g] u/L o; bL3{sfnLg ;f]r tof/ ul/Psf] 5  . ;fdflhs Gofodf cfwfl/t ;dtfd"ns ;dfh lgdf{0f ug]t{ km{ bL3{sfnLg ;f]r nlIft /xs ] f] 5  . cfGtl/s tyf afXo ;|ft] -;fwg nufot cy{tGqsf ;xof]uL If]qsf] kl/rfngaf6 ¿kfGt/0fsf sfo{qmddf nufgL s]lG›t ub}{ bL3{sfnLg ;f]rn] lnPsf nIo xfl;n ul/g] 5  . bL3{sfnLg ;f]r æ;d[4 g]kfn, ;'vL g]kfnLÆ ;d'Ggt, :jfwLg / ;dfhjfb pGd'v cy{tGq;lxtsf] ;dfg cj;/ k|fKt, :j:y, lzlIft, dof{lbt / pRr hLjg:t/ ePsf ;'vL gful/s a;f]af; ug]{ d'ns '  . tflnsf g+= %=# bL3{sfnLg /fli6«o nIo != ;d[l4

@= ;'v g]kfn kl/ro÷169

!=! ;j{;'ne cfw'lgs k"jf{wf/Pjd\ @=! kl/is[t tyf dof{lbt hLjg ;3g cGt/ cfa4tf [email protected] dfgj k'FhL lgdf{0f tyf @[email protected] ;'/lIft,  ;Eo /Gofok"0f{ ;dfh ;Defjgfsf] k"0f{ pkof]u !=# pRr /lbuf]pTkfbg tyf @=# :j:y / ;Gt'lnt kof{j/0f pTkfbsTj @=$= ;'zf;g !=$ pRr /;dtfd"ns /fli6«o cfo @=% ;an nf]stGq @=^ /fli6«o Pstf, ;'/Iff / ;Ddfg bL3{sfnLg /fli6«o /0fgLlt != tLj|, lbuf] / /f]huf/d"ns cfly{s j[l4 ug]{ @= ;'ne tyf u'0f:t/Lo :jf:Yo ;]jf / lzIffsf] ;'lglZrt ug]{ #= cfGtl/s tyf cGt/b]zLo cGt/cfa4tf Pjd\ lbuf] ;x/÷a:tL ljsf; ug]{ $= pTkfbg / pTkfbsTj clej[l4 ug]{ %= k"0f{, lbuf] / pTkfbgzLn ;fdflhs ;'/Iff tyf ;+/If0f ug]{ ^= ul/aL lgjf/0f / cfly{s ;fdflhs ;dfgtf ;lxtsf] Gofok"0f{ ;dfh lgdf{0f ug]{ &= k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ;+/If0f / kl/rfng tyf pTyfgzLntf ljsf; ug]{ / *= ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f, k|fb]lzt ;Gt'ng / /fli6«o Pstf ;+j4{g ug]{, tflnsf g+= %=$ bL3{sfnLg ;f]rsf k|d'v kl/df0ffTds nIox¿ qm=;+= /fli6«o nIo, uGtJo / ;"rs 1

cfly{s j[l4b/ -cf};t_ s'n ufx{: o pTkfbgdf s[lif 2 If]qsf] of]ubfg

170÷g]kfn

kl/ro

PsfO k|ltzt k|ltzt

cf=j= cf=j= @)&%÷&^ @!))÷)! sf] sf] l:ylt nIo ^=* !)=% @&=)

(

s'n ufx{:Yo pTkfbgdf pBf]u If]qsf] of]ubfg s'n ufx{:Yo pTkfbgdf ;]jf 4 If]qsf] of]ubfg 3

5 k|ltJolQm /fli6«o cfo ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf] hg;ª\Vof -lg/k]If ul/aL_ ax'cfoflds ul/aLdf /x]sf] 7 hg;ª\Vof ;DklQdf cfwfl/t lhgL 8 u'0fs cfDbfgLdf dflyNnf] !) k|ltzt / tNnf] $) k|ltzt 9 hg;ª\Vofsf] cg'kft (Palma 6

k|ltzt

!%[email protected]

#)

k|ltzt

%&=*

^!

cd]l/sL 8n/

!,)$&

[email protected],!))

k|ltzt

!*=&

)

k|ltzt

@*=^

#

u'0fs

)=#!

)[email protected]%

cg'kft

!=#

!=!

k|ltzt

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14 k|ltJolQm ljB't\ pkef]u #) ldg]6 ;Ddsf] b"/Ldf oftfoft kx'r F ePsf] kl/jf/ /fli6«o / k|fb]lzs nf]sdfu{ 16 [email protected] n]g;Dd_

15

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17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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/fli6«o nIo, uGtJo / ;"rs

!

pRr / ;dtfd"ns /fli6«o cfo

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k"jf{wf/df kx'Fr tyf cfa4tf ldg]6 ;Ddsf] b"/Ldf oftfoft #[email protected]=! #) kx'Fr ePsf] kl/jf/ #[email protected][email protected] ljB't\df kx'Fr k|fKt kl/jf/

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:jR5 pmh{fsf] pTkfbg tyf pkef]u

[email protected]=! ljB't\ pTkfbg -hl8t Ifdtf_ [email protected][email protected] k|ltJolQm ljB't\ pkef]u $=#

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g]kfn kl/ro÷175

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/fli6«o nIo, uGtJo / ;"rs

[email protected][email protected] sf7 pTkfbg &=# &=#=! * *=! *=!=! *[email protected] *=!=# *=!=$ *[email protected] *[email protected]=! *[email protected][email protected] *[email protected]=# *[email protected]=$ ( (=!=! ([email protected] (=!=#

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/fli6«o p2]Zo != ;j{;'ne, u'0f:t/Lo / cfw'lgs k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f, pTkfbgzLn / dof{lbt /f]huf/L clej[l4, pRr, lbuf] / ;dfj]zL cfly{s j[l4 tyf ul/aL lgjf/0f ub}{ ;d[l4sf] cfwf/ lgdf{0f ug{' @= u'0f:t/Lo :jf:Yo tyf lzIff, :j:y tyf ;Gt'lnt jftfj/0f, ;fdflhs Gofo / hjfkmb]xL ;fj{hlgs ;]jf sfod u/L ;ª\3Lo zf;g Joj:yfsf] ;'b9[ Ls/0f g]kfn kl/ro÷179

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!)) g]kfn kl/ro÷195

^[email protected] g]kfnsf ;"rLs[t cflbjf;L hghfltx¿ g]kfndf cfly{s, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf hflt hghfltx¿sf] pTyfg ug]{ p2]Zon] lj=;= @)%$ c;f/df /fli6«o hghflt ljsf; ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5  . ;femf e"uf]n, ;femf efiff tyf cfˆg} k|sf/sf] wd{, ;+:sl[ t d"No dfGotf;lxtsf] ljlzi6 klxrfg af]ss ] f cflbjf;L hghfltx¿sf] ;ª\Vof lgs} 7'nf] /xs ] f] 5  . cflbjf;L hghflt pTyfg /fli6«o k|lti7fg P]g, @)%( n] %( cflbjf;L hghfltx¿sf] klxrfg u/L ltgnfO{ sfg'gL dfGotf k|bfg u/s ] f] 5  . tflnsf g+= ^[email protected] g]kfnsf ;"rLs[t cflbjf;L hghflt ;"rLs[t cf=h=juL{s/0f cfwf/df /fli6«o hgu0fgf @)^* sf] tYofªs cg';f/ ;ª\Vof s= nf]kf]Gd'v qm=;+= cflbjf;L -%_ -%_ ;d"x dft[ efiff hghflt 1 s';'G8f 273 0.0 28 0.0 2 agsl/of 0.0 69 0.0 3 /fp6] 618 0.0 461 0.0 4 ;'/]n 0.0 287 0.0 5 xfo' 2,925 0.0 1,520 0.0 6 /fhL 4,235 0.0 3,758 0.0 7 ls;fg 1,739 0.0 1,178 0.0 8 n]Krf 3,445 0.0 7,499 0.0 9 d]r] 4,867 0.0 4,375 0.0 10 s'zafl8of 3,182 0.0 0.0 hDdf 21,284 0.1 19,175 0.1 v=clt qm=;+= l;dfGtLs[t ;d"x 1 2

dfemL l;of/

196÷g]kfn

kl/ro

;ª\Vof cflbjf;L hghflt 83,727 -

-%_

dft[ efiff

-%_

0.3 0.0

24,422 -

0.1 0.0

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

qm=;+= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Nxf]dL -l;ª;fjf_ y'bfd wfg's r]kfª ;tf/÷;Gyfn yfdL emfu8 jf]6] bg'jf/ a/fd hDdf u= ;LdfGtLs[t ;d"x ;'g'jf/÷sf]FOr yf? tfdfª e'h]n s'dfn /fhj+zL uGufO{ lwdfn ef]6] b/fO{ tfhk'l/of

1,614 219,808 68,399 51,735 28,671 37,424 10,397 84,115 8,140 594,030

0.0 0.0 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 2.2

808 48,476 49,858 23,151 33,651 8,766 45,821 155 235,108

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.9

;ª\Vof cflbjf;L hghflt 55,712 1,737,470 1,539,830 118,650 121,196 115,242 36,988 26,298 13,397 16,789 19,213

-%_

dft[ efiff

-%_

0.2 6.6 5.8 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

37,898 1,529,875 1,353,311 21,715 12,222 122,214 3,612 19,300 11,677 18,811

0.1 5.8 5.1 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1

g]kfn kl/ro÷197

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

kx/L tf]Ks]uf]nf 8f]Nkf] k|mL d'ufn nfs]{ Nxf]kf b'/f jfn'ª hDdf

3= ;'ljwf jl~rt qm=;+= ;d"x

13,615 1,523 4,107 2,624 5,394 1,249 3,829,297

cflbjf;L hghflt 1 u'?Ë 522,641 2 du/ 1,887,733 3 /fO{ 620,004 4 lnDa' 387,300 5 5}/f]tg 6 tfªa] 7 tLgufpFn] ysfnL 8 afx|ufpFn] 9 dfkmf{nL ysfnL 10 z]kf{ 112,946 11 ofSvf 24,336 12 5GTofn 11,810 13 lh/]n 5,774 14 Aof;L 3,895

198÷g]kfn

kl/ro

0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.5

3,458 1,667 3,029 2,156 1,169 3,142,114

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.9

;ª\Vof -%_ 2.0 7.1 2.3 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

dft[ efiff 325,622 788,530 159,114 343,603 114,830 19,558 4,283 4,829 480

-%_ 5.4 13.1 2.6 5.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0

15 Xof]Ndf] hDdf

10,752 3,587,191

0.0 13.5

10176 1,771,025

0.2 29.4

;ª\Vof qm=;+= 1 2

ª= pGgt ;d"x g]jf/ ysfnL hDdf

r

cGo cflbjf;L hghflt ;d"x hDdf -s±v±u±#±ª±r_

cflbjf;L hghflt 1,321,933 13,215 1,335,148

5.0 0.0 5.0

846,557 5,242 851,799

14.1 0.1 14.2

1,228

0.0

-

0.0

9,368,178

35.4 6,019,221

22.7

-%_

dft[ efiff

-%_

;ª\Vof ;"rLs[t cf=h= ;d"x s v u # ª r

cflbjf;L hghflt 21,284

-%_

dft[ efiff

nf]kf]Gd'v ;d"x 0.1 19,175 clt l;dfGtLs[t 594,030 2.2 235,108 ;d'x l;dfGtLs[t ;d"x 3,829,297 14.5 3,142,114 ;'ljwf jl~rt 3,587,191 13.5 1,771,025 ;d"x pGgt ;d"x 1,335,148 5.0 851,799 cGo cf= h= 1,228 0.0 ;d"x hDdf 9,368,178 35.4 6,019,221 s'n hg;ª\Vof 26,494,504 100.0 26,494,504

-%_ 0.1 0.9 11.9 6.7 3.2 0.0 22.7 100.0

g]kfn ;/sf/n] @)&& h]7 % df æ/fgfyf?Æ nfO{ cflbjf;L hghfltsf] ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t u/];Fu} cflbjf;L hghfltsf] ;ª\Vof ^) k'u]sf] 5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷199

^=!=# a;f]jf;, /xg;xg / e]ife"iff

g]kfnsf s]xL k/Dk/fut u/uxgfx¿

g]kfnsf] w/ftnLo ljljwtf / xfjfkfgLsf] ljljwtflar ulx/f] / ;Lwf ;DaGw 5  . w/ftnLo ljljwtf / xfjfkfgLsf] ljljwtfsf sf/0f g} ToxFf a:g] dflg;x¿sf] a;f]jf;, /xg;xg / e]ife"iffdf klg ljljwtf /x]sf] 5  . w/ftnLo ljefhgcg';f/ t/fO{, kxf8 / lxdfnsf] a;f]jf;, /xg;xg / e]ife"iffdf ePsf] ljljwtfnfO{ tn rrf{ ul/Psf]5 . lxdfnL k|b]z

lxdfnL e]udf ef/L cf];fg{ rf}/LufO{sf] k|of]u 200÷g]kfn

kl/ro

g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf pQ/L If]qdf lxdfnL k|b]z kb{5  . jif{le/df cfwfhlt ;do lxpFn] 9fls/xg] x'gfn] oxfFsf] e"ld sd pAhfpzLn 5  . oxfF cfn', hf}, pjf, :ofp cflb h:tf vfBfGGf pTkfbg x'G5g\  . of] If]qdf hg;ª\Vofsf] rfk Psbd} sd 5  . of] If]qdf z]kf{, u'?ª, ef]6] cflb hfltsf] d'Vo a;f]af; ePsf] kfOG5  . oxfF cToGt} hf8f] x'g] ePsf]n] sltko dfflg;x¿ kxf8L / t/fO{ lhNnfdf hf8f] 5Ngsf ;fy} h8La'6Lsf] Jofkf/ u/L yk cfo cfh{g ug{ hfg] ub{5g\  . of] If]qdf ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x¿sf] vf;} ljsf; gePsfn] oxfFsf]] hLjg Psbd} si6s/ /x]sf] 5 eg] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] c;/n] of] If]qdf a;f]af; ug]{ dflg;x¿sf] k/Dk/fut hLjgz}nLdf emg} yk ;Df:of l;h{gf ePsf] 5  . o; k|b]zdf a:g]n] afSnf] k|sf/sf n'uf nufpg] ub{5g\  . h:tf]— ef]6f], bf]rf, aSv' cflb  . oxfFsf dflg;x¿ ljz]iftM hf}, sf]bf], kmfk/, cfn', df;' Pjd\ o;af6 tof/ ul/g] kl/sf/ vfg] ub{5g\  . kxf8L k|b]z

bfp/fsf] ef/L af]Sb} dlxnfx¿

of] If]qdf k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd ljleGg hfthfltsf dflg;x¿ a:b5g\  . k"jL{ g]kfndf d'Votof /fO{, lnDa" a:5g\ eg] dWo g]kfndf a|fXd0f, If]qL, g]jf/, du/, u'?ª cflb hflt kfOG5g\ . klZrddf klg log}hflt hghfltx¿ kfOG5g\ . hft, wd{ cg';f/ k|To]s ;d'bfosf] cfcfˆg} efiff, ;+:s[lt, /Lltl/jfh /x]sf] 5  . o; k|b]zdf a;f]af; ug]{ dflg;x¿n] bf}/f, ;'?jfn, s5f8, k6'sf, 6f]kL cflb nufpg] ub{5g\  . oxfFsf dflg;x¿ ds}, sf]bf], bxL, b"w, e6df;h:tf vfB j:t' tyf To;af6 tof/ ul/Psf kl/sf/x¿ vfg] ub{5g\  . o; k|b]zsf clwsf+z 7fpFdf oftfoft k'u] klg s]xL :yfgdf af6f]3f6f]sf] sdL, lzIff g]kfn kl/ro÷201

tyf ;~rf/h:tf cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] sdLn] ubf{ oxfFsf] hghLjg klg si6s/ g} /x]sf] 5  . t/fO{ k|b]z

t/fO{df ;fdfg 9'jfgL ug{ a}nuf8fsf] k|of]u

g]kfnsf] blIf0fdf t/fO{ k|b]z kb{5  . of] If]q ;dy/ ePsf]n] oftfoftsf] ljsf; ePsf]kfOG5 . pAhfpzLn hldg ePsfn]oxfFsf]hghLjg lxdfnL / kxf8L hghLjgeGbf ;xh /x]sf] 5  . oxfFsf dflg;x¿sf] d'Vo k]zf s[lif xf] . oxfF cln a9L udL{ x'gx']Fbf oxfFsf dflg;x¿ wf]tL, s'tf{, n'FuL nufpg] ub{5g\  . o; k|b]zsf dflg;x¿n] ljz]ift bfn, /f]6L, eft, df5f, bxL, b"wh:tf vfg]s'/f vfg] u/]sf] kfOG5  . t/fO{df nIdLk"hf, 57, l;¿jf kj{, df3L kj{x¿ w'dwfd;Fu dgfOG5 . ^=!=$ g]kfnsf ljleGg hft hfltx¿sf] ;+lIfKt kl/ro g] kfn Ps ax'hflt, ax'efifL, ax'wfld{s Pjd\ ax';f+: s[lts d'n's xf] . ctM efiff, ;+:s[lt, wd{ / hfltsf] b[li6n] g]kfn wgL /fi6« xf]  . cg]stf / ljljwtf g} oxfFsf] cgf}7f] / pNNf]vgLo kIf xf]  . g]kfnsf] oxL ljljwtf ;+/If0fsf] cfjZostf dx;'; u/L g]kfn ko{6g af]8{ / g]kfn /fli6«o hftLo ;ª\u|xfnoh:tf ;ª\3–;+:yfx¿n] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]ln/x]sf 5g\  . g]kfndf /x]sf ljleGg hft hfltdWo] s]xL hft hfltsf] af/]df lgDgfg';f/ rrf{ ul/Psf] 5  . 202÷g]kfn

kl/ro

afx'g÷If]qL k|hftLo lx;fan] afx'g÷If]qL ss]l;og d"nsf dflgG5g\  . hg} wf/0f ug]{ x'Fbf logLx¿nfO{ tfufwf/L klg elgG5 . k"la{of /s'dfO{F eg]/afx'gx¿nfO{ b'O{ ;d"xdf ljefhg ul/Psf] kfOG5  . logLx¿ b]zsf ljleGGf lhNnfdf 5l/P/ /x]sf 5g\  . k'/]TofOF jf sd{sf08, Hof]ltif x]g]{ sfd, v]tLkftL / ;/sf/L gf]s/Ldf logLx¿ a9L ;+nUg ePsf]kfOG5 . logLx¿ j}lbs ;gftgL lxGb" wd{ dfGb5g\  . afx'g / IfqLx¿n] af]Ng] efiff ef/f]k]nL ;d"xsf] g]kfnL efiff xf] h'g b]jgfu/L lnlkdf n]Vg]  ul/G5 . logLx¿ cfkm"nfO{ v; cfo{ eGg ?rfpF5g\ . g]jf/

O{xL -a]nljjfx_

sf7df8f}F / pkTosfaflx/sf k|d'v Jofkfl/s s]Gb|df a;f]af; ug]{ g]jf/nfO{ cflbjf;L hghfltleq u0fgf ul/G5  . k];fsf cfwf/df a|fXd0fb]lv ;'b|;DDfdf juL{s/0f ul/Psf logLx¿sf] k/Dk/fut ¿kdf sfFrf] jf kfs]sf] OF6f, lem+u6Lsf] 5fgfåf/f lgld{t b'O{ jf tLgtn] 3/x¿ x'G5g\  . logLx¿sf] k|d'v k]zf Jofkf/, s[lif xf]  . ;fy}, logLx¿n] hftLo k]zf cFufn]sf 5g\  . lxGb' tyf af}4wd{ cjnDag ug]{ logLx¿df wfld{s ;lxi0f'tf /x]sf] kfOG5  . du/ du/ hflt g]kfnsf] cflbjf;L hghflt xf]  . logLx¿sf] a;f]af; If]qnfO{ [email protected] / !* du/ft elgG5  . h'g d:of{ª\bLb]lv b}n]v / 8f]Nkfsf] s]xL efu;Dd km}lnPsf] 5  . /fgf, yfkf, k'g, cfn], /f]sf, 3tL{, a'9fh:tf ;ft y/af6 du/sf g]kfn kl/ro÷203

cGo y/x¿ aGGf uPsf x'g\ . s[lif, kz'kfng, vfgL vGg], x:tsnfsf ;fy} ;'/Iff If]qnufot j}b]lzs /f]huf/L o; hfltsf d'Vo k]zf x'g\  . yf¿ yf¿ hflt g]kfnsf] cflbjf;L hghfltdWo] Ps xf]  . yf¿sf] dft[efiff ef/f]k]nL kl/jf/df kb{5  . logLx¿sf] cflbde"ld g]kfnsf] lzjflns z[ª\vnf tyf t/fO{ If]q xf]  . t/fO{sf s]xL lhNnfdf yf¿hfltsf] afx'No 5  . logLx¿sf] d'Vo k]zf s[lif xf] . yf¿x¿ cfkm"nfO{ k|s[ltk"hs dfGb5g\ . tfdfª cflbjf;L hghfltdf u0fgf x'g] tfdfªsf] a;f]af; If]qnfO{ tfD;flnª elgG5  . logLx¿ w]/} y/x¿df ljeflht 5g\  . logLx¿n] sf7df8f}F pkTosf / ;f] jl/kl/sf lhNnfx¿df 3gf ¿kdf a;f]af; u/]sf 5g\  . kz'kfng, s[lif, yfª\sf / ljleGGf x:tsnfsf ;fdu|Lx¿ lgdf{0f ug'{ logLx¿sf] d'Vo k]zf xf]  . /fO{ /fO{x¿ cflbjf;L ls/ft j+zsf x'g\, h;nfO{ vDa" klg elgG5 . g]kfnsf] ;f]n'v'Da', cf]vn9'ª\uf, vf]6fª, ef]hk'/, ;ª\v'jf;ef, wgs'6f, Onfd / pbok'/ /fO{x¿sf] d'Vo a;f]af; If]q xf]  . logLx¿ d'Votof wfg, sf]bf], cn}+rL v]tL, kz'kfng tyf sfuh agfpg]Joj;fo ub{5g\ . u'?ª g]kfnsf] cflbjf;L hghfltleq kg]{ u'?ª -td"_ hflt b]zleq / aflx/ 5l/P/ /x]sf] kfOP klg logLx¿ u08sL If]qsf sf:sL, ndh'ª, uf]/vf / dgfªsf /}yfg] x'g\ / sf:sLsf] Sxf]n pgLx¿sf] k'Vof}{nL ynf] xf]  . logLx¿sf] k'Vof}{nL k]zf kz'kfng / s[lif ePtf klg :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ;'/Iff If]qnufot Jofkf/ / ;/sf/L ;]jfdf klg lgs} ;+nUg /x]sf] kfOG5  . ef]6–ad]{nL kl/jf/cGt{utsf] td" efiff af]Nb5g\ . lnDa" g]kfnsf]cflbjf;L lnDa" hflt c?0f gbLk"j{ ;ª\v'jf;ef, wgs'6f, t]x|y'd, tfKn]h'ª, kfFry/, Onfd, emfkf, df]/ª / ;'g;/Ldf a;f]af; ub{5g\  . lnDa" hfltdf klg w]/}y/x¿ 5g\ . logLx¿ s[lif tyf kz'kfng Joj;fo ub{5g\ . lnDa"x¿ k|s[lt k"hf ug]{ls/ft wd{ dfGb5g\ . z]kf{ z]kf{ hfltsf] cflbynf] ;f]n'v'Da' lhNnfsf] pQ/L If]qnfO{ dflgG5  . z]kf{x¿ b]zsf ljleGGf lxdfnL lhNnfx¿df 5l/P/ /x]sf 5g\  . logLx¿ kz'kfng / v]tLkftL ub{5g\  . logLx¿ af}4wd{sf] dxfofg ;Dk|bfoL x'g\ eg] logLx¿sf] efiff ef]6–ad]{nL kl/jf/leq kb{5  . nf];f/, 8'DhL, kmfª8L Nxf]K;f], ofHof{ª, 204÷g]kfn

kl/ro

sª;'/, 9'skf 5]Ro", ªo'ªg], 5]Ro" logLx¿sf k|d'v rf8 x'g\ . ;'g'jf/ ;'g'jf/ hflt g]kfnsf] cflbjf;L dWo]sf] Ps k|d'v / P]ltxfl;s hflt xf]  . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df ls/ftsfnLg /fHo Joj:yf ;~rfngb]lv g} ls/fltx¿sf] klxrfg /xL cfPsf] 5  . ;'g'jf/ ls/ft j+zsf] rf/ zfvf÷;d'bfo æ/fO{, lnDa', ;'g'jf/ / ofof]SvfÆ dWo]sf] Ps ls/ftL ;d'bfo xf]  . v; efiffdf æ;'g'jf/Æ / dft[efiffdf æsf]FOrÆ elgG5  . g]kfnsf] k"jL{ e"efu tyf ef/tsf] l;lSsd, bflh{lnª If]qdf d'lvof eg]/ lrlgPsf 5g\  . k|s[lt tyf lkt[ k'hs ;'g'jf/hflt ls/ ft wdf{jnDaL x'g\ . logLx¿sf] wd{÷bz{gzf:qnfO{ …d'Sb'dÚ elgG5  . o; hfltsf] d"n yfsynf] /fd]5fk, cf]vn9'Ëf, bf]nvf, l;Gw'nL ePklg xfn d'Vo ;x/x¿ / g]kfnsf] k"[jL{ If]qdf ;3g a:tL /x]sf] 5  . o; hfltsf] k/Dk/fut k]zf l;sf/ ug]{, afF;sf] snfTds ;fdu|Lx¿ agfpg]ePklg xfn s[lif k]zfdf  cfj4 /x]sf  5g\ . a}zfv z'Sn k"l0f{dfsf] lbg dgfOg] ZofFb/ lkbf/ æpFef}nLÆ / dª\l;/ z'Sn k"l0f{dfsf] lbg dgfOg] ZofFb/ lkbf/ æpFwf}nLÆ d'Vo kj{ xf]  . o; cj;/df lkt[ tyf k|sl[ tsf] k"hf cf/fwgf ub}{ ZofFb/ l;nsf] cfof]hgf u/L dgfpg] ub{5g\  . r]kfª g]kfnsf] cflbjf;L hghflt r]kfªnfO{ k|hf klg eGGf] ul/G5  . logLx¿ lrtjg, dsjfgk'/, wflbª, uf]/vf, ndh'ª / tgx'F lhNnfx¿sf] le/fnf] kfvfdf / afFs,] alb{of, gjnk/f;L, af/f cflb lhNnfx¿df ;d]t a;f]af; ub{5g\  . logLx¿sf w]/h } ;f] k/Dk/fut ;–;fgf Pstn] v/n] 5fPsf 3/ x'G5g\  . logLx¿sf] k/Dk/fut k]zf vf]l/of k|0ffnLsf] s[lif Joj;fo, sGbd'nsf] ;ª\ux| / lzsf/ xf]  . p/fj -emf“u8_ g]kfnsf] cflbjf;L hghfltleq kg]{ p/fjnfO{ emfFu8 klg elgG5  . logLx¿sf] a:tL k;f{b]lv emfkf;Dd km}lnPsf] 5  . logLx¿ ;;fgf em'k8L agfP/ vf]]nf lsgf/df a;f]af; ub{5g\  . logLx¿sf] d'Vo Joj;fo s[lif, dhb'/L, kz'kfng xf] eg]x:tsnfsf ;fdu|L 9fsL, lksf{, u'Gb|L cflb klg a'Gg]ub{5g\ . logLx¿sf] efiff b|lj8 efiff ;d"xdf k5{ . yfdL cflbjf;L ls/ft j+zsf] Ps zfvf yfdL hflt xf]  . yfdLx¿ bf]nvf lhNnfsf] ;':kf, /fªynL, lr/fªynL, ;'Otfkª, sfln~rf]s, nfkLnfª, vf]kfrfu', cfnDk', l;:s/, a'ªynL cflb ufpFdf a;f]af; ub{5g\  . logLx¿ k/Dk/fut v]tL tyf kz'kfng Joj;fo ub{5g\ . logLx¿ k|s[ltk"hs ls/ft wd{ dfGb5g\ . g]kfn kl/ro÷205

lwdfn dª\uf]n d'vfs[ltsf cflbjf;L hghfltdf u0fgf x'g]lwdfnx¿ k|foh;f]emfkf / df]/ª lhNNffdf a;f]af; ub{5g\ h;nfO{ t/fO{sf ls/ftL klg elgG5  . logLx¿sf] ;v'jfsf] yfddf afF; / sf7n] agfPsf] v/n] 5fPsf] Pstn] 3/ x'G5  . logLx¿ k|s[ltk"hs x'g\  . logLx¿sf] efiff ef]6–ad]{nL kl/jf/af6 k|efljt 5  . logLx¿ b;}F, ltxf/, hg}k"l0f{df, r}t] bz}F, df3] ;+qmflGtnufot lxGb" wd{df cfwfl/t cGo rf8jf8 dgfpg]ub{5g\ . ysfnL g]kfnsf cflbjf;L hghfltdf u0fgf x'g]ysfnL klg Ps xf] . ysfnLsf]d"n ynf]yf;fª\ d':tfª lhNnfsf]blIf0fL ;LdfIf]qdf kb{5 . logLx¿ xfn ljleGGf lhNnfdf a;f]af; ub{5g\  . logLx¿ cfˆg} efiff af]N5g\  . logLx¿sf] cfˆg} e]ife"iff tyf u/uxgf x'G5  . 5GTofn cflbjf;L hghfltdf u0fgf x'g ] 5GTofn hfltsf]d"nynf]DofUbL lhNnfsf] s'Og]d+ un]ufFpsf]lemª\vfgL xf]  . logLx¿ afUn'ª, kfNkf, ?s'd, Ko'7fg, bfª cflb lhNnfdf klg a;f]af; ub{5g\ . logLx¿ vfd efiff af]Nb5g\ . k'Vof}n { L ¿kdf vfgL vGg] / k|zf]wg ug]{ eP tfklg logLx¿sf] d'Vo k]zf s[lif / kz'kfng xf]  . /fp6]

/fp6] ;d'bfo;Fu k"j{/fi6«klt 8f= /fdj/0f ofbj

/fp6] jg;Dkbfdf cfwfl/t g]kfnsf] Psdfq 3'dGt] hflt xf]  . logLx¿ d'Vo ¿kdf 8f]6L, bfr'{nf, c5fd, b}n]v, hfh/sf]6, sflnsf]6 tyf ;'v]{tdf a:5g\  . jgb]jL, bf/]d:t tyf e'of/ b]jtf dfGb5g\  . logLx¿ ef]6ad]{nL kl/jf/sf] 206÷g]kfn

kl/ro

vfDrL efiff af] Nb5g\ . logLx¿ Ps dlxgfeGbf a9L Ps}7fpFdf slxNo} a:b}gg\ / To; 7fpFdf kms]{/ cfpFb}gg\  . logLx¿ c:yfoL ¿kdf a:g] 7fpFnfO{ /fp6L elgG5 eg] c:yfoL 5fk|fnfO{ yf}nf elgG5  . afx|ufp“n] d+uf]n d'vfs[lt ePsf cflbjf;L hghfltdf u0fgf x'g]Ps hflt afx|ufpFn] klg xf]  . logLx¿ d':tfª lhNnfsf] lar efusf d'lQmgfy, sfua]gL, 5';fª / emf]ª ufpF ljsf; ;ldltcGtu{tsf If]qdf a;f]af; ub{5g\  . logLx¿sf] d'Vo k]zf s[lif, kz'kfng /Jofkf/xf] . logLx¿ af}4 wdf{nDaL x'g\ . l;of/ -r'Daf_ uf]/vfsf] pQ/L ;LdfjtL{ r'd5f]Ro'S;d pkTosfsf 5]sDkf/ / r'Dr't ufFpdf r'Daf hfltsf] a;f]af; 5  . pgLx¿ 9'ª\ufsf] uf/f]dfly sf7 / 9'ª\ufn] 5fPsf] 3/ agfpF5g\  . logLx¿ k/Dk/fut ¿kdf ux'F, kmfk/, s]/fp, cfn', tf]/Lsf] v]tL u5{g\ . logLx¿ af}4 wd{ dfGb5g\ . n]Krf n]Krfx¿ Onfd lhNnfsf] lkmSsn, /f]ª, kz'kltgu/, uf]v]{, gfD;flnª, ;fdna'ª / emfkf lhNnfsf s]xL :yfgdf a;f]af; ub{5g\  . logLx¿ k|s[ltk"hs x'g\ eg] af}4 wd{ dfGb5g\ . ^=!=% g]kfnsf  ljleGg hfthflt, ju{, ;d'bfo /ltgLx¿sf]pTyfgsf nflu /fHon] u/]sf Joj:yfx¿ g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s, ax';f+: s[lts tyf ef}uf]lns ljljwtfo'Qm ljz]iftfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ u/L ljljwtflarsf] Pstf, ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts P]Soa4tf, ;lxi0f'tf / ;b\efjnfO{ ;+/If0f Pjd\ k|jw{g ub}{Ù juL{o, hftLo, If]qLo, eflifs, wfld{s, n}+lus lje]b / ;a} k|sf/sf hftLo 5'jf5"tsf]cGTo u/L cfly{s ;dfgtf, ;d[l4 /;fdflhs Gofo ;'lglZrt ug{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL /;xeflutfd"ns l;4fGtsf cfwf/df ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ ;+sNk u/]sf] 5  . o;sf nflu lgDglnlvt ;+j}wflgs cfof]ux¿sf] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5  . l nf]s ;]jf cfof]u l lgjf{rg cfof]u l /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]u l /fli6«o k|fs[lts ;|f]t tyf ljQ cfof]u l /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]u l /fli6«o blnt cfof]u l /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]u g]kfn kl/ro÷207

cflbjf;L hghflt cfof]u l dw];L cfof]u l yf¿ cfof]u l d'l:nd cfof]u ;fy}, g]kfnsf ;a} hfthflt, ju{ / ;d'bfosf] pTyfg u/L ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfgtf sfod ug{sf nflu df}lns xssf ¿kdf– ;dfgtfsf]xs, 5'jf5't tyf e]befj lj?4sf] xs, wfld{s :jtGqtfsf] xs, zf]if0f lj?4sf] xs, lzIff ;DaGwL xs, efiff tyf ;+:s[  ltsf]xs, blntsf]xs, ;fdflhs Gofosf]xs, ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] xsnufotsf ljljw Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5  . l

^=!=^ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff;DaGwL Joj:yf u/LaL, a]/f]huf/L, ;fdflhs Pj+ cfly{s ljifdtf, k|fs[lts k|sf]k, ;fdflhs åGånufotsf sf/0fn] ;dfhdf cf>oxLg, c;xfo JolQmx¿sf] ;+Vofdf j[l4 xF'b} uPsf] kfOG5 . afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, Psn dlxnf, nf]kf]Gd'v cflbjf;L, hghflt / ckfËtf ePsf JolQmx¿;d]tsf nflu ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf k|bfg ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] cf=j= @)&*÷&( sf] ah]6 jQmJodfkm{t k|To]s ljkGg blnt kl/jf/ / s0ff{nL c~rnsf ;a} kl/jf/sf % jif{dl' gsf afnaflnsfsf] kf]if0fdf vr{ x'g] u/L dfl;s ¿=$)) sf b/n] afn ;+/If0f cg'bfg k|bfg ub}{ cfO/x]sf] df xfn pQm cg'bfgsf] /sddf Ps ltxfOn] a[l4 ug]{ 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 . ljleGg lhNnfx¿df u|fdL0f ;fd'bflos k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmddfkm{t vfBfGg ljt/0f u/L nfvf}F >d lbg a/fa/sf] nfvf}+ /f]huf/L l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . To:t}, k|fylds lzIff / cTofjZos :jf:Yo P+j kf]if0f;DaGwL ;]jfdf lj:tf/ e} hgtfsf] kx'r F df j[l4 ePsf] 5 . o;} cjlwdf o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd cf/De ul/of] . /f]huf/LhGo hf]lvdx¿nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;ª\ul7t If]qsf sd{rf/L tyf sfdbf/x¿sf] kfl/>ldsdf Ps k|ltzt s/ nufO{ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff sf]ifsf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5 . ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf nflu ul/Psf]k|dv ' sfo{qmdx¿ lgDgfg';f/5g\ M -s_ Ho]i7 gful/s, Psn dlxnf, nf]kf]Gd'v cflbjf;L, hghflt / ckfËtf ePsf JolQmnfO{ eQf ljt/0f sfo{qmd, -v_ afn;+/If0f cg'bfg sfo{qmd, -u_ /f]huf/L Pjd\ :j/f]huf/d"ns sfo{qmd, -3_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff sf]if / sNof0fsf/L sf]ifx¿sf] Joj:yfkg, ;'wf/ / ;~rfng, -ª_ sl7g kl/l:yltdf k/]sfnfO{ ljz]if ;xof]u, 208÷g]kfn

kl/ro

-r_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf  k|0ffnLx¿sf];'wf/tyf Ifdtf ljsf; sfo{qmd, ^[email protected] g]kfnsf] ;f+:s[lts hLjg k|frLg sfnb]lv g} g]kfn ljleGg wd{ dfGg] dflg;x¿sf] a;f]af; ug]{ ynf] xf]  . g]kfndf d'Votof lxGb" wd{ / af}4 wd{sf] afx'Notf /x]sf] 5  . oL afx]s O:nfd, O;fO{, ls/ft, jxfO{, lzvnufot cGo wdf{jnDaLx¿ klg plQs} :jtGq ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\  . lxGb" wd{cGtu{t z}j, j}i0fj, zfSt, ;f}o{ cflb ;Dk|bfo kb{5g\ eg]af}4 wd{df lxgofg, dxfofg, jh|ofg, tGq tyf dGqofg, ;xhofg /jf]Gkf]tyf nfdf ;Dk|bfo cflb kb{5g\ . oL wd{x¿ ;dofg';f/ljleGg ;Dk|bfo tyf pk;Dk|bfodf kl/dflh{t x'bF } uPsf] kfOG5 . g]kfnL ;dfhdf k|sl[ t, lkt[ tyf cb[Zo zlQmsf]k"hf ug]{k|rng klg /xs ] f] 5  . klZrd g]kfndf d:6f], k"jL{ kxf8df r08L jf b]jL, t/fO{df ;+;f/LdfO{, lxdfnL If]qdf lxGb"kl| t hgdfg;sf] cf:yf / ljZjf; /xs ] f] kfOG5  . g]kfn ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s Pjd\ ax';f+:sl[ ts ljz]iftfo'Qm b]z xf] . oxfF ;f+:s[lts ljljwtfleq Pstf kfOG5 . oxfFsf ljljw ;+:s[ltx¿lar k/fk"js { fnb]lv g} ck"j{ d]n /lxcfPsf] 5  . ;f+:sl[ ts ax'njfbsf] l;4fGtaf6 l;l~rt ;+:sl[ t ePsf]n] oxfF ;f+:sl[ ts ;DaGwsf] klg cfbfgk|bfg ePsf] kfOG5  . g]kfnnfO{ ;femf ;+:sl[ tsf] ljsf; ePsf] d'ns ' egL ;uf}/j eGg ;lsG5  . ^[email protected]=! g]kfndf dgfOg]k|d'v hfqf Pjd\ rf8kj{ g]kfndf ljleGg hfthflt, ljleGg efiffefifL af]Ng] / ljleGGf wd{ dfGg] dflg;x¿ a:b5g\ . ljleGGf hfthflt /wd{ dfGg]dflg;x¿sf cf–cfˆgf /Lltlylt /xg;xg rfnrngx¿df klg ljljwtf kfOG5  . g]kfndf dgfOg] k|d'v hfqf, rf8kj{ Pjd\ afhfufhfsf] af/]df tn rrf{ ul/Psf] 5  . 3f]8]hfqf r}q s[i0f rt'bz { L jf lkrf; rt'bz { Lsf lbg sf7df8f}d F f kfFxfrx|] jf kf;frGx] cyjf ldq rt'bz { L dgfpg], n's' dfxfBf]sf] k"hf ug]{ / cf}; + Lsf lbgdf pkTosfdf 3f]8h ] fqf dgfpg] ul/G5  . of] lbg sf7df8f}s +F f] 6'lF 8v]ndf 3f]8f bf}8 ;df/fx] cfof]hgf ul/G5  . 3f]8fnfO{ cg'zf;g, zlQm / tLj|tfsf] k|tLssf] ¿kdf dflgG5  . ufO{hfqf of] kj{ hg}kl" 0f{dfsf] ef]lnkN6 cyf{t efb|si[ 0f k|ltkbfsf lbgb]lv ;ft lbg;Dd dgfOG5  . 5f]/f rqmjt]G{ b| dNnsf] d[To'kl5 zf]su|:t /fgLnfO{ v';L kfg{ /fhf k|tfk dNnn] klxnf] k6s ufO{hfqfsf] cfof]hgf u/s ] f / o;df /fgLsf] zf]sx/0f ePsf] ls+jbGtL 5  . o;df v8\uhfqf, /fk] fOhfqf, nfv]gfr, if8bz{g VofnL, g]kfn kl/ro÷209

ufO{hfqfsf] emns, eQmk'/ nf]sg[To, 8jnLg[To, gf6s cflb k|bz{g ul/G5 . >Ls[i0f hGdfi6dLsf]lbg s[i0f hfqf u/k] l5 eujfg s[i0fn] /fIf;, e"t–k|t] cflb gfz u/s ] f] cfwf/df e"t–lkrf;, gfusf]eo x'bF g} eGg]hgljZjf; 5 . b;}“ cflZjg dlxgfsf] z'Sn k|ltkbfb]lv bzdL;Dd !) lbg ko{Gt rNg]] ePsf] x'Fbf jf bzdLnfO{ ljz]if dxŒj lbPsf]n] o;sf] gfd bz}F /xg uPsf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5  . o; kj{nfO{ g]kfnsf] /fli6«o kj{sf] ¿kdf dgfOG5  . dfGohgsf] cfzLjf{b, lgwf/le/6Lsf, skfn /sfgdf hd/f, unfdf ljleGGf lsl;dsf dfnfx¿ bz}Fkj{sf ljz]iftf  x'g\  . o; kj{df gf}lbg;Dd b]jLsf  ljleGGf ¿ksf] k"hf cr{gf, km"nkftL dxf]T;j cflb sfo{qmdx¿ ul/G5 . dxflzj/fqL k|To]s jif{ kmfu'g s[i0f rt'b{zLsf] lbg kg]{ of] lbg sf7df8f}Fsf] kz'kltgfysf] dlGb/df / cGoGq :yflkt lzjfnox¿df >4fn' eQmhgx¿sf] 7'nf] hd36 x'G5 . dxflzj/fqLsf lbg g]kfndf  ;}lgs lbj; klg dgfOG5 . r}t] bz}“ r}t z'Sn ci6dLsf lbg dgfOg]of]kj{nfO{ ;fgf]bz}Fklg elgG5 . ndh'ª\ lhNNffdf b'/ f hfltn]of]kj{ ljz] if w'dwfdsf ;fy dgfpF5g\ . o; lbg dlR5Gb| gfysf] /yofqf ul/G5  . 210÷g]kfn

kl/ro

a'4 hoGtL O;fk"j{ %^# df j}zfv z'Sn k"l0f{dfsf lbg a'4sf] hGd ePsf], j}zfv z'Sn k"l0f{dfs} lbg a'4Tj k|fKt u/s ] f] / O;fk"j{ $*# df j}zfv z'Sn k"l0f{dfs} lbg dxfkl/lgjf{0f k|fKt u/s ] f]n] …jz } fv z'Sn k"l0f{df -:jfFof k"lGx+_Ú a'4 hoGtLsf ¿kdf d'ns ' e/ dgfOG5 . o; lbg af}4 d7, u'Daf Pjd\ ljxf/x¿df 7'nf] hd36 x'G5  . ltxf/ sflQs s[i0f qof]bzLb]lv % lbg;Dd dgfOg] of] kj{ bfh'efO, lbbL alxgLx¿sf] a'4hGd kmns, n'lDagL :g]x / z'e]R5fsf] kj{ xf]  . oL % lbg od/fh cfˆgL alxgL od'gfsxfF cfO{ a;]sf] / od'gfn] pgsf] ;]jf / k"hf u/]sf] 36gfnfO{ o;;Fu cfa4 u/L of] % lbgnfO{ odk~rs klg eGg] ul/G5  . o; kj{df sfu, s's'/, nIdL, ufO{ uf]?sf]  k"hf ub}{clGtd lbg efO k"hf ug]{ ul/G5  . o; lbg lbbL alxgLx¿n] cfˆgf bfh'efOx¿sf] ;'v ;d[l4 / bL3f{o'sf] sfdgf ub}{ 6Lsf nufO{ ldi7fGg v'jfpg] ub{5g\  . o; cj;/df e}nf] tyf b]p;L v]nL dgf]/~hg ul/G5  . tLh

tLhdf /dfpFb} j|tfn' dlxnfx¿ g]kfn kl/ro÷211

tLh g]kfnL gf/Lx¿sf] ljz]if kj{sf] ¿kdf dgfOg] ul/G5  . of] rf8 efb| z'Sn t[tLofsf lbg kb{5 . lxGb" gf/Lx¿sf nflu of]ljz]if rf8 xf] . o; lbg gf/Lx¿ pkjf; a;L j|t lnG5g\  . gf/Lx¿n] OR5fcg';f/sf] klt kfpgsf nflu /cfkm" ;f}efUojtL /xgsf nflu of]j|t lng]k|rng 5 . >Lk~rdL df3 z'Sn k~rdLsf lbg dgfOg]kj{nfO{ >Lk~rdL jf j;Gtk~rdL elgG5  . of] j;Gt cfudgsf] k|tLssf] kj{ xf]  . o; lbg ;/:jtL b]jL / dxfd~h'>L u'?sf] k"hf cf/fwgf ul/G5  . ;fgf afnaflnsfnfO{ cIf/ cf/De u/fpg] lbgsf] ¿kdf ;d]t dgfOG5  . ;/:jtLsf] :t'lt ul/G5  . ljleGg dlGb/x¿ / 3/3/df elQmk"j{s k"hf u/L dlGb/sf leQfx¿df ;/:jtLsf] gfd n]Vgfn] k9\g cfpF5 eGg] ljZjf; ul/G5  . o;} lbg xg'dfg9f]sf b/af/df j;Gt >j0f ul/G5  . j;Gt Ct';DaGwL Znf]sx¿ ;'Gg]sfo{nfO{ j;Gt >j0f elgG5 . Nxf];f/

Nxf];f/ kj{ dgfpFb} pQ/L lxdfnL v08sf] z]kf{, ef]6], u'?ª, ysfnL / du/ hfltx¿n] ltAatL kfqf]cg';f/ gjjiff{/Desf] cj;/df df3 dlxgflt/ kg]{ Nxf];f/ kj{ ljz]if pT;fxsf ;fy dgfpF5g\ . jif{sf]u0fgf d';f, ufO{, af3, la/fnf], u¿9, ;k{, 3f]8f, e]8f, afFb/, r/f, s's'/ / ;'Fu'/sf] gfddf ul/G5 / k|To]s [email protected] jif{df of] rqm bf]xf]l/G5  . ljleGg k|sf/sf Nxf];f/dWo] ;f]gfd, td' / UofNjf] Nxf];f/df g]kfndf ;DalGwt wdf{jnDaLx¿nfO{ ;fj{hlgs labf lbg] k|rng /x]sf] kfOG5 . 212÷g]kfn

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p“ef}nL / p“wf}nL of] /fO{ hfltx¿n] dfGg] kj{ xf]  . of] kj{ Pp6f pFwf}nL / csf]{ pef}nLsf] ¿kdf jif{df b'O{k6s dgfOG5  . of] kj{df s;}n] rG8Lgfrsf ¿kdf, s;}n] ;fs]nf jf ;fs]jfsf ¿kdf / s;}n] j}zfv] tyf jf8fªd]6sf] ¿kdf dgfpg] rng 5  . /fO{ hfltx¿sf] klg km/s km/s ;+:s[lt ePsfn] of] kj{ klg km/s km/s ;do /gfdaf6 ljleGg 9ª\un]dgfOG5 . pFef}nL j}zfv, h]7lt/ dgfOG5 eg] pFwf}nL sflQs, dª\l;/ dlxgflt/ dgfOG5  . o; kj{df gfS5f]ª jf k'hf/Ln]rG8L yfg, dfuf{yfg, dfª\lvd cflb 7fpFdf d'Gw'd eg]/ k"hfcfhf ug]{ ub{5g\  . k|To]s 3/3/df lkt[sf] k"hf ug],{ 9f]n, em\ofD6f ahfP/ gfrufg ug]{ / dL7fdL7f vfg]s/' f vfP/ of] kj{ dgfpg] rng 5  . hg}k"l0f{df

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h'8zLtn g]kfnLx¿ j}zfv ! ut]]nfO{ gjjif{ dfGb5g\ eg] d}ynL ;+:s[ltdf j}zfv @ ut] h'8zLtn kg]{ / ;f]xL lbgb]lv gj jif{ ;'? ePsf] dflgG5  . o; cj;/df ldlynfdf ;fd"lxs ef]hg / /Ëf/Ë sfo{qmd cfof]hg ul/G5  . 5/l5d]sLdf clj/, /Ë, lxnf] 5\ofk5\ofk u/L xf]nLsf] h:t} pT;fxdo jftfj/0fdf of] kj{ dgfOG5 . o; kj{sf lbg 7'nfa8f cleefjsx¿af6 laxfg}p7L :gfg u/L lgTosd{ k"/f u/L nf]6fdf kljq zLtn hn lnP/ ;f]xL hnnfO{ bflxg] xftsf] c~h'nLdf /fvL cfzLj{rgsf ;fy cleif]s ul/g] x'Fbf o; kj{sf] gfd h'8zLtn /xg uPsf] xf] eGg] ljZjf; 5  . Ob g]kfndf O{:nfd wdf{jnDaLx¿n] Ob kj{ pT;fxsf ;fy dgfpFb5g\  . lxh/L ;+jt\sf] /dhfg dlxgfe/ Ob dgfOG5  . o; wfld{s cj;/df ;fdYo{ ePsf JolQmx¿n]cfˆgf] c9fO{ k|ltzt u/ La u'?jfnfO{ bfg lbO{ logLx¿sf]hLljsfsf nflu s]xL g s]xL  k|aGw u5{g \ . o; kj{df s'/fg  kf7 ug],{ gdfh k9\g] / kz'x¿sf]] aln -s'af{g_ lbg]h:tf sfd ul/G5  . Obdf k|fy{gf ub}{ O:nfd cg'ofoLx¿ s'df/ifi7L jf l;yL gvM l;7L jf l;yL gvM g]jf/  ;d'bfosf]k|l;4 kj{ xf] . h]7 z'Sn ifi7Lsf lbg dgfOg] o; kj{df s'df/ sflQs]osf] ljz]if ljlwn] k"hf u/L v6ofqf ug]{ ul/G5  . o;} lbg k|foM g]jf/x¿sf] b]jfnL k"hfsf ;fy} Ogf/ ;kmfO ug]{ sfd ul/G5 . of]rf8 s[ifs ;d'bfosf k|;Ggtf /;d[l4;Fu klg ;DalGwt 5 . rf;f]s tfªgfd ls/ft ;d'bfosf lnDa" hfltsf]ljlzi6 dxfg kj{ rf;f]s  tfª\gfd k|To]s  jif{ a}zfv  z'Sn k"l0f{df /d+l;/z'Sn k"l0f{dfsf lbg kb{5 . GjfuL k"hf;d]t elgg]rf;f]s  tfª\gfd kj{df gofF kfs]sf kmnkm"n -cGg, kmnkm"n_ b]jL b]jtfx¿nfO{ r9fP/dfq cfkm"n] vfO{ /fte/ ofnª\df, Rofj|'ªgfr gfRb}, xfSkf/] uLt ufpFb} /dfOnf] ul/G5  . of] kj{ lnDa" hfltsf] P]Soj4tf, ;femf, ;d[4, ;+:s[ltsf] k|tLssf] ¿kdf dgfOG5  . 214÷g]kfn

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kj{ dgfpF5g\  . /fhj+zL hfltsf] dxŒjk"0f{ l;?jf kj{sf] a]nfdf n;'g / Kofh 3/aflx/ em'G8\ofOG5  . dxfef/tsfndf k/z/' fdn] If]qLo hfltljxLg k[YjL agfpg If]qLox¿nfO{ dfb}{lxF8g\ ] qmddf /fhj+zL hfltnfO{ dfg{ nfUbf n;'g, Kofh 9f]sfdf em'G8ofPsf] b]vs ] fn] pgLx¿ ar]sf] cfVofg ePsf]n] cBflk n;'g Kofh em'G8\ofpg] k/Dk/f 5  . o;}lbg & k|sf/sf t/sf/L ld;fPsf] ;fuhftL agfP/ vfg] ul/G5  . l;?jf kj{df /fhj+zL ;d'bfosf s'nb]jtf 7fs'/ lj;/Lsf] k"hf ug's { f ;fy} l6i6fa'9Lsf gfdn] l6:6f gbLsf] klg k"hf ul/G5  . of] kj{ /fhj+zL hfltsf cltl/Qm yf¿, tfhk'/Lof, sxf/, ugufO{ hfltn] klg pT;fx / pdËsf ;fy dgfpg] ub{5g\  . of] cj;/df xf6d]nf eg]{ / ufg ahfg u/L /ªu\ f/ªu\ g[To ug]{ ul/G5  . k]lGbof dWo tyf ;'b"/klZrd g]kfnsf yf¿x¿ cfˆgf] v]tLkftL ;s]/ vlnxfg -wfg emfg{ agfOPsf] ;dtn 7fpF_ af6 ;a} cGg leqfPsf] lbgnfO{ k]lGbofsf] ¿kdf dgfpF5g\  . o; lbg yf¿ ;d'bfosf u'? k'/f]lxtn] vlnxfgdf ljz]if lsl;dsf] k"hf ub{5g\ . ;]tf] dlR5Gb|gfy hfqf ;Dk"0f{ k|f0fL hutsf dflns cfof{jnf]lst]Zj/nfO{ g} ;]tf] dlR5Gb|gfy elgG5  . g]jf/L efiffdf lognfO{ >LhgjxfB elgG5  . cfof{jnf]lst]Zj/ Zj]t dlR5Gb|gfysf] d"lt{ / dlGb/ sf7df8f}F s]n6f]nsf] dlR5Gb|jxfn jf sgs r}To ljxf/sf] dWodf cjl:yt 5  . k|f0fLdfqsf] enfOsf] sfdgf ub}{ b"w, bxL cflb b|Jon] :gfg u/fO{ /Ëdfnf e/]/ ;';lHht u/fO{ r}q j}zfvlt/ z'e ;fOt h'/fO{ /yofqf u/fOG5  . u9LdfO{ d]nf af/f lhNnfsf] jl/of/k'/df %÷% jif{sf] cGt/fndf u9LdfO{sf] d]nf nfUb5, hxfF g]kfn / ef/tsf nfvf}F eQmhgx¿ d]nf eg{ cfpF5g\ . o; d] nfdf u9LdfO{nfO{ ;]tf] dlR5Gb|gfysf] d"lt{ /fFuf, af]sf / k+IfLx¿sf] ef]u r9fOG5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷217

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^[email protected]=#=# ;Defljt ljZj ;Dkbf :ynx¿ g]kfnn];g\ !((^ /;g\ @))* df u/L b'O{k6s ljleGg /fli6«o ;Dkbfx¿nfO{ ;Defljt ljZj ;Dkbfsf ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t ul/;s]sf]5, h;dWo];g !((^ df ;Defljt ljZj ;Dkbfsf ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t u/]sf]n'lDagL, eujfg a'4sf] hGd:ynnfO{ ;g\ !((& df g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cfkm\g} kxndf ul/Psf] cg'/f]w cg'¿k k|lqmofut ¿kdf g}ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t ul/Psf lyof] . o;sf cltl/Qm b]xfosf /fli6«o ;Dkbf :ynx¿ xfn;Dd klg ;Defljt ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t cj:yfdf /x]sf 5g\ 1. Cave architecture of Muktinath Valley of Mustang (23/05/1996) 2. Khokana, the vernacular village and its mustard-oil seed industrial heritage (23/05/1996)

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Ramagrama, the relic stupa of Lord Buddha (23/05/1996) The early medieval architectural complex of Panauti (23/05/1996) The medieval palace complex of Gorkha (23/05/1996) Tilaurakot, the archaeological remains of ancient Shakya Kingdom (23/05/1996) Medieval Earthern Walled City of Lo Manthang (30/01/2008) Medieval Settlement of Kirtipur (30/01/2008) Nuwakot Palace Complex (30/01/2008) Ram Janaki Temple (30/01/2008) Bhurti Temple Complex of Dailekh (30/01/2008) Rishikesh Complex of Ruru Kshetra (30/01/2008) Sinja valley (30/01/2008) The Medieval Town of Tansen (30/01/2008) Vajrayogini and early settlment of sankhu (30/01/2008)

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^[email protected]=$ /fli6«o ;f+:s[lts ;Dkbfsf] ;+/If0f;DaGwL bL3{sfnLg gLlt g]kfn ;/sf/af6 /fli6«o ;f+:s[lts gLlt @)^& hf/L ul/Psf] 5  . efiff, snf, ;+:s[lt, nlntsnf / ;ª\uLt gf6\o If]qsf] ljsf;, k|j4{g / ;+/If0fsf nflu g]kfn k|1f k|lti7fg, g]kfn  nlntsnf k|1f k|lti7fg /g]kfn ;ª\uLt tyf gf6\o k|1f k|lti7fgsf]u7g eO{ ;~rfngdf /x]sf 5g\ .

/fli6«o ;ª\u|xfno 5fpgL /fli6«o clen]vfno, /fli6«o ;ª\u|xfno 5fpgL, /fli6«o d'b|f ;ª\u|xfno, /fli6«o snf ;ª\u|xfno eQmk'/, If]qLo ;ª\u|xfno kf]v/f, If]qLo ;ª\u|xfno ;'v]{t, If]qLo ;ª\u|xfno wgs'6f, uf]/vf ;ª\u|xfno, slknj:t' ;ª\u|xfnosf] :yfkgf eO{ k'/ftflŒjs j:t'x¿ ;+/If0ftkm{ sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\  . To;}u/L [email protected] lhNnfsf ;Dkbfx¿sf] ;"rLs/0f eO{ To;} cg'¿ksf sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\  . ;fy}, ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLdf ;"rLs[t ;Dkbfx¿sf] g]kfn kl/ro÷229

;+/If0fsf nflu sfo{qmdx¿ ;~rfngdf /x]sf / kljq wfld{s:yn b]j3f6 If]qsf] @) jif]{ u'?of]hgf :jLs[t ePsf], cGo hftLo ;ª\u|xfnox¿ :yfkgfsf] sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO{ :yfgLo lgsfo / ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdf w/fg, lrtjg, sLlt{k'/, kf]v/f, bfª / h'Dnfdf hftLo ;ª\u|xfnox¿ :yfkgf sfo{ ;'? ul/Psf], sf7df8f}Fsf] uf]s0f{df hgcfGbf]ng tyf ;lxb :d[lt ;ª\u|xfnosf] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ;'? ul/Psf], gf/fo0flx6L b/af/ ;ª\u|xfno :yfkgf eO{ s]xL efu ;j{;fwf/0fsf] cjnf]sgsf nflu v'Nnf ul/Psf] ;fy} d}lynL ;flxTosf dxfslj ljBfkltsf] :d[lt k'/:sf/sf nflu ¿ ! s/f]8sf] cIfosf]if :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  . n'lDagL, kz'klt / hgsk'/ If]qsf u'?of]hgfcg'¿k k"jf{wf/ ljsf;;DaGwL lqmofsnfkx¿;d]t ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\  .

lll

230÷g]kfn

kl/ro

kl/R5]b M ;ft

g]kfnsf] efiff, ;flxTo / snf &=! efiff g]kfn ax'efifL b]z xf]  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] g]kfndf af]lng] ;a} dft[efiffx¿nfO{ /fi6«efiffsf] dfGotf lbPsf] 5  . g]kfnL efiff ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiff xf]  . g]kfnL efiff ;Dks{sf] efiff klg xf]  . k|frLg g]kfndf ls/ft, ;+:s[t, kfnL cflb efiff / a|fX\dL, l;l/hª\3f, b]jgfu/L, /Ghgf cflb lnlk ljsl;t xF'b} uPsf] kfOG5  . pQ/fw{df ;+:s[t efiffsf] ljsf; cGo efiffsf] bfFhf]df cTolws

xfd|f cu|h ;flxTosf/x¿ g]kfn kl/ro÷231

dfqfdf ePsf] kfOG5  . hol:ylt dNnsf] pbo ePkl5 dWosfndf g]jf/L efiff lnlvt ¿kdf ;'?cft ePsf]xf] . o;sfndf g]kfndf cGo ljleGg efiffx¿ cl:tTjdf /x]klg lnlvt ¿kdf ltgLx¿sf] jr{:j e]l6Psf] 5}g  . d';ndfg Jofkf/Lsf] k|j]zkl5 dWosfndf pb"{ / kmf/;L efiffsf] k|of]u x'g yfn]sf] kfOG5  . b/af/df ;+:s[t, d}lynL, aËfnL, ef]hk'/L, cjwL / kj{t] -g]kfnL_ efiffsf 1ftfx¿ klg lyP eGg] s'/f Oltxf;af6 k|i6 x'G5 . &=!=! g]kfndf af]lng] d'Vo efiffx¿ -/fli6«o hgu0fgf @)^* cg';f/_ qm= efiff ;+= 1. g]kfnL 2. d}lynL 3. ef]hk'/L 4. yf¿ 5. tfdfª 6. g]jf/L 7. du/ 8. cjwL 9. jfGtjf 10. u'?ª 11. lnDa" 12. alHhsf 13. pb"{ 14. /fhj+zL 15. z]kf{ 16. lxGbL 17. rflDnª 18. ;Gyfn 19. r]kfª 20. bg'jf/ 232÷g]kfn

kl/ro

hg;ª\Vof 1,18,26,953 3092530 1584958 1529875 1353311 846557 788530 501752 132583 325622

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

343603

32.

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33.

691546

34.

122214

35.

114830

36.

77569

37.

76800

38.

49858

39.

48476

40.

45821

41.

p/fj ;'g'jf/ a+ufnL /fh:yfgL dfemL yfdL s'n'ª lwdfn clGhsf ofVvf y'n'ª ;fªkfª, ;fª\kfxfª e'h]nL b/fO{ vflnª s'dfn ysfnL 5GTofn ;fª\s]lts ltAatL b'dL

33651 37898 21061 25394 24422 23151 33170 19300 18555 19558 20659 18270 21715 11677 14467 12222 5242 4283 4476 4445 7638

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

lh/]n jfDa'n] k'df of]Ndf] gf5]l/ª b'/f d]r] kx/L nfKr] af]6] axfO{ sf]o" /fhL xfo" Jof;L ofDkm] 3n] vl/of l5lnª nf]?ª kGhfaL lrlgofF c+u|]hL d]cf]xfª ;+:s[t s}s] vfDhL -/fp6]_ ls;fg d';ndfg

4829

71.

13470

72.

6686

73.

10176

74.

10041

75.

2156

76.

4375

77.

3458

78.

7499

79.

8766

80.

11658

81.

1271

82.

3758

83.

1520

84.

480

85.

9208

86.

8092

87.

238

88.

2046

89.

3716

90.

808

91.

242

92.

2032

93.

4650

94.

1669

95.

50

96.

461 1178 1075

97. 98. 99.

a/fd ltn'ª h]?ª b'DhfnL cf]l/of lnª\lvª s';'G8f l;GwL sf]r] xl/ofGjL df3L ;fd s'df{nL sfut] bf]ª\vf s'sL l5Gtfª ldhf] gfUd];] Nxf]dL c;fdL ;wfgL /fO{ tfhk'/Lof v;} c7kx/] ugufO{ c5fdL vd

155 1424 1763 6260 584 129 28 518 2080 889 35614 401 227 99 80 29 3712 32 10 808 476 122 159114 18811 1747 5530 3612 142787 27113

g]kfn kl/ro÷233

100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111.

dfnkf8] w'n]nL c/aL :k]lg; /l;og 8f]6]nL a]nx/f kmfª\b'jfnL jfn'ª ;'/]n a}t8]nL ags/Lof

247

112.

347

113.

8

114.

16

115.

17

116.

787827

117.

599

118.

290

119.

1169

120.

287

121.

272524

122.

69

123.

aemfª\uL k|mfG;]nL Nxf]kf 8f]NkfnL h'DnL b}n]vL ;f]gfxf 88]nw'/L afh'/]nL bfr'{n]nL dgfª u9jfnL

67581 34 3029 1667 851 3102 579 488 10704 5928 392 38

gofF efiff klxrfg Effiff cfof]un] la=;+ @)&^ sflQs !* ut] /fi6«klt ;dIf k]z u/]sf] aflif{s k|ltj]bgdf gofF efiffsf] klxrfgnfO{ ;+:yfut u/]sf] 5  . h'g b]xfoadf]lhd /x]sf 5g\  . qm= ;+= efiff lhNnf ! /fgf yf? s~rgk'/ @ Gff/ km' dgfª # r'd -l;of/_ uf]/vf

$ g'a|L -nfs]{_ % kf]8 \s] ^ ;]/f s]

Uff]/vf 8f]Nkf d':tfª

[email protected] g]kfnL efiffsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ g]kfnL efiff ef/fk] n ] L efiff kl/jf/sf] tT;d ju{leq kg]{ efiff xf]  . o;sf] ;DaGw cfo{ O/fg]nL zfvfsf] cfw'lgs cfo{ efiff;Fu /xs ] f] kfOG5  . g]kfnL efiff, cfw'lgs cfo{ efiffx¿dWo] Ps xf]  . of] ;+:st[ , k|fs[t / cke+z | x'bF } ljsl;t ePsf] xf]  . k|fs[t tyf cke+z | sf] s'g zfvfaf6 g]kfnL efiffsf] hGd ePsf] xf] eGg] ;DaGwdf ljåfgx¿ Psdt x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\  . g]kfnL efiffnfO{ ;/sf/L sfdsfhsf] efiffsf] ¿kdf lnOG5  . of] efiffnfO{ ;a}n] a'em\g,] s'/fsfgL ug{ ;lhn};lsg], ;Dks{ efiff, zAbfjnL efiff, efiff k|of]ustf{, ;flxTo, ;flxTosf/ / efiff;]jLsf lx;fan] ;a}eGbf wgL efiffsf] ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] kfOG5  . 234÷g]kfn

kl/ro

eflifs k'/ftflŒjs ljz]iftf / /fhgLlts 36gfqmdsf cfwf/df g]kfnL efiffsf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ lgDglnlvt tLg sfndf afFl8Psf]5 . -s_ k|fylds r/0f k|frLg sfn lj=;+= !)$) b]lv !%$( ;fn;Dd /xs ] f] kfOG5  . o;sf] k|df0fsf ¿kdf lj=;= !)#* sf] bfd'kfnsf] clen]vnfO{ lnOG5  . ;Ktl;Gw' k|bz ] b]lv k"j{ xfnsf] g]kfn;Dd v;x¿ lkmlhPsf lyP  . ef/tsf] d'un ;fd|fHo lj:tf/sf qmddf ;Defljt cfqmd0f k|Tofqmd0fsf nflu x'Dnf >Lkfnsf /fhf gfu/fhn] lj=;+= !)$) df PsLs/0f u/L ljzfn v; clw/fHosf] :yfkgf u/s ] f] Oltxf; k|fKt ePsf]5 . logL v; lyPgg\, ltAatL lyP . P6\lsG;g //fx'n ;f+sT[ ofogn] lbPsf] ljj/0fcg';f/ pgL ;|fª] –rª uDkf]sf afx|fF} j+z x'g \ . To;}n] klg logsf] dft[efiff ltAatL lyof] eGg] a'lemG5  . csf]{ s'/f pgsf ;Gtfgsf] gfd rfk -of] gfd xf]Og, of] ;+:sl[ tdf /fhf eGg] cy{sf] l;GhfnL zAb xf]_, rflkNn -of] klg gfd xf]Og, of] rfksf 5f]/f eGg] cy{sf] l;GhfnL zAb xf]_, qmfl;rNn -qmfl;sf] 5f]/fM] oxfF ltAatL / v; zAb hf]l8Psf] b]lvG5_, qmflwrNn -qmflwsf] 5f]/f_] , qmfrNn -qmfsf] 5f]/f_] /xa] f6 klg Tof] j+z ltAatL jQmf ePsf] :ki6 x'G5  . t/, k|hfx¿sf] hg;ª\Vofdf v;x¿ a9L ePsfn] /fhfx¿ klg lj:tf/} v; hfltdf ¿kfGtl/t x'bF } uPsf] / :yfgLo v; k|hfx¿s} efiffnfO{ /fHoefiffsf ¿kdf k|of]u u/s ] f] b]lvG5  . To;a]nf k"jn {] L v; /fHosf k|dv ' b'Oc { f]6f k|fGt lyPM v;x¿sf] 3gf a;f]af; ePsf] v;fg / hf8 jf ef]6x] ¿sf] a;f]af; a9L ePsf]h8fg . o; v;fg k|fGtsf]/fhwfgLrflxF l;Ghf -jt{dfg h'Dnf_ lyof] . oL ;a} If]qdf Pp6} efiffsf] /fhsLo k|of]u ePsfn] o;nfO{ l;GhfnL eg]/ lrGg ;lsG5  . o;/L PsLs[t v;/fHo sfnb]lv o; efiffsf] pTklQ ePsf] dflgPsf] xf]Ù lsgeg] c¿ cfw'lgs ef/tLo cfo{efiffx¿sf] pTklQ ;do klg o;} ;dolt/ dflgPsf] 5  . oxL efiff k"jl{ t/ klg a9\b} u08sL If]q;Dd cfOk'Uof]  . o;nfO{ kl5 kj{t] eGg yflnof]  . o; l;GhfnL efiffsf k|frLg gd'gfx¿ ljleGg clen]vx¿df kfOPsf 5g\ . s]xL k|dv ' gd'gfx¿ lgDglnlvt 5g\ M • czf]srNnsf] b'Nn'sf] lznfn]v • cflbTo dNnsf] tfd|kq • uf]/vfsf] tf3afO{ u'Dafdf k|fKt cflbTo dNnsf] tfd|kq • k'0o dNnsf] tfd|kq -v_ dWosfnLg r/0f gfu/fh ceo dNnsf] ;fd|fHo lj36gkl5 -v; /fHosf] lj36g_ 6'qm]/fHosf] :yfkgfn] ubf{ g]kfnL efiffn] klg k|frLg nIf0fx¿ u'dfpFb} dWosfnLg nIf0fx¿ k|fKt ug{ yfNof]  . lj=;= !%%% sf] wjsd{7åf/f lnlvt sfjf]{l/s g]kfn kl/ro÷235

ljjf]if zfxLsf] tfd|kqsf] efiff dWosfnLg g]kfnL efiff nIf0fx¿sf] ¿kdf b]vf k¥of]  . g]kfnL efiff ;f]x|f}F ztfAbLb]lv lj:tfl/t x'g yfNof]  . o; ;dodf g]kfnL efiffefifLx¿ qmd}n] k"j{lt/ km}ng yfn]  . of] qmd kxf8L tyf t/fO{sf e"efu tyf bfhL{lnª cf;fd x'Fb} adf{;Dd k'Uof]  . o;/L km}lng] qmddf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL efiffsf zAbx¿sf] cfudg g]kfnL effiffdf x'g yfNof]  . o;} ;dodf g]kfnL efiffn] k|zf;gsf] dfWod aGg] cj;/ klg k|fKt u¥of]  . g]kfnsf] PsLs/0f cleofg;Fu} g]kfnL efiffsf] Jofks ¿kdf k|rf/k|;f/ tyf lj:t[tLs/0fn] o;sf] dxŒj cem} a9]/ uof]  . lj=;= !%%% sf] wjsd{7åf/f lnlvt sfaf]l{ /s ljjf]if zfxLsf] eflifs gd'gfb]lv lj=;= !($* sf] df]lt/fdåf/f lnlvt efg'eQmsf] hLjg rl/qsf af/d ] f pNn]v ul/Psf eflifs gd'gfsf cltl/Qm lj=;= !*%% sf] zlQmaNnesf] æxf:osbDjÆsf] efiff x]bf{ k|frLgsfnb]lv dWosfn;Dd cfOk'Ubf g]kfnL efiffn] cfˆgf] :ki6¿k b]vfO;s]sf] / sfJo / ;flxTotkm{ klg of] efiff nf]slk|o eO;s]sf] kfOG5  . -u_ cfw'lgs r/0f uf]/vfkqsf] -!(%*_ k|sfzg;Fu} g]kfnL efiffsf] cfw'lgs sfnsf] yfngL ePsf] dflgG5  . uf]/vfkqsf] k|sfzgkl5 g]kfnL efiffsf] ljsf;df uf]/vfkqsf ;fy cGo ljleGg kqklqsfx¿sf]klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xs ] f] kfOG5  . ;'Gb/L -!(^#_, dfwjL -!(^%_ h:tf kqklqsfx¿n] g]kfnL efiffsf] ljsf; / k|rf/–k|;f/ ug{df lbPsf] of]ubfg clj:d/0fLo /xs ] f] 5  . /fddl0f cf=bL= sf] xnGt alxisf/ cfGbf]ngnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg dfwjL -!(^%_ n] v]ns ] f] e"ldsf tyf :jod\ /fddl0fs} of]ubfgnfO{ klg la;{g ;lsFbg}   . eflifs :t/Ls/0fsf nflu xnGt alxisf/ cfGbf]ngn] dxŒjk"0f{ :yfg cf]u6] s ] f] 5  . To;kl5 rlGb|sf Jofs/0fsf] k|sfzg tyf ljleGg k|ltef ;DkGg slj, n]vsx¿sf] ;fwgsf] n]Vok|jl[ taf6 d'Qm x'bF } lj:tf/} cfw'lgstftkm{ 9Nsb} u/s ] f] k'li6 x'G5  . To;kl5 g]kfnL efiffnfO{ rf]vf] agfpg] sfo{df zf/bf -!((!_ klqsf tyf em/fj{] fbL cfGbf]ng [email protected])!#_ sf] ljz]if e"ldsf /xs ] f] 5  . em/fj{] fbL cfGbf]ngn] g]kfnL efiffnfO{ lhpFbf], hfUbf] / le/nf] agfpg 7]6 g]kfnL zAb k|of]udf ljz]if hf]8 lbPsf] 5  . jt{dfg g]kfnL efiffdf k|sflzt ljleGg ;flxlTos / ;flxTo]Q/ u|Gyx¿, zAbsf]z tyf Jofs/0fsf] k|sfzg tyf o;;DaGwL ePsf ljljw sfo{n] g]kfnL efiffsf] ljsl;t l:yltsf] ;ª\s]t u/]sf] 5  . To;sf cltl/Qm /fi6«efiffsf ¿kdf ;+ljwfgn] lbPsf] dfGotf, ljb]zLx¿sf] g]kfnL efiffk|ltsf] cle?rL, ef/tLo ;+ljwfgsf] cf7f}F cg';"rLdf g]kfnL efiffn] kfPsf] :yfgnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ cfw'lgs g]kfnL efiffsf] dxŒj pRr /x]sf] dflgG5  . 236÷g]kfn

kl/ro

cfw'lgs sfndf lzIff, ;~rf/ / k|sfzgn] g]kfnL efiffsf] nf]slk|otf a9\b} uPsf] kfOG5 . o;nfO{ dxŒj lbOg' / ljb]zLx¿n] ;d]t o;tkm{ ?lr a9fpg'n] o;sf] dxŒj a9\b} uPsf] tYo xfd|f;fd' :ki6 5  . o;/L g]kfnL efiffsf] jt{dfg ¿knfO{ l:y/ tyf dfgs agfpg ljleGg If]qaf6 ePsf] k|of;nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ ;lsb}g  . &=!=# efiff kl/jf/ ef/f]k]nL kl/jf/ ef/f]k]nL efiff kl/jf/ lgDg adf]lhd kl/eflift 5  . ef/f]k]nL ;td, cNaflgofnL, jfN6]nL, :nfd]nL, cfd]{g]nL / cfo{O/fg]nL s]Gt'd s]N6]nL, hd{g]nL, lu|;]nL, O6fn]nL, tf]vf/]njL / lx6\6]nL ef/f]k]nL ;Dk"0f{ efiff kl/jf/x¿dWo]sf] ;jf{lws ;d[4 efiff kl/jf/ xf]  . ef/tLo pkdxfåLk / o''/f]k d'Vo If]q /x]sfn] o;sf] gfd ef/f]k]nL /xg uPsf] b]lvG5  . ;a}eGbf a9L hg;ª\Vofn] af]Ng] tyf o'/f]k / Pl;of dxfb]zsf ljleGg e"efux¿ d'Vo If]q /x] klg ;+;f/sf ;a} h;f] If]qdf km}lnPsf] o; efiff kl/jf/n] ;flxTo, ;Eotf, ;+:s[lt, 1fg, lj1fg, /fhgLlt, cflb x/]s If]qsf] g]t[Tj lnPsf] 5  . efiff j}1flgs b[li6n] klg o;sf] cWoogdf ;jf{lws sfo{ ePsf]5 . ;+:s[  t, cj]:tf, lu|s, Nofl6g, ?;L, hd{g cflb ljZjsf k|frLg Pjd\ ;d[4 efiffx¿ o;} kl/jf/sf dflgG5g\  . ef/f]k]nL efiff kl/jf/sf] gfds/0fsf ;DaGwdf ljåfgx¿lar dte]b kfOG5  . o;nfO{ ljåfgx¿n] OG8f]]–hd{lgs, OG8f]–o'/f]lkog, OG8f]–lx§]nL, cfo{ kl/jf/ cflb leGg–leGg gfd lbPsf] b]lvG5  . h;n] h]–h:tf] gfdfs/0fsf] k|:tfj u/]klg ef/f]k]nL -OG8f]–o'/f]lkog_ gfdn] g} nf]slk|otf xfl;n u/]sf] 5  . ef/f]k]nL efiff kl/jf/sf] d"n ynf] / d"n k|of]Qmfsf af/]df s'g} 7f]; lg0f{o x'g ;s]sf] b]lvFb}g  . oBlk O{=k"= $%)) jif{cl3 ef/f]k]nL ;d'bfosf dflg;x¿ Ps} 7fpFdf a:y] / Pp6} efiff af]Ny] eGg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5  . d"n ynf] c1ft /x]klg efiff j}1flgsx¿n] t'ngfTds cWoogsf dfWodaf6 ef/f]k]nLsf] sfNklgs d"n efiffsf] lgdf{0f u/L ltgsf k|of]QmfnfO{ …lj/f];Ú gfd lbPsf] b]lvG5  . h;af6 ef/f]k]nL efiff kl/jf/sf d"n k|of]Qmfx¿ …lj/f];Ú hflt lyP eGg] lgisif{ lgsflnPsf] kfOG5  . b|lj8 kl/jf/ b|lj8 hfltåf/f af]lng] efiffnfO{ b|lj8 efiff kl/jf/cGtu{t /flvG5  . d'VotM g]kfn kl/ro÷237

ef/tsf] tldngf8' /fHo tyf dn]l;of, OG8f]g]l;of, >Lnª\sf, adf{nufot k"jL{ / blIf0f clk|msf cflb If]qdf o; kl/jf/sf efiffx¿ af]Ng] ul/G5  . O{=k"= !%)) eGbf klxn]b]lv g} af]nLrfnLdf cfPsf] o; kl/jf/sf] d'Vo efiff tldn xf]  . ;flxTo, ;Eotf / ;+:s[ltsf b[li6n] tldn efiff cToGt ;d[4 b]lvG5  . tldnafx]s o; kl/jf/cGtu{t ;]Gtldn, dnofnd, sGgf8f, t]n'u', sf]nfdL cflb efiff kb{5g\ . b|lj8 efiff kl/jf/sf] d'Vo ljz]iftf cGtM of]ufTds xf]  . b'O{ jrg / tLg lnËsf] Joj:yf kfOg] o; kl/jf/sf efiffdf sd{jfRosf] Joj:yf kfFOb}g  . d"4{Go Wjlgsf] k|fwfGo kfOg] o; kl/jf/sf efiffdf :j/fGt zAbsf] k|of]u clws /x]sf] kfOG5  . ljelQmsf] sfd k|Tooaf6 rnfOg' o; kl/jf/sf efiffx¿sf] ljz]iftf xf]  . To;afx]s kof{Kt cfuGt's zAbsf] k|of]u x'g', lnË lgwf{/0fsf lglDt cfjZostfcg';f/ gflds zAb;Fu …k'?ifÚ / …:qLÚ jfrs zAbx¿ hf]l8g'h:tf ljz]iftfx¿ klg b|lj8 efiff kl/jf/sf ljz]iftfsf ¿kdf b]lvG5g\  . g]kfndf o; kl/jf/sf] emfFu8 -wfFu8_ efiff af]Ng] ul/G5  . ef]6 ad]{nL -lrlgof“ ltAatL_ kl/jf/ eflifs jQmfsf b[li6n] ef/f]k]nL kl/jf/kl5sf] bf];|f] 7'nf] efiff kl/jf/ xf] lrlgofF ltAatL  . d'VotM rLg, ltAat / adf{df af]lng] o; kl/jf/sf efiffx¿ aª\unfb]z, yfONofG8, g]kfn, e'6fg, leotgfd cflb b]zx¿df klg af]lnG5g\  . o; kl/jf/nfO{ ljåfgx¿n] ef]6–ad]{nL / yfO{–lrlgofF u/L b'O{ ju{df ljefhg u/]sf] kfOG5  . g]kfndf o; kl/jf/sf tfdfª -d'dL{_, g]jf/L, du/, /fO{, ls/ftL, u'?ª, lnDa", z]kf{, r]kfª, ;'g'jf/, yfdL, lwdfn, ltAatL, lh/]n cflb y'k|} efiffx¿ af]lnG5g\  . o; kl/jf/sf k|d'v eflifs ljz]iftfx¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M • cof]ufTds efiff • PsfIf/L efiff • :yfgaf6 zAbsf] cy{ lgwf{/0f x'g] efiff • tfgsf dfWodaf6 cy{e]b x'g] efiff • cg'gfl;s Wjlgsf] afx'No ePsf] efiff • cnu–cnu zAbsf nflu cnu–cnu lrGx x'g]-j0f{df cIf/gx'g_] efiff cfUg]o kl/jf/ cfUg]nL efiff kl/jf/nfO{ cfUg]l;ofnL÷cfUg]o jf cl:6«s efiff kl/jf/ klg eGg] ul/G5  . blIf0f–k"j{ Pl;of d'Vo ynf] /x]sf] o; kl/jf/sf efiffx¿ cGgfd, sDaf]l8of, adf{, yfONofG8, ef/t x'Fb} lgsf]]af/ åLk;Dd km}lnPsf] b]lvG5  . 238÷g]kfn

kl/ro

g]kfndf klg o; kl/jf/sf] ;tf/÷;Gyfn effiffsf] k|of]u x'g] ub{5  . o; efiff kl/jf/sf d'Vo tLg zfvf b]lvG5g\– d'G8f of sf]n, df]g:jd]/ / cGgfd d'cfª  . df]g–Vd]/ efiff ;d"x o; kl/jf/sf] ck]Iffs[t ;zQm b]lvG5  . o; efiffdf ;flxTosf] n]vg klg ePsf] b]lvG5  . df]g–:jd]/afx]s cGo efiffx¿df ;flxTo–l;h{gf ePsf] kfOFb}g  . o; kl/jf/sf k|d'v eflifs ljz]iftfx¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M • d'VotM clZni6 of]ufTdstf • ljelQmsf] sfd pk;u{af6 lnOg] efiff • lnË lgwf{/0fsf lglDt d"n lnË lgwf{/s zAbsf] k|of]u ul/g] efiff -h:t} cfFl8of s'nM af3, Pª\uf s'nMal3gL_ • tLgcf]6f jrg ePsf] efiff • k'?ifcg';f/ lqmofdf ¿ke]b gkfOg] efiff cflb  . tflnsf g+= &=! g]kfndf af]lng] ljleGg efiffkl/jf/ cGtu{tsf efiffx¿ qm=;+

efiff kl/jf/

efiffx¿ g]kfnL, d}lynL, ef]hk'/L, cjlw, yf¿, /fhj+zL, bg'jf/L dfemL, af]6], b/}, s'dfn, r'/]6L, df8jf/L, pb"{

!

ef/f]k]nL

@

g]jf/L, u'?ª, tfdfª, lnDa", ltAatL, z]kf{, lh/]n, sfut],Nxf]d], ªf]Nkf, l5t'/Lª, Nxf]s], n]Krf, 3n], ysfnL, dgfª, k"jL{ s]s], 5Gt]n, lrlgofF ltAatL Jof;L, du/, /fhL, /fp6], klZrdL tfdfª, a'hf, b'/f, vfd, r]kfª,  yfdL, e|Fd', jfo' -xfo'_, kx/L, lwdfn, d]r], s';'08f, /fO{, ls/ftL, ;'g'jf/L, kxf/L

# $ %

cfUg]o b|lj8 cGo

;tf/jf ;GyfnL, cl8of emfFu8 jf wfFu8 vflnª, 8f]6]nL , v; jf v; s'/f, p/fp

&=!=$ s]xL efiffefifLsf lnlkx¿ ;+:s[t, g]kfnL, lxGbL tyf xfn k|rlnt g]jf/L efiffdf k|rlnt lnlk b]jgfu/L g]kfn kl/ro÷239

lnlk ljsf; tflnsf lnlk g} xf] h'g a|fx\dL lnlkaf6 ljsl;t ePsf] kfOG5  . o:tf] nf]slk|o a|fXdL lnlksf] pTklQaf/] dt}So /x]sf] kfOFb}g  . gf/b :d[lt, j[x:klt :d[lt, h}g u|Gy 240÷g]kfn

kl/ro

n'lDagLsf] czf]s :tDedf ePsf] a|fXdL lnlksf] clen]v / Jx]g;fª\sf] j0f{gcg';f/ :jod\ a|XdfhLaf6 ;[li6 ePsf] lnlk ePsf] x'gfn] a|fXdL lnlk /Xof] eGg] dfGotf kfOG5  . To:t} lrlgof af}4wd{sf] ljZjsf]zsf n]vs kmfjfG;lngn] pNn]v u/]cg';f/ s'g} a|x\df gfdsf cfrfo{n] ;[li6 u/]sf] lnlk x'gfn] a|fXdL lnlk /xg uPsf] xf] elgG5  . g]kfnsf] ;Gb{edf O;fk"j{ t];|f] ztfAbLdf ;d|f6 czf]såf/f n'lDagLdf :yflkt czf]s :tDedf / slknj:t'sf] lglUnxjfdf k|fKt :tDeflen]vdf clÍt a|fXdL lnlk xfn;Dd k|fKt ;a}eGbf  k'/fgf]jf klxnf]lnlk dflgG5 . lj=;+= %@! kl5 k|fKt @)) hlt lnR5ljsfnLg clen]vx¿  klg a|fXdL lnlksf ljsl;t ¿k dflgG5g\ . g]kfnL,  lxGbL, ;+:s[t / k|rlnt g]jf/L efiffsf] lnlk b]jgfu/L lnlk xf]  . of] a|fXdL lnlksf] t];|f] ¿k s'l6nf lnlk / /~hgf lnlksf] ;lDd>0f 5  . of] lnlk b]jgfu/L jf b]jtfsf] lnlk ePsfn] b]jgfu/L lnlk /x]sf] cg'dfg 5  . gjf}F ztfAbLb]lv kGw|f}F ztfAbL;Ddsf] cjlwnfO{ k|frLg b]jgfu/L lnlk / ;qf}F ztfAbLb]lv xfn;Dd b]jgfu/L u/L of] lnlknfO{ b'O{ v08df afFl8Psf] 5  . k|frLg sfndf a|fXdL lnlksf b'O{ ¿k lyP eg]dWosfndf emG8}@ bh{geGbf a9L lnlkx¿ ljsl;t eP, h;dWo] s]xLsf] ljj/0f lgDgfg';f/ 5 M g]kfn kl/ro÷241

• • • •

g]kfnL÷lxGbL M b]jgfu/L lnlk g]jf/L lnlk M /~hgf, a|fDxL, k|rlnt, e'lh+df], kfFr'df], s'l6nf cflb lnlk lnDa" M l;l/hª\3f lnlk pb"{ M c/aL lnlk [email protected] ;flxTo efiffs} dfWodaf6 ;flxTosf] cleJolQm x'G5  . ;flxTo zAbsf] If]q Jofks jf lj:t[t /x]sf] 5  . ;+:s[tdf sfJonfO{ g} ;flxTo elgPsf] kfOP tfklg jt{dfgdf rflxF sfJo / ;flxTo cnu–cnu cl:tTjdf /x]sf kfOG5g\  . ;flxTon]syf, sljtf, pkGof;, lgaGw, gf6s cflb ;a}nfO{ ;d]6\ 5 . k"jL{o ljåfg efdxsf cg';f/ æzAb / cy{sf] ;xefj g} ;flxTo xf]Æ  . g]kfndf k|rlnt k|d'v efiffx¿df ;flxTo l;h{gf ePsf]5 . oBlk To:tf ;flxTosf] klxrfg x'g g;s]sf] cj:yf /x]sf] 5  . g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ljsf; / lj:tf/nfO{ tLg sfndf ljefhg u/L cWoog ul/Psf] kfOG5 M -s_ k|fylds sfn M k|f/Deb]lv lj=;= !(#( ;Dd ;'?b]lv df]tL/fd e§sf] tyf z[ª\uf/sfn ;'?cft x'g'k"j{sf] ;do cfpF5  . o; cjlwdf lgDg tflnsf g+= [email protected] df plNnlvt clen]vx¿ -lznfkq, tfd|kq, sgskq cflb_ /k|frLg x:tlnlvt u|Gyx¿;d]tsf];do klg kb{5 . tflnsf g+= [email protected] efiffut clen]vx¿ ;do clen]v lj=;+=!!$^

;+uf| d l;+xn] hf/L u/s ] f] h'Dnfsf] 8'df| sf]6sf] clen]v

lj=;+=!#[email protected]

l;Ghf -h'Dnf_ sf v; dNNf /fhf czf]s rNnsf] lznfn]v

lj=;+=!#!&–!#@& h'Dnfsf v; dNn /fhf cIfo dNnsf] clen]v lj=;+=!##&

c5fdsf] cIfo b]jndf k|fKt cIfo dNnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!#$$

gfu dNnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!#&#

b}n]vdf k|fKt clen]v

lj=;+=!#&*

uf]/vfdf k|fKt cflbTo dNnsf] clen]v

242÷g]kfn

kl/ro

lj=;+=!#*%

uf]/vfdf k|fKt k'0o dNnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!#(#

lkpyk'{df k|fKt k'0o dNnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!#($

k'0odNnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!$!#

k[YjL dNnsf] h'Dnfsf] sgskq

lj=;+=!$!$

k[YjL dNnsf] h'7fBf] hf]O;L lnvt tfd|kq

lj=;+=!$!^

lg/okfnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!$##

ceo dNnsf] wd{/fh hf]O;L lnlvt clen]v

lj=;+=!$$*

ceo dNnsf] clen]v

lj=;+=!$&*

aemfª\df k|fKt ;'dlt jdf{sf]tfd|kq

lj=;+=!%#&

8f]6Ldf k|fKt sLlt{ dNnsf] tfd|kq

lj=;+=!&)!

kxf8L zfxLsf] tfd|kq

lj=;+=!&)$

h'Dnfsf /fhfaxfb'/ zfxsf] tfd|kq

lj=;[email protected]&

sf7df8f}Fsf] /fgLkf]v/Ldf k|fKt k|tfk dNnsf]] clen]v

lj=;+=!&^)

Ko'7fgsf /fhf k[YjLkltsf] tfd|kq

g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTosf] cWoogsf] qmddf k|frLg x:tlnlvt u|Gyx¿ klg dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5g\ . !% cf}FztfAbLb]lv  kfOPsf o:tf k|frLg u|Gyx¿ lgs} dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5g\  . h:tf] M ef:jtL, /fhf uugL/fhsf] ofqf, v08sfJo, /fdzfxsf] hLjgL, jfhk/LIff, Hj/f]TklQ lrlsT;f, k|folZrt k|bLk g[kZnf]sL u|Gy / cf}ifwL /;fog u|Gy, cflb  . g]kfnL ;flxTo n]vgsf] k|f/De k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] g]kfn PsLs/0fsf] cleofg;Fu} ePsf] lyof]  . To;}n] ;fx;, k/fqmd, jL/tf / k'?iffy{sf] sljtfTds cleJolQmaf6 g]kfnL ;flxTosf] ;'?jft ePsf] kfOG5  . ;'jfgGb bf; g]kfnsf klxnf slj dflgG5 . -v_ dfWolds sfn M lj=;= !($) b]lv !(&$ ;Dd of] ;do ljnf;L /f0ffx¿sf] rsrsL o'u ePsf]n] tTsfnLg ;flxTodf klg o;sf] k|efj kg{ uO{ z[ª\ufl/s sfJo tyf sljtfx¿sf] ;[hgf ePsf] b]lvG5  . g]kfn kl/ro÷243

jL/ufyfaf6 ;'? ePsf] g]kfnL ;flxToofqf k|fylds sfnd} elQm;fwgfdf k|j]z ul/;s]sf] lyof]  . jf:tjdf g]kfnL ;flxTosf] dfWolds sfnnfO{ df]tL/fd e§sfn eg] klg x'G5  . cNk cfo'df d[To' ePsf df]tL/fd e§n] 5f]6f] ;dodf g} g]kfnL ;flxTodf 7'nf] of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf lyP  . pgn] o; sfndf 5fkfvfgf vf]nL w]/} k':tsx¿ 5kfPsf lyP  . lj=;= !($# df cfˆg} ;DkfbsTjdf uf]/vf ef/t hLjg gfds ;flxlTos klqsf k|sfzg u/]sf lyP  . pgn] >[ª\ufl/s sljtfsf] g]t[Tj u/]sf lyP  . dfWolds sfndf z[ª\ufl/s sljtfx¿dfq /lrP eGg ldNb}g  . /f0ffsfnsf] To; r/df]Tsif{ ;dodf klg pTs[i6 /rgfx¿ /lrPsf lyP . o; sfndf df]lt/fdnufot zDe'k|;fb 9'ª\u]n, uf]kLgfy nf]xgL, rqmkf0fL rfln;], ;f]dgfy l;UBfn, lul/zjNne hf]zL, /fdk|;fb ;Tofn, kxndfg l;+x :jfF/ cflb kb{5g\ . dfWoflds sfnnfO{ k"j{dWo sfn -elQm ;flxTo_ /pQ/dWo sfn -z[ª\uf/ ;flxTo_ u/L b'O{ efudf ljefhg ul/Psf] kfOG5  . elQm wf/fdf klg s[i0f elQm wf/f, /fdelQm wf/f / lgu'{0f elQm wf/f u/L tLg k|sf/sf ;flxTox¿ kfOG5 . -u_ cfw'lgs sfn M lj=;+= !(&% b]lv  xfn;Dd slj lz/f]dl0f n]vgfy kf}8\ofnsf] cfudg;Fu} g]kfnL ;flxTodf cfw'lgs sfnsf] ;'?jft ePsf] dflgG5  . pgsf] …Ct'ljrf/Ú sfJo -lj=;+=!(&#_ df k|sflzt ePkl5 g]kfnL  sljtfdf cfw'lgs sfnsf];'?jft ePsf]dflgG5 . afns[i0f ;dsf] …d'6'sf] JoyfÚ gf6s, ljZj]Zj/k|;fb sf]O/fnfsf] …bf]ifL r:dfÚ syf, k'is/;d;]/sf] …nIoxLgÚ Psfª\sL / afns[i0f ;dsf] …af]S;LÚnfO{ cfw'lgs ;flxTo dflgG5 . g]kfnL ;flxTon]@))& ;fnkl5 tLj| ult tyf prfO lnFb}cfPsf]kfOG5 . g]kfn /fhsLo k|1f k|lti7fgsf] :yfkgf, dbg k'/:sf/sf] :yfkgfnufotsf ultljlwn] klg ;flxTosf] ;d[l4df of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] kfOG5  . g]kfnL sljtfdf yflnPsf] @)!^–@)!& ;fnlt/sf cfofd]nL cfGbf]ngn] g]kfnL ;flxTonfO{ gofF df]8 lbPsf]dflgG5 . tL; bzskl5 g]kfnL  sljtf b'?xtfsf]ef;af6 p7\b};xhtf /snfTdstftkm{ pGd'v ePsf]kfOG5 . o;kl5 sljtf kmfF6df gofFgofF z}nL, k|of]u / wf/fx¿ b]vfkg{ yfn]  . g]kfnL ;flxTo kl5Nnf] bzsdf cfP/ pQ/–cfw'lgs lrGtgaf6 k|efljt eO/x]sf] 5  . k/Dk/fut ;flxlTos ljwfsf :j¿k / z}nLdf lj36g cfPsf] 5  . lrGtg, z}nL / ljifonfO{ cTofw'lgs tl/sfn] ;flxTodf k|of]u ul/Fb} 244÷g]kfn

kl/ro

cfPsf] 5  . o;/L g]kfnL ;flxTo cfw'lgs sfn;Dd cfOk'Ubf w]/} k|sf/sf ;flxlTos s[ltx¿ k|sflzt eO;s]sf]  kfOG5 . tflnsf g+= &=# g]kfnL efiffsf s]xL ;flxTosf/ / ltgsf k|d'v s[ltx¿ gfd÷pkgfd

k|sflzt k':tsx¿

efg'eQm cfrfo{ -cflbslj_ df]tL/fd e§ -o'jf slj, z[ª\ufl/s slj_

aw'lzIff, k|Zgf]Q/, eQmdfnf, k~rs k|k~r, lksb"t, uh]Gb|df]If, u'kmfi6s, sgs ;'Gb/L, lk|oblz{sf

zDe'k|;fb 9'Ë]n -cfz'slj_

zs'Gtnf, jL/l;Ssf

n]vgfy kf}8\ofn -slj lz/f]dl0f_

Ct' ljrf/, a'l4ljgf]b, t?0f tk;L, u+ufuf}/L, nIdLk"hf, uf}/L uf}/j cIf/dfnf, e"uf]n ljBf, kbfy{tŒj, lzIff bk{0f, Jojxf/dfnf, tTj k|z+;f

hok[YjLaxfb'/ l;+x kxndfgl;+x :jfF/ ;"o{ljqmd 1jfnL u'¿k|;fb d}gfnL afns[i0f ;dz]/ /f0ff -afns[i0f ;d, gf6\o ;d|f6_

nIdLk|;fb b]jsf6f -dxfslj_

ledlglw ltjf/L

c6n axfb'/, Psnfv ?lkofFsf] rf]/L b|Jo zfx, /fdzfx, k[YjLgf/fo0f zfx, cd/l;+x yfkf, g]kfnL ;+lIfKt zAbsf]z gf;f] d'6s ' f] Joyf, k|Nxfb, d'sG' b OlGb/f, cGwj]u, eQmefg'eQm, d, k|d] lk08, cd/l;+x, df6f]sf] ddtf, led;]gsf] cGTo, df]lt/fd, pm d/s ] L 5}g, lgoldt cfsl:dstf kxf8L k'sf/, ;'gsf] laxfg, 5x/f, k'tnL, d[To' z}ofaf6, cfsfz af]N5, d}gf, /fj0f h6fo' o'4, zfs'Gtn, ;'nf]rgf, dxf/f0ff k|tfk, k[YjL/fh rf}xfg, d'gfdbg, rDkf, nIdL syf ;ª\u|x, nIdL lgaGw ;ª\u|x ;xgzLnf ;'lznf, k'tnL, rf}tf/f, nIdLgf/fo0f, df6f]sf] dfof, sljtf s'Gh, lj:kmf]6 g]kfn kl/ro÷245

ejfgL bf; u'Ktf -ejfgL leIf'_ rGb|k|;fb k|wfg -x[borGb|l;x k|wfg_ l;l4r/0f >]i7 -o''uslj_ uf]kfnk|;fb l/dfn 8fodg ;d;]/ /f0ff uf]ljGbaxfb'/ dNn -uf]7fn]_

u'gs]z/L, d}of ;fx]j, cfjt{, 5fof, k|sfz, cfut e":ju{, h'Fuf, ckm;f];, u+ufnfnsf] lrtf, :jf:gLdfG5], Pslrxfg sf]lknf, d]/f] k|ltljDa, s'lx/f] / 3fd, pj{;L, cfF;', led;]g yfkf cfdfsf] ;kgf, d;fg, of] k|]d j;GtL, ;]tf]af3, ;Tk|of;, clgtf u[x k|jz ] sy}syf, k|]d / d[To', e';sf] cfuf], RofltPsf] kbf{, ef]sf] 3/

lzjs'df/ /fO{

k|mflG6o/, vx/], 8fFs a+unf, 8fFkm]r/L

uf]ljGbk|;fb k|wfg -s[i0frb|l;+x k|wfg_

eGHofª lg/}, zflns, cfutdf kfOnf 6]s]/ gjd~h/L, 3fdkfgL, lsGg/ lsGg/L, afnf nx/L, uf}/L, /fh]Zj/L, kflkgL cfdf, /fi6« lgdf{tf, zs'Gtnf, dfnltdª\un], cfkm\g} afF;'/L cfkm\g} uLt

dfwjk|;fb l3ld/] -/fi6« slj_

246÷g]kfn

kl/ro

OGb|axfb'/ /fO{ sdndl0f bLlIft

ljkgf sltko, syf:yf, cfh /ldtf 5 o:tf] klg, sfnf] cIf/, sfutLsf] l;/k, a'sL ;'g, ;Unf] cIf/

e"k]Gb|dfg z]/rg -e"lk z]/rg_

3'Dg] d]rdfly cGwf] dfG5], kl/jt{g, d}gaQLsf] lzvf

e}/j cof{n jflg/f lu/L

hoe'F8L, sfps'tL, unaGbL, bz cf}tf/  Pp6f lhpFbf] h+uaxfb'/, sf/ªu\ f/, lgaGw

lji0f's'df/L jfOjf -kfl/hft_

emdss'df/L l3ld/]

s]bf/dfg l;+x -Jolyt_

lz/L;fsf] km"n, d}n] ghGdfPsf] 5f]]/f], kvf{n leq / aflx/, dxQfxLg, a}F;sf] dfG5], cGtd'{vL, cfsf+Iff hLjg sfF8f ls km"n, ;ª\sNk, cfkm\g} lrtf clUglzvflt/, dfG5]leqsf of]4fx¿, cj;fg kl5sf] cfudg, emds l3ld/]sf sljtfx¿ ;ª\ud, k|0fj, cfjfh, lqj]0fL, d]/f] ;kgfdf xfd|f] b]z / xfdL

ljZj]Zj/k|;fb sf]O/fnf

;'lDgdf, bf]ifL r:df, df]bL cfOg, lx6n/ / ox'bL, a'af, cfdf / 5f]/f, cfˆgf] syf

u0f]zaxfb'/ y'n'ª -u0f]z /l;s_

lIflthnfO{ 5'g vf]Hbf, ha l;:g'x¿ 6]Sb} lx8]F,

t'n;Lk|;fb hf]zL -t'n;L lbj;_

g]kfnL nf]ssyf ;ª\u|x, t'n;L lbj;sf] sljtf

dx]Gb|jL/ljqmd zfxb]j -d=jL=lj= zfx_

p;}sf nflu, km]l/ p;}sf nflu

ltnljqmd g]Dafª -j}/fuL sfOFnf_

j}/fuL sfOFnfsf] sljtfx¿

jf;'b]j n'O6]n -e"tsf] legfh'_

j}/ª\uozts, e"t 5}g, sfsfsf s'/f, eLd;]g kftL g]kfn kl/ro÷247

d]3/fh g]kfn -d~h'n_

;Demgfsf kfOnfx¿, ;fFlxnL df]/LnfO{, ufos ofqL

df]bgfy kf}8]n -k|l>t_

emfF;LsL /fgL, s]xL ;f+:s[lts lgaGwx¿, dfgj dxfsfJo, cfdfsf]cf;'F, gf/L aGwg / d'lQm

/fd]Zj/k|;fb zdf{ rfln;] -/d]z ljsn_

l;+uf/L afv|f], nfx'/L e}F;L, gofF ;8ssf] uLt, lj/fgf] b]zdf, pld{nf efph", Pp6f a'9f] EjfOlngM cfzfj/Lsf] w'gdf

r]tdfgl;+x e08f/L -dg' a|fhfsL_ tf/fgfy zdf{ e08f/L -tfgf zdf{_ /df]nfb]jL zfx -l5Ggntf_ cR5f /fO{ -/l;s_ nf]sgfy kGt -u'dfgL kGt_ zDe'k|;fb 9'ª\u]n -cfz'slj_ uf]kfn kf08] -c;Ld_ Uff]kLgfy d}gfnL -klys_ kml0fGb|/fh e§/fO{ -v]tfnf_ lji0f'/fh cfq]o -nf6f];fyL_ df]xg /fO{ -b'v'g_ r'8fdl0f aGw' pkWofo -aGw'_ 248÷g]kfn

kl/ro

e¥ofª, cjd"Nog, cfsfzsf]km"n, ltd|L :jf:gL / d, nf6f, cGgk"0ff{sf] ef]h d]/f] syf, cf]em]n kbf{, ;'nL, ememNsf], g]kfnb]lv cd]l/sf;Dd cGt/efjgf, cGtt{/Ë, cGt:k{Gbg ;Ktsf];L, e"F8L, nug, bf]efg /fdgfd k~rflzsf, u+uf zts, s[i0ffi6sd\ /TgfjnL, z's;fu/, tf]tfd}gfsf] syf /fi6«efiff / ;flxTo -ljj]rgf_ cj;fb clegoL, cfFvfe/L /ldtf dge/L j]bgf, o'uslj l;l4r/0f M s[lt / k|j[lQ ljZn]if0f 5fFuf] / 5fof, gfukmgL / :jf:gLdfG5], d"lt{ af]N5 xfdLleqsf d, 9fqm], slknj:t' hng, k|d ] Pp6f clezfk, dGbflsgL efifflj1fg, cg';Gwfg k|jGwsf] ¿k / z}nL

z+s/ sf]O/fnf g]qdl0f ;'j]bL g]q -P6d_ d~h' ltjf/L -sfFr'nL_

v}/]gL3f6 pkGof; l;4fGt / g]kfnL pkGof; ls/0fsf 5fnx¿, s]xL syf s]xL kl/lw xfd|f] nf]s ;+:s[lt, g]kfnL /fli6«o d'b|f, s0ff{nL ;+:s[lt

;Todf]xg hf]zL -;fF:s[lts slj_

eQmaxfb'/ >]i7 -;?eQm_

slj k|]dL /kfun, o'4 pxL UofF; Rf]Dj/leq, Oltxf;leqsf] Oltxf;, Oy/, t?gL v]tL, kfun a:tL, ;do qf;bL

jf;'b]j >]i7 -kf;f_

lkmlnËf], kms]{/ x]bf{ , ls;fg, kbf{, ;dfh

bof/fd >]i7 ;Dej o'j/fh d}gfnL

;Gbe{ / d"Nofª\sg, ef/tLo g]kfnL syf, jL/sfnLg sljtf d'bf{ af]Nof], s]xL k|ltef s]xL k|j[lQ, e|i6frf/sf] efª

df]xg/fh 9sfn zdf{ -df]/fz_

RofFv] wgf{, /; lrgf/L, sf]/f{, v}j/L

gf/fo0f jfUn]

kNk;f Sofkm], do'/ 6fOD; g]kfn kl/ro÷249

lnnfWjh yfkf zª\s/ nfld5fg] bf}nt ljqmd lji6 cd/ Gof}kfg] hubLz l3ld/] s0f{ zfSo w||'jrGb| uf}td s[i0f wf/faf;L dbgdl0f bLlIft zf/bf zdf{ dx]zljqmd zfx /fhg d'sf?ª tf/fnfn >]i7 gog/fh kf08] wg'ifrGb| uf]tfd] s]zj/fh lkF8fnL /fh]Zj/ b]jsf]6f w':jfF ;fodL jf;' zzL nLnaxfb'/ If]qL ?b|/fh kf08] k/z' k|wfg dg'hafa' ld> O{Zj/ jNne 250÷g]kfn

kl/ro

dg cA:6«ofS6 lrGtg / Kofh rkfOPsf cg'xf/, Hof]lt Hof]lt dxfHof]lt ;]tf] w/tL cGt/dgsf] ofqf, ;s; ;f]r, vf]h, df]h, d ;S5' / 8f]Nkf] clnlvt, tyfslyt, Tof] Pp6f s'/f, cFWof/f] åLkdf emf]nf, u]:6fkf], 6'F8fn, z/0ffyL{ dfwjL, :j]tsfnL tfk 5fkfdf/sf] 5f]/f], l;kfxLsL :jf:gL bldgL le/ ;kgfsf] ;dflw Nf', pnf/, ;NnLlk/, 3fdls/L, of/ 3fdsf kfOnfx¿, oxfFblv ] ToxfF;DDf Psfb]zsL dxf/fgL, afFRg] Pp6f lhGbuL pT;u{ k|]d uª\sL k"mn cf]OnfPkl5 a;fOF, aXdk'qsf] 5]p5fp ¿kdtL ;a} lal;{Psf cg'xf/, k|ltlglw syfx¿ :jKg ;Dd]ng, sfF8fsf k"mnx¿ cfuf]sf k"mnx¿ x'g\ cfufsf k"mnx¿ x}gg\

df]xg sf]O/fnf lbg]z clwsf/L xl/j+z cfrfo{ dbgs[[i0f >]i7 s'Gbg zdf{ s[i0fk|;fb k/fh'nL sfnLk|;fb l/hfn If]qk|tfk clwsf/L >j0f d'sf?ª k|Xnfb kf]v/]n Zofdbf; j}i0fj hubLz ;d;]/ /f0ff jf;'b]j lqkf7L d's'Gbz/0f pkfWofo xl/eQm s6'jfn s0ffb dxlif{ /fh]Gb| yfkf b}j1/fh Gof}kfg] s[i0f k|wfg efp kGyL lszf]/ g]kfn cz]if dNn kf]if0f kf08] uf]kfn k/fh'nL

Ct' lgdGq0f cltl/Qm clen]v, OGb|hfqf lrgf x/fPsf] dfG5], xl/axfb'/ dxsf] d Pp6L 5f]/Lsf] syf, d]/f sljtfx¿, of]dg slnnf] 3fd s] 5/ lhGbuL latfOlbG5', of] k|Zg sf]l;t ;f]wf}F ufda];Lsf uLt, gk"mn]sf k"mnx¿ hLjgsf] nIo hLjGt ofqf, ;f/ly gofF nx/ g/l;+x cjtf/ gjkNnj k|fs[t kf]v/f abgfd d]/f oL cfFvfx¿ et]/ / cfFvfx¿ o;kfnL t dg} kmf6\of] l;h{gfsf] nx/ ;"o{ :gfg cBflk /c¿ syf cs}{ k|:t/ cw{lj/fd cfFvL Ef\mofn, dfg; lbzfxLg cfsf; g]kfn kl/ro÷251

s'df/ 1jfnL nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGb clgtf t'nfw/ ljhos'df/ kf08] a'l4;fu/ ;'/]z k|f~hnL

aGbL hLjg, eTs]sf] u'F8 lj;h{g, lxpFsf] tGgf ;"o{ u|x0f v';L s0ff{nL An'h, lkm/lkm/] t'Og

tflnsf g+= &=$ g]kfnsf cGo s]xL efiffsf n]vs / k':tsx¿



qm= n]vs ;= ! s]bf/dfg Jolyt

k':ts

efiff

5\jf;M

g]jf/L g]jf/L

$ w':jfF ;fodL

;/f;' dfltgfof Do] -k|]d/;sf nf]suLtx¿sf] ;ª\sng_ uDsL -pkGof;_

% /fdz]v/

gf;kmfM

g]jf/L

^ tLy{/fh t'nfwf/

cfv]-cg'lbt syf ;ª\u|x _

g]jf/L

& O{Zj/gGb >]i7frfo{

x\gfos -pkGof;_

g]jf/L

* b'n{enfn sdf{rfo{

yM 5\o]+-syf ;ª\u|x_

g]jf/L

( leIf' ;'bz{g

cDjkfnL -gf6s_

g]jf/L

!) jf;' zzL

tfrfKjfFof

g]jf/L

!! p;dfg

lrqfjnL - sfJos[lt_

cjwL

[email protected] x]dnfn hf]zL

v8\ul;l4 -Psf+sL ;ª\u|x_

g]jf/L

!# k|]daxfb'/ s+;fsf/

Gx'u" k'v" -lgaGw_

g]jf/L

!$ dl0fsnfn >]i7

;dfnf]rgfof l;4fGt

g]jf/L

@ k"0f{axfb'/ j}B #

k]|daxfb'/ s+;fsf/

252÷g]kfn

kl/ro

g]jf/L g]jf/L

!% sdnk|;fb dNn

d';M lgaGw gM ln;jgf -lgaGw ;ª\sng_

g]jf/L

!^ lgi7fgGb ah|frfo{

nlntlj:tf/f -wfld{su|Gy_

g]jf/L

!& k|1fGb leIf'

wft'e]bg'k:;gf -bz{gu|Gy_

g]jf/L

!* l;l4g/l;+x

sflQs gfr

g]jf/L

!( sljs]z/L lrQw/ x[bo nlntlj:t/ cu:6; sfg/]8f] @) xl/ZrGb|gT[ od\ -gf6s_ -ljb]zL_ @! /fhf huHHof]ltd{Nn x/uf}/L ljjfx -gf6s

g]jf/L

@@ ;/; /fd

cfgGb – ljhogfl6sf

d}lynL

@# glGbklt

s[i0f s]lndfnf]s

d}lynL

@$ ljnfn

uf}/L–:jo+j/gfl6sf, ?Ssd0fLx/0f

d}lynL

@% slj dfy'/

sfgg sGog, s[ifs

d}lynL

@^ /dfsfGt sfk8L

Joyf -v08sfJo_

d}lynL

@& a|hlszf]/ 7fs'/

cWoog cf}+ ljj]rgf

d}lynL

@* Hoflt/LZj/

j0f{–/Tgfsf/ -uBu|Gy_

d}lynL

@( dxfslj ljBfklt

b]lzn aofg

d}lynL

#) zflGt rf}w/L æyf¿Æ

lau8n tf]x/ yf¿ ;dfh x], yf¿ sGof}lt, a]6L, xd/ b'w' -d]/L cfdf_

#! Odfgl;+x r]Dhf]ª

ls/ftd'Gw'dvfx'g -lzIff_

lnDa"

#@ /fdk|;fb /fo

ax'cf cf}/ ax'l/of -pkGof;¿kL gf6s_

yf¿

## /ljGb| tfdfª

d'Unfg/L PsfËL -gf6s_,@)^& tfdfª

#$ s];fË df]Qmfg tfdfª

/]lGhg bf]h]{ -pkGof;_

tfdfª

#% hfo;L

kbdfjt -sfJos[lt_

cjwL

d}lynL d}lynL

g]kfn kl/ro÷253

[email protected]=! g]kfnsf k|d'v ;flxTos k'/:sf/x¿ dbg k'/:sf/ :j= h= dbg;d;]/ /f0ffsf] :dl[ tdf /fgL hubDafaf6 :yflkt dbg k'/:sf/sf] 3f]if0ff @)[email protected] ;fn c;f]h !) ut] ePsf] lyof]  . k'/:sf/ k|bfg ug]{ klxnf] 3f]if0ff @)!# ;fndf ePsf] xf] eg] o;sf] ljt/0f @)!$ ;fnb]lv ;'¿ ePsf] xf]  . u'7Lsf] lg0f{ocg';f/ k|f/Dedf k'/:sf/sf] /sd $ xhf/ /xs ] f]df :j0f{ jif{sf] cj;/df @)^! ;fnb]lv o;sf] /sd @ nfv ePsf]df @)&% ;fnb]lv k'/:sf/ /fzL $ nfv ?lkofF agfOPsf] 5  . lj=;+= @)#! / @)## ;fndf of] k'/:sf/ s;}nfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] lyPg  . dbg k'/:sf/ Ps jif{leq g]kfnL efiffdf k|sflzt ePsf pTs[i6 s[ltx¿ dWo] PsnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] k'/:sf/ xf]  . tflnsf g+= &=% dbg k'/:sf/ kfpg] s]xL s[lt / >i6fx¿ qm=; >i6fsf] gfd s[lt ;fn …xfd|f] nf]s;+:s[ltÚ ;Todf]xghf]zL, lrQ/~hg …hg/n eLd;]g yfkfÚ / @)!# klxnf] ! g]kfnL / an/fd hf]zL …clwsljej l:y/ljB't\ k6s pTkfbsÚ @ /fhg d'sf?ª …bldgL le/Ú @)^( # /fwf kf}8]n vnËfdf xdnf @)&) $ ljho s'df/ v';L @)&! % /fdnfn hf]zL P]gf @)[email protected] ^ 3gZofd sF8]n w[t/fi6« @)&# & lgnd sfsL{ …lgxfl/sfÚ of]udfof @)&$ * of]u]z /fh /0fxf/ @)&% ( rGb|k|sfz afFlgof dxf/fgL @)&^ hubDaf>L k'/:sf/ /fgL hubDafsf] :juf{/fx] 0fkl5 lghsf] k'0o :dl[ tdf u'7Ln] @)$% ;fndf :yfkgf u/s ] f] ! nfv /fzLsf] k'/:sf/ hubDaf>L ;f]xL ;fnaf6 g} ljt/0f ePsf] xf] / xfn o; k'/:sf/sf] /sd ¿= $ nfv k|bfg ug]{ ul/Psf] 5  . @)$% ;fndf gf/fo0fuf]kfn u'¿jfrfo{n] ;j{ky| d of] k'/:sf/ k|fKt ug{e ' Psf] lyof]  . hubDaf>L g]kfnL efiff, ;+:s[lt, ;flxTonufotsf ljljw If]qdf pNn]vgLo 254÷g]kfn

kl/ro

of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] JolQm jf ;+:yfnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] k'/:sf/ xf]  . tflnsf g+= &=^ hubDjf>L k'/:sf/ kfpg] s]xL s[lt / >i6fx¿ qm=; >i6fsf] gfd ;fn ! gf/fo0fuf]kfn u'¿jfrfo{ @)$% klxnf] k6s @ >L nLnfaxfb'/ IfqL @)[email protected] # >L b'uf{ a/fn -jfT:ofog_ @)&# $ >L zfGtbf; dfgGw/ @)&$ % j}/fuL sfOFnf -tLn ljqmd g]Dafª_ @)&% ^ zflGt 76fn @)&^ ;femf k'/:sf/ ;femf k'/:sf/ ;femf k|sfzgåf/f :yflkt k'/:sf/ xf]  . ;femf k|sfzgåf/f jif{le/ k|sflzt ljleGg ljwfsf k':tsx¿dWo] ;jf]{Ts[i6 s[ltnfO{ k|bfg ul/G5  . o; k'/:sf/sf] :yfkgf lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf ePsf] xf]  . 3'Dg] d]rdfly cGwf] dfG5], e"kL z]/rgåf/f lnlvt / ;femf k|sfzgn] ahf/df NofPsf] g]kfnL efiffsf] sljtf ;ª\‌u|x xf]  . of] sljtf ;ª\‌u|x ;femf k'/:sf/ [email protected])@^_ k|fKt ug]{ klxnf] s[lt xf]  . o; k'/:sf/sf] /flz %! xhf/ /x]sf] 5  . tflnsf g+= &=& k|1f k'/:sf/ k|fKt ug]{ >i6fx¿ k[YjL k|1f k'/:sf/ jfª\do ztfAbL k'?if ;Todf]xg hf]zL [email protected])&%–@)&*_ g]kfn k|1f ;fdflhs @ zf:q÷;+:s[lt÷bz{g k'/:sf/ k|f= 8f=lq/Tggf/fo0f dfgGw/ [email protected])&^–@)&&_ !

#

g]kfn k|1f efiff k'/:sf/ [email protected])&^–@)&&_

k|f=8f= 6Ík|;fb Gof}kfg]

$

g]kfn k|1f g]kfnL ;flxTo k'/:sf/ [email protected])&%_

dbg /]UdL

%

g]kfn k|1f g]kfnL ;flxTo k'/:sf/ [email protected])&^_

efuL/yL >]i7 g]kfn kl/ro÷255

g]kfn k|1f dft[efiff ;flxTo cd/ t'Dofxfª -kxf8L / lxdfnL If]qdf k'/:sf/ [email protected])&%_ af]lng] dft[efiff ;flxTosf nflu_ g]kfn k|1f dft[efiff ;flxTo cof]W ofgfy rf}w/L -t/fO{–dw];df & k'/:sf/ [email protected])&%_ af]lng] dft[efiff ;flxTosf nflu_ cd[t of]~hg tfdfª -kxf8L /lxdfnL g]kfn k|1f dft[efiff ;flxTo * If]qdf af]lng] dft[efiff ;flxTosf k'/:sf/ [email protected])&^_ nflu_ g]kfn k|1f dft[efiff ;flxTo czf]s yf? -t/fO{–dw];df af]lng] ( k'/:sf/ [email protected])&^_ dft[efiff ;flxTosf nflu_ ^

tflnsf g+= &=( g]kfnsf s]xL k|d'v k'/:sf/x¿ qm=; ! @ # $ % ^ &

k'/:sf/ k[YjLk|1f k'/:sf/ dbg k'/:sf/ hubDaf >L k'/:sf/ g]kfn lawfklt efiff ;flxTo k'/:sf/ g]kfn lawfklt cg'afb k'/:sf/ cflbslj efg'eQm k'/:sf/ ;femf k'/:sf/

/flz $ nfv $ nfv $ nfv @ nfv @ nfv !,)!,!)! %! xhf/

&=# rnlrq g]kfndf ;j{k|yd @))^ ;fndf gofF ;8sl:yt hg;]jf  xndf hgtfsf lglDt l6s6 nufO{ rnlrq b]vfpg] sfo{ eof]  . t/ o;df b]vfpg] rnlrq lxGbL l;g]df hut\af6 NofOGYof]  . g]kfnL efiffsf] klxnf] syfgs rnlrq …;To xl/zrGb|Ú xf] h'g @))* ;fndf bflh{lnªdf a:g] s]xL g]kfnLx¿n]] lgdf{0f u/]sf lyP  . ljutdf k|rf/ ljefun] -xfnsf] ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu_ cfˆg} ;fwg / k'FhLdf j[Qlrq / ;dfrf/ lrqx¿sf] lgdf{0f ug]{ qmdd} lj=;+= @)@! ;fndf syfgs rnlrq …cfdfÚ lgdf{0f u¥of]  . h'g ;/sf/af6 tof/ ePsf] klxnf] g]kfnL rnlrq lyof]  . ;f]xL ljefun] …lxhf] cfh ef]nLÚ / …kl/jt{gÚ gfdsf tLgcf]6f rnlrqsf] lgdf{0f u¥of]  . o;/L xfd|f] rnlrqsf] Oltxf;df 256÷g]kfn

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klxnf] c?0ff]bo Nofpg] sfd lgZro g} o;} ljefuaf6 ePsf] xf]  . g]kfnL rnlrq If]qsf] a[xQ/ ljsf; / k|j4{g ub{} g]kfnL rnlrq If]qsf] ljsf; ug]]{ p2]Zon] ;/sf/n] rnlrqsdL{x¿s} dfu / ;'emfjcg';f/ @)%& ;fn c;f/ !^ ut] rnlrq ljsf; af]8s { f] u7g u/s ] f] xf]  . rnlrq tyf >Jo b[Zo lj1fkgsf] lgdf{0f, ljt/0f, k|bz{gsf] Ohfht k|bfg ug',{ Ohfht kqsf] gjLs/0f ug',{ Rofl/6L k|bz{gsf] cg'dlt lbg', ljb]zdf g]kfnL rnlrqsf] 5fofsg, k|bz{g, ldlS;ª ug]{cg'dlt /l;kmfl/; k|bfg ug'{ rnlrq ljsf; af]8{sf]lgoldt sfo{ xf]  . rnlrqsf] hfFr ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfnon] ub{5  . lghL If]qsf] ;+nUgtfdf rnlrq lgdf{0fn] b|t' ult lnO/xs ] f] 5  . g]kfndf rnlrq ljsf;nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ;'ljwf;DkGg rnlrq gu/ agfpg] ;f]r /xs ] f] 5 eg] rnlrqsf] ax'cfoflds ljsf; ug{ ;/sf/n]rnlrq gLlt @)&! sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf]5  . &=$ snf g]kfnL snfnfO{ ljz]iftM rf/ efudf juL{s/0f ul/Psf] kfOG5 M jf:ts ' nf, lrqsnf, d"lt{snf /sfi7snf . &=$=! g]kfnL jf:t'snf / ltgsf ljz]iftf jf:t'z}nL Pjd\ snfsf] b[li6af6 g]kfndf kfOg] dlGb/x¿nfO{ lgDg lnlvt tLg k|sf/df ljeQm ug{ ;lsG5 M Kofuf]8f z}nL -tn]] z}nL_ lxGb"x¿n] cf:yfsf ;fy k"hf ug]{ b]jtf /xg] o:tf dlGb/x¿df elQm, k"hf / k|blIf0ff kysf] k|of]hgnfO{ k"/f ug]{ p2]Zoaf6 dlGb/ jf:t'snfsf gd'gfsf ¿kdf lgdf{0f ul/ Psf x'G5g\ . Kofuf]8f z}nLsf] Goftkf]n dlGb/, eQmk'/ o:tf] k|of]hgsf nfuL ljleGg :j¿ksf dlGb/x¿ lgdf{0f ug]{ rng 5 h;dWo] k|d'v g]kfnL Kofuf]8f z}nL Ps xf]  . Kofuf]8f z}nLsf dlGb/x¿ To:tf dlGb/ x'g\ h;df cg]sg tNnf x'g] ub{5g\ eg] logdf Pskl5 csf]{ u/L tx–tx k/]sf cg]sg ;ª\Vofdf 5fgfx¿ klg x'g] ub{5g\  . t;y{ o:tf dlGb/x¿nfO{ Multiple roofed temple or Tiered g]kfn kl/ro÷257

klg elgPsf]kfOG5 . o; z}nLsf ljz]iftfx¿ M • dlGb/ k|fª\u0fdf snfTds j:t'x¿ • ljz]if k|sf/sf] ue{u[x • txtx k/]sf] 5fgf] • 6'F8fn / tf]/0fsf] k|of]u • OF6f / sf7sf] ?lrk"0f{ ;+of]hg • dlGb/larsf] efu vf]qmf] 5f8\g' • tn] z}nLsf dlGb/x¿ Hofb} cnª\s[t x'g]  Kofuf]8f z}nLsf s]xL dlGb/x¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M • kz'kltgfy dlGb/ • rfFu'gf/fo0f • Goftkf]n lzv/ z}nL lzv/ z}nLsf dlGb/x¿ ljleGg :j¿k / k|sf/sf x'g ;Sb5g\  . ;'nQ ' k//]  dfly r'ln+bF } uPsf emnSs x]bf{ lzv/h:tf] b]lvg] 5fgf gePsf dlGb/sf] ;Dk"0f{ /rgf g} r'lngfn] u'Djh h:tf] ag]sf] 3fdkfgLaf6 leq ;'/lIft x'g] lsl;dsf] lgdf{0fnfO{ jf:ts ' nfdf lzv/ z}nL eGg] ul/G5  . aflx/ jl/kl/ k|blIf0ffky agfOPsf] x'G5 eg] leqkl§ d"lt{ /flvG5  . ef/tdf u'Kt /fhj+zLx¿sf] kfnfdf o; lsl;dsf dlGb/ agfOGy]  . u'Ktx¿sf ;dsfnLg lnR5lj /fhfx¿sf] kfnfdf o; lsl;dsf dlGb/ ag]sf] kfOFbg}   . t/ dNnsfndf ;qf},F c7f/fF} ztfAbLdf lzv/ z}nLsf] dlR5Gb|gfy dlGb/, a'ªu\ dtL o:tf dlGb/x¿ lgSs} ag]  . o; lsl;dsf dlGb/x¿ k|:t/sf 6'qmfx¿nfO{ n]kn] hf]8/]  agfOG5 eg] OF6 lgld{t dlGb/x¿df aflx/af6 ah|nk] u/L em/Latf; cflbaf6 ;'/lIft ug]{ u/s ] f] b]lvG5  . Temple

258÷g]kfn

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o; z}nLsf dlGb/x¿ a|xd\ f dlGb/, kf6gsf] >Ls[i0f dlGb/, kf6gsf] dxfaf}4 dlGb/ x'g \ . of] z}nLsf] dlGb/x¿ d'Vo u/L gfu/, b|lj8 / j]z/ k|sf/sf x'G5g\  . o; z}nLsf ljz]iftfx¿ • ;fdfGotof ljleGg txsf k]6Ldfly lzv/ dlGb/ :yfkgf ug'{  • dlGb/cufl8 Pp6fdfq d08k lgdf{0f ug'{  • k|blIf0ffkysf] Joj:yf ug'{  • aQL afNg] lbofx¿ /fVg'  • ue{u[xdf dlGb/sf d"n b]jtfsf] k|ltdf :yfkgf ug'{  • w]/} tnfx¿ lgdf{0f gug'{  • dlGb/df 5fgfsf] cfjZostf dx;'; gu/L lzv/nfO{ g} 5fgfsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ug'{  • lzv/ pFef]lt/ ;fgf] x'Fb} uPsf] agfpg'  • ljleGg /yx¿sf] k|of]u ug'{  • p?>[Ësf] k|of]u ug'{  • lq/y, k~r /y / ;Kt /ysf] sNkgf ug'{  • cfdns, 5q / uh'/sf] k|of]u ug'{   o; z}nLaf6 ag]sf s]xL dlGb/x¿ M • kz'kltsf] k|fª\u0fsf] a|Xdf dlGb/ • kf6gsf] dxfaf}4 dlGb/ • kf6gsf] s[i0fdlGb/ • eQmk'/sf] jT;nfb]jL dlGb/ • :jo+e"sf] k|tfkk'/ / cgGtk'/ • kf6gsf] Rofl;Fb]u • kf6g zª\vd"nsf] hut\ gf/fo0f dlGb/ • nlntk'/ a'ËdtLsf] dlR5Gb|gfy dlGb/ ldl>t z}nL ef/tsf] l6sdu9sf /fhf k|tfkl;+x / /fgL j[ifefg's'df/Ln] lj=;= !*(% df lgdf0f{ sfo{ ;'? u/]/ [email protected] jif{ nufP/ agfPsf] hgsk'/sf] hfgsL dlGb/ ldl>t jf:t' z}nLsf] pbfx/0f xf]  . /fhk't z}nL / d'un z}nL cyf{t lzv/ / u'Dah z}nLsf] ljlzi6 ldl>t :j¿k xf]  . [email protected] g]kfnL lrqsnf / ltgsf ljz]iftf dfgjn] efiff / lnlksf] cfljisf/ ug'{eGbf cufl8b]lv g} lrqsnfsf] g]kfn kl/ro÷259

;'?jft u/]sf] b]lvG5  . h'g ;dodf dfgjn] efiffsf] ljsf; u/]sf] lyPg, Tof] ;dodf g} p;n] lrqsf] dfWodaf6 cfˆgf cg'ejx¿ k|:t't u/]sf] kfOG5  . kfiff0f sfndf o'/f]ksf ljleGg u'kmfx¿df lgdf{0f ul/Psf lrqx¿n] o;} k|;ª\unfO{ ;ª\s]t u/]sf] kfOG5  . ;+:s[t ;flxTosf] o'u / P]ltxfl;s sfndf ;d]t lrqsnf dfgjsf] ljrf/ cleJolQmsf] dfWod ePsf] k|df0f kfOPsf] 5  . g]kfndf lrqsnfsf] ;'?jft slxn] eof] eGg] s'/fsf] :ki6 hfgsf/L kfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g  . oxfFsf] k|fu\Oltxf;sf] ;xL 9ª\un] vf]h x'g cem;Dd afFsL g} ePsf] s'/f ljleGg k':tsx¿df pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG5  . g]kfnsf lrqx¿sf] ljj/0f k|:t't ug]{ k|yd clen]Vo k|df0f wgah| ah|frfo{åf/f g]kfnsf] klxnf] clen]v dflgPsf], /fhfsf] gfd / k|;f/0f ul/Psf] ltlyldlt cª\lst gul/Psf] rfjlxnsf] clen]v xf] -jh|frfo{, @)#)M!_  . pQm clen]vdf ælsGg/L hftssf s'/f s'FlbPsf], cg]s y/L lrqn] ;'xfPsf] of] r}To w]/} sfn;Dd si6 u/L agfOPsf] xf]Æ eGg] s'/f :ki6;Fu n]lvPsf] 5  . ljZjsf] lrqsnfsf] Oltxf; k|frLg u'kmfo'uh:t} k'/fgf] 5  . o'/fk] -/fd] , Py]G;_ tyf clk|msf -ld>_ cflbsf u'kmfx¿df lrqsnfsf k|df0fx¿ k|fKt 5g\ . lxGb" k/Dk/fdf /fdfo0f / dxfef/tsfndf klg lrqsnf ljsl;t lyof] eGg] s'/f /fd jgjf;kl5 zf]sfs'n bz/ynfO{ /fgL sf}zNofn] /fdsf] lrq b]vfPsf] k|;Ën] k'li6 ub{5  . kf}/fl0fs u|Gyx¿df klg lrqsnfsf] rrf{ ul/Psf] 5  . g]kfndf lrqsnfsf] ;'?jft ef/tsf] lrqsnfsf] k|efjaf6 ePsf] eGg] ljåfgx¿sf] /fo /xs ] f] 5 / lnR5ljsfnLg b/af/x¿ lrqsnfn] ;';lHht x'Gy] eGg] s'/f lrlgof ofq'x¿n]j0f{g u/sf ] 5g\ . lrqx¿ sf7, sk8f, tf8kq, sfuh cflbdf clÍt x'g] /o:tf ;fdu|Lx¿ l56}gfz x'g] x'bF f k|frLg lrqsnfsf gd'gfx¿ b'ne { 5g\ . tyflk k|frLg tyf dWosfnLg lrqsnfnfO{ lgDg # k|sf/n]cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 M u|Gy lrq gf};o jif{;Dd k'/fgf k|frLg af}4 u|Gyx¿df lrlqt af}4 lrqx¿ g} g]kfnsf lrqsnfsf k|frLg gd'gf x'g \ . af}4 u|Gylrqx¿sf]t'ngfdf lxGb" b]jL b]jtfsf lrqx¿ Go"g dfqfdf kfOPsf 5g\ . o:tf u|Gy lrqx¿ ef/tsf]u'KtsfnLg chGtf / Pnf]/f z}nL;Fu ldNbfh'Nbf 5g\  . u|Gy lrqnfO{ b'O{ ju{df juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5  . s_ uftf lrq v_ kfq lrq u|GynfO{ ;'/lIft ¿kdf 9fSgsf nflu tn /dfly /flvPsf sf7sf lrNnf kmNofsx¿df lelq, aflx/L efudf jf b'j}tkm{ sf]l/Psf] lrq uftflrq x'g\ eg] 260÷g]kfn

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d"nkf7sf] bfofF afFof ag]sf jf d"n kf7nfO{ bfofFafofF kf/L syfj:t';Fu ldNg] u/L agfOPsf lrqx¿ kfqlrq x'g\ . u|Gylrqx¿df k~r/Iff, k|1fkf/ldtf, xl/j+z k'/f0f cflb af}4 / z}j u|Gyx¿df ljljw /ª\u / cfsf/ k|sf/sf lrqx¿ clÍt 5g\ . 5fkfvfgfsf] cfljisf/ x'g'eGbf klxn] cfkm"nfO{ cfjZos kg]{ k':tsx¿ xft}n] n]v]/ tof/ kfg]{ ul/GYof]  . o:t} u|GynfO{ x:tlnlvt u|Gy elgG5  . oL u|Gyx¿df n]lvPsf ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt lrqx¿ klg tL u|Gyx¿df agfpg] rng To; a]nf lyof] . log}lrqx¿nfO{ u|Gylrq elgG5 /oL lrqx¿ Hofb} ;"Id ¿kdf aGg]x'Fbf Miniature Painting eg]/ klg pNn]v ug]{ ul/Psf] 5  . xfn;Dd k|fKt g]kfnL lrqsnfsf k|frLg gd'gfx¿df u|Gylrq g}kb{5g\ . dWosfneGbf klxn]sf u|Gylrq eg] kfOPsf 5}gg\  . dWosfndf ag]sf s]xL pTs[i6 u|Gylrqx¿df k~r/Iff, lji0f'wd{zf:q, xl/j+z, lxtf]kb]z cflb pNn]vgLo 5g\  . k"j{dWosfnlt/sf] k~r/Iff gfds u|Gysf] uftfdf b]jLx¿sf] eJo lrq agfPsf] 5 h;df b]jLx¿ dlxiff;'/ /fIf;nfO{ dfg{ tNnLg ePsf] b]vfOPsf] 5  . To:t}, xl/j+z gfds u|Gysf] uftfdf s[i0fsf] hGdb]lv pgsf] s+zn] jw u/];Ddsf] syfnfO{ lrq0f ul/Psf] 5  . lrq syfnfO{ a'emfpg kfgfx¿df cg]s k|sf/sf lrqx¿ agfOPsf 5g\ . u|Gylrqdf k|of]u ePsf] ljifoj:t,' /Ë tyf klx/gsf ;DaGwdf snfsf/x¿ ljz]if ;+jb] gzLn b]lvG5g\  . snfsf cGo ljwfdf h:tf] lrqsnfdf :ki6 ¿kdf JolQmsf] klxrfg ug{ sl7gfO x'g ;S5 To;}n] tTsfnLg snfsf/x¿n] /Ës} dfWodaf6 b]j / /fIf; :j¿kdf e]b ug'k{ g]{ x'G5  . oxL l:ylt:j¿k dWosfnLg snfsf/x¿åf/f s[i0fnfO{ :jfefljs gLnf] xl/of] /ªu\ df / s+; tyf pgsf cg'r/x¿nfO{ kx]n F f] /ªdf b]vfOPsf] 5  . klx/gdf klg tTsfnLg e]ife"iff emNsfpg] r]i6f ul/Psf] kfOG5  . h:tf] ls k'?ifx¿n] 5f]6f] wf]tL / :qLx¿n] 3fF3/ rf]nf] nufpg] tyf k'?ifx¿n] d';ndfgL 9Ën] bfx|L kfNg] cflb  . leQ] lrq g]kfnL lrqsnfsf ljljw kIfdWo] Ps k|d'v kIfsf] ¿kdf leQ]lrqsf] ;'?jftsf]lglZrt ltly ldlt geP klg o;sf]P]ltxfl;stf lnR5ljsfn;Dd k'Ub5 . g]kfndf k|fKt dWosfnLg lrqsnfsf gd'gfx¿df leQ]lrqsnf klg Ps xf] . g]kfndf klg k|frLg sfndf of]snf ljsl;t ePsf]x'g;S5 t/ xfn xfdL;Fu dNnsfnk"j{sf leQ]lrqsnfsf gd'gf k|fKt ePsf 5}gg\   . dWosfndf b/af/, dlGb/ / ljxf/x¿sf leQ]lrq pTs[i6 sf]6Lsf 5g\  . eQmk'/sf] %% ‰ofn] b/af/df /fdfo0f, dxfef/tsf syfx¿, gnbdoGtL g]kfn kl/ro÷261

r08]Zj/L dlGb/df /x]sf] e}/jsf] lrq, ag]kf syf, s[i0f hGd //fznLnfsf cfs{ifs lrqx¿sf ;fy}o'4sf nflu tTk/ z:qf:qn] ;';lHht ;}lgsx¿sf] lrq clÍt 5  . hok|sfz dNnåf/f lgld{t hLljt b]jL -s'df/L_ sf] 3/ dflgg] s'df/L 3/df /ftf] / ;]tf] dT;]Gb|gfysf] lrq, krnL e}/j, eLd;]g, lx/0osZok' jw, dxfª\sfn, jh|of]lugL, u0f]z cflb b]jL b]jtfsf] / d'un e]ifdf hok|sfz dNnsf] ^ lkm6 cUnf] lrq clÍt 5  . sLlt{k'/sf] af3e}/jdf / xg'dfg9f]sfdf ;d]t dNnsfnLg lrqsnfsf gd'gf b]Vg ;lsG5  . eQmk'/sf] tn]h' dlGb/df kGw|f}F ztfAbLdf lgld{t s[i0fn] d'/nL ahfpb}F u/]sf] / /fwfn] ‰ofnL ahfpFb} u/]sf] lrq clt /d0fLo b]lvG5  . ;dli6 ¿kdf k|frLg tyf dWosfnLg lrqsnfdf wfld{s ;lxi0f'tf, tflGqs z}nLsf] a9\bf] k|efj, d'un z}nLsf] k|of]u tyf cg'z/0f, ljljw /Ë tyf /f]ugsf] k|of]u cflb k|d'v ljz]iftfx¿ kfOG5  . kf}ef lrq ljz]if k|ljlwsf ;fy sk8fdf agfOPsf]kf}ef lrq k6 /d08n u/L b'O{ 5g\ . …k6Ú ljlwdf b]jL b]jtfsf lrqnfO{ lardf /fvL cGo ;xfos b]jLb]jtfx¿nfO{ jl/kl/ /flvG5 eg] …d08nÚ ljlwdf Sofgef;sf] lar v08df tflGqs jf ;fÍ]lts lrGxx¿ /flvG5g\  . kf}ef lrqx¿ g]kfnL lrqsnfsf] ljlzi6 z}nLsf] ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\  . of] lrqsnfnfO{ s]xL ljåfgx¿n] g]kfndf g} pTklQ ePsf] xf] eg]sf 5g\ eg] n}gl;+x jfª\b]nsf cg';f/ æsk8fdf wfld{s s'/fx¿ n]Vg] ltAatL k/Dk/f g} g]kfndf cfot ul/Psf] xf]  .Æ kl5 g]kfndf lgld{t af}4 k/Dk/fsf kf}eflrqx¿sf] rLgdf cTolws dfu ePsf]n] tt\kZrft\ kf}ef 262÷g]kfn

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g]kfndf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; *=! lzIff g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] k|To]s gful/snfO{ cfwf/et" lzIffdf kx'r F sf] xs, k|To]s gful/snfO{ /fHoaf6 cfwf/et" tx;Ddsf] lzIff clgjfo{ / lgMz'Ns tyf dfWolds tx;Ddsf]lzIff lgMz'Ns kfpg]xs, ckfª\utf ePsf /cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg gful/snfO{ sfg'gadf]lhd lgMz'Ns pRr lzIff kfpg] xssf ;fy} g]kfndf a;f]af; ug{] k|To]s g]kfnL ;d'bfonfO{ sfg'gadf]lhd cfˆgf] dft[efiffdf lzIff kfpg] / To;sf nflu ljBfno tyf z}lIfs ;+:yf vf]Ng] / ;~rfng ug{] df}lns xssf] Joj:yf u/s ] f] 5  . lzIff If]qdf ljutdf ePsf gLltut, sfg'gL, ;+:yfut,

k'glg{df{0fkl5sf] b/af/ xfO:s'n, sf7df8f}F g]kfn kl/ro÷273

sfo{qmdut /dfgjLo ljsf;sf k|of;x¿n]o; If]qdf dxŒjk"0f{ pknlAw ePsf] 5 . ;g\ !(%# df g]kfn  UNESCO sf] ;b:o /fi6«;d]t ePsf] 5  . /fli6«o hgu0fgf @)^* cg';f/ g]kfnsf] s'n ;fIf/tf ^%=($ k|ltzt k'us ] f] 5, h'g @)%* sf]/fli6«o hgu0fgfdf %$=! k|ltzt lyof] . lj=;= @)&$ ;Dd g]kfndf b]xfoadf]lhdsf] z}lIfs ;+:yf, ljBfno, ljBfyL{ tyf lzIfsx¿sf] ;ª\Vof /x]sf] 5  . tflnsf g+= *=! lj=;+= @)&$ ;fnsf] z}lIfs ;+:yfx¿sf] ljj/0f ljj/0f hDdf ;ª\Vof ECD / PPCs General School Units CLCs Technical & Vocational stream school -9-12

36,568 35,601 2151 283

Total Number of Technical school/Institution for 724 TSLC Level Programs Technical School / Institutions in Diploma Level 496 Programs University 10 Campus 1407 Medical Institutions -Deemed University

4

Open University

1

Source:Flash Report I -2017-018_ DOE, UGC, CTEVT, NFE 2074 BS

tflnsf g+= *[email protected] @)&$ ;fnsf] ljBfno, ljBfyL{ tyf lzIfsx¿sf] ljj/0f lzIfsx¿sf] ljBfnosf] ;ª\Vof !–[email protected] ljBfyL{sf] ;ª\Vof ;ª\Vof -dWolds–pRr df=lj=;Dd Community Institutional Total 29035

6566

Girls

Boys

Total

Approved Rahat

35601 3769124 3622400 7391524 109118

Total

38420 147538

Source:Flash Report I -2017-018_, DOE 274÷g]kfn

kl/ro

*[email protected] :jf:Yo g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] k|To]s gful/snfO{ /fHoaf6 cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo ;]jf lgMz'Ns k|fKt ug{] xs, k|To]s JolQmnfO{ cfˆgf] :jf:Yo pkrf/sf] ;DaGwdf hfgsf/L kfpg] xs, k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jf:Yo ;]jfdf ;dfg kx'Frsf] xssf ;fy} k|To]s gful/snfO{ :jR5 vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOdf kx'Frsf] xs k|bfg u/]sf] 5  . oxL ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf Pjd\ If]qLo tyf cGt/f{li6«o d~rdf hgfOPsf] k|ltj4tfcg'¿k u'0f:t/Lo :jf:Yo ;]jfdf ;a} gful/ssf] kx'Fr ;'lglZrt ug]{ sfo{df ;/sf/ lqmofzLn /xFb} cfPsf] 5  . o;} qmddf ;g\ !(%# df g]kfn  WHO sf] ;b:o /fi6«;d]t ePsf] 5  . of]hgfa4 ljsf; k|lqmofsf] qmddf :jf:Yo If]qdf ePsf gLltut, sfo{qmdut, hgzlQm ljsf;, cf}ifwL pks/0f cfk"lt{ / ;+:yfut k|of;af6 :jf:Yo ;]jf k|jfxdf ;dfj]zL ¿kdf eO/x]sf] ;ª\VofTds / u'0ffTds ljsf;n] hg;fwf/0fsf] u'0f:t/Lo :jf:Yo ;]jfdf kx'Fr a9]sf] 5  . o;sf cltl/Qm lghL, ;fd'bflos / u}/;/sf/L If]q tyf :yfgLo txaf6 klg :jf:Yo ;]jfdf yk of]ubfg k'u]sf] 5  . g]kfndf ;~rflnt /fli6«o vf]k sfo{qmdnufot ljljw vf]k sfo{qmd / ;ª\qmfds tyf c;ª\qmfds /f]u;DaGwL ;]jfdf u'0ffTds / ;ª\VofTds ;'wf/ePaf6 xfn cf};t  cfo' ^(=& jif{ k'usf] ] 5 . o;}u/L dft[ d[To'b/-k|lt ! nfv hLljt hGddf_ @#(, lzz' d[To'b/-k|lt xhf/hLljt hGddf_ #@ /kfFr jif{d'lgsf afn d[To'b/-k|lt xhf/hLljt hGddf_ #( /x]sf] 5  . ;|f]t M kGw|f}F of]hgfsf] cfwf/kq / g]kfnsf] hg;f+lVos :jf:Yo ;j]{If0f  . oBlk b'u{d lhNnfx¿÷a:tLx¿ / ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf / lk5l8Psf ju{sf] :jf:Yo ;]jfdf kx'Fr ;/n, ;'ne / Jofks x'g ;s]sf] 5}g / :jf:Yo l:yltdf ck]Iffs[t ¿kdf ;'wf/ cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g  . ;f+:s[lts, n}ª\lus, cfly{s / ;fdflhs Jojwfgx¿n] ubf{ klg pknAw :jf:Yo ;]jfx¿ ;dtfd"ns ¿kdf k|jfx x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\  . )&^÷&& sf] cfly{s ;j]{If0fsf cg';f/ @)&^ sf] kmfu'g;Dd b]xfo adf]lhdsf] :jf:Yo ;]jf tyf hgzlQm /x]sf] 5  . tflnsf g+= *=# :jf:Yo ;]jf tyf hgzlQm ljj/0f ljj/0f hDdf != hDdf :jf:Yo ;+:yf &!%$ s_ c:ktfn [email protected]% g]kfn kl/ro÷275

v_ u_ 3_ ª_ @= #= s_ v_ u_ 3_ ª_ r_

k|fylds :jf:Yo s]Gb| :jf:Yo rf}sL cfo'j]{lbs cf}ifwfno pk:jf:Yo rf}sL÷cfwf/e"t :jf:Yo ;]jf s]Gb| c:ktfn z}o\of hDdf hgzlQm 8fS6/ g;{ / c=g=dL= slj/fh j}B :jf:Yo ;xfos -x]=c=, c=x]=j=_ dlxnf :jf:Yo :jod\;]ljsf

@)# #*)% #(% @^@^ *[email protected] ()($^ @^$) @)^%# ^!# ^(# !$#$& %@)))

*=# v]ns'b JolQmsf] zf/Ll/s tGb'?:tL, ;fdflhs, dfgl;s / ;+j]ufTds kIfsf] ;Gt'lnt ljsf;df v]ns'bsf] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xG5  . v]ns'bdf /fli6«o Pstf ;'b[9 ug]{ / cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf /fli6«o klxrfg :yflkt ug]{ k|d'v dfWodsf] ¿kdf /xL cfPsf] 5  . v]ns'bsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ u/L :j:y, ;Ifd / cg'zfl;t gful/s tof/ u/L cGt/f{li6«o hutdf /fi6«sf] ;Ddfg clej[l4 ub}{ klxrfg :yflkt ug]{ nIo g]kfnn] lnPsf] 5  . g]kfndf v]ns'b;DaGwL ultljlw tof/ ug]{ ;a}eGbf 7'nf] lgsfo jf ;+:yfsf ¿kdf /fli6«o v]ns'b kl/ifb\ -/fv]k_ /x]sf] 5  . ljlwut ¿kdf g]kfnL /fli6«o v]ns'b kl/ifb\ -/fv]k_ sf] :yfkgf lj=;= @)!& ;fn kmfNu'g !& ut] ePsf] lyof]  . lj=;= @)!% ;fndf :yflkt /fli6«o :jf:y tyf v]ns'b kl/ifb\sf] gfd kl/jt{g u/L /fli6«o v]ns'b kl/ifb\ jf 5f]6s/Ldf /fv]k /flvPsf] lyof]  . t/ g]kfndf /fv]ksf] u7g x'g'eGbf cufl8b]lv g} lqms]6, Aof8ldG6g, 6]a'n6]lg;, km'6an, xsL tyf 6]lg; h:tf v]ns'bx¿sf] ;ª\3sf] u7g eO;s]sf] lyof]  . xfn g]kfnsf] /fli6«o v]nsf] dfGotf cflwsfl/s ¿kdf ldlt @)&$ h]7 )* ut] ;/sf/n] u/]sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ elnan v]nn] kfPsf]5  . o; cl3 skbL{ tyf 808Llaof]nfO{ /fli6«o v]ns'bsf] pkdf lbOPtf klg cf}krfl/s ¿kd} 3f]if0f eg] ul/Psf] lyPg  . 276÷g]kfn

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*=#=! g]kfn /fli6«o v]ns'b g]kfnL v]ns'b hut\sf] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] v]ns'b dxfs'Desf ¿kdf g]kfn /fli6«o v]ns'bnfO{ lng ;lsG5  . g]kfn /fli6«o v]ns'bsf] ;'¿jft lj=;= @)#* ;fn b]lv ePsf] lyof]  . o; k|ltof]lutf x/]s b'O{–b'O{ jif{sf] cGt/fndf cfof]hgf ug]{ elgP tfklg g]kfnsf] cfGtl/s ;d:ofx¿sf sf/0f Tof] ;Dej eg] x'g ;s]sf] 5}g  . To;}n] /fv]kn] @)&% ;fn;Dd cfpFbf hDdf cf7 cf]6f /fli6«o v]ns'bsf] ;+:s/0fx¿ cfof]hgf ug{ ;kmn ePsf] 5  . -s_ klxnf] ;+:s/0f g]kfnsf] /fli6«o v]ns'bsf] klxnf] ;+:s/0f lj=;+= @)#* ;fn ebf} @& ut]b]lv c;f]h $ ut];Dd sf7df8f}Fsf] bz/y /ª\uzfnfdf cfof]hgf ePsf] lyof]  . afudtL c~rndf cfof]hgf ePsf]o; k|yd /fli6«o v]ns'  b ( lbg;Dd rn]sf] lyof]  . k|ltof]lutfdf afudtL c~rn k|yd, u08sL c~rn bf];|f] / sf];L c~rnn] t];|f] :yfg xfl;n u/]sf lyP  . -v_ bf];|f] ;+:s/0f of] k|ltof]lutf @)$) r}t [email protected] ut]b]lv @) ut];Dd kf]v/fsf] kf]v/f :kf]6{\; sDKn]S;df ;~rfng ePsf] lyof]  . o; k|ltof]lutfsf] pb\3f6g tTsflng /fhf >L % jL/]G› zfxaf6 ePsf] lyof]  . o; k|ltof]lutfdf nf]uf]sf] ¿kdf g]kfnsf] /fli6«o km"n nfnLu'/fF; /flvPsf] lyof]  . pQm v]ndf afudtL c~rn k|yd, u08sL c~rn bf];|f] / sf];L c~rnn] t];|f] :yfg xfl;n u/]sf lyP  . -u_ t];|f] ;+:s/0f of] k|ltof]lutf @)[email protected] kmfNu'g @# ut] tTsfnLg g]kfnsf /fhf >L % jL/]G› zfxn] pb\3f6g u/L ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] eg] of] k|ltof]lutfsf] pb\3f6g / ;dfkg ;df/f]x jL/u~h /+uzfnfdf ePsf] lyof]  . t];|f] /fli6«o v]ns'b k|ltof]lutfsf] nf]uf]sf ¿kdf af3 /flvPsf] lyof] / pQm af3sf] gfd an] /flvPsf] lyof]  . pQm k|ltof]lutfdf afudtL c~rn k|yd, sf];L c~rn bf];|f] / gf/fo0fL c~rnn] t];|f] :yfg xfl;n u/]sf lyP  . -3_ rf}yf] ;+:s/0f of] k|ltuf]lutf lj=; [email protected])%% r}q * b]lv !$ ;Dd g]kfnu~hdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . ljsf; If]q cg';f/ ePsf] of] klxnf] k|ltof]lutf xf], k|ltof]lutfdf hDdf & l6d ;xefuL ePsf lyP  . dWodf~rn ljsf;If]q k|yd, g]kfnL ;]gf bf];|f] / g]kfn k|x/L t];|f] ePsf] lyP  . -ª_ kfrf}“ ;+:s/0f of] k|ltof]lutf lj=;= @)^% r}q @$ b]lv #) ;Dd sf7df8f}Fdf ;DkGg ePsf] g]kfn kl/ro÷277

lyof]  . of] ;+:s/0fdf If]qLo / v'nf u/L b'O{ tl/sfaf6 k|lt:kwf{ u/fOPsf] lyof]  . h;cg';f/ If]qLo k|ltof]lutftkm{ dWodf~rn ljsf; If]q k|yd, PlkPkm bf];|f] / g]kfn k|x/Ln] t];|f] :yfg xfl;n u/]sf lyP  . To:t} v'nftkm{ dWodf~rn ljsf;If]q k|yd, PkLPkm bf];|f] / g]kfn k|x/L t];|f] :yfgdf /x]sf lyP  . -r_ 5}6f}“ ;+:s/0f of] k|ltof]lutf lj=;+= @)^* r}q !$–@! ;Dd ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qsf] wgu9L / dx]Gb|gu/df ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . !) l6dsf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] pQm k|ltof]lutfdf dWodf~rn ljsf; If]q k|yd, g]kfn k|x/L bf];|f] / ;z:q k|x/L an g]kfn t];|f] ePsf lyP  . -5_ ;ftf}“ ;+;s/0f of] k|ltof]lutf k"jf{~rn ljsf;If]qsf] lj/f6gu/df lj=;+= @)&# kf}if * b]lv !% ;Dd ;DkGg ePsf] lyof]  . k|ltof]lutfdf g]kfnL ;]gf k|yd, ;z:q k|x/L an g]kfn bf];|f] / g]kfn k|x/Ln] t];|f] :yfg xfl;n u/]sf lyP  . -h_ cf7f}F /fli6«o v]ns'b k|ltof]lutf afFss ] f] g]kfnu~hdf @)&% ;fndf ;DkGg ePsf] k|ltof]lutfsf v]nx¿ r}t @& b]lv ;'? eP klg cf}krfl/s pb\3f6g eg] j}zfv % ut] ePsf] lyof]  . o; k|ltof]lutfdf #% v]ndf kfFr xhf/eGbf a9L v]nf8L k|lt:kwL{ lyP  . h;df ljefuLo l6dn] zLif{ tLg :yfg xfl;n u¥of]  . k|ltof]lutfdf g]kfn cfdL{ klxnf], g]kfn k'ln; bf];f| ] / ;z:q k|x/L an g]kfn t];f| ] ePsf] lyof]  . (cf}F /fli6«o v]ns'b k|ltof]lutf b'O{ jif{leq u08sL k|bz ] df cfof]hgf ug]{ lg0f{o ePsf] 5  . tflnsf g+= *=$ cf7f}F /fli6«o v]ns'bsf] kbs tflnsf qm=; l6d :j0f{ /ht sf:o ! g]kfn cfdL{ !$) *@ ^& @ g]kfn k|x/L ^@ $( $^ # ;z:q k|x/L an g]kfn %$ ^) *) $ afudtL k|b]z @@ $) ^) % u08sL k|b]z [email protected] @! $$ ^ k|b]z % !! @^ $* & k|b]z ! ( @) %( * ;'b"/klZrd k|b]z * [email protected] #$ 278÷g]kfn

kl/ro

( !) !!

k|b]z @ Pgcf/PgP s0ff{nL k|b]z

^ ^ #

& @ $

@) % !&

*=#[email protected] g]kfnsf 7'nf 3/]n' v]ns'b k|ltof]lutfx¿ g]kfn /fli6«o v]ns'b -a[xt\_ /fv]k RoflDkogl;k -a[xt\_ ;lxb :df/s P–l8lehg lnu -km'6an_ PGkmf sk -km'6an_ Pe/]i6 lk|ldo/ lnu -lqms]6_ wgu9L lk|ldo/ lnu -lqms]6_ kf]v/f lk|ldo/ lnu -lqms]6_ PgeLP /fli6«o lnu -elnan_ /fli6«o XofG8an k|ltof]lutf -XofG8an_ /fli6«o a'l4rfn k|ltof]lutf -a'l4rfn_ *=#=# g]kfnsf] v]n ;ª\u|xfno sf7df8f}Fl:yt bz/y /ª\uzfnfsf] blIf0f tkm{sf] Kof/flkm6 tn Pp6f sf]7fdf g]kfns} klxnf] cf]nlDks ;ª\u|xfno /x]sf] 5  . of] ;ª\u|xfnosf] :yfkgf lj=;= @)%@ ;fndf ePsf]lyof] . of];ª\u|xfno kl5 lj=;= @)%^ ;fn c;f]h dlxgfdf nueu @ nfv %) xhf/sf] nfutdf g]kfns} klxnf] v]ns'b ;ª\u|xfnosf ¿kdf :yfkgf ePsf] lyof]  . of] ;ª\u|xfnodf g]kfnL v]n Oltxf; b;f{pg] cg]s v]n ;fdu|Lx¿ /x]sf 5g\  . *=#=$ cGt/f{li6«o v]ns'bdf g]kfnsf] ;xeflutf g]kfnn] cGt/f{li6«o v]ns'bdf ;g\ !(%! df ef/tsf] gofF lbNnLdf ePsf] k|yd Pl;ofnL v]ns'baf6 ;xeflutf hgfPsf] lyof]  . o:t} g]kfnsf tkm{af6 cGt/f{li6«o ;xefuLtfdf klxnf]k6s kbs lhTg] v]nf8L lhtaxfb'/ s];L x'g\  . pgn] ;g\ !(&# df lkmlnlkG;sf] dlgnfdf cfof]hgf ePsf] klxnf] Pl;og 6«ofs PG8 lkmN8 RoflDkogl;k df sf+:o kbs lht]sf  lyP . g] kfnnfO{ cGt/f{li6«o k|ltof]lutfdf :j0f{ kbs lhtfpg] k|yd v]nf8L eg] a}s'07 dfgGw/ x'g\  . pgn] klxnf] blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'bdf Dof/fygtkm{ g]kfnsf nflu klxnf] :j0f{ kbs lht]sf lyP  . g]kfn kl/ro÷279

*=#=% cf]nlDks v]ndf g]kfn g]kfnn] klxnf]k6s ;g\ !(^$ df hfkfgsf] 6f]lsof]df ePsf] cf]nlDks v]nb]lv cf]nlDks v]ndf ;xefuLtf hgfpg ;'? u/]sf] xf]  . ;fy} g]kfnn] ;g\ !(^* ;fndf d]lS;sf]df ePsf] cf]nlDks v]nafx]s clxn];Dd ;a} cf]nlDks v]ndf ;xefuLtf hgfpFb} cfPsf] 5  . g]kfnn] pQm cf]nlDksdf alS;ª tyf Dof/fyg u/L hDdf b'O{ v]ndf dfq ;xefuLtf hgfPsf] lyof]  . o; cf]nlDksdf ;'zLn;d;]/ ha/fsf] g]t[Tjdf /x]sf] g]kfnsf tkm{af6 Dof/fyg bf}8df u+ufaxfb'/ yfkf / e"k]G› s];Ln] ;xefuLtf hgfPsf] lyP eg] alS;ª v]ndf gfdl;+x yfkf, /fdk|;fb u'¿ª / cf]dk|;fb k'gn] ;xefuLtf hgfPsf lyP . ;g\ !(** sf] ;f]n cf]nlDksdf k|bz{gL v]n t]SjfGbf]df ljwfg nfdfn] sf+:o kbs lht]sf lyP  . t/ of] kbs cf]nlDks v]nsf] kbs tflnsfdf u0fgf gx'g] x'bfF g]kfn cf]nlDks v]ndf ;xefuLtfdf dfq l;ldt /xg k'u]sf] 5  . t/ g]kfnL v]nf8Lx¿n] eg] cf]nlDkssf v]nx¿df cg]s /fli6«o lslt{dfg sfod ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . *=#=^ blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'bdf g]kfn jf:tjdf g]kfnL v]nf8Lx¿n] cfˆgf] v]n sf}zn k|bz{g ug]{ k|dv ' a[xt\ v]ns'b k|ltof]lutf g} blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'b / ;fu u]d xf]  . g]kfn blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'bdf cfˆg} lsl;dsf] klxrfg agfpg ;kmn eO;s]sf] 5  . g]kfnL v]nf8Lx¿n] blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'b If]qdf cg]s sLlt{dfgx¿;d]t /fVg ;kmn ePsf 5g\ . s'g} klg a[xt\ v]ns'  bsf];jf{lws dxŒjk"0f{ tyf 7'nf] :j0f{ kbssf ¿kdf lnOg] km'6an v]ntkm{sf] :j0f{ kbs g]kfnL k'?if l6dn] tLg k6s lhlt;s]sf] 5  . t/ dlxnf l6dn] nuftf/ kmfOgndf :yfg agfP klg kmfOgndf ef/t;Fu k/flht x'bF } /ht kbsdf lrQ a'emfpg' k/s ] f] lyof]  . g]kfnn] xfn;Dd tLgk6s blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'bsf] ;kmn cfof]hgf ul/;s]sf] 5  . ;g\ !(*$ df ePsf] klxnf] ;fkmsf] ;+:s/0fdf g]kfnn] $ :j0f{;lxt s'n @$ kbs lhTg ;kmn ePsf] lyof]  . pQm ;fkmdf Dof/fygsf v]nf8L a}s'07 dfgGw/n] g]kfnL v]ns'b hutdf g} klxnf] cGt/f{li6«o :j0f{ kbs lhTg ;kmn ePsf lyP  . ;fy} g]kfnL /fli6«o km'6an l6dn] km'6antkm{sf] dxŒjk"0f{ :j0f{ xft kfbf{ g]kfnn] b'O{ :j0f{ alS;ª v]naf6 lht]sf] lyof]  . o; ;fkm u]ddf g]kfnn] :j0f{ kbsafx]s [email protected] /ht kbs tyf * sf+:o kbs lht]sf] lyof] / ;ft b]z ;xefuL kbs tflnsfdf rf}yf] :yfgdf /xg ;kmn ePsf] lyof]  . o:t} g]kfnn] bf];|f] k6s ;g\ !((& df cf7f}F ;fkm v]ns'bsf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] 280÷g]kfn

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l;S6f l;+rfO cfof]hgf g]kfnsf] s'n l;+lrt If]qdWo] sl/a Ps ltxfO{ e"efudf dfq jif}{e/L l;FrfO ;'ljwf k'u]sf] 5  . lbuf], Gofof]lrt / ;Gt'lnt If]qLo ljsf;sf nflu ;dfj]zL tyf ;fem]bf/L Joj:yfkgsf] cfwf/df b]zsf ljBdfg ;tx tyf e"ldut hn;|f]tsf] clwstd ;b'kof]uaf6 jif}{le/ l;FrfO ;'ljwf k'¥ofpg] k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ub}{ s[lif pTkfbg tyf pTkfbsTj j[l4 u/L ul/aL Go"gLs/0f ub}{ ;d[l4tkm{ cufl8 a9\g' cfhsf] cfjZostf xf]  . *=* ;~rf/tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns agfj6sf] sf/0faf6 l;lh{t lzIff, :jf:Yo, s[lif, ko{6g tyf Jofkf/ nufotsf cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs If]qsf] lbuf] ljsf;sf] r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug{ Pp6f ;zQm k"jf{wf/sf] ¿kdf :yflkt ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] sfg'gsf] zf;g, e|i6frf/ d'Qm / r':t k|zf;g, ljs]G›Ls/0f, cfly{s cg'zf;g tyf ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfx / ;|f]tsf] s'zn Joj:yfkg h:tf ;'zf;gsf cfwf/e"t dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L ;j{;fwf/0fn] kfpg' kg]{ ;]jf l56f], 5l/tf] tyf sd vlr{nf] 9+uaf6 k|bfg ug{ ;Dej ePsf] b]lvG5  . g]kfndf klxnf] k6s lj=;+= @)@* ;fnsf] /fli6«o hgu0fgfsf] tYofÍ k|zf]wgsf] qmddf sDKo'6/ k|ljlwsf] k|of]u eP kZrft g]kfnn] ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] If]qdf k|jz ] u/s ] f] b]lvG5  . pQm /fli6«o hgu0fgfsf] tYofÍ k|zf]wgdf 2nd Generation sDo'6/ IBM1401 sf] k|of]u ePsf] / tTkZrft @)#* ;fnsf] /fli6«o hgu0fgfsf qmddf 2nd Generation sDo'6/ ICL2950/10 sf] k|of]u ePsf] lyof]  . g]kfn kl/ro÷293

;"rgf k|ljlwsf]ljsf; qmddf ;g\ !(#) df lqe'jg ljZjljBfnocGtu{t : yfkgf ePsf]k|fljlws k|lzIf0f ;+: yfgnfO{ ;g\ !([email protected] df Institute of Engineering sf]gfddf kl/ jt{g u/L ;g\ !(($ /!((* df qmdzM Electronics and Computer Engineering sf] cWofkg ;'¿ ePsf] lyof]  . ;g\ !(&$ df Electronic Data Processing s]G›sf] :yfkgf eof] h;nfO{ ^ jif{ kl5 National Computer Training Centre (NCC) gfdfs/0f ul/of]  . ;g\ !(($ df tTsflng g]kfn  /fhsLo lj1fg tyf k|ljlw k|1f k|lti7fgn] Mercantile Communication Pvt. Ltd. sf] ;fydf g]kfndf klxnf] k6s Email Service k|of]udf NofO{ Internet sf] ;'?jft ePsf] lyof]  . ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlwsf]ljsf;nfO{ k|fT;fxg ] tyf lgodg ug{sf nflu ;g\ !((* b'/;~rf/ k|flws/0fsf] :yfkgf eof]  . o;};fy g]kfn 6]lnsdn] ;g\ @))) b]lv Internet Service pknAw u/fpFb} cfPsf] 5  . ;"rgf k|ljlwnfO{ ljsf;, Joj:yfkg tyf ljB't\Lo ;'zf;g sfod ug{ ;g\ @))@ df NITC sf] :yfkgf eO{ Government Integrated Data Centre (GIDC) lgdf{0f ePsf] tyf ;g\ @))* df k|dfl0fs/0f lgoGqssf] sfof{nosf] : yfkgf ePsf]5 . o;sf ;fy};"rgf k|ljlwnfO{ lgodg ug{sf nflu ;g\ @))) df Information Technology Policy nfu' eO{ ;g\ @)!% df Information Communication Policy df cWofjlws ul/Psf] ;fy} ;g\ @))* df Electronic Transaction Act nfu' ul/Psf] 5  . g]kfndf b"/;~rf/ ;]jfsf] ;'?jft lj=;+= !(&) df b"/;~rf/ ;]jfsf] :yfkgfkZrft\ ePsf] xf]  . lj=;= !(&! df sf7df8f}bF l] v /S;f}n;Dd 6«ªs \ n 6]lnkmf]gsf] Joj:yf eof]  . rGb|;d;]/sf] kfnfdf ;j{ky| d DofUg]6f] 6]lnkmf]gsf] k|of]uaf6 ePsf] lyof]  . lj=;= !((! kf}if ! ut] 6]lnkmf]g x]8 clkm;sf] -b"/;~rf/;DaGwL sfof{no_ :yfkgf eof]  . sf7df8f}dF f tTsfnLg /f0ff k|zf;sx¿sf] k|of]usf nflu lj=;+= !((@ df @% nfOgsf] c6f]dl] 6s 6]lnkmf]g h8fg ul/of]  . To;} u/L !((@ kf}if @ ut] …;jfn P]gÚ hf/L u/L 6]lnkmf]g ;]jf ;j{;fwf/0fsf nflu v'Nnf ul/Psf] lyof]  . To;}u/L b"/;~rf/n] lj=;+= !((# df sf7df8f}F–wgs'6f 6«ª\sn (STD) ;]jf ;'? u/]sf] lyof]  . lj=;+= @))^ ;fndf g]kfnu~h, e}/xjf, Onfd, wgs'6f, lj/f6gu/df cfsfzjf0fL ;]6x¿ /flvP  . lj=;[email protected]))& ;fndf sf7df8f}Fdf ;L=aL=Dofg'cn PS;r]Gh -!)) nfOg_ sf]:yfkgf eof] . @))( ;fn;Dddf @! cf]6f  lhNnfx¿df cfsfzjf0fL s]Gb|x¿ v8f eP  . k|yd k~rjifL{o of]hgfdf ;~rf/nfO{{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbPkl5 g]kfnn] lj=;+= @)!$ dª\l;/ @) df cGt/f{li6«o b"/;~rf/ ;ª\3 -ITU_ sf];b:otf k|fKt u¥of] . k|yd k~rjifL{o of]hgf  nfu' ePkl5 294÷g]kfn

kl/ro

@)!^ ;fndf sf7df8f}Fdf b"/;~rf/ ljefu v'Nof]  . o;n] /fhwfgLsf] a9\bf] dfunfO{ Wofgdf /fvL lj=;+= @)!( ;fndf c6f]d]l6s qm;af/ PS;r]Gh -$)) nfOg_ sf]:yfkgf u¥of]  . lj=;[email protected])@! cflZjg !% df V.H.F. k|0ffnLsf] cGt/f{li6«o b"/;~rf/ ;]jfsf] ;'ef/De eof]  . t];|f] of]hgfsfndf ljleGg lhNnfx¿df cfsfzjf0fL :6];gx¿ yk ul/P  . ;fy}, %) cf]6f cfsfzjf0fL :of6]nfO6 :6]zgx¿ yk ul/P / ;ftcf]6f Pl/of sG6«f]n :6];gx¿ klg rNg yfn]  . lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf ;ldlt P]g, @)!# cg';f/ b"/;~rf/ ;ldltsf] u7g eof]  . To;} u/L lj=;[email protected])@* df 6]n]S; ;]jf klg k|f/De eof]  . lj=;= @)@* df ;~rf/ ;+:yfg P]g, @)@* k|f/De ePkl5 g]kfn b"/;~rf/n] cGt/b]zLo dfOqmf]j]e 6«fG;ld;g ln+ssf] :yfkgf u¥of]  . lj=;= @)%$ kmfu'g @) ut] g]kfn b"/;~rf/ k|flws/0fsf] :yfkgf eof]  . lj=;+= @)%% ;fndf b"/;~rf/n] g]kfnsf ;Dk"0f{ 6]lnkmf]gx¿ l8lh6n k|0ffnLaf6 ;~rfng ug]{ sfo{sf] yfngL u¥of]  . b"/;~rf/sf] If]qdf ljsf;qmd;Fu} lj=;= @)%^ j}zfv ! ut] ;]n'n/ df]afOn ;]jfsf] Kf|f/De eof]  . b"/;~rf/ gLlt @)^) nfu' ePkl5 @)^) efb| ^ ut]g]kfndf klxnf]k6s lk|k]8 df]afOn  ;]jf k|f/De ul/of]  . b"/;~rf/ ;+:yfg lj=;[email protected])^! j}zfv ! ut]b]lv ljlwjt ¿kdf g]kfn 6]lnsddf kl/0ft eO{ lghL If]qsf cGo ;zQm b"/;~rf/ ;]jf k|bfos ;+:yfx¿;Fu k|lt:kwf{df plqPsf] 5  . lk|mSj]G;L Ps k|s[ltk|bQ ;|f]t ePsfn] o;sf] /fli6«o lxtcg's'n pkof]u ug{ / /fhZj k|fKt ug{ ;/sf/n] @)^( sflQs !( ut] b"/;~rf/ ;]jfsf] /]l8of] lk|mSj]G;L  -afF8kmfF8 tyf d"No;DaGwL_ gLlt, @)^( NofPsf]5 . )&^÷&& sf] cfly{s ;j]{If0fcg';f/ )&^÷&& kmfu'g;Dd 6]lnkmf]gsf] 3gTj !#( k|ltzt, Internet u|fxs 3gTj &% k|ltzt k'usf] ] 5 . )&^÷&& sf]kmfu'g;Dd 6]lnkmf]g k|of]ustf{ $,)&,(#,!)@ / )&^÷&& sf] df3;Dd df]jfOnsf] k|of]ustf{ $,)%,(^,@%( /x]sf] 5  . && j6} lhNnfdf kx'Fr k'u]sf] 5 eg] () k|ltzt e"efudf df]afOn ;]jfsf] kx'Fr k'u]sf] 5  . xfn International Telecommunication Union (ITU) åf/f ;g\ @)!& df ;"rLs[t u/]sf] ljj/0fcg';f/ ljZj ICT Development Index ;"rLdf !&^ b]zx¿ dWo] g]kfn !$)cf}F :yfgdf 5 eg] ;fs{df %cf}F :yfgdf /x]sf] 5  . xfnsf] l:yltdf b]xfoadf]lhdsf] ;+:yfx¿n] ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] If]qdf 6]jf k'‍¥ofO/x]sf 5g\  .

g]kfn kl/ro÷295

tflnsf g+= *=( cf=j= @)&^÷&& ;Dd ;~rfngdf /x]sf cg'dltkq k|fKt ;~rf/ ;]jf k|bfosx?sf] ljj/0f l;=g= != @= #= $= %= ^= &= *= (= !)= !!= [email protected]=

b'/;~rf/ ;]jfsf] gfd cfwf/e"t b'/;~rf/ ;]jf cfwf/e"t 6]lnkmf]g ;]jf lh=P;=Pd= ;]n'n/ df]jfO{n ;]jf g]6js{ ;]jf k|bfos le:of6 k|of]ustf{ OG6/g]6 -Od]n;lxt_ lh=Pd=lk=l;=P;= ;]jf u|fdL0f b"/;~rf/ ;]jf lnld6]8 df]ljln6L ;]jf cGt/f{li6«o 6+«s 6]lnkmf]g ;]jf OG6/g]6 -Od]n;lxt_ ;]jf -u|fdL0f_ le:of6 k|of]ustf{ -u|fdL0f_

hDdf ;]jf k|bfossx? @ @ @ !& * [email protected]% @ ! ! ! # @& ;|f]tM b"/;~rf/ k|flws/0f

tflnsf g+= *=!) cf=j= @)&&÷&* sf] h]7 d;fGt;Dd cg'dlt k|fKt k|;f/0f ;]jf k|bfosx?sf] ljj/0f l;=g= ;~rf/ ;]jfsf] gfd hDdf ;]jf k|bfossx? != /]l8of] ;~rfng ;+:yf [email protected]( @= :yfgLo tyf /fli6«o 6]lnlehg @!* #= ljb]zL 8fpgln+s 6]lnlehg !#$ $= ljb]zL l6=le=sf] l;Ugn ljt/s % %= l8lh6n s]jn ljt/s [email protected] ^= DTH ! &= MMDS sf] dfWoaf6 l6=le= ljt/s @ 296÷g]kfn

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*= (=

DTTB sf] dfWoaf6 l6=le= ljt/s IPTV sf] dfWoaf6 l6=le= ljt/s

% ( ;|f]tM ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu

x'nfs ;]jf ljefun] cfˆgf] ;]jf ljljwLs/0f ug]{ qmddf ;'udb]lv b'u{d lhNnfx¿;Dd ljB't\Lo ;~rf/sf] kx'Fr k'¥ofpg] d'n Wo]osf ;fy 6]ln;]G6/ ;]jf ;~rfng u/]sf] kfOG5  . x'nfs ;]jfcGtu{t $ s]G›Lo sfof{no, $ If]qLo x'nfs sfof{no, &) lhNnf x'nfs sfof{no, *[email protected] Onfsf x'nfs sfof{no, #)&$ cf]6f clt/Qm x'nfs sfof{nox¿ /x]sf 5g\  . ;a} x'nfs j:t'sf] Tracking ug]{ Joj:yfsf nflu Postal Internal Tracking System (PITS) k|0ffnLsf] ;'?jft ePsf] 5  . *=( jftfj/0f tyf hnjfo' kl/jt{g g]kfn e"kl/jl] i7t b]z xf]  . g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns agfj6 gjLg kj{t z[ªv \ nfn] ag]sf] 5  . cf}Bf]lus ljsf; cToGt Go"g eP tfklg t/fO{, kxf8 / sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf k|;:t OF6f e§fx¿ 5g\  . cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0fn] ;x/5p ] sf gbLgfnfx¿ cToGt g/fd|f;F ] u k|bl" ift ePsf 5g\  . jiff{ clgoldt 5  . e"IfoLs/0f pRr 5  . jg cltqmd0f a9\bf] 5  . jgIf]q g]kfnsf] s'n e"efusf] $$=&$ k|ltzt 5 . ;g\ !(^^ b]lv g]kfn World Meterological Organization (WMO) sf] ;b:o /fi6« ePsf] 5  . ;/sf/n] cGt/fl{ i6«o ¿kdf jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf nflu kxn ;'? u/s ] f] eP klg jftfj/0f ;+/If0fsf nflu gLlt ;g\ !(*& df NofPsf] lyof]  . kl5Nnf jif{x¿df v}/fI] f]q (Brown Sector), kfgL (Blue Sector) / jg (Green Sector) sf] ;+/If0fdf ;/sf/ k|oTgzLn 5  . ljZjJofkL¿kdf b]vfk/]sf] hnjfo' kl/jt{g (Climate Change) sf] g]kfndf kg]{ k|efjsf] Go"gLs/0f ug{ /0fgLlt cjnDag ul/Psf] 5 eg] hnjfo' kl/jt{gn] g]kfnsf] lxdfno If]qdf k|efj k/]sf] cg'ej /x]sf] 5  . tfkqmdsf] j[l4 b/ a9]sf] 5  . lxpF kUng] qmd pRr 5  . o;y{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfnsf] lxdfno If]qsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu ;u/dfyfsf] cfwf/ lzlj/ sfnf kTy/df ljZj ;d'bfosf]Wofg cfsif{0f ug{ ldlt @)^^ dª\l;/!( -$ l8;]Da/  @))(_ df dlGqkl/ifb\sf] a}7s a;]sf] lyof]  . lxdfno ePsf ljZjsf b]zx¿lar lxdfno hf]ufpg g]6js{ a9fpg], ljZjsf] Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg] p2]Zon] ljz]if k|of;x¿sf] k|f/De klg ul/Psf] 5  . k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ubf{ jftfj/0f k|efj d"Nofª\sg ug'{kg]{ sfg'gL Joj:yf /x]sf] 5  . k|efj d"Nofª\sg gu/L lgdf{0f sfo{ ubf{ k|lts'n k|efj kg]{;Defjgf pRr /xG5 . g]kfn kl/ro÷297

sfnfkTy/df dlGqklifb\ a}7s, @)^^ cfly{s jif{ )&^÷&& kmfu'g;Dd jftfj/0fd}qL ljsf;sf nflu ul/g] jftfj/0f k|efj d"NofÍg ePsf cfof]hgfsf] ;ª\Vof #$& k'u]sf] 5  . afFs]sf] g]kfnu~h / bfªsf] 3f]/fxL, af/fsf] l;d/f / ;'g;/Lsf] em'Dsf;d]t rf/ :yfgdf jfo' u'0f:t/ dfkg s]G› :yfkgf eO{ jfo' u'0f:t/sf] cj:yf tt\ ;dodf -Real Time_ ;fj{hlgs x'g yfn]sf] 5  . ;/sf/n] sfa{g Jofkf/sf] lgodg / Joj:yfkgsf nflu ;g\ @))* b]lv /]8 -Reducing Emission From Deforestation and Forest Degradation_ sfo{qmd ;'¿ u/ L ;f]xL jif{ b]lv /]8 Kn; sfo{Gjogdf NofPsf] 5  . *=!) lbuf] ljsf; ljsf; Ps ax'cfoflds cjwf/0ff xf]  . o;n] ;dfhdf lg/Gt/ k|ultpGd'v kl/jt{gsf] ck]Iff /fv]sf] x'G5  . dfgj ;Eotfsf] ;'?jft;Fu} ljsf; s'g} g s'g} ¿kdf lg/Gt/ x'Fb} cfPsf] kfOG5  . ljsl;t d'n'sx¿n] ljsf;sf gfddf pknAw k|fs[lts ;|f]t;fwgsf] r/d bf]xg u/]kl5 l;lh{t jftfj/0f c;Gt'ngsf] ;dfwfg:j¿k ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsaf6 lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff ;'? ePsf]xf] . ;g\ !(*& df a|'6NofG8 sldzgåf/f xfd|f];femf eljIo (Our common Future) gfds k|ltj]bg ;fj{hlgs u/L ;j{k|yd lbuf] ljsf; zAbsf] k|of]u u/]sf] xf] h;cg';f/ jt{dfg k':tfn] pknAw k|fs[lts ;+zfwgnfO{ b[li6ut u/L eljiodf cfkm\gf ;Gtltsf] cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ Ifdtfdf s'g} c;/ gkg]{ u/L ;|f]t ;fwgx¿sf] ;xL ;+/If0f ub}{ ljj]sk"0f{ tj/n] kl/rfng ul/g] ljsf; cjwf/0ff g} lbuf] ljsf; xf]  . of] ljsf; cfkm}Fdf l6sfp ljsf; 298÷g]kfn

kl/ro

Pjd\ ljgfz/lxt ljsf; xf]  . o;n] gjLs/0fLo ;|f]tsf] pkof]unfO{ k|f]T;fxg / k|j4{g ub{5  . lbuf] ljsf;nfO{ ;fdfGotof jftfj/0fLo cfofd;Fu hf]8]/ x]g]{ ul/Ptf klg of] Ps ax'cfoflds tyf ultlzn ljifo xf] h;n] ljsf;sf /fhgLlt, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[ltsnufot ;du| cfofdnfO{ ;d]6]sf] x'G5  . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df cf7f}F of]hgfaf6 cf}krfl/s ¿kdf lbuf] ljsf;sf] of]hgf ;'? ePsf] xf]  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] ljsf;;DaGwL gLltdf lbuf] ljsf; sfod ug]{ gLlt cjnDjg u/]sf] 5  . ;fy} xfn ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3af6 cg'df]lbt lbuf] ljsf; nIox¿nfO{ ljsf;sf ;du| kIfx¿df cfGtl/sLs/0f ub}{ /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] g]t[TjbfoL e"ldsfdf ;/sf/, lghL If]q, ;xsf/L If]q, u}/ ;/sf/L If]q, ;fd'bflos If]qnufotsf ;Dk"0f{ ljsf; ;fem]bf/x¿sf] ;+o'Qm k|of;df sfof{Gjog ub}{ cfPsf] 5  . /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf cg';f/ g]kfndf lbuf]ljsf; nIo sfof{Gjog ug{ jflif{s cf}ift ?= @) va{ @% ca{ nfUg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5  . lbuf] ljsf;sf nIox¿ ;+o'Qm /fi6«;ª\3sf] &) cf}F dxf;efn] ;g\ @)!% ;]K6]Da/ @% df ;g\ @)!^ b]lv @)#) ;Dd ljZjsf] ¿kfGt/0f / ljsf;sf x/]s cfofddf s;}nfO{ klg k5fl8 g5f]8\g] k|lta4tfsf ;fy lbuf] ljsf;sf nIox¿sf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5  . o; cGtu{t lbuf]ljsf;sf !& cf]6f nIo, !^( cf]6f  kl/df0ffTds nIo / ##@ cf]6f ljZjJofkL ;"rsx¿ lgwf{/0f  ul/Psf 5g\ . h;df lbuf]ljsf;df !& cf]6f nIox¿ lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf 5g\  . nIo g+= ! M ;a} :yfg / ;a} k|sf/sf ul/aLsf] cGTo nIo g+= @ M ef]sd/L lgoGq0f, vfB ;'/Iff / kf]if0f:t/ ;'wf/ Pjd\ lbuf] s[lifsf] k|j4{g, nIo g+= # M ;a}sf nflu :j:y hLjgsf] ;'lglZrttf nIo g+= $ M ;a}sf nflu ;dfj]zL, ;dGoflos / :t/Lo lzIffsf] cj;/ ;'lglZrtf nIo g+= % M n}+lus ;dfgtf /dlxnf tyf aflnsf ;zlQms/0f nIo g+= ^ M ;a}sf nflu vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfOsf] lbuf] pknAwtfsf] ;'lglZrttf nIo g+= & M ;a}sf nflu e/kbf]{ / wflgg ;Sg] cfw'lgs phf{sf] kx"Fr ;'lglZrtf nIo g+= * M e/kbf]{, ;dfj]zL / lbuf] cfly{s a[l4 Pjd\ ;a}sf nflu pTkfbgzLn /f]huf/L g]kfn kl/ro÷299

nIo g+= ( M ;jn k"jf{wf/, lbuf] / ;dfj]zL cf}Bf]lusLs/0f / gjk|jt{g k|j4{g, nIo g+= !) M b]zleq / b]zx¿lar /x]sf] c;dfgtf Go"gLs/0f nIo g+= !! M :j:Yo Pjd\ ;'/lIft ;x/ tyf dfgj a;f]af; nIo g+= [email protected] M lbuf] pTkfbg / pkef]usf] ;'lglZrttf nIo g+= !# M hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf c;/Go"gLs/0fsf nflu tTsfn sfo{ nIo g+= !$ M ;d'b|, ;d'b|L lsgf/ / ;d'b|L ;|f]tsf] ;+/If0f Pjd\ lbuf] pkef]u nIo g+= !% M lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu h}ljs ljljwtf ;+/If0f, ag Joj:yfkg / o; lj?4sf sfo{sf] lgoGq0f nIo g+= !^ M zfGt /;dfj] zL ;dfh k|j4{g, Gofodf ;dfg kx"Fr / k|efjsf/L Pjd\ hjfkmb]xL ;+:yfTds ;+/If0f nIo g+= !& M lbuf]ljsf;sf nflu sfof{Gjog ;+oGqsf];jnLs/0f /ljZj ;fem]bf/L  . lll

300÷g]kfn

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elgG5  . of] k|m]Gr efiffsf] De Jour af6 ag]sf] xf]  . k|m]Grefiffdf De Jour eGgfn] lbge/Lsf] eGg] a'lemG5  . De Jour af6 Journal / Journal af6 Journalism ePsf] dflgG5  . To;}n] kqsfl/tf eg]sf] lbgel/ ePsf 36gfx¿ dWo] d"Vo d"Vo 36gfx¿nfO{ sf65fF6 u/]/ To;af6 dxŒjk"0f{ s'/fx¿ ;dfrf/sf ¿kdf, cGtjf{tf{sf ¿kdf, ;dfrf/;dLIff jf ;DkfbsLosf ¿kdf jf kmf]6f]  , sf6'{gsf ¿kdf k|sfzg jf k|;f/0f ug'{ xf] . kqsfl/tfnfO{ tfhf 36gfsf s'/fx¿ ;~rfng / ;Dkfbg u/]/ kqklqsf, /]l8of], 6]lnlehg jf cgnfOg Go"h kf]6{nsf dfWodaf6 kf7s, ;|f]tf jf bz{ssf nflu ;/n efiffdf ;~rf/ ug'{ xf] eGg] ul/G5  . kqsfl/tfnfO{ 5fkf dfWod / ljB't\Lo dfWod u/L b'O{ efudf ljefhg ug]{ul/Psf]5 . kqklqsfx¿ 5fkf dfWod cGtu{t kb{5g\ eg] /]l8of], 6]lnlehg / OG6/g]6sf] dfWodn] ;~rfng x'g]cgnfOg ldl8of /;f];n  ldl8ofx¿ ljB't\Lo dfWoddf kb{5g\  . oxfF 5fkf dfWod / ljB't\Lo dfWodnfO{ a]Unfa]Un} zLif{sdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5  . (=!=! 5fkf dfWod M g]kfnL efiffdf k|sflzt klxnf] klqsfsf]¿kdf lj=;+= !($# df df]lt/fd e§n] sfzLdf 5kfPsf …uf]/vf ef/t hLjgÚ dfl;snfO{ lnOG5  . g]kfnd} 5flkPsf] klxnf] g] kfnL klqsfrflxF lj=;+= !(%% ;fnsf]>fj0f dlxgfdf k|sflzt …;w' f ;fu/Ú dfl;s klqsf xf]  . …;w' f ;fu/Ú lg:ss ] f] sl/a @ jif{ !) dlxgfkl5 lj=;+= !(%* j}zfv @$ sf lbg …uf]/vfkqÚ hlGdof]  . ;'?df ;fKtflxs ¿kdf k|sfzg ePsf] of] klqsf lj=;[email protected]))) c;f]h  @( ut]cw{ ;fKtflxs ¿kdf /lj=;+= @))# k'; * b]lv xKtfdf uf]/vfkqsf] klxnf] c+s tLg k6s k|sfzg x'g yfNof] . of] klqsf lj=;+= @)!& kmfu'g & ut]b] lv b}lgs ¿kdf k|sfzg x'g yfNof] . lj=;+= !((! kmfu'gdf Cl4axfb'/ dNnsf] ;Dkfbgdf g]kfnL–efiffsf] …zf/bfÚ dfl;s klqsf k|sfzg x'g yfNof]  . g]kfndf n]vsx¿nfO{ k|fT] ;flxt ug{ / ;a};uF kl/ro u/fpg ;kmn ePsf] …zf/bfÚ klqsf @)!) ;fndf cfP/ aGb eof]  . 302÷g]kfn

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(=!=# /]l8of] k|;f/0f g]kfndf /f0ff k|wfgdGqL h'4 zd;]/sf] kfnfdf dfq /]l8of] ;]6 lemsfOPsf] b]lvG5  . /f0ff k|wfgdGqL kb\d;d;]/sf] zf;gsfndf @))$ ;fnb]lv ;j{;fwf/0f g]kfnLx¿nfO{ /]l8of] /fVg kfpg] :jtGqtf k|fKt eof]  . /]l8of];]6 cfP tfklg ltgdf ljb] zL k|;f/ 0f dfq ;'Gg kfOGYof] . @))$ ;fnlt/ tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL kb\d;d;]/sf] kfnfdf sf7df8f}Fsf] lah'nL c8\8fdf ;fFemkv :yfgLo ahf/efp / ehg k|;f/0f ug{ cfsfzjf0fLsf] ;]6 k|of]u ul/Psf] s'/f pNn]v 5  . @))& ;fndf b]ze/ hgqmflGtsf] nx/ km}lnof]  . oxL a]nf lj/f6gu/sf] qmflGt d}bfgaf6 …g]kfn k|hftGq /]l8of]Ú gfdn] ;j{k|yd /]l8of] u'lGhof]  . of] Pp6f ;fgf] …6]njf/Ú gfds 6«fG;ld6/sf] ;xfotfaf6 rn]sf] lyof]  . h'g 6«fG;ld6/ sf7df8f}F NofP/ l;+x/baf/ kl/;/leq /fvL @))& ;fn r}q @) ut]sf lbgb]lv k|;f/0f–sfo{ z'ef/De ul/of]  . @%) jf6sf] 6«fG;ld6/sf] ;xfotfn] k|;fl/t /]l8of]sf] gfd kl5 …g]kfn k|hftGq /]l8of]Ú af6 …g]kfn /]l8of]Ú / To;kl5 …/]l8of] g]kfnÚ ePsf] xf]  . @))( ;fndf ldl8od j]e &% jf6sf] 6«fG;ld6/åf/f leGb} k|;f/0f ;'¿ ePsf] lyof]  . /]l8of] g]kfnsf] @)[email protected] ;fndf % lsnf]jf6 ;6{j]e 6«fG;ld6/sf] :yfkgf hfpnfv]ndf eof]  . @)!$ ;fn r}q @( ut] /]l8of] P]g, @)!$ nfndf]x/ ;b/ eO{ @)!%.!.$ sf] g]kfn uh]6df k|sflzt eof]  . /]l8of] g]kfnn] ;fª\u7lgs ;'wf/åf/f ;ª\VofTds Ifdtf clej[l4 ub}{ sfo{qmddf ljljwtf ub{} ;6{j]e, ldl8od j]e / lk|mSj]G;L df]8'n];gsf] lj:tf/ ub}{ nu]sf] kfOG5  . /]l8of] g]kfnn] g]kfnL, c+u|]hL efiffdf ;dfrf/ a'n]l6gsf cltl/Qm du/, u'?ª, tfdfª, /fO{ jfGtjf, lnDa", g]jf/L, ef]hk'/L, lxGbL, pb"{, k"jL{ yf¿, klZrdL yf¿, cjwL, z]kf{, dl}ynL, ;+:s[t, vfd du/ / 8f]6]nL efiffdf klg ;dfrf/ a'n]l6g k|;fl/t ub}{ cfPsf] 5  . /]l8of] g]kfnn] cfˆgf sfo{qmdx¿ @^ cui6 !((( b]lv le–:of6 g]6js{af6 k|;f/0f cf/De u/]sf] lyof]  . To;}u/L cfˆgf] ;|f]tfx¿lar kxF'r k'¥ofpg] x]t'n] /]l8of] g]kfnn] OG6/g]6df klg k|j]z ul/;s]sf] 5  . g]kfndf Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] k|;f/0fsf] k|f/De /]l8of] g]kfnn] @)%@ df3 @* df u/]sf] lyof]  . )&&÷&* sf] cfly{s ;j]{If0f cg';f/ g]kfn /]l8of] g]kfnsf] k|;f/0f kx'Fr *&=) k|ltzt hg;ª\Vofdf k'u]sf] 5  . cgnfOgdfkm{t ;+;f/e/ @$ ;} 306f @! efiffdf ;dfrf/ / @) efiffdf sfo{qmd k|;f/0f eO/x]sf]5 . xfn g]kfndf  @)&& kmfu'g d;fG;Dd ($^ cf]6f /]l8of] ;+:yfx¿n] Ohfht kfO;s]sf 5g\  . 306÷g]kfn

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(=!=$ cgnfOg ldl8of ;"rgf k|ljlwsf] ljsf;;Fu} g]kfndf cgnfOg ldl8ofn] cfˆgf] ;zQm pkl:ylt b]vfO;s]sf] 5  . g]kfndf cgnfOg ;~rf/dfWodsf] cf}krfl/s btf{ eg] cgnfOg ;~rf/ dfWod lgb]{lzsf, @)&# hf/L u/L lj=;+= @)&$ j}zfvaf6 g]kfn ;/sf/ ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno cGtu{t ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefuaf6 x'Fb}cfPsf]5 . @)&& kmfu'g;Dd ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefudf btf{ ePsf cgnfOg ;~rf/dfWodx¿sf] clen]v ;ª\Vof @^%@ k'u]sf] 5  . h;dWo]@)&& kmfu'g d;fGt;Dddf ljefudf ^%& cf]6f  gofF cgnfOg ;~rf/dfWod btf{ / %%@ cf]6f cgnfO{g ;~rf/dfWod gjLs/0f ePsf 5g\ . 7'nf nufgLdf ;~rflnt k|foM ;a}h;f]b}lgs, ;fKtflxs, kflIfs tyf dfl;s klqsfx¿n] ;d]t cfcfˆgf cgnfOg ;+:s/0f k|sfzg ug]{ u/]sf 5g\  . kl5Nnf lbgx¿df of] qmdnfO{ PkmPd /]l8of] tyf 6]lnlehgx¿n] ;d]t cg';/0f u/]sf 5g\  . 36gfqmdx¿sf] tTsfn} hfgsf/L u/fpg] oL ldl8ofx¿n] k|sflzt ;fdu|Lx¿sf] af/]df t'?Gt} kf7s k|ltlqmof;d]t k|sfzg ug]{ u/]sf 5g\  . cfufdL lbgdf cgnfOg ldl8of klg dfgj hLjgsf]cleGg kIf x'g]5 . ([email protected]= /fli6«o ;dfrf/ ;ldlt g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf ;dfrf/ ;ldltsf] Oltxf; lj=;+= @)!^ ;fnb]lv ;'? ePsf] kfOG5  . lghL If]qaf6 @)!^ ;fn k'if ! ut] sf7df8f}d F f :yfkgf u/s ] f] …gk] fn ;Djfb ;ldltÚ -g];;_ g} g]kfnsf] klxnf] ;dfrf/ ;ldlt xf]  . To;sf] s]xL ;dokl5 lghL If]qaf6} @)!& j}zfv #) ut] sf7df8f}d F } csf]{ ;dfrf/ ;ldlt ;u/dfyf ;+jfb ;ldlt -;;;_ :yfkgf eof]  . g];; / ;;;nfO{ PsLs/0f u/L @)!* kmfu'g & ut] /fli6«o ;dfrf/ ;ldlt -/f;;_ sf] :yfkgf ul/of]  . @)!* kmfu'g & ut]bl] v /f;;n] cfˆgf] lgoldt ;dfrf/ a'nl] 6g k|f/De u¥of]  . /fHo ;~rflnt ;dfrf/ ;ldltsf] ¿kdf /xs ] f] /f;;nfO{ sfg'gL :j¿k k|bfg ug{ /f;; P]g, @)!( hf/L eof]  . /f;;n] lbgdf kfFr k6s cfˆgf] ;dfrf/ a'nl] 6g k|sflzt ub{5  . g]kfnL / cª\uh ]| L efiffdf k|sflzt x'g] oL a'nl] 6gx¿ /f;;sf] ;dfrf/sf pkef]Qmf -b}lgs klqsfx¿, /l] 8of] k|;f/0f, 6]lnlehg k|;f/0f cflb_ ;dIf OG6/g6] sf] dfWodaf6 k'Ub5  . sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf ;fy} g]kfnsf ljleGg :yfgx¿af6 k|sflzt kqklqsf, /l] 8of] k|;f/0f, 6]lnlehg k|;f/0fsf nflu cflwsfl/s Pjd\ ljZj;gLo ;dfrf/sf] ;|ft] /f;; g} /xs ] f] 5  . /f;;n] AP, AFP, Xinwa, Reuters / PPI h:tf cGt/f{li6«o ;dfrf/ ;ldltaf6 ljZjsf ljleGg :yfgsf ;dfrf/x¿ k|fKt u/L cfˆgf ;dfrf/sf pkef]Qmfx¿nfO{ ljt/0f ub{5  . o;sf ;fy} AP, AFP, Xinwa, Reuters af6 k|fKt cGt/f{li6«o 36gfqmdsf cfsif{0f kmf]6f]x¿af6 g]kfnsf b}lgs ;dfrf/kqx¿sf] cfsif{0f g]kfn kl/ro÷307

a9fO{ kf7sx¿nfO{ yk ;"rgf / ;Gt'li6 k|bfg u/fpgdf /f;;sf] pNn]vgLo e"ldsf /lxcfPsf] 5  . (=# ;~rf/;“u ;DalGwt lgsfox¿ -s_ ;~rf/tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno

;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno, l;+xb/af/, sf7df8f}F ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf]ljsf; /lj:tf/sf nflu sfo{ ljefhg lgodfjnL, @)@$ n] ;"rgf tyf k|;f/ dGqfnosf] Joj:yf u/L ;~rf/nfO{ oftfoft, ;~rf/ / hnljB't\ dGqfnodf /fv]sf] lyof]  . k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u, @)@% n] ;"rgf / k|;f/0f If]qnfO{  u[x, k~rfot tyf ;"rgf k|;f/dGqfnodf agfpg l;kmfl/z u/c ] g'¿k lj=;+= @)@^ ;fndf lgdf{0f, ;~rf/ / oftfoft dGqfno :yfkgf ePsf] xf]  . ljlzi6Ls[t¿kdf ;~rf/ dGqfnosf] :yfkgf lj=;+= @)@* ;fn ;fpg ! ut] ePsf] xf]  . tTsfnLg ;~rf/ dGqfnonfO{ pRr:t/Lo k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u, @)$* sf] l;kmfl/;adf]lhd ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnodf kl/jt{g ul/Psf] lyof]  . g]kfn ;/sf/ -sfo{ ljefhg_ lgodfjnL, @)&$ adf]lhd ;fljssf] ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfnodf ;"rgf k|ljlw If]q ;d]t yk u/L dGqfnosf] gfd ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno sfod ul/Psf] 5  . ;f]xLadf]lhd ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ k|ljlw dGqfnon] cfd ;~rf/, b"/;~rf/, ;"rgf k|ljlw, k|;f/0f, x'nfs ;]jf, rnlrq, ;'/If0f d'b0| fnufotsf sfo{sf] s]Gb|Lo lgsfosf]¿kdf gLlt, sfg'g, dfkb08, sfo{fGjog /lgodg ub}{cfPsf] 5  . log} sfd sf/jfxLnfO{ k|efjsf/L¿kdf ;~rfng, Joj:yfkg / lgodg ug{sf nflu o; dGqfno dftxt lgDg lgsfox¿ ;~rfngdf /x]sf 5g\ . 308÷g]kfn

kl/ro

dGqfno ;Da4 lgsfox¿ l /fli6«o ;"rgf cfof]u -;Dks{ dGqfnosf] ¿kdf_ l ;"rgf tyf k|;f/ 0f ljefu l d'›0f ljefu l ;"rgf k|ljlw ljefu l x'nfs ;]jf  ljefu l k|]; sfplG;n g]kfn l g]kfn b"/;~rf/ k|flws/0f l /fli6«o ;dfrf/ ;ldlt l g]kfn 6]lnlehg l /]l8of] g]kfn l uf]/vfkq ;+:yfg l Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgw{f/0f ;ldlt l rnlrq ljsf; jf] 8{ l ;'/ If0f d'›0f ljsf; ;ldlt l g]kfn b'/;~rf/ sDkgL lnld6]8 l /fli6«o ;"rgf k|ljlw s]G› l k|dfl0fs/0f lgoGqssf] sfo{fno -v_ ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu

;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu, ;~rf/u|fd, sf7df8f}F g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;"rgfx¿ hgtf;dIf k'¥ofpg /f0ff zf;gsf] cfwf ztfAbL;Dd Psdfq dfWod …uf]/vfkqÚ lyof]  . clGtd /f0ff k|wfgdGqL df]xg;d;]/n] @))% df k|rf/ljefu v8f u/] . @))& ;fnsf]k|hftGqkl5 o; ljefunfO{ …k|rf/–k|;f/Ú ljefu gfd lbO{ u[x dGqfnocGtu{t /flvof]  . k|rf/ ljefu, g]kfn kl/ro÷309

k|rf/–k|;f/ljefu, k|]; ;"rgf ljefu, ;"rgf ljefu u/L ;do ;dodf gfd tyf sfdsf] lhDd]jf/L kl/jt{g x'Fb} kl5Nnf] ;do ldlt @)&% j}zfv $ ut] g]kfn ;/sf/ -dlGqkl/ifb\_ sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ ;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu sfod ePsf] 5  . k|hftGqsf] axfnLkl5 g]kfndf kqsfl/tf hutsf] ljsf;sf] 9f]sf v'n]sf] eP tfklg @)!% ;fndf k|]; sld;gn] g]kfnL kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;df cg]sf}F /rgfTds ;'emfj lbPkl5dfq o; ljefun] kqsfl/tf If]qsf] cfw'lgs o'udf k|j]z u/]sf] xf]  . g]kfnsf] ef}uf]lns cj:yf, Oltxf;, k'/ftflŒjs ;Dkbf, snf, ;+:s[lt, e]ife'iff, /Lltl/jfh, rf8kj{ tyf g]kfnsf cGo ljljw kIf;DaGwL ;"rgfx¿ g]kfne/ k|;f/–k|;f/ ug]{ / ljZj;fd' g]kfnsf] klxrfg u/fpg]h:tf p2]Zo lnO{ o; ljefun] ;dfrf/lrq, j[Qlrq / syfgs rnlrq agfpg] tyf k|b{zg ug]{ / To:t} vfnsf n]v, /rgfx¿ @)@& ;fn h]7 #) ut]b]lv g]kfn klqsfdfkm{t k|sfzg ug]{h:tf sfdx¿ ub}{ cfPsf] b]lvG5  . xfn g]kfn klqsfnfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] gLltd"ns klqsfsf] ¿kdf ljsf; ub}{ n}hfg] ;f]r ljefusf] /x]sf] 5 . o; ljefuaf6 ljleGg ljåfg\ n]vsx¿af6  lnlvt Pjd\ cg'jflbt ljleGg pkof]uL / 1fgj4{s k':ts–k'l:tsfx¿ k|sfzg Pjd\ lgMz'Ns ljt/0fsf cnfjf cfdf, lxhf]cfh ef]nL / kl/jt{gh:tf g]kfnL snf ;+:s[lt / dgf]/~hgn] le/k"0f{ g]kfnL syfgs rnlrqx¿ klg lgdf{0f /k|bz{g ePsf lyP . g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;"rgf k|jfx ug]{, g]kfnL kqsf/x¿sf] k]zfut xslxtsf] ;+/If0f Pjd\ kqsfl/tf hutsf] :j:y, dof{lbt tyf ;+:yfut ljsf;sf nflu ;"rgf ljefu cfˆgf];]jf  k|bfg ug]{sfo{df sl6a4 5 . ;+j}wflgs sfg'gx¿sf] sfof{Gjog u/fpg] qmddf kqsf/x¿nfO{ k|]; k|ltlglw k|df0fkq pknAw u/fpg] / kqklqsf Pjd\ kqsf/sf] clen]v /fVg] tyf kqsf/sf] Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ lhDd]jf/L;d]t ;"rgf ljefun] k"/f ub}{ cfPsf] 5  . ;"rgf ljefun] ;fj{hlgs ;"rgfnfO{ Ps} ynf]df ;ª\u|x u/L ljt/0f ug{ ;"rgfsf] xa lgdf{0f u/L ljt/0f ug]{, g]kfn klqsfdf ;/sf/sf gLltx¿ k|sfzg ug]{, kmf]6f] a}ª\s :yfkgf ug]{ sfo{sf] yfngL u/]sf] 5  . ;fy}, >dhLjL kqsf/x¿nfO{ cfwf/e"t / ;]jfsfnLg tflnd lbg'sf ;fy} cfjf;Lo kqsf/ tflndsf nflu sfo{ ul//x]sf] 5  . ljefun] ljZj;fd' g]kfnsf] klxrfg u/fpg] p2]Zo lnO{ ljleGg 1fgj4{s tyf ;"rgfd"ns k':ts g]kfn kl/ro, g]kfnM ljljwtfdf Pstf kmf]6f] k':ts, g]kfn å}dfl;s klqsf, z'esfdgf 8fo/L tyf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] cflwsfl/s Sofn]G8/ h:tf ;fdu|Lx¿ k|sfzg tyf ljt/0f ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5  . o; ljefun] g]kfnsf] cflwsfl/s kmf]6f]u|fkm/sf] x}l;otn] /fi6« k|d'v tyf ;/sf/ 310÷g]kfn

kl/ro

k|d'vx¿sf] ljb]z e|d0f Pjd\ g]kfn e|d0fdf cfpg] ldq/fi6«x¿sf /fi6« k|d'v tyf ;/sf/ k|d'vx¿sf] tkm{af6 ;Daf]wg ul/g] kqsf/ ;Dd]ngx¿sf] cfof]hgf tyf cf}krfl/s kmf]6f]u|fkm/sf] x}l;otn] pQm cj;/df cfof]hgf x'g] ;/sf/L ;df/f]xx¿sf] tl:j/ 5fofsg, k|sfzg, clen]vLs/0f, ljt/0f ug]{ sfo{ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5  . To:t} hgtfnfO{ /fi6« ljsf;sf] sfo{df ;+nUg u/fpg] tyf ;dfhdf ;r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ vfnsf hgr]tgfd"ns lj1fkgx¿ nf]s sNof0fsf/L lj1fkgdfkm{t juL{s/0fdf k/]sf kqklqsfx¿df k|sfzg ug{ nufO{ e'QmfgL lbFb}cfPsf]5 . xfn @)&% ;fn b]lv o; ljefun] k|;f/0fsf] sfo{ ;d]t ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5  . o; ljefun] k|;f/0flt/ /]l8of] ;~rfng ;+:yf, /fli6«o 6]lnlehg ;~rfng tyf ljt/s ;+:yf, ljb]zL 6]lnlehgsf] downlink tyf l;Ugn ljt/ s ;+:yfnfO{ Ohfht lbg] tyf lgodg ug]{ ul//x]sf] 5 eg] ;~rf/ pks/0f h:t} FM-transtimitter, jfsL–6fsL, VSAT, Digital Headend, Earth station, Amateur Radio nufotsf] nfO{;]G; hf/L ul//x]sf] 5  . ;fy} pQm pks/0fx¿sf] ljqmL–ljt/0fsf] nfO;]G; tyf cfoft l;kmfl/; tyf lgodg ;d]t ul//x]sf] 5  . cGt/f{li6«o k|rngcg';f/sf] Amateur Radio sf] k/LIffsf] Joj:yf ;d]t ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5  . -u_ k|]; sfplG;n g]kfn

k|]; sfplG;n g]kfn, ;~rf/u|fd, sf7df8f}F kqsfl/tfdf k]zfut pRrtd cfr/0f sfod /fvL :j:y, :jtGq / pQ/bfoL kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf; tyf ;+j4{gsf nflu k|; ] sfplG;n P]g, @)$* adf]lhd @)$* sflQs @* df k|; ] sfplG;n g]kfnsf] :yfkgf ePsf] xf]  . kqsfl/tf;DaGwL gLltut s'/fx¿ ;do–;dodf cjnf]sg u/L ;DalGwt If]qsf] /fo ;Nnfx lnO{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg], kqsfl/tfsf] k]zfut g]kfn kl/ro÷311

dof{bf / pQ/bfloTj sfod ug],{ :j:y kqsfl/tf ljsf;sf nflu cfrf/ ;+lxtf tof/ u/L sfof{Gjog / cg'udg ug],{ kqklqsf juL{s/0f ug],{ kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;sf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg], kqsfl/tfsf] ljt/0f l:yltsf] cBfjlws clen]v /fVg], kqklqsfdf k|sflzt ;dfrf/;uF ;DalGwt ljifonfO{ lnP/ s;}n] sfplG;ndf ph'/L lbPdf ;f] ;DaGwdf cfjZos sf/afxL ug],{ kqklqsfsf] ultljlw Pjd\ j:tl' :yltaf/] cWoog / d"Nofª\sg;lxtsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg ;/sf/;dIf k]z ug]h { :tf sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ k|; ] sfplG;n g]kfnsf] /xbF } cfPsf] 5  . kqsfl/tfdf ljz]if of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf kqsf/x¿, ;Dkfbsx¿, k|sfzsx¿, >dhLjL kqsf/x¿sf ;fy} ;flxlTos kqsfl/tf;Fu ;DalGwt dxfg'efjx¿;d]tsf] k|ltlglwTj u/fO{ sfplG;nsf] u7g ul/Psf] 5  . k|; ] sfplG;n P]g, @)$* / k|; ] sfplG;n -sfo{ Joj:yf_ lgodfjnL, @)$( adf]lhd k|; ] sfplG;n g]kfnsf] lgoldt sfo{x¿sf] Joj:yfkg x'bF } cfPsf] 5  . -3_ g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;ª\3 b]ze/sf kqsf/x¿sf] 5ftf ;ª\u7g g]kfn kqsf/ dxf;ª\3sf] :yfkgf lj=;+= @)[email protected] ;fn r}t !^ ut] ePsf] xf]  . o;sf ;+:yfks cWoIf k"j{k|wfgdGqL s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{ x'g\  . ;a} lhNnfdf lhNnf zfvf /x]sf] o; dxf;ª\3sf] k|d'v p2]Zo Pjd\ sfo{x¿ o; k|sf/5g\ M • g]kfn /fHoe/ cfd;~rf/sf ljleGg If]qdf lqmofzLn kqsf/x¿nfO{ Ps ;"qdf cfa4 u/L Jofj;flos g]t[Tj k|bfg ug]{  • kqsf/x¿sf] Jofj;flos xs lxtsf nflu g]t[Tj k|bfg ub}{ pgLx¿sf] xs clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ lqmofzLn /xg]  • lhDd]jf/, pQ/bfoL, cg'zfl;t kqsfl/tfsf] ;+:yfut ljsf;df lqmofzLn x'Fb} k|]; :jtGqtfsf] cfbz{nfO{ kl/kfngf ug]{  • /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf lqmofzLn kqsfl/tf If]q;Fu ;DalGwt ;ª\3 ;+:yfx¿;Fu ;f}xfb{|k"0f{ ;DaGw lj:tf/ ug]{ tyf ljleGg b]zsf ;ª\3 ;+:yfx¿;Fu k|ltlglwx¿sf] cfbfgk|bfg ug]{  • kqsfl/tf If]q;Fu ;DalGwt ljifodf cWoog, cg';Gwfg, ;ef, ;Dd]ng, uf]li7, k|lzIf0f cflb ;~rfng ug]{  • kqsf/hutsf]lxtsf nflu cGo cfjZos sfd ug]{   312÷g]kfn

kl/ro

kl/R5]b M bz

g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLlt / cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw !)=! g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLlt / o;sf d"n cfwf/x¿ /f0ffsfn ;'? x'ge ' Gbfcl3 g]kfnsf] j}bl] zs ;DaGw lj:tf/ x'g ;s]sf] lyPg  . /f0ff k|wfgdGqL hËaxfb'/ /f0ffn] /f0ff zf;gnfO{ cIf'0f / lr/:yfoL agfpg c+uh ]| x¿nfO{ v'zL kfg]{ gLlt ckgfPsf lyP  . o;} p2]Zon] pgn] ef/tnufot a]nfotsf] ;d]t e|d0f u/s ] f lyP  . hª\uaxfb'/ /f0ffn] ckgfPsf] gLltnfO{ pgsf pQ/flwsf/Lx¿n] klg ckgfP  . t/ ;g\ !($& df c+uh ]| x¿ ef/taf6 lkmtf{ x'g afWo ePkl5 g]kfnsf /f0ff zf;sx¿ sdhf]/ aGg k'u ] . kl/0ffd:j¿k /f0ff zf;gsf] ktg eO{ g]kfndf k|hftGqsf] :yfkgf eof]  . lj=;+= @))& ;fn;Dd ef/t, a]nfot, k|mfG; / ;+oQ' m /fHo cd]l/sf u/L rf/ d'ns ' x¿;Fu bf}To ;DaGw sfod e};s]sfn] /f0ffsfnsf] cGTolt/ j}bl] zs ;DaGw lj:tf/df s]xL ljljwLs/0f b]lvP klg k//fi6« gLltsf] 7f]; cfwf/ eg] tof/ ePsf] lyPg  . /f0ffzf;gsf] ktg eO{ k|hftGqsf] pbo ePkl5 tTsfnLg PstkmL{ k//fi6« gLltdf kl/jt{g cfof] / g]kfnn] cGt/fl{ i6«o ;ef ;Dd]ngdf ;lqmotfsf ;fy efu lng yfNof]  . ;+oQ' m /fi6« ;ª\3sf] d"No / dfGotfk|lt cf:yf, c;+nUgtf Pjd\ l5d]sL d'ns ' x¿;Fu d}qLk"0f{ ;DaGw g} g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLltsf k|dv ' cfwf/x¿ x'g \ . g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLltsf k|d'v cfwf/x¿nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5M != c;+nUgtf s'g} zlQm /fi6«sf]] ;}lgs u7aGwgdf ;+nUg g/xL cGt/fl{ i6«o 36gfqmdk|lt lg/kI] f jf t6:y b[li6sf]0f cjnDag ug'{ g} c;+nUgtf xf]  . c;+Ungtf eg]sf] s'g} u7aGwgaf6 :jtGq /xg' xf]  . t/ ljZj 36gfk|lt df}gbz{s aGg' sbflk xf]Og  . g]kfn kl/ro÷313

g]kfn k|f/Deb]lv g} c;+nUg cfGbf]ngdf ;lqmo ¿kdf ;xefuL x'bF } cfPsf] 5  . @= k~rzLnk|lt cf:yf cGt/fl{ i6«o ;DaGw lj:tf/sf] qmddf k~rzLnsf] lgDglnlvt kfFr a'bF fx¿nfO{ k|dv ' cfwf/sf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5 h'g g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLltsf] Ps dxŒjk"0f{ cfwf/ xf]M != Psn] csf]{ d'n'ssf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}ldstf / If]qLo cv08tfsf] ;Ddfg ug]{ @= csf{sf] cfGtl/s dfldnfdf x:tIf]k gug]{ #= ;dfgtf / kf/:kl/s lxt sfod ug]{ $= cgfqmd0f -Psn] csf]{ d'n'slj¿4 cfqmd0f gug]{_ %= zflGtk"0f{ ;xcl:tTjsf] efjgfnfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{  #= ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3k|lt cf:yf ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3k|lt cf:yf / ljZjf; /fVb} ljZj zflGt / /fi6«/fi6«lar d}qL / ;xof]u clej[l4 ug{ o;sf] e"ldsf / k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbOFb} cfPsf] 5  . ljZjzflGtsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3cGt{ut n]jgfg / Oh/fonsf] ;LdfIf]q, o'uf]:nfleof / ;f]dflnof cflb d'n'sx¿df zflGt ;]gf v6fOPsf] 5  . $= If]qLo ;xof]u clej[l4 ug{ hf]8 l5d]sL d'n'sx¿lar ;xof]u / ;dembf/L a9fpg ;g\ !(*% df :yflkt blIf0f Pl;ofnL If]qLo ;xof]u ;ª\u7g -;fs{_ pko'Qm x'g] x'Fbf o;sf] k|efjsfl/tf / ;'b[9Ls/0fsf nflu g]kfnn] hf]8 lb+b} cfPsf] 5  . ;fs{ ;lrjfnosf] :yfkgf g]kfndf x'g'nfO{ o;} kl/k|]Iodf x]g{ ;lsG5  . o;}u/L g]kfn ax'kIfLo k|fljlws tyf cfly{s ;xof]usf nflu a+ufn vf8Lsf] k|of; -laD:6]s_, Pl;of ;xof]u jftf{, ;fª\3fO{ ;xof]u ;ª\u7g cflb h:tf If]qLo ;xof]u ;ª\u7gdf ;d]t cfa4 /x]sf] 5  . %= lgMz:qLs/0f z:qf:qsf] xf]8afhLnfO{ Go"g u/L To; If]qdf eO/x]sf] cyfx wg/flznfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo cflb If]qdf nufgL u/L ;fdflhs ;]jfsf] :t/ a9fpg'kg]{ Pjd\ cf0fljs xftxltof/ x6fpg] s'/fdf g]kfnn] cfˆgf] cfjfh a'nGb agfPsf] 5  . ^= e"kl/j]li7t d'n'ssf] xslxtsf] ;'/Iff g]kfn Ps ;fgf] tyf ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n's ePsf]n] ;a} e"kl/j]li7t d'n'sx¿n] Joxf]g'{k/]sf] ;d:ofsf] plrt ¿kdf lg/fs/0f ub}{ oL d'n'sx¿sf] xs lxt ;'/lIft ug'{kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbFb} cfPsf] 5  . 314÷g]kfn

kl/ro

&= ;fgf tyf cljsl;t d'n'sx¿sf] xslxtsf] ;'/Iff g]kfn Ps ;fgf] tyf ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n's ePsfn] o;n] cfkm"h:tf d'n'sx¿sf] xslxt clej[l4 ug{ If]qLo / cGt/f{li6«o d~rx¿df hf]8 lb+b} cfPsf] 5  . *= ;d:ofsf] zflGtk"0f{ ;dfwfg s'g} klg cGt/f{li6«o ljjfbx¿sf] zflGtk"0f{ ;dfwfg x'g'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lb+b} an k|of]u, wDsL tyf o'4 s'g} klg ;d:ofsf] :yfoL ;dfwfg xf]Og eGg] s'/fdf g]kfn ljZj:t 5  . (= c;n l5d]sLkgsf] efjgf g]kfn b'O{ 7'nf7'nf d'n's -ef/t / rLg_ åf/f 3]l/Psf] ;fgf] d'n's ePsfn] oL b'j}d'n's;Fu ;Gt'lnt /;'dw'/;DaGw sfod ub}{ljZjsf cGo d'n'sx¿;Fu klg d}qLk"0f{ ;DaGw sfod ug]{ gLlt g]kfnn] lnPsf] 5  . !)= bafa / e]befjsf] lj/f]w g]kfnn] ;fd|fHojfb, pklgj]zjfb, gjpklgj]zjfb, lj:tf/jfb, hft tyf /+ue]befj, k|e'Tjjfb cflbsf] v'Nnf ¿kdf lj/f]w ub}{ :jfwLgtf Pjd\ /+ue]blj/f]wL cfGbf]ngsf] ;dy{g ub}{ cfPsf] 5  . !!= :jtGq k//fi6« gLlt g]kfnn] ljZj /+ud~rdf s;}sf] cg'ofoL geO{ cfˆgf] Goflos dg / ljj]ssf] k|of]u u/L :jtGq ¿kdf cfˆgf] :ki6 cjwf/0ff /fVb} cfPsf] x'Fbf g]kfn c;+Ung /fi6« eP klg ljZjdf 36\g]36gfx¿k|lt ;+j]bgzLn x'Fb}cfPsf]5 . !)[email protected] g]kfnsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGw M P]ltxfl;s l;+xfjnf]sg g]kfn b'O{ ljzfn l5d]sL d'ns ' x¿ ef/t / rLglardf cjl:yt Ps e"kl/jl] i7t /fHo xf]  . b]zsf] cl:dtfnfO{ hf]ufO/fVg g]kfn slxn] ltAat / rLg;Fu h'Wg'k¥of] t slxn] cª\uh ]| ;Fu  . ljutdf Hofb} sl7g lbgx¿df klg g]kfn s;}sf] cwLgdf /xg] , cfˆgf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf / :jtGqtfnfO{ hf]ufO{ /fVg ;Ifd eof]  . ;g\ !*!^ dfr{ $ -lj=;+= !*[email protected]_ df ePsf] ;'uf}nL ;lGwkZrft\ g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLltn] gofF lbzf lnPsf] b]lvG5 eg] a]nfot;Fu s"6gLlts ;DaGw :yfkgf ePkl5 g]kfnsf]cfw'lgs ljZj;Fu lgoldt ;Dks{ ;'? ePsf]dfGg ;lsG5 . g]kfnsf] k//fi6« ;DaGwsf] cf}krfl/s ;'?jft eg] ;g\ !*%) df hª\uaxfb'/ /f0ffn] a]nfotsf] e|d0f u/; ] uF } k|f/De ePsf] kfOG5   . To:t} ;g\ !(@# df rGb|;d;]/sf kfnfdf la|l6; ;/sf/ / g]kfnlar zflGt / d}qL ;lGwdf x:tfIf/ ePsf] lyof]  . lj=;+= @))& ;fnsf] /fhg}lts kl/jt{gkZrft\ rLg, ;f]leot ;ª\3 / k|mfG;;Fu g]kfnsf] bf}To ;DaGw :yfkgf ePkl5 g]kfn cGt/fl{ i6«o g]kfn kl/ro÷315

If]qdf k|jz ] u/s ] f] xf]  . !$ l8;]Da/ !(%% df g]kfn ;+oQ ' m /fi6« ;ª\3sf] ;b:o alg Pk|mf] PlzofnL ;ª\u7gsf] afª8'ª ;Dd]ngdf efu lnof]  . ;g\ !(^! b]lv c;+nUg /fi6«x¿sf] lzv/ ;Dd]ngdf ;lDdlnt eO{ ;lqmo ;b:osf ¿kdf g]kfnn] cfhko{Gt ljZjsf] ljleGg d~rx¿df efu lnFb} cfPsf] 5  . c;+nUg lzv/ ;Dd]ngdf g]kfnn] pklgj]zjfb, hftLjfb, /ªu\ e]b gLlt, e"kl/jl] i7t /fi6«x¿sf] kf/jxg clwsf/ cflb ljifox¿df cfˆgf] wf/0ff /fVb} cfPsf] 5  . c;+nUg k//fi6« gLlts} sf/0f g]kfnsf] cGt/fl{ i6«o hutdf s'g} klg afx\o bafa /xs ] f] 5}g / of] g} g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLltsf] cfwf/ :tDe aGg k'us ] f] 5  . ;+oQ ' m /fi6« ;ª\3sf] 3f]if0ff kqcg';f/ g]kfnn] a]nfa]nfdf lgz:qLs/0f, /u+ e]b gLlt pklgj]zjfbsf] lj/fw] Pjd\ s'g} klg b]zdf ljb]zL kmf}hsf] x:tIf]k ljgf;t{ x6fpg'kb{5 eGg] b[li6sf]0f /fVb} cfPsf] 5  . kmn:j¿k g]kfn b'O{ k6s;Dd ;'/Iff kl/ifb\sf] ;b:odf ;d]t lgjf{lrt eof]  . ;+oQ ' m /fi6« ;ª\3n] u7g u/s ] f] ;ldltx¿df klg g]kfn ;+nUg ePsf] 5  . c;+nUg k//fi6« gLltn] ljZj ;d'bfolardf g]kfnsf] ;sf/fTds 5lj lgdf{0f u/s ] f] 5  . g]kfnn] ;+oQ ' m /fi6« ;ª\3cGtu{tsf ljleGg lgsfox¿sf] ;b:otf;d]t k|fKt u/s ] f] 5  . c;+nUg cfGbf]ngsf] Ps ;+:yfks ;b:o ePsf] gftfn] g]kfn ljZjzflGtsf] sfdgf ub{5  . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf / /fli6«o lxtsf] /Iff ug{ ls|ofzLn /xbF } ;+oQ ' m /fi6« ;ª\3sf] a8fkq, c;+nUgtf, k~rzLnsf] l;4fGt, cGt/fl{ i6«o sfg'g / ljZjzflGtsf] dfGotfsf cfwf/df /fi6«sf] ;jf]k{ l/ lxtnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL :jtGq k//fi6« gLlt ;~rfng ug]{ tyf ljutdf ePsf ;lGwx¿sf] k'g/fjnf]sg ub}{ ;dfgtf / kf/:kl/s lxtsf] cfwf/df ;lGw ;Demf}tfx¿ ug]{ u/L cGt/fl{ i6«o ;DaGw lgb]l{ zt x'g] s'/f pNn]v u/s ] f] 5 . o;}cg'¿k ;+oQ ' m /fi6« ;ª\3sf]a8fkq, c;+nUgtf, k~rzLnsf]l;4fGt, cGt/fl{ i6«o sfg'g / ljZj zflGtsf] dfGotfsf] cfwf/df g} xfn g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLlt ;~rfng x'bF } cfPsf] 5  . l5d]sL ldq /fi6«x¿ / cGo ;a} d'ns ' x¿l;t cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pjd\ cGo If]qdf ;dfgtfsf] cfwf/df ;xof]ufTds ;';DaGw sfod u/L g]kfndf zflGtnfO{ cGt/fl{ i6«o dfGotfsf] cfwf/df ;+:yfut ub}{ hfg] gLlt /fHon] cjnDag ug]5 { eGg] Joj:yf u/L b]zsf] k//fi6« gLlt / cGt/fl{ i6«o ;DaGw cufl8 a9fpg g]kfn k|lta4 /xs ] f] k|i6 x'G5  . xfn g]kfn ;ª\3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq ag]sf] kl/kI]| odf o;sf] d"n ;+/rgf ;ª\3, k|bz ] / :yfgLo tx u/L tLg txsf] /xs ] f] eP klg g]kfnsf] k//fi6« gLlt, cGt/fl{ i6«o ;DaGw / s"6gLltsf] ;~rfng ug]{ Psn clwsf/ ;ª\3 cGtu{t /xs ] f] 5  . k|bz ] / :yfgLo txn] ;ª\3;Fusf] k/fdz{, ;dGjo / :jLs[ltdf dfq cGt/fl{ i6«o ;DaGwsf ljifox¿df sfo{ ug{;Sg] Joj:yf ;+ljwfgdf g} /xs ] f] 5  . 316÷g]kfn

kl/ro

g]kfn /clk|msL d'ns ' 3fgf ;g\ 2021 d] 24 df s"6gLlts ;DaGw :yfkgf ePkl5 g]kfn;Fu s"6gLlts ;DaGw :yfkgf ug]{ d'ns ' sf] ;ª\Vof !&) k'us ] f] 5  . tflnsf g+= !)=! s'6gLlts :t/df lj=;+= @))& ;fn k"j{ g]kfnsf] bf}To ;DaGw ePsf d'n'sx¿ qm=;+=

/fi6« bf}To ;DaGw ePsf] ldlt != ;+o'Qm clw/fHo-a]nfot_ lj=;+= !*[email protected] -;g\ !*!^_ @= ;o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf lj=;[email protected]))$ a}zfv [email protected] -;g\ !($& clk|n @%_

#= ef/t $= k|mfG;

lj=;+= @))$ h]7 #! -;g\ !($& h'g !#_ lj=;++= @))^ a}zfv * -;g\ !($( clk|n @)_

@))& ;fnkl5 g]kfnsf]bf}To ;DaGw ePsf d'n'sx¿ qm=;+= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

/fi6« rLg ;f]leot ;ª\3 hfkfg :jL6h/NofG8 >Lnª\sf OlhK6 hd{gL cl:6«of O6fnL ;la{of kf]NofG8 dn]l;of lkmlnlkG; c:6«]lnof Dofgdf/ kfls:tfg g]b/NofG8 nfcf];

;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\

bf}To ;DaGw ePsf] ldlt 1955 cui^ 1 1956 h'nfO{ 20 1956 ;]K^]Da/ 1 1956 gf]e]Da/ 10 1957 h'nfO{ 1 1957 h'nfO{ 16 1958 clk|n 4 1959 cui^ 15 1959 cui^ 31 1959 cS^f]a/ 7 1959 gf]e]Da/ 25 1960 hgj/L 1 1960 km]a| 'c®L 12 1960 km]a| 'c®L 15 1960 dfr{ 19 1960 dfr{ 20 1960 clk|n 2 1960 d]20 g]kfn kl/ro÷317

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 318÷g]kfn

Oh/fon l:j8]g yfONofG8 OG8f]g]l;of dª\uf]lnof xª\u/L Go'lhNofG8 ckmuflg:yfg ch]{lG6gf lrnL lu|; 6sL{ n]agfg d]lNhod O/fg Sofg8f hf]8{g 8]gdfs{ a'Nu]l/of /f]dflgof cNh]l/of :k]g O/fs l;ª\ufk'/ ;'8fg l;l/of Olyof]lkof s'a]t aª\unfb]z cNaflgof ga]{ kl/ro

;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;\g ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g] ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\

1960 h'g 1 1960 h'g 10 1959 gf]e]Da® 30 1960 l8;]Da® 25 1961 hgj®L 5 1961 hgj®L 15 1961 d]1 1961 h'nfO{ 1 1962 hgj®L 1 1962 1962 km]a|'c®L 2 1962 gf]e]Da® 15 1963 cui^ 18 1963 cui^ 19 1964 l8;]Da® 14 1965 hgj®L 18 1965 cui^ 20 1967 l8;]Da® 15 1968 clk|n 15 1968 clk|n 20 1968 clk|n 29 1968 d] 13 1968 cS^f]a® 30 1969 dfr{ 25 1969 h'nfO{ 11 1970 km]a| 'c®L 26 1971 clk|n 15 1972 km]a|'c®L 25 1972 clk|n 8 1972 d]23 1973 hgj®L 26

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

pQ/ sf]l/of blIf0f sf]l/of lkmgNofG8 tfGhflgof df]/Ssf] So'jf sDaf]l8of leotgfd s]Gof d]lS;sf] nShau{ gfOh]l/of lnlaof k]? a|flhn kf]r'{un ax/fOg cf]dfg stf/ ;+o'St c/j Old/]6; ;fpbL ca/ sf]:6fl/sf dflNbE; ;fOk|; df}l/;; cfO;NofG8 e]6fg xf]ln;L dfN6f a|'gfO{ kfgfdf

;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\

1974 d]15 1974 d]15 1974 ;]D^]Da® 21 1975 hgj®L 10 1975 km]a|'c®L 18 1975 dfr{ 25 1975 clk|n 18 1975 d]15 1975 h'g 3 1975 gf]e]Da® 25 1975 gf]e]Da® 25 1975 l8;]Da® 20 1975 l8;]Da® 30 1976 hgj®L 28 1976 km]a|'c®L 7 1976 ;]K^]Da® 1 1977 hgj®L 13 1977 hgj®L 21 1977 hgj®L 21 1977 hgj®L 22 1977 dfr{ 15 1977 cui^ 16 1980 cui^ 1 1980 cui^ 18 1981 km]a|'c®L 12 1981 d]25 1983 h'g 3 1983 ;]K^]Da® 10 1983 ;]K^]Da® 25 1984 km]a|'csf 3 1984 km]a|'c®L 15 g]kfn kl/ro÷319

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 320÷g]kfn

6\o'lgl;of ;f]dflnof lhDafAj] ufaf]g l/klAns odg lkmhL hflDaof df]hflDas lgsf/fu'jf e]g]h'onf sf]nlDaof af]lnleof Oyf]lkof nf6leof o'qm]g cd]l/sf sfhls:yfg a]nf?; df]n8f]ef r]s l/klAns ;f]Nefs l/klAns luofgf ;fpy clk|msf cha}{hfg ;]lrn]; :nf]eflgof d]l;8f]lgof qmf]Plzof cfo/NofG8 af]l:gof ch{uf]legf No'yflgof kl/ro

;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\

1984 clk|n 14 1984 cS^f]a® 24 1984 gf]e]Da® 27 1985 h'g 17 1985 l8;]Da® 25 1986 h'g 12 1986 ;]K^]Da® 10 1986 ;]K^]Da® 30 1986 cS^f]a® 5 1987 clk|n 28 1987 d]7 1987 d]21 1992 clk|n 20 1992 clk|n 20 1993 hgj®L 15 1993 dfr{ 26 1993 dfr{ 26 1993 h'nfO{ 19 1993 h'nfO{ 20 1994 dfr{ 2 1994 dfr{ 4 1994 h'g 2 1994 h'nfO{ 28 1995 km]a|'c®L 28 1996 cS^f]a® 10 1997 l8;]Da® 2 1998 hgj®L 6 1998 km]a| 'c®L 6 1999 cui^ 19 2000 hgj®L 12 2005 km]a|'c®L 8

112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142

;fg dfl/of] l/klAns ckm tfhls:tfg hlh{of t'ls{ldlg:yfg OSj]8/ kf/fUj] Ujf6]dfnf xf]G8'/; efg'c6 cfG8f]/f s+uf] xfO6L ;]G6 leG;]G6 8f]ldlgs l/klAns af]:jfgf dfnL n];f]yf] df]G6]g]u|f] ;f]ndg OhNof08 p?Uj] df]gfsf] :nflds l/klAns ckm df}l/6flgof 6'efn' OG8]k]G8]G6 :6]6 ckm ;fdf] kk'jf Go'lugL sfhls:tfg hd}sf l/klAns ckm lugL O;fNef8f]/ o'ufG8f sf]6 l8ef]O/

;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\

2005 cui^ 10 2005 ;]K^]Da® 13 2005 ;]K^]Da® 22 2005 cS^f]a®L 17 2006 h'g 21 2006 cui^ 2 2006 cui^ 8 2006 cui^ 18 2006 ;]K^]Da® 19 2006 ;]K^]Da® 22 2006 ;]K^]Da® 22 2007 d]23 2007 ;]K^]Da® 27 2007 ;]K^]Da® 28 2009 hgj®L 8 2009 gf]e]Da® 19 2010 d]18 2011 h'nfO{ 18 2011 l8;]Da® 15 2012 clk|n 18 2012 d]15 2012 l8;]Da® 4 2012 l8;]Da® 11 2013 dfr{ 28 2013 clk|n 12 2015 h'g 30 2015 cS^f]j® 1 2016 d]12 2016 ;]K^]Da® 21 2017 h'g 12 2017 h'g 16 g]kfn kl/ro÷321

143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166

l/klAns ckm l8af]6L PG6\o'u P08 afa'{8f sfaf] e]8{ nfOa]l/of lgu/ Ol/:6«f axfd; lnr6]G;l6g P+uf]nf a'ls{gfkmf;f] lagLg pHh]ls:tfg ;]G6 ls6\; P0g gfeL a'?G8L ?jfG8f d8sf:s/ ;'/]gfdL 6f]uf] OSjf6f]l/n lhgLof O:jfl6gL ;]G6 n'l;of 3fgf 8f]ldlgsf uflDaof

;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\ ;g\

2017 h'nfO{ 14 2017 h'nfO{ 25 2017 cui^ 3 2017 cui^ 17 2017 ;]K^]Da® 20 2017 cS^f]j® 31 2017 gf]e]Da® 7 2017 gf]e]Da® 24 2017 l8;]Da® 9 2017 l8;]Da® 29 2018 hgj®L 23 2018 hgj®L 26 2018 d]30 2019 h'g 6 2019 hnfO{ 20 2018 l8;]Da® 26 2018 cS^f]a® 11 2019 dfr{ 22 2019 clk|n 30 2019 d]9 2019 cui^ 27 2019 ;]K^]Da® 25 2021 clk|n 30 2021 d] 24 ;|f]t M k//fi6« dGqfno

!= ci6]«lnof %= a|flhn (= OlhK6 322÷g]kfn

kl/ro

tflnsf g+= !)[email protected] g]kfnL cfjf;Lo /fhb'tfjf; /x]sf d'n'sx¿ @= ax/fOg #= a+unfb]z $= a]lNhod ^= Sofg8f &= rLg *= 8]gdfs{ !)= k|mfG; !!=hd{gL [email protected]= ef/t

!#= Oh/fon !&= dn]l;of @!= stf/

!$= hfkfg !*= Dofgdf/ @@= /l;of

@%= >Lnª\sf

@^= YffONof08

@(= ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf

#)= :k]g

!%= blIf0f sf]l/of !(= cf]dfg @#= ;fpbL c/]laof @&= ;+o'Qm c/a Old/]6\;

!^= s'j]t @)= kfls:tfg @$= blIf0f clk|msf @*= ;+o'Qm clw/fHo

tflnsf g+= !)=# g]kfndf cfjf;Lo /fhb'tfjf; ePsf ljb]zL d'n'sx¿ != ci6«]lnof @= aª\unfb]z #= a|flhn $= u0ftGq rLg %= 8]gdfs{ ^= OlhK6 &= lkmgNofG8 *= k|mfG; (= hd{gL !)= ef/t !!= Oh/fon [email protected]=hfkfg !#= pQ/ sf]l/of !$= blIf0f !%= dn]l;of !^= Dofgdf/ sf]l/of !&= gj]{ !*= kfls:tfg !(= stf/ @)= /l;of @!= ;fpbL c/a @@= >Ln+sf @#= l:jh/NofG8 @$= yfONofG8 @%= ;+o'Qm @^= ;+o'Qm /fHo @&= ;+o'Qm c/ a clw/fHo cd]l/sf Old/]6\; ;|f]t M k//fi6« dGqfno, @)&& j}zfv

!)=# ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3 / g]kfn ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3sf] :yfkgf @$ cS6f]a/ !($% df ePsf] xf]  . ljZjdf ;d:t dfgjsf] lxtnfO{ x]/L o;sf] 3f]if0ff kqdf zflGt, ;dfgtf, ;xof]u / ;Dks{nfO{ k|fyldstf lbOPsf] 5  . g]kfnn] !$ l8;]Da/ !(%% df ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3sf] ;b:otf k|fKt u¥of]  . ;b:otf k|fKt u/]b]lv g} ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3df g]kfnsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf / of]ubfg /xFb} cfPsf] 5  . O{=;= !(^# df cf]dfgsf] k|ZgnfO{ lnP/ u7g ePsf] kfFr ;b:oLo ;ldltdf g]kfn klg /x]sf] lyof]  . g]kfn O{=;= !(^& df /ª\ue]b;DaGwL ljif]z ;ldltsf] pkfWoIfdf / kl5 sf=d'= cWoIf;d]t ePsf] lyof]  . g]kfn ;g\ !(^(–&) / !(**–*( u/L g]kfn kl/ro÷323

b'O{ k6s ;'/Iff kl/ifb\sf] c:yfoL ;b:odf lgjf{lrt ePsf] lyof]  . o:t} ;g\ !(&$ / !(*& df o'g]:sf] sfo{sfl/0fL kl/ifb\df tyf ljleGg ;ldltdf /x]/ sfo{ ug]{ cj;/ g]kfnn] kfPsf] 5  . ljZjdf zflGt / ;'/Iff sfod /fVg g]kfn k|x/L / g]kfnL ;]gfnfO{ ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3Lo zflGt ;]gfdf ;g\ !(%* b]lv g]kfnn] v6fpFb} cfPsf] 5  . ;g\ !(*! sf] ;]K6]Da/df k]l/;df cfof]lht cNkljsl;t b]zx¿sf] /fi6« ;ª\3Lo d'n'sx¿sf] tkm{af6 /fhf jL/]Gb|af6 dxŒjk"0f{ ;Daf]wg ePsf] lyof]  . c/a Oh/fonlarsf] o'4 lj/fdsf] /]vb]v ug{ g]kfnn] ;}lgs k7fPsf] lyof]  . ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3sf] cfx\jfgdf ljZjsf ljleGg b]zx¿df zflGt :yfkgf ug{ g]kfnL ;]gfn] ljz]if e"ldsf v]Nb} cfPsf] 5 . h;sf]ljZj ;d'bfoaf6 pRr d"Nofª\sg eO/x]sf]5 . xfn;Dd hDdf !# hgf JolQmx¿n] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3sf nflu :yfoL k|ltlglw eO{ sfo{ ul/;s]sf 5g\  . uf}td a'4sf] hGd:yn n'lDagLnfO{ ljZje/ lrgfpg] p2]Zon] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3n] ;g\ !(*# df …ljZj zflGt jif{Ú ;d]t dgfPsf] lyof]  . g]kfn ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3 dfgj clwsf/ kl/ifb\sf] ;b:odf ;g\ @)!*–@)@) ;Ddsf nflu Pl;of Kofl;lkms ;d"xaf6 lgjf{lrt ePsf]5 . tflnsf g+= !)=$ g]kfnn] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3sf ljlzli6s[t ;+:yfx¿sf] ;b:otf lnPsf] ldlt qm=;+= ;+:yf != cGt/f{li6«o >d ;ª\u7g (ILO) @= vfB tyf s[lif ;ª\u7g (FAO) ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3Lo z}lIfs, j}1flgs / #= ;f+:s[lts ;ª\u7g (UNESCO) $= ljZj :jf:Yo ;ª\u7g (WHO) %= ljZj a}ª\s ;d"x (IBRD) ^= cGt/f{li6«o d'b|f sf]if (IMF) &= cGt/f{li6«o gful/s p8\8og ;ª\u7g (ICAO)

*= (=

ljZj x'nfs ;ª\3 (UPU) cGt/f{li6«o b"/;~rf/ ;ª\3

(ITU)

!)= ljZj xfjfkfgL lj1fg ;ª\u7g 324÷g]kfn

kl/ro

(WMO)

ldlt !(^^ @& gf]e]Da/ !(%! ! d] !(%# !) d] !(%$ ^ ;]K6]Da/ !(^! ^ ;]K6]Da/ !(^! @( h'nfO{ !(%^ !! h'nfO{ !(%^ % l8;]Da/ !(%& % d] !(&*

!!=

cGt/f{li6«o ;fd'lb|s ;ª\u7g (IMO)

lif ljsf;sf nflu cGt/f{li6«o sf]if [email protected]= s[ (IFAD) ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;ª\3Lo cf}Bf]lus ljsf; ;ª\u7g (UNIDO) !$= ljZj jf}l4s ;DklQ ;+u7g (WIPO)

#! hgj/L !(&( % d] !(&*

!#=

& l8;]Da/ !(*#

!%= ljZj ko{6g ;+u7g (UNWTO)

!(&%

!)=$ ;fs{ / g]kfn

!*cf}F ;fs{ ;Dd]ng pb\3f6g ;df/f]x, g]kfn ;g\ !(*% l8;]Da/ & / * df a+unfb]zsf] /fhwfgL 9fsfdf /fi6«WoIf tyf k|d'vx¿n] efu lnPsf] k|yd zfs{ lzv/ ;Dd]ngn] blIf0f PlzofnL /fi6«x¿sf] If]qLo ;xof]u ;ª\u7g (SAARC) sf] ljlwjt :yfkgf u/L ;fs{ a8fkqsf] cg'df]bg u¥of]  . blIf0f Pl;ofnL If]qLo ;xof]u ;ª\u7g ;fs{df a+unfb]z, ef/t, g]kfn, kfls:tfg, e'6fg, >Ln+sf, dflNbE; / ckmuflg:tfg u/L cf7 /fi6«x¿ /x]sf 5g\  . ;fs{sf] ;lrjfno sf7df8fF}df /x]sf] 5  . o;sf] :yfkgf ;g\ !(*^ df ePsf]xf] . ;fs{sf] :yfkgfkZrft\ o; If]qsf /fi6«x¿lar ;xof]u, ;dembf/L, ;dfgtf / ;'/Iffsf] jftfj/0f ;[hgf ePsf] 5  . g]kfnn] ;fs{sf] k|j4{gnfO{ cfˆgf] k//fi6« gLlts} cleGg c+u agfPsf] 5 / g]kfn ;fs{sf] k|j4{gk|lt lgi7fjfg /x]sf] 5  . ;fs{sf] ;kmntfaf6 g]kfnn] o; If]qdf b]vfk/]sf ;a} ;femf ;d:ofx¿ ;dfwfg x'g ;Sb5g\ eGg]s'/fdf  ljZjf; /fVb5 . g]kfn kl/ro÷325

qm= ;+= ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( !) !! [email protected] !# !$ !%

tflnsf g+= !)=% xfn;Dd ePsf ;fs{ lzv/ ;Dd]ngx¿ g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 :yfg ldlt efu lng] JolQm 9fsf, aª\unfb]z /fhf jL/]Gb| ;g\ !(*% l8;]Da/ & / * a}ª\unf]/, ef/t /fhf jL/]Gb| ;g\ !(*^ gf]e]Da/ !& / !* sf7df8f}F, g]kfn /fhf jL/]Gb| ;g\ !(*& gf]e]Da/ @—$ O:nfdfjfb, /fhf jL/]Gb| ;g\ !(** l8;]Da/ @(—#! kfls:tfg dfn], dfnlbE; s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{ ;g\ !(() gf]e]Da/ @!—@# sf]nDaf], >Ln+sf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;g\ !((! l8;]Da/ @! 9fsf, a+unfb]z lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;g\ !((# clk|n !)—!! gofF lbNnL, ef/t dgdf]xg clwsf/L ;g\ !((% dO{ @—$ dfn], dfnlbE; nf]s]Gb|axfb'/ rGb ;g\ !((& dO{ [email protected]—!$ sf]nDaf], >Ln+sf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;g\ !((* h'nfO{ @(—#! sf7df8fF}, g]kfn z]/axfb'/ b]pjf ;g\ @))@ hgj/L $—^ O:nfdfjfb, ;"o{axfb'/ yfkf ;g\ @))$ hgj/L $—^ kfls:tfg 9fsf, a+unfb]z /fhf 1fg]Gb| ;g\ @))% gf]eDa/ [email protected]—!# gofF lbNnL, ef/t lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;g\ @))& clk|n #–$ sf]nf]Daf], >Ln+sf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf ;g\ @))* cui6 @–#

!^ lyDk', e'6fg

dfwjs'df/ g]kfn

;g\ @)!) clk|n @*–@(

c8\8' ;x/, dflNbE;

8f=afa'/fd e§/fO{

;g\ @)!! gf]e]Da/ !)–!!

;'zLn sf]O/fnf

;g\ @)!$ gf]e]Da/ @^–@&

!&

!*= sf7df8f}F g]kfn !(=

O:nfdfjfb, kfls:tfg

326÷g]kfn

kl/ro

;g\ @)!^ gf]e]Dj/ !%—!^ df x'g] u/L to eP klg :ylut ePsf], k'gM ldlt tf]Sg'kg]{

k/:k/df sltko leGgtfx¿ xF'bfx'Fb} klg blIf0f PlzofnL /fi6«x¿ ul/aL lgjf/0f Pjd\ cfly{s ljsf;;d]tsf ;femf p2]Zox¿sf] kl/k"lt{sf] lglDt kf/:kl/s ;xof]usf] lj:tf/ ug{ jrga4 ePsf 5g\ / To;cg';f/ blIf0f Pl;ofnL /fi6«x¿larsf] Jofkfl/s ;DaGwnfO{ a9L ;'b[9 / ;xh agfpg] lx;fan] Jofkf/ ;x'lnot;DaGwL SAPTA (SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement) ;Demf}tf ug{;d]t ;kmn ePsf 5g\  . kf/:kl/s ;xof]u / ;DaGwnfO{ cem} a9L ;'wf/ / lj:tf/ ug'{kg]{ / ug{ ;lsg] s'/fdf ;d]t ;fs{ /fi6«x¿sf] lardf dt}So g} b]lvG5  . o;n]ubf{ eljiodf cem a9L pknlAwd"ns /;zQm ;+:yf  ;fs{ x'g]ljZjf; lng ;lsG5 . g]kfnn] ;fs{sf] s'n vr{sf] !)[email protected] k|ltzt lx:;f a]xf]b{5  . ;fs{ If]qLo ;+:yfx¿cGtu{t ;fs{ Ifo/f]u s]Gb| g]kfndf /x]sf] 5  . g]kfn;Fu ;j{k|yd bf}To ;DaGw sfod ePsf];fs{ d'n's ef/t -;g\ !($& h'g !#_ xf]eg] kl5Nnf] e'6fg -;g\ !(*# h'g #_ xf]  . If]qkmnsf] lx;fan] g]kfn ;fs{sf] kfrf}F 7'nf] /fi6« xf]  . g]kfnn] klxnf] / cf7f}F blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'b cfof]hgf ul/;s]sf] 5  . ;g\ @)!( df ePsf] !# cf}F blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'b g]kfnn] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof]  . !)=% g]kfn ef/t ;DaGwsf P]ltxfl;s ;lGw ;Demf}tfx¿ ;'uf}nL ;lGw g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;g\ !*!% d] @* df u'? uh/fh ld> Pjd\ rGb|z]v/ pkfWofonfO{ cfˆgf] k|ltlglw agfP/ sDkgL ;/sf/sf] k|ltlglw a|f8zfl;t ;lGwjftf{ rnfpg ;'uf}nL k7fPsf] lyof]  . t/ a|f8;fn] /fv]sf] sl7g ;t{n] ubf{ g]kfnn] ;lGw jftf{ rnfpg c:jLsf/ u/]kl5 of] jftf{ c;kmn ePsf] lyof]  . g]kfnnfO{ ;aeGbf a9L cfklQ /]lhd]G6 /fVg] s'/fdf lyof], lsgeg] c+u|]h b"tnfO{ ;fd|fHosf] cu|b"t 7fg]sf] lyof]  . To:tf] b"t pkTosfdf g/xFbf t cª\u|]hsf] x:tIf]k eO/x]sf] lyof] eg] b"t /x]df s] ug]{5 eGg] zª\sf lyof]  . bf];|f] cfklQsf] s'/f t/fO{ If]q lng' lyof]  . ;Dk"0f{ t/fO{ If]q lnP/ g]kfnnfO{ kxf8df dfq ;Lldt /fVGf] gLlt k|:6 b]lvGYof]  . t/ sDkgL ;/sf/n] /]lhd]G6 jf o'4dWo] Ps dfGg} kg]{ afWo agfOof]  . t/fO{ If]qsf] ;§f a;]{gL ?=b'O{ nfv lbg sDkgL ;/sf/n] :jLsf/ u¥of]  . o:tf] l:yltdf bf];|f]rf]6L ;lGw jftf{ ;'? eof] / @ l8;]Da/ !*!% df ;'uf}nL ;lGw eof]  . t/ of] ;lGwdf !% lbgleq g]kfnsf /fhfsf] :jLs[lt x'g'kg]{ lyof]  . sDkgL ;/sf/n] o; ;lGwdf !*!% l8;]Da/ ( df g} :jLs[lt lbO;s]sf] lyof] t/ g]kfn b/af/df 5nkmn x'Fbfx'Fb} ;dofjlw gfF3]sf]n] ;g\ !*!^ km]a|'j/Ldf cS6/nf]gLsf] g]t[Tjdf ljzfn kmf}h g]kfnl;t o'4 ug{ cufl8 a9\of]  . dsjfgk'/df ;fwf/0f g]kfn kl/ro÷327

k|lt/f]wkl5 cS6/nf]gL dftxtsf] ;]gf pkTosflt/ a9\of]  . la|l6; ;]gf sf7df8fF} cfpFb} 5 eGg] r]tfjgL lbFb} Pp6f kq g]kfnsf /fhf;dIf k7fOPsf] lyof]  . o:tf] l:yltdf /fhwfgLdfly g} vt/f cfpg nfu]sf]n] g]kfnn] ;lGw :jLs[t u/]/ rGb|z]v/ pkfWofonfO{ ;'uf}nL k7fof]  . :jLs[lt ePsf] ;lGwkq ;g\ !*!^ dfr{ # sf lbg lbpF;f]@M#) ah]cS6/nf]gLsf]  xftdf a'emfPkl5 ;g\ !*!$ gf]e]Da/! df ;'? ePsf]o'4 !*!^ dfr{df ;dfKt eof] . o; ;lGwdf pNn]lvt wf/fx¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ – != cg/]an O:6 Ol08of sDkgL / g]kfnsf /fhflar ;bfsfn zflGt Pjd\ d}qL ;DaGw sfod /xg] 5   . @= o'4k"j{ b'j} /fHolarsf] ljjfbu|:t e"efudfly g]kfnsf /fhfn] bfaL TofUg' kg]{5 / tL e"efudfly sDkgL ;/sf/sf] clwsf/nfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ 5  . #= g]kfnsf /fhfn] tn pNn]lvt ;Dk"0f{ e"efu ;bfsfnsf nflu sDkgL ;/sf/nfO{ ;'Dkg] 5 M s= sfnL / /fKtL gbLlarsf] ;Dk"0f{ t/fO{ If]q  v= /fKtL / u08slarsf] ;Dk"0f{ t/fO{ If]q -a'6jn vf;afx]s_ u= u08s / s';flarsf] ;Dk"0f{ t/fO{ If]q, hxfF la|l6; zf;gsf] clwsf/ k|f/De eO;s]sf] 5 jf x'g] l:yltdf 5  3= d]rL / l6i6f gbLlarsf] ;Dk"0f{ t/fO{ If]q  ª= d]rL gbLk"j{sf] ;Dk"0f{ If]q Pjd\ df]/ªb]]lv kxf8lt/ hfg] gu/sf]6 dfu{ / To; glhssf] ;d:t e"efu x:tfIf/ ePsf] ldltb]lv $) lbgleq uf]/vfnL ;]gfn] vfnL ug'{kg]{ 5  $= dflysf wf/fcg';f/ lnOPsf e"efuåf/f xfgLdf k/]sf g]kfn /fHosf ;/bf/ Pjd\ ef/bf/x¿sf] Ifltk"lt{ ug{ la|l6; ;/sf/n] ;fnfvfnf ?= b'O{ nfv k|ltjif{ lbg] / of] /sd cfˆgf] thaLhcg';f/ g]kfnsf /fhf afF8\g :jtGq x'g] 5g\  . k]G;gsf nflu ueg{/ hg/nsf] d'b|f / x:tfIf/;lxtsf] ;gb k|bfg ul/g] 5  . %= g]kfnsf /fhf / pgsf pQ/flwsf/Lx¿n] sfnLb]lv klZrdsf k|b]z / ToxfFsf lgjf;Lx¿;Fu s'g} ;DaGw /fVg kfpg] 5}gg\  . ^= g]kfnsf /fhfn] l;lSsdsf /fhfsf] cwLg ePsf] s'g} efupk/ s'g} lsl;dsf] bfjf ug{ kfpg] 5}gg\ / g]kfnsf /fhf Pjd\ l;lSsdsf /fhflar jf b'as } f k|hflar s'g} ljjfb p7]df ljjfbf:kb ljifo la|l6; ;/sf/sf] dWo:ytfsf nflu k]l| ift ul/g] 5 / p;sf] lg0f{o g]kfn ;/sf/n] dfGg'kg]{ 5  . 328÷g]kfn

kl/ro

&= la|l6; ;/sf/sf] cg'dltljgf g]kfnsf /fhfn] s'g} la|l6;, o'/f]k]nL jf cd]l/sLnfO{ cfˆgf] gf]s/Ldf /fVg kfpg] 5}gg\  . *= b'a}/fi6«lar sfod ePsf]ldqtf Pjd\ zflGtsf];DaGwnfO{ ;'b[9 kfg{ Pjd\ pGGflt ug{ Ps csf{sf] /fHodf Pqm]l86]8 ldlg:6/ /xg] 5g\  . (= gf}cf]6f wf/f ePsf] of] ;lGwdf g]kfnsf /fhfn] !% lbgleq :jLs[lt k|bfg u/L n]km\l6g]G6 sg{n a|f8zfnfO{ a'emfpg] 5g\ / pgn] @) lbgleq jf ;Dej eP o;eGbf klg zL3| g} ueg{/ hg/nsf] :jLs[lt lbnfpg] 5g\  . ;g\ !(%) sf]zflGt tyf d}qL  ;lGw ;g\ !(%) h'nfO{ #! -!^ >fj0f @))&_ sf lbg g]kfn ef/tlar Ps zflGt tyf d}qL ;lGw ;DkGg ul/of]  . o; ;lGw kqdf g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 k|wfgdGqL df]xg ;d;]/ / ef/tsf] tkm{af6 g]kfnsf nflu ef/tLo /fhb"t ;L=kL= Pg= l;+xn] x:tfIf/ u/]sf lyP  . o; ;lGwdf lgDglnlvt zt{x¿ /x]sf 5g\ M != g]kfn tyf ef/t ;/sf/lar ;bfsfn zflGt tyf d}qLk"0f{ ;DaGw /lx/xg] 5  . b'j} ;/sf/x¿ Pscsf{sf] b]zsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, k"0f{ ;Dk|et' f, If]qLo cv08tf / :jtGqtfsf] /Iff Pjd\ cfb/ ug{ sl6a4 /xg] 5g\ @= s'g} klg sf/0faf6 b'O{ b]zlar ljjfb pTkGg ePdf b'j} ;/sf/x¿n] ldqjt ¿kdf ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug]{5g\  . #= dfly wf/f ! df pNn]lvt ;DaGwnfO{ :yfloTj Pjd\ dfGotf lbgsf nflu b'j} ;/sf/x¿ cfk;df s"6gLlts ;DaGw sfod /fVg / nfdf] ;do;Dd sfd ug{sf nflu cfjZos k/]sf] k|ltlglw /fVgsf nflu;d]t d~h'/ ub{5g\  . v6fOPsf k|ltlglw tyf pgsf ;xof]uLx¿n] b'j} ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] jf cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gadf]lhdsf] s"6gLlts ;'ljwf k|fKt ug]{5g\ . $= b'j} ;/sf/x¿ dxfjfl0fHob"t (Consul-General), jfl0fHob"t (Consul), pkjfl0fHob"t (Vice-consul) tyf cGo b"tx¿sf]lgo'Qm ug{ /fhL x'g] 5g\ / logLx¿ b'j} ;/sf/n] lglZrt u/]sf] ;x/, aGb/ufx /cGo 7fpFdf /xg ;Sg]5g\ . dfly plNnlvt kb k|fKt ug]{x¿nfO{ lgo'lQm ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/, ;x'lnot / cGo ;'ljwfx¿ csf]{ /fHosf] ;f]xL txsf] JolQmn] kfP;/x kfpg] 5g\  . %= g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ef/t If]qaf6 cyjf ;f] /fHo If]qsf] af6f] u/L g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffsf lgldQ rflxg] xftxltof/, snk'hf{, uf]nL u7\7f, v/vhfgf cflb dfn;fdfgsf] k}7f/L ug]{ clwsf/ 5  . b'O{ ;/sf/n] k/:k/df ;Nnfx u/L of] aGbf]a:tnfO{ rfn' u/fpg] sfo{afxL to ug]{ 5g\  . g]kfn kl/ro÷329

^=

ef/t / g]kfnsf] l5d]sL d}qLefjsf] k|lts:j¿k b'j} ;/sf/n] cfˆgf] /fHoIf]qdf /x]sf] csf]{ ;/sf/sf gful/snfO{ cfˆgf] d'n'ssf] cf}Bf]lus / cfly{s ljsf; tyf To:tf] ljsf;;DaGwL l/ofot / 7]Ssfx¿df efu lngnfO{ /fli6«o Jojxf/ lbg] saf]n ub{5g\  . &= g]kfn ;/sf/ / ef/t ;/sf/n] cfˆgf /fHoIf]qdf /x]sf csf]{ d'n'ssf gful/ snfO{ lgjf;, ;DklQsf]dfu, Jofkf/ , jfl0fHodf efu lng, lx88'n ug]{ / c¿ o:t} k|sf/sf ljz]ifflwsf/x¿sf ljifodf kf/:kl/s tj/n] ;dfg ljz]ifflwsf/ lbgnfO{ sa'n ub{5g\  . *= hxfF ;Dd oxfF :k i6 ul/P sf s' /f x¿sf] ;DaGw 5, tL ;a}df of] ;lGwkqn] ef/t sf tkm{ a f6 la| l 6; ;/s f/ tyf g]k fn ;/sf/lardf ePsf cl3sf ;a} ;lGwkq, :j Lsf/k q / sa'n gfdfx¿nfO{ vf/] h ub{ 5  . (= of] ;lGwkq b'j} ;/sf/n] x:tfIf/ u/]sf] ldltb]lv nfu' x'g] 5  . !)= s'g} Ps d'n'sn] Ps jif{sf] efsf lbO{ of] ;lGwsf] cGTo ug{ gvf]h];Dd of] ;lGw hf/L /xg] 5  . of];lGwkqdf @))& ;fn >fj0f !^ ut]-!(%), h'nfO{ #!_ sf lbg sf7df8f}Fd  f ;xL5fk ePsf] b]lvG5  . lj=;= @)#$ r}qdf  Jofkf/, kf/jxg tyf cgflws[t Jofkf/ljrng lgoGq0f ;xof]u -;ft jif]{_ ;Demf}tf u/L tLg k|sf/sf ;lGw ePsf] lyof]  . o; ;lGwcg';f/ g]kfndf pTkflbt j:t'nfO{ ef/tLo ahf/df ;x'lnot k|bfg ug]{ tyf Pscfk;df cfjZos j:t' pknAw u/fpg cfjZos Joj:yf ug]{ ;xdlt eof]  . kf/jxgtkm{ g]kfnaf6 ef/t x'Fb} t];|f] d'n'sdf j:t'x¿ 9'jfgLdf oftfoftsf] ;x'lnot k|fKt x'g] / cgflws[t Jofkf/ ;Demf}tf % jif{ / kf/jxg ;lGwsf] cjlw & jif{ tf]lsof]  . o;kl5 lj=;= @)#( df g]kfn / ef/t Jofkf/ ;lGw tyf cglws[t Jofkf/sf] /f]syfd;DaGwL ;Demf}tf kfFr jif{ yk ul/of]  . ;lGwdf g]kfn–ef/t Jofkf/ k|jfx j[l4sf nflu sltko j:t'df ladf ;'ljwf k|f]kmd{ / eG;f/sf ;fy} 6«flG;kd]G6h:tf ;'ljwfx¿ pknAw ug]{;xdlt ePsf]kfOG5 . g]kfn / ef/tlar ePsf ljleGg ;lGw ;Demf}tfsf] ;dofg's'n kl/dfh{g ug{ ;g\ @)!^ hgj/Ldf g]kfn–ef/t k|a'4 ;d"x -O{kLhL_ u7g ePsf]5 . o; ;d"xn] ;g\ !(%) sf] zflGt tyf d}qL ;lGw, Jofkf/ tyf kf/jxg ;lGw / hn;|f]t;DaGwL ljleGg ;lGw–;Demf}tfdf 5nkmn u/L b'j} b]zsf ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfa lbg'kg]{ sfof{b]z kfPsf] 5  . o; ;d"xdf g]kfnsf]tkm{af6 ;+of]hs 8f= e]ifaxfb'/ yfkf tyf ;b:ox¿ gLnfDa/ cfrfo{, ;"o{gfy pkfWofo / 330÷g]kfn

kl/ro

8f= /fhg e§/fO{ x'g'x'G5 eg] ef/tsf]tkm{af6 ;+of]hs eutl;+x sf]l;of/L tyf ;b:ox¿ 8f= la;L pk|]tL, dx]G› kL= nfdf /hoGtk|;fb x'g'x'G5 . !)=^ g]kfn / rLg–ltAat ;DaGwsf P]ltxfl;s ;lGw ;Demf}tfx¿ g]kfnsf] ltAat / rLg;Fu Hofb} k'/fgf] ;DaGw /x]sf] 5  . lnR5ljsfnLg 7s'/L /fhf c+z'jdf{sf] ;dob]lv ;'b[9 aGb} cfPsf] g]kfn–rLg–ltAat ;DaGw kl5sf jif{x¿df cem ;'b[9 aGb}cfPsf]kfOG5 . g]kfn–rLg–ltAatlar ;g\ !&**, ;g\ !&(! /;g\ !*%% df u/L tLgk6s 7'nf o'4x¿ eP . k|yd o'4 lj=;+= !*$^ h]7 -;g\ !&*( h'g @_ df ePsf]s]?ª  ;lGw, bf];|  f]o'4 lj=;+= !*$( efb| ^ -;g\ !&(@_ df ePsf]a]qfjtL  ;lGw /t]>f]o'4 lj=;+=!([email protected] r}q -;g\ !*%^ dfr{ @^_ df ePsf] yfkfynL ;lGwn] cGTo u/]sf] lyof]  . g]kfn / rLg–ltAat ;DaGwsf s]xL P]ltxfl;s ;Demf}tfx¿nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 M s]?ª ;lGw d"nt lrlgofF kIfn]ltAatnfO{ o'4 gu/L jftf{sf]dfu{ cFufNg ;Nnfx lbPkl5 g} k|yd g]kfn–ltAat o'4sf] cGTo u/L jftf{nfk ePsf] lyof]  . o; jftf{df ltAatsf tkm{af6 sfnf]g 3f]l/ª, ;flsof nfdf, 6];' nfdf / g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 ad zfx, xl/x/ pkfWofo / g/l;+x zfxL d'Vo lyP  . ltAatsf] s]?ªdf ePsf] o; 5nkmndf k|f/Dedf g]kfnn] o'4df ePsf] ;Dk"0f{ Joo / k|tfkl;+x zfxsf] ;dodf ePsf] ;lGw pNnª\3g u/]afkt %) wfgL{ ;'gsf] dfu /fVof]  . t/, ltAatn] g]kfnsf] o; dfuk|lt af/Daf/ c;xdlt hgfof]  . cGTodf @ h'g, !&*( df s]?ª ;lGwdf x:tfIf/ eof]  . @ dlxgf;Ddsf] 5nkmnkl5 ;DkGg ePsf]s]?ª  ;lGw gfdaf6 k|rlnt o; ;lGwdf lgDg a'Fbfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ M != g]kfn kmf}h cfkm"n] sAhf u/]sf] ltAatL If]qaf6 x6\g d~h'/ eof]  . @= pk|fGt g]kfnn] ef]6dfly cfqmd0f ug]{ 5}g  . #= ef]6n] Ps lglZrt /sd ;flnGbf g]kfnnfO{ a'emfpg] 5  . $= ltAat / ef/tlarsf] Jofkf/ g]kfnsf] af6f] eP/ dfq} ul/g] / tL b'j} b]znfO{ hf]8\g]l;lSsd tyf e'6fgsf dfu{x¿ aGb ug]{ 5 . %= pk|fGt ld;fxf 6s /gofF 6slarsf];6xL b/sfod ubf{ b'O{ ld;fxf 6s a/fa/ Ps gofF 6s sfod ul/g] 5  . a]qfjtL ;lGw g]kfn–ltAatlar ePsf] s]?ª ;lGwn] pNn]Vo ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ ;ls/x]sf] lyPg  . To; ;lGwkqdf Nxf;f b/af/ / lrlgofF ;d|f6sf] :jLs[lt lnOPsf] g]kfn kl/ro÷331

lyPg  . ltAatn] ;f] s]?ª ;lGwcg';f/ g]kfnnfO{ ltg'{kg]{ klxnf] ls:tfdfq} lt/]/ ;lGwsf] pNnª\3g ug{ yfNof]  . s]?ª ;lGw ePsf] @ jif{ k'Ubf gk'Ub} ;g\ !&(!–(@ df g]kfn ltAatlar k'gM o'4 ;'? eof]  . bf];|f]k6ssf] o'4df ltAatsf] kIfaf6 rLgn] ;d]t x:tIf]k u/]sf] lyof], h;n] ubf{ g]kfnn] ltAatsf]gfd eP klg rLg;Fu o'4 ug'{k¥of] . o;}qmddf ;g\ !&(@ cS6f]a/ % df a]qfjtLsf] n8fOFdf b'j} kIflar 7'nf] Iflt ePsf] lyof]  . of] Ifltkl5 g]kfn–ltAat–rLglar Ps ;lGw ;DkGg eof] . lj=;= !*$( efb| ^ -;g\ !&(@ cui6_ df ;DkGg pQm ;lGw a]qfjtL  ;lGwsf]gfdn]lrlgG5 . a]qfjtL ;lGwdf b]xfoadf]lhd ;t{x¿ pNn]v ePsf lyP M != g]kfn /ltAatn]cfkm"larsf]zq'tf TofuL ldqjt\ ;DaGw sfod ug]{5g\  . @= g]kfnn] lrlgofF afbzfxsf] ;Ddfgfy{ k|To]s kfFr jif{df Pp6f lzi6d08n pkxf/;lxt k]lsª k7fpg] 5  . ;fy}, rLgn] klg ;§fdf pkxf/x¿ k7fpg] / pQm d08nsf] vr{ Pjd\ oftfoftsf] ;'ljwf a]xf]g{] 5  . #= eljiodf sf7df8f}F / Nxf;fsf] lardf s'g} k|sf/sf] ljjfb pTkGg ePdf To;sf]] ;dfwfg Nxf;fl:yt lrlgofF cDafaf6 x'g] 5  . $= s'tL / s]?ª If]qdf lrlgofF clwsf/Ln] /]vfÍg u/]sf] ;LdfgfnfO{ g]kfnn] dfGotf lbg] 5  . %= g]kfndfly s'g} k|sf/sf] ljb]zL cfqmd0f ePdf rLgn] g]kfnsf] d2t ug]{ 5  . ^= g]kfnn] tfl;nDk'df n'6]sf] ;DklQ / zdkf{ nfdfsf] cjz]if Pjd\ pgsf ;dy{s Pjd\ ;xof]uLx¿nfO{ lkmtf{ ug]{5 . &= g]kfnn] d'b|f;DaGwL ;d:of pk|fGt gp7fpg'sf ;fy} s]?ªsf] ;lGwdfly s'g} k|sf/sf] bfjL ug]{5}g  . yfkfynL ;lGw lj=;+= !(!! kmfu'g -dfr{ !*%%_ df g]kfn rLglar t];|f] o'4sf] 3f]if0ff eof]  . of] o'4sf] cjlw 5f]6f] eP klg Hofb} 3fts lyof]  . o;df b'j} kIfsf] wghgsf] 7'nf] Iflt eof]  . b'j} kIfn] o'4 /f]Sg rfx]sfn] lj=;+= !([email protected] k';df ;lGwjftf{ ;'? ul/of]  . jftf{sf nflu ltAattkm{sf] g]t[Tj ub}{ snf]g zfq sf7df8f}F cfOk'u]sf lyP  . of] ;lGw x'g'k"j{ sl/a @ dlxgf;Dd jftf{ rn]sf] lyof]  . cGTodf ;g\ !*%^ dfr{ @$ -!([email protected] r}q_ df tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqLsf]lgjf; tyf sfof{no yfkfynL b/af/df !) ;"qLo ;lGwdf x:tfIf/ ul/of]  . yfkfynL b/af/df x:tfIf/ ul/Psfn] pQm ;lGwnfO{ yfkfynL ;lGw gfd lbOPsf] xf]  . pQm ;lGwsf ;t{x¿ lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf lyP M 332÷g]kfn

kl/ro

!= ltAatn] g]kfnnfO{ k|ltjif{ ?= !),))) ;nfdL:j¿k a'emfpg] k|lt1f ub{5  . @= g]kfn ltAatdfly s'g} ljb]zL zlQmn] cfqmd0f u/]sf] v08df ltAatnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ tTk/ /xg] 5  . #= Nxf;f ;/sf/n] g]kfnL Jofkf/Lx¿dfly hut dx;'n -eG;f/ s/_ glng] lgwf] u¥of]  . $= ;lGwdf plNn lvt ;t{x¿ sfof{Gjogdf cfPkl5 g] kfn o'4sfndf cfkm"n] sAhf u/]sf] s'tL, s]?ª, em'ª\uf If]qx¿ ltAatnfO{ lkmtf{ ug{ afWo x'g] 5  . ;fy}, o'4sfndf g]kfnsf] sAhfdf cfPsf ef]6] l;kfxL / e]8f–Rofª\u|f OToflb;d]t g]kfnn] lkmtf{ ug]{ 5  . To:t} ltAatn] klg g]kfnL tf]kx¿ / ;g\ !*$! df ltAat / 8f]u|fx¿sf lardf ePsf] o'4tfsf s}bdf k/]sf l;v aGbLx¿nfO{;d]t 5f8\g] 5  . %= xfn;Dd Nxf;fdf g]kfnsf]  k|ltlglwsf]¿kdf gfos jf jlsn /xLcfPsf]df o;kl5 …b"tÚ /xg] 5  . ^= Nxf;fdf g]kfnn] cfˆgf] Jofkfl/s sf]7L vf]Ng kfpg] eof] / pQm sf]7LnfO{ lx/f, df]tL Pjd\ cGo u/uxgfx¿ / cGgsf] Jofkf/ ug]{ clwsf/ lbOof]  . &= Nxf;fdf a;f]af; ug]{ uf]/vfnL / sl:d/Lx¿sf] lardf s'g} k|sf/sf]] emu8f ePdf ;f]sf] ;dfwfg ug]{ clwsf/ g]kfnL ef/bf/nfO{ g} lbg]  . t/ g]kfnL / ltAatLx¿sf] lardf rflxF s'g} k|sf/sf] ljjfb pTkGGf ePdf b'j} ;/sf/sf k|ltlglwx¿sf] ;+o'Qm 5nkmnaf6 lg0f{o ul/g] Joj:yf ul/of]  . ltAatLx¿larsf] cfGtl/s dfdnfdf eg] g]kfnL ef/bf/n] x:tIf]k ug{ gkfpg] eof]  . *= b'j} b]zn] cfˆgf]–cfˆgf] b]zdf efu]/ cfpg] ck/fwLnfO{ ;DalGwt b]zdf g} a'emfpg] 5g\  . (= Nxf;fdf /xg] g]kfnL Jofkf/Lx¿sf] wghgsf] ;'/Iff ltAat ;/sf/n] k|bfg ug]{5  . To:t} g]kfnL Jofkf/Lx¿dfly s'g} k|sf/sf] n'6 ePdf n'l6Psf] ;DklQ ltAat ;/sf/n] g} c;'npk/ ul/lbg] 5  . s]xLu/L c;'npk/ u/fpg g;s]df ;f]sf] Ifltk"lt{ ltAat ;/sf/n] g} lbg] 5  . g]kfndf ltAatLx¿sf] hLpwgsf] lglDt klg ltAat ;/sf/ p:t} k|sf/sf] Jojxf/sf] ck]Iff /fVb5  . !)= o'4sfndf zq' kIfnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ gful/ssf] wghgsf] ;'/Iff ug{ b'j} ;/sf/x¿ ;xdt eP  . cGo ;Demf}tfx¿ k|wfgdGqL s]kL  zdf{ cf] nLsf]rLg e|d0fsf qmddf ;g\ @)!^ dfr{ @! g]kfn kl/ro÷333

df g]kfn / rLglar !) a'Fb] ;dembf/L kqdf x:tfIf/ ePsf] lyof]  . o; ;dembf/Lcg';f/ g]kfn / rLglar kf/jxg tyf oftfoft ;Demf}tf, :jtGq Jofkf/ ;Demf}tf, #@ xhf/ 3/df ;f}o{ k|0ffnL h8fg ug]{ ;Demf}tf, ;'ljwfo'Qm C0f ;Demf}tf, kf]v/f ljdfg:yn lgdf{0fsf nflu C0f ;Demf}tf, g]kfndf UofF; tyf OGwgsf] cGj]if0f ug]{ ;Demf}tf tyf lxN;fdf k'n lgdf{0f ug]{ nufotsf dxŒjk"0f{ / g]kfnnfO{ bL3{sfnLg c;/ kfg{;Sg] ;Demf}tfx¿ ePsf 5g\  . s]xL ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog eP klg w]/}sf] sfof{Gjog x'g afFsL g} 5  .

lll

334÷g]kfn

kl/ro

kl/R5]b M P3f/

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s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf k|ltli7t agfO/xg] ;Defjgf af]ss ] f] b]lvG5  . ef}uf]lns ljefhgcg';f/ sf7df8f}F g]kfnsf] sl/a sl/a dWokxf8L v08df kb{5 . oxfFsf k|d'v gbLx¿ afudtL /lji0f'dtL x'g\ . kz'kltgfy, u'xZj/ ] L, :joDe", af}4, a'9flgns07, blIf0fsfnL, xg'dfg9f]sf, uf]s0f{, 6]s', zflngbL cflb oxfF cjl:yt k|d'v tLy{wfd x'g\  . sf7df8f}F /fhwfgL ;x/ x'g'sf] ;fy} b]zsf] k|frLg snf, sf}zn, ;+:s[lt, ;Eotf Pjd\ P]ltxfl;s ;|f]tsf] e08f/ klg xf]  . o;sf] cltl/Qm b]zsf] k|d'v z}lIfs ;+:yfx¿, cfw'lgs hgzlQm Pjd\ pks/0fo'Qm c:ktfnx¿ tyf b]zsf] Psdfq cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn;d]t o;} ;x/df cjl:yt ePsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ klg :jb]zL tyf ljb]zLx¿sf nflu of] cfsif{0fsf] s]Gb| aGg k'u]sf] 5  . jl/kl/af6 gu/sf]6, gfufh'{g, lzjk'/L, rGb|flul/ / km'Nrf]sLh:tf dgf]/d kxf8x¿n] 3]l/Psf] o; pkTosfsf] ;'Gb/tfnfO{ oL kxf8x¿sf] pkl:yltn] cem} a9fPsf] 5  . g]kfnsf] && lhNnfx¿dWo] sf7df8f}F klg Pp6f xf]  . ;fdfGotof sf7df8f}F, nlntk'/ / eQmk'/;d]tsf tLgcf]6f lhNnf ;d]l6Psf] ;dtn / jl/kl/af6 kxf8n] 3]l/Psf] xf]rf] efunfO{ sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] gfdn] lrGg] ul/G5  . of] pkTosfeGbf aflx/sf dflg;x¿n] d"ntM o; pkTosfnfO{ g} sf7df8f}Fsf] gfdn] lrGg] ub{5g\  . g]kfnsf] sf7df8f}F lhNnfdf kg]{ sf7df8f}F ;x/ g]kfnsf] /fhwfgL ;x/ /xg] 5 egL ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f @** df Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . o; lhNnfsf]If]qkmn  #(% ju{ ls=ld= 5 . P]ltxfl;s  b/af/xg'dfg 9f]sfsf] glhsdf /x]sf] sf7}sf7n] ag]sf] sfi7d08ksf] cfwf/df sf7df8f}Fsf] gfd /xg uPsf] xf] eGg] ljåfgx¿sf] egfO /x]sf] 5  . P]ltxfl;s ejg l;+xb/af/ k|d'v k|zf;sLo s]Gb| xf]  . ;fs{ ;lrjfno, sf7df8f}Fl:yt ljleGg ljb]zL /fhb"tfjf;x¿, g]kfn /fi6« a}ª\s tyf cGo s]Gb|Lo sfof{nox¿ klg sf7df8f}Fleq g} /x]sf 5g\  . To;}n] sf7df8f}F g]kfnsf] /fhgLlts /fhwfgLsf] ¿kdf dfq geO{ ljQLo, z}lIfs, Goflos, wfld{s, tyf s"6gLlts /fhwfgLsf] ¿kdf ;d]t /xsf] 5  . jL/ c:ktfn tyf l6lrª xl:k6nh:tf b]zsf 7'nf / ;fwg ;DkGg c:ktfnx¿ klg /x]sf 5g\  . sf7df8f}FnfO{ lqe'jg /fhky, sf]bf/L -c/lgsf]_ /fhky / k[YjL/fhky, alb{jf; w'lnv]nh:tf /fhdfu{x¿n] aflx/L If]qx¿l;t hf]8]sf 5g\  . sf7df8f}Faf6 eujfg uf}tda'4sf] hGd:yn n'lDagL / z'4f]wgsf] /fhwfgL ltnf}/fsf]6 slknj:t'sf] glhsdf /x]sf] e}/xjf Pjd\ b]zsf] dxŒjk"0f{ ko{6g s]Gb| kf]v/f / ;u/dfyfsf] sfvdf cjl:yt /x]sf] gfDr]h:tf b]zsf ljleGg If]qx¿l;t xjfO{ ;Dks{ /x]sf] 5  . d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL;Ddsf k|d'v ;x/x¿df k'Ug] b}lgs /fqLa; ;]jfx¿ klg lgoldt¿kn] ;~rfng eO/x]sf 5g\  . /]l8of] 346÷g]kfn

kl/ro

tyf 6]lnlehgsf s]Gb|Lo sfof{nox¿ / :6];gx¿sf] ;fy;fy} g]kfn b"/;~rf/ ;+:yfgsf] s]Gb|Lo sfof{no klg sf7df8f}Fd} /x]sf] / g]kfnaf6 k|sflzt cfwfeGbf a9L b}lgs tyf ;fKtflxs ;dfrf/ kqklqsfx¿ klg sf7df8f}Faf6} k|sflzt x'g] ePsfn] sf7df8f}FnfO{ g]kfnsf] ;~rf/sf] /fhwfgL klg eGg ;lsG5  . ;f]N6L, cGgk"0f{, ofs PG8 olt, x\ofth:tf kfFrtf/] xf]6nx¿;d]t o; dxfgu/df /x]sf 5g\  . xªsªaf6 k|sflzt x'g] Plzofsf] k|l;4 cfly{s klqsf ASIA WEEK sf] ;g\ !((* l8;]Da/ !! sf] cª\sdf Plzofsf a:gsf] lglDt ;a}eGbf pko'Qm $) cf]6f k|d'v ;x/x¿df sf7df8f}Fsf] gfd @& cf}F :yfgdf /x]sf] s'/f pNn]v 5  . sf]bf/L g]kfnsf] ef/tl;t ul/g] Jofkf/sf] d'Vo s]Gb| jL/u~h ePh:t} rLgsf] :j;fl;t If]q ltAatl;tsf] Jofkf/sf] k|d'v s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] g]kfnsf] k|d'v Jofkfl/s gfsf sf]bf/L xf]  . ltAatsf] ;LdfjtL{ ahf/ vf;faf6 cfpg] ;fdfgx¿ / g]kfnaf6 vf;flt/ lgof{t ul/g] j:t'x¿sf] cfoft lgof{t ug]{ ;LdfjtL{ Jofkfl/s s]Gb| sf]bf/LnfO{ g]kfnsf] Pp6f k|d'v /fhdfu{sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] sf]bf/L -c/lgsf]_ /fhdfu{n] sf7df8f}F;Fu hf]8]sf] 5  . sf]bf/L k|b]z g+= # sf] l;Gw'kfNrf]s lhNnfsf] pQ/L ;LdfjtL{ If]qdf kb{5  . sf“s8le6\6f of] g]kfnsf] k"jL{ ;Ldfgf glhs /x]sf] ahf/ xf]  . of] k|b]z g+= ! sf] emfkf lhNnfdf kb{5  . oxfFaf6 km"naf/Ldfu{ x'Fb} aª\unfb]z hfg] dfu{ v'n]sfn] o;sf] dxŒj a9\g k'u]sf] 5  . …g]kfnsf] k"jL{ ;Ldfgfsf] dxŒjk"0f{ k|j]z dfu{df /x]sfn] o;nfO{ k"j{sf] 9f]sf klg elgG5  . oxfF d]rL eG;f/ sfof{no /x]sfn] o;n] o; If]qsf] lgsf;L k}7f/Ldf dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]n]sf] b]lvG5  . sfFsf8le§f d]rL gu/kflnsfdf kb{5  . kz'kltgu/åf/f ef/tsf] v;f{Ë, l;nLu'9L / bflh{lnª;Fu Jofkfl/s ;Dks{ sfod /x]sf] / lrof pTkfbgsf] lglDt g]kfnsf] k|l;4 Onfd lhNnf / emfkf lhNnf Pscsf{;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'gfn] sfFs8le§f / Onfdsf] lardf /x]sf] b"/L Tolt w]/} g/x]sf] s'/f :jtM :ki6 x'G5  . ssgL sf7df8f}Fsf] s]Gb|af6 @( ls=ld= b'/Ldf ^,&&* lkm6sf] prfOdf ssgL eGg] /d0fLo :yfg 5  . g'jfsf]6 lhNnfdf kg]{ of] 7fpFnfO{ /f0ffsfndf j;GtL afu elgGYof]  . o;sf] glhs} tfdfª\ hfltsf] 7'nf] a:tL 5  . o;sf cltl/Qm k|x/L tflnd s]Gb|, tf/f ufpF cltly u[x, yfO Po/j]håf/f lgld{t :d[ltkfs{, afujfgL kmfd{n] klg ssgLsf] zf]ef a9fPsf 5g\  . g]kfn kl/ro÷347

vKt8

lqj]0fL dlGb/, vKt8 8f]6L, c5fd, aemfª / afh'/f;d]t rf/ lhNnfdf km}lnPsf] vKt8 sl/a !!,))) lkm6sf] prfOdf /x]sf] 5  . rf/j6} lhNnfx¿sf] ;ª\ud:yndf /x]sf] of] pRr kxf8L e"efudf y'Dsfy'DsL, rf}/x¿ -kf6g_ / ;–;fgf vf]nfx¿ 5g\  . of] pRr kxf8L d}bfgL e"efusf] ;/b/ rf}8fO kfFr lsnf]ld6/ / nDafO ;/b/ !) lsnf]ld6/ 5  . lxpFn] 9flsPsf ;]tf 8fF8f / jg–hª\un cfkm}df dgdf]xs b]lvG5g\  . lxpFn] 5f]8]kl5 /ª\uL lj/ª\uL km"n}km"nsf] ;dy/ e"efu :ju{ em}F nfUb5  . vKt8 k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tfsf] kof{osf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . vKt8sf] ko{6sLo b[li6n] ljsf; ug{ ;s]df klZrd g]kfnsf] ljsf;df o;af6 dxŒjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'Ug] 5  . v'Da'If]q k|b]z g+= ! sf] ;f]n'v'Da' lhNnfdf kg]{ v'Da' If]q kj{tf/f]x0f / kbofqfsf nflu k|l;4 5  . oxfF ljZjsf] ;jf]{Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf;lxt l56f] tyf ;/n kj{tf/f]x0fsf nflu k|l;4 ^^^$ ld6/ cUnf] d]/f lks klg 5  . o;afx]s oxfF uf]Sof]lks, lks]8fF8f, 6f;LnfKrf, sfnfkTy/, cfdfnfKrf qm;, b"w s'08 cflb bz{gLo :ynx¿ 5g\ . uf]/vf uf]/vf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] g]kfn PsLs/0f cleofg cf/De ug'{k"j{ zfx /fhfx¿af6 zfl;t Ps ;fgf] kxf8L /fHo lyof]  . uf]/vfsf] k"j{df wflbª, klZrddf tgx'F, nDh'ª, dgfª / pQ/df rLgsf] ltAat k|b]z / blIf0fdf 348÷g]kfn

kl/ro

lrtjg lhNnf /x]sf 5g\  . pQ/kl§ Ujfnf eGHofª / >[ª\uL lxdfn, gf/b kf]v/L -s'08_, b/f}FbLsf] lz/, blIf0fkl§ lqz"nL, k"j{kl§ a'9Lu08sL / klZrdkl§ d:of{ªbL, r]k] rDkfjtL tyf dgf:n' z[ª\vnf uf]/vf lhNnfsf k|fs[lts ;Ldfgf x'g\  . uf]/vsfnLsf] blIf0f kfvf]df cjl:yt uf]/vf ahf/ jf kf]v/fyf]s o; lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd xf]  . pQ/af6 blIf0flt/ aUg] b/f}FbL uf]/vf lhNnf eO{ aUg] k|d'v gbL xf]  . P]ltxfl;s dxŒj / hnzlQmsf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;d]t b/f}FbL k|d'v cfsif{0fsf] s]Gb| /x]sf] 5  . uf]/vf ahf/ /x]sf] kxf8sf] 6fs'/fdf cjl:yt uf]/vf b/af/ Kofuf]8f z}nLdf ag]sf] 5 / snfTds ‰ofn, 9f]sfx¿af6 ;';lHht /x]sf] 5  . P]ltxfl;s ynf]sf ¿kdf /x]sf] uf]/vf b/af/ ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0fn] klg cToGt} dxŒjk"0f{ 5  . b/af/ kl/;/df sfnL dlGb/ / uf]/vgfysf] dlGb/sf] ;fy;fy} c¿ b]jLb]jtfsf d"lt{x¿ klg oqtq 5l/P/ /x]sf 5g\  . uf]/vf b/af/sf] ;fy;fy} uf]/vf ahf/df ;'Gb/ snfTds z}nLdf lgld{t c? b/af/ klg 5g\  . g'jfsf]6 b/af/ klg o;} z}nLdf lgld{t 5  . uf]/vfdf k|frLg ;ª\u|xfno /x]sf] 5  . ahf/ If]qdf k|foh;f] g]jf/ hfltx¿sf] a;f]af; ePsf] x'gfn] oxfF g]jf/ ;Dk|bfon]dfGg];Dk"{0f hfqfx¿ ug]{k|rng 5 . o; If]qaf6 lxdfnosf ;'Gb/ b[Zox¿ b]lvg] ePsf]n] of] If]q ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0faf6 clt cfsif{s 5 eg] nfs]{kf; x'Fb} dgfª hfg] k|d'v af6f]sf] ¿kdf klg k|Voft 5  . g]kfnsf] pQ/L lhNnfx¿h:t} uf]/vf klg of;f{u'Dafsf nflu k|l;4 5  . uf]/vf lhNnfdf /x]sf] dgsfdgfsf] dlGb/ lxGb"x¿sf] k|l;4 wfld{s :yndfq geP/ Pp6f dgf]/d ko{6g :yn klg xf]  . k[YjL /fhdfu{df kg]{ r]/];b]lv dgsfdgf;Ddsf] ofqfnfO{ dgsfdgf s]an sf/sf] ;~rfngn] cToGt ;/n, ;xh, 5f]6f] / dgf]/Ghs agfPsf] 5  . uh'/d'vL b]jL Onfd lhNnfsf rf/ k|dv ' gbLx¿dWo] Ps b]pdfO{ gbLsf] klZrd lsgf/df cf]9f/h:tf] 7fpFdf ljleGg cfsf/sf k|:t/sf] b]jL d"lt{x¿nfO{ uh'/dv ' L b]jL elgG5  . oxfF lnDa" hfltsf] k'hf/L x'G5g\  . uh'/dv ' L b]jLsf] k"hf cr{gf ugf{n] nf6f af]Ng  ;Sg], alx/f ;'Gg ;Sg]x'G5g\ eGg]hgljZjf; 5 . sflQs k"l0f{dfsf lbg oxfF d]nf nfUb5  . cf]9f/ cfsf/sf] ynf]nfO{ hg;xof]uaf6 dlGb/sf] ¿k lbPsf]kfOG5 . oxfF lzj dlGb//wd{zfnf cflb klg agfOPsf]5 . ux|f}“ sflnsf dlGb/ :ofªhf lhNnf jflnª gu/kflnsfsf] ux|f};'/df cjl:yt ux|f}F sflnsf dlGb/ cfheGbf %#) jif{ klxn] ux|fF}sf]6 /fHosf klxnf] /fhf bz/y vfF8 -lj=;+= g]kfn kl/ro÷349

ux|f}F sflnsf dlGb/, :ofªhf !%!)–!%#^_ sf] @^ jif]{ zf;gsfndf :yfkgf ePsf] lyof]  . of] dlGb/ ;d'lGb| ;txb]lv !%!^ ld6/sf] prfOdf ux|f}z'/ 8fF8fsf] 6'Kkfdf cjl:yt 5  . r}t] b;}F / a8f b;}Fdf ljz]if d]nf nfUg] o; dlGb/df b}lgs k"hfcfhf rNb} cfPsf] 5  . dlGb/sf] bf];|f] k'glg{df{0f lj=;+= !*$* df :jtGq ux|f}sf]6 /fHosf clGtd /fhf >LeQm vfF0fn] u/]sf lyP eg] t];|f] k'glg{df{0f @)% aif{ kl5 lj=;+= @)%# ;fndf :yfgLo JolQms} kxnaf6 ePsf] kfOG5  . dlGb/ :ofªhf lhNnfsf k|foM ;a}h;f] 7fpFx¿af6 :ki6 cjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5  . u'x\o]Zj/L dlGb/ kz'klt dlGb/sf] glhs} afUdtL gbLsf] t6df cjl:yt wfld{s, P]ltxfl;s, ;f+:s[lts Pjd\ snfTds b[li6n] dxŒjk"0f{ of] dlGb/ lxGb' wdf{jnDaLx¿sf] cf:yfsf] s]Gb|sf ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . u'Xo]Zj/L zlQmkL7sf] :yfkgf lnR5ljsfndf / dlGb/sf] lgdf{0f dNnsfndf ePsf] dflgg] x'Fbf oxfF lnR5ljsfnLg d"lt{snf tyf dNnsfnLg sfi7snfsf ljlzi6 gd'gf b[li6uf]r/ x'G5  . rf/}lt/ kf6L kf}jfx¿n] 3]l/Psf] d08k z}nLdf Zn]idfGts jg;Fu} afUdtL gbLsf] blIf0ft6df lgld{t of]] eujfg lzjsf] ;xwld{0fL ;tLb]jL -kfj{tL_ sf] dlGb/ ePsf] dflgG5  . k|frLgsfndf cfBu'? zª\s/frfo{ oxL 7fpFsf] cjnf]sg ug{ cfpg'eO{ u'Xo]Zj/Lsf] pkf;gf / k|fy{gf ug'{ePsf] klg cfVofg 5  . tflGqs ah|ofg af}4 k/Dk/fcg';f/ u'Xo]Zj/Lsf] k"hf cr{gf ul/g] x'bfF of] :yn lxGb" /af}4 b'j};d'bfosf nflu k"hgLo dflgG5 . 350÷g]kfn

kl/ro

3fGb|'s u08sL k|b]zsf] sf:sL lhNnfcGt{ut cGgk"0f{ / df5fk'5]« lxdfnsf] sfvdf kf]v/faf6 [email protected] ls=ld pQ/df cjl:yt 3fGb|'s u'?ª ;+:s[lt / hLjg z}nLnfO{ hLjGt ¿kdf k|:t't ug{ ;Ifd k|d'v u'?ª a:tL xf]  . of] 7fpF kj{tf/f]xL, kbofqLsf cltl/Qm :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ko{6sx¿sf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ cfsif{s :yn dflgG5 . oxfF k|To]s  jif{ sl/a %) xhf/ko{6sx¿ e|d0f ug]{ub{5g\ . 3n]ufp“ ndh'ª lhNnfl:yt 3n]ufpF u|fdL0f ko{6g tyf xf]d:6]sf nflu k|l;4 5  . 3n]ufpFaf6 dgf:n', cGgk"0f{, df5fk'R5«], ndh'ª lxdfn lz/sf] 6f]kLh:t} b]lvG5g\  . lrofaufg, e]8Lvs{, pQ/sGofsf] dlGb/ bz{gLo 5g\  . 3n] u'?ªsf] cfTdLo cfltYo / 3fF6' gfrsf] k|bz{gn] :jb]zL / ljb]zL ko{6snfO{ df]lxt agfpg] u/]sf] kfOG5  . 3n]ufpFsf] xf]d:6] kfs{ d'n'ss} pTs[i6 dflgG5 eg] o;kl5 g]kfnsf w]/} :yfgx¿df xf]d:6] ko{6g km:6fPsf] 5  . rGbggfy dlGb/ s0ff{nL k|bz ] sf] h'Dnf lhNnfdf /xs ] f] rGbggfysf] dlGb/df eujfg bQfq]osf] d"lt{ :yflkt 5  . oxfF j}lbs ljlw ljwfgcg';f/ k|ft, dWofGx / ;GWofsfndf u/L lbgsf] tLgk6s k"hf ul/G5  . cf7f}F ztfAbLcufl8 lgld{t of] dlGb/df eujfg bQfq]osf] r/0fkfb'sf /xs ] f] 5  . rGbgfyn] :yfkgf u/s ] f] dlGb/ ePsf]n] o; dlGb/sf] gfd rGbgfy /xs ] f] xf]  . oxfF of]uL -lu/L, k'/L cflb_ ;d'bfosf] JolQm k'hf/L x'G5g\  . rf“u'gf/fo0f eQmk'/ lhNnfsf] k"jf]{Q/ efudf 8f]nfb|L -8f]nflul/_ gfdsf] cUnf] kxf8sf] y'Dsf]df cjl:yt eujfg lji0f'sf] d"lt{ :yflkt of] dlGb/ g]kfnsf] k|frLgtd\ dlGb/x¿dWo] Ps dflgG5  . of] dlGb/sf] lgdf{0f slxn] / s;n] u/fPsf] xf] eGg] af/]df :ki6 hfgsf/L geP klg xl/bQ jdf{ gfdsf JolQmn] ;g\ #*^ tfsf ;Dat -lj=;+= %@!_ df pkTosfsf rf/ gf/fo0fx¿ -rfFu'gf/fo0f, z]ifgf/fo0f, ljzª\v'gf/fo0f / Orª\u'gf/fo0f_ sf] :yfkgf ug]{ qmddf rfFu'gf/fo0f :yfkgf u/]sf] eGg] cfVofg 5  . ;s\ ;+jt\ #*^ -lj=;+= %@!_ df /fhf dfgb]jn] k"j{ / klZrdsf ;fdGtx¿nfO{ lgoGq0f u/L rfFu'gf/fo0fsf] k"hf cr{gf u/L u?8;lxtsf] :tDe v8f u/fPsf] s'/f pNn]v ePsf] kfOG5  . lrtjg jGohGt' ;+/If0f If]q jGohGt' ;+/If0f If]qsf]¿kdf lrtjgnfO{ lnOPsf]5 . oxfF b'ne { jGohGt' Pjd\ r/fr'?ª\uL /xs ] f 5g\  . Ps l;ª\u] u}8F f, a+ufnL af3 / xfQLnfO{ :yndf kfOg] b'ne { hgfj/x¿sf ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5  . of] :yfg jGohGt' cWoog ug]{ cg';Gwfg g]kfn kl/ro÷351

stf{x¿ / jGohGt' cjnf]sg ug{ ?rfpg] ko{6sx¿sf] d'Vo ynf] x'g uPsf] 5  . l5Ggd:tf eujtL l5Ggd:tf eujtL ;Kt/L lhNnfsf] /fhlj/fhaf6 blIf0f ;LdfjtL{ If]q ;Kt/L lhNnfsf]tTsflng l5Ggd:tf ufpFljsf; ;ldltdf kb{5 . l5Ggd:tf ejutL dgf]sfdgf k"/f ug]{ zlQmkL7x¿dWo] Ps kL7 dflgPsf] x'Fbf o; dlGb/df g]kfn / ef/tsf hgtfsf] 7'nf] cf:yf 5  . k|frLg Oltxf; / lsDjbGtLcg';f/ sgf{6j+zL /fhf gfGob]jsf] kfFrf}F k':tfsf zqml;+xb]j l;d|f}gu9sf /fhf ePsf lyP  . pgL gfafns 5f]/f xl/l;+xb]jnfO{ /fhu2Ldf /fvL lgjf{l;t hLjg latfpg ;Kt/L cfP  . To;a]nf hª\unn] 9flsPsf] o; :yfgdf hª\un ;kmf ubf{ e]l6Psf] eujtL d"lt{nfO{ pgn] cfˆgf] s'nb]jLsf] ¿kdf :yfkgf u/L cfˆgf] gfdaf6 b]jLsf] gfd zqm]Zj/L /fv] eGg] egfO 5  . b]jLsf] z/L/ gePsf]n] s]xL ;dokl5 l5Ggd:tf eujtL eGg yflnPsf] dflgG5  . hgsk'/ hgsk'/nfO{ k|frLg ldlynf /fHosf] /fhwfgLsf] ¿kdf lnOPsf] 5  . oxfF /x]sf k|foM ;Dk"0f{ dflg;x¿ d}lynL efiff af]N5g\ / oxfF d}lynL ;flxTosf] ljsf; ePsf] kfOG5  . hgsk'/df d}lynL efiffsf slj ljBfklt sf]lsnsf] zflns klg /x]sf] 5  . lxGb' gf/Lsf] cfb{zsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] ;Ltfsf] hGdynf]sf] ¿kdf hgsk'/Vofltk|fKt 5 . o; kljq :yndf ljjfx k~rdLsf lbg g]kfn  tyf ef/tsf lxGb" wdf{jnDaLx¿ hgsk'/ wfdsf] kl/qmdf ug{ cfpF5g\  . hfgsL dlGb/sf] bz{gsf nflu 7'nf] d]nf nfUg] ub{5  . ljjfx k~rdLdf hfgsL dlGb/df lxGb" wdf{jnDaLx¿sf]7'nf]eL8 nfUb5 . :jb]zsf dfq geO{ ljb]zaf6 klg oxfF 7'nf] ;ª\Vofdf lxGb"wdf{jnDaLx¿ /fdhfgsLsf] bz{g ug{ cfpg] / ldlynfsf] ofqfkydf ofqfsf] ;fy;fy} k|blIf0ff ug]{ ub{5g\  . hgsk'/sf] hfgsL dlGb/ lxGb"x¿sf] Pp6f k|Voft / d'Vo wfld{s ynf]sf] ¿kdf /xs ] f] 5  . hfgsL dlGb/sf] ;fy;fy} o; If]qdf c¿ ljleGg kljq wfld{s :ynx¿ 5g\  . wg'iff ;fu/ / /Tg;fu/ cflb kljq ;fu/x¿nfO{ klg hgsk'/sf  cd"No lglwx¿sf]¿kdf lnOG5 . k/d 1fgL /fhf hgsn] zf;g u/]sf] d'n's ePsf]n] g} o; :yfgsf] gfd hgsk'/ /x]sf] xf] eGg] s'/fdf ljåfg\x¿ ;xdt b]lvG5g\  . o; ;xdltn] /fhf hgsn] lxGb"dfqsL cf/fWob]jL ;Ltfsf] oxL hgsk'/df eujfg /fdl;t ljjfx ul/lbPsf x'g\ eGg] s'/fsf] klg k'li6 ub{5  . k|l;4 lxGb" ljåfg tyf :d[ltsf/ of1jNSo;d]tsf ljåfgx¿n] /fhf hgssf] b/af/df ;Ddfg kfPsf] s'/fn] k|frLgsfnb]lv g} hgsk'/n] cWoog / cg';Gwfgsf] s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf ;d]t cfkm"nfO{ lrgfpFb}cfPsf]tYo k|s6 x'g cfpF5 . 352÷g]kfn

kl/ro

hfgsL dlGb/

hfgsL dlGb/, hgsk'/ ef/tsf] dWok|b]z /fHosf] nf]xfu9sf ;'/lszf]/ bf; xfn hfgsL dlGb/ /x]sf] If]qdf a:bf ToxfF /fdhfgsL d"lt{ k|fb'ef{j ePsL b]v]sfn] ;f]xL 7fpFdf pxfFn] 5fk|f] agfO{ dlGb/sf] ¿k lbg'ePsf] lyof]  . of] dlGb/ clt ;'Gb/ / eJo 5  . o; dlGb/nfO{ gf}nvf dlGb/ eGg] rng klg 5  . l;ª\ud{d/sf] e'O{F tyf cfsif{s uh"/x¿sf] ;fy;fy} ljjfx d08k / l;ª\udd{/sf b]jb]jL tyf Clifd'lgx¿sf d"lt{x¿n] o; dlGb/sf] zf]ef a9fPsf 5g\  . of] If]q ldlynf ;+:s[lt, e]ife'iff / /xg ;xg Pjd\ rf8kj{sf] HjnGt pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . of] dlGb/df g]kfn tyf ef/tsf bz{gfyL{x¿sf] hd36 eO/xG5  . lh/L bf]nvf lhNnfsf] bf];|f] dxŒjk"0f{ ahf/ lh/L sl/a 5 xhf/ lkm6sf] prfOdf cjl:yt 5  . lh/LnfO{ g]kfnsf] :jLh/Nof08 egL lrlgG5  . ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0fn] lh/LnfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ u|fdL0f ;x/sf]¿kdf lnOG5 . tfg;]g / >Lgu/ dWokxf8L e"efudf cjl:yt kfNkf lhNnfl:yt tfg;]g g]kfn /fHos} clt /d0fLo ko{6sLo Pjd\ dxŒjk"0f{ Jofkfl/s s]Gb| xf]  . kfNkf lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd tfg;]gdf cToGt /d0fLo Pjd\ dgdf]xs b[Zosf] cjnf]sg;d]t ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] o;sf] dxŒj a9\bf]5 . cToGt cfgGbbfoL xfjfkfgL ePsf] o; gu/df du/ tyf g]jf/ hfltsf] a;f]af; /x]sf] kfOG5  . /f0ffsfndf tfg;]gnfO{ sf7df8f}F kl5sf] dxŒjk"0f{ /fhg}lts tyf k|zf;lgs cv8fsf] ¿kdf :yflkt ul/Psf] kfOG5  . 9fsf6f]kL tyf s?jf;d]tsf wft'sf ;fdu|Lsf nflu k|l;4 tfg;]g dw]; tyf kxf8 larsf] k|d'v Jofkfl/s :yn;d]t xf]  . g]kfn PsLs/0f x'g'eGbf cufl8;Dd kfNkf Pp6f k[ys / zlQmzfnL /fHosf] ¿kdf /x]sf] lyof]  . >Lgu/ 8fF8fsf] sfvdf ;d'b| ;txaf6 !#&! ld6/ prfOdf g]kfn kl/ro÷353

cjl:yt kfNkf lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd tfg;]g k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tfn] le/k"0f{ 5  . k|fs[lts snfsf}znsf] b[li6sf]0fn] ;d[4 tfg;]g cfw'lgs ;Eotftkm{ pGd'v 5  . k'/fgf] ;dodf ;]gj+zL zf;sx¿sf] /fhwfgL;d]t /x]sf] tfg;]g ;x/ P]ltxfl;s vf]h / cGj]if0fsf] k|tLIffdf 5  . kfNkf lhNNffsf] zf]ef, ;f}Gbo{ jf d's'6sf ¿kdf >Lgu/nfO{ lnOG5  . atf;]8fF8f gfdsf]j[IfxLg z'is s'¿k pRr y'Dsfdf ;Nnf cflb ljleGg lsl;dsf ¿v la?jfx¿ /f]k]/ /d0fLo pBfgdf kl/0ft ePkl5 atf;]8fF8f g} >Lgu/ egL k'gM gfds/0f ul/Psf] xf]  . oxfF dlGb/, a'4sf] d"lt{ / afuau}Frfx¿;d]t 5g\  . em08} !%)) /f]kgL If]qkmndf km}lnPsf] >Lgu/ zfGt, ;'/Do hª\un, cg's'nf :j:Yos/ xfjfkfgL ePsfn] of] af3, lrt'jf, v/fof], b'D;L cflb hgfj/x¿ sflnh, ltqf, sf]OnL k|hfltsf kG5Lx¿sf] ;'/Do a;f]af;sf] If]q ag]sf] 5  . jgljxf/ / jgef]hsf nflu k|Voft of] 7fpFaf6 df5fk'R5«]|, lxdfnr'nL, cGgk"0f{, sf~hL/f]jf, dgf:n', u0f]z lxdfn cflb lxdfnx¿sf] ;'Gb/ b[Zofjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5  . o;sf cltl/Qm ;"of]{bo, df8L pkTosf / ;kmf df};ddf ef/tsf] pQ/L efu uf]/vk'/;Ddsf] /]nx¿sf] /f]df~rs cjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5 . cd/l;+x yfkfaf6 ;g\ !*)& O{=df lgld{t cd/gf/fo0f dlGb/, ;g\ !(@& df k|tfk;d;]/ h=a=/f=af6 lgld{t tfg;]g b/af/, v8\u ;d;]/af6 lgld{t zLtnkf6L -uf]n3/_, la|l6; ef/tLo kmf}hnfO{ k/flht u/]sf] :d[ltdf ;g\ !*!$ df phL/ l;+x yfkfåf/f agfOPsf] eujtL dlGb/, kfNkf lhNnfsf] ;aF}eGbf k'/fgf] af}4 ljxf/sf] ¿kdf kl/lrt cfgGb ljxf/nufotsf dxfr}To ljxf/, dxfjf]wL ljxf/, jL/]Gb| km"naf/L cflb o; ;x/sf k|d'v ko{6sLo dxŒjsf ;Dkbf x'g\  . ;fy}, tfg;]g ;x/af6 sl/a * ls=ld blIf0fdf /x]sf] ;TojtL tfn / k|jf; tfndf km"ln/x]sf sdnsf km"nx¿n] tfg;]g e|d0f ug{ ko{6sx¿nfO{ af/Daf/ nf]EofO/xG5  . tftf]kfgL DofUbL lhNnfsf] kf]v/f–d':tfª ;8sdf kg]{ tftf]kfgL / l;Gw'kfNrf]s lhNnfsf] sf]bf/L /fhdfu{ rLgsf] ;Ldfglhs} /x]sf] tftf]kfgL ko{6sLo b[li6n] dxŒjk"0f{ :yfgsf] ¿kdf /x]sf 5g\  . tftf]kfgL s'08df g'xfpFbf afynufot 5fnf / gzfsf /f]u lgsf] x'g] wfld{s dfGotf 5  . oxL ljZjf;sf ;fy b]ze/sf bh{gf}F tftf]kfgL s'08df b}lgs xhf/f}F dflg; g'xfpg k'U5g\  . ltdfn sfe|]knf~rf]s lhNnfsf] ;fljssf] sfgk'/ uf=lj=;=af6 ;'? eO{ kf]v/L gf/fo0f :yfgnufot afx| ufpF ;d]6\g] dgf]/d ltdfn d'Votof tfdfª\x¿sf] afx'No 354÷g]kfn

kl/ro

/x]sf] o; If]qdf a|fXd0f, If]qL, g]jf/, du/, blnt, 7s'/L, ;fsL{, bg'jf/h:tf hftLx¿sf] ;d]t a;f]af; /x]sf] 5  . hftLo lx;fan] ;d]t ljljwtf /x]sf] o; If]q wfld{s lx;fan] ;d]t k|Voft 5  . P]ltxfl;s Pjd\ k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tfn] le/k"0f{ zfGt 7fpFsf] sfvdf u'? /]Dkf]5]{n] tk:of u/]sf] 7fpFnfO{ xfn u]n'ª cf]8f/, cGo P]ltxfl;s wfld{s :ynx¿, eujfgx¿n] tk:of u/]sf cf]8f/x¿ u'kmf, u'Daf, sslnª / gf/fo0f:yfg dlGb/, b'Dhfsf] dxfb]j:yfg nufot ljleGg d7dlGb/x¿ oxfFsf]k|Voft wfld{s Pjd\ P]ltxfl;s :ynx¿ x'g\ . lbkfon, z}n]Zj/L ;]tL gbLsf] lsgf/df /x]sf] lbkfon ahf/sf] glhs} ToxL gbLsf] csf]{ lsgf/tkm{ /x]sf] clnslt cUnf] 8fF8f /fhk'/df clwsf+z If]qLo lgb]{zgfnox¿ /x]sf 5g\  . /fhk'/ lbkfon k'/fgf] 8f]6L /fHosf] /fhwfgL ;x/sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] lyof] eGg] s'/f P]ltxfl;s tYox¿n] cf}FNofPsf] kfOG5  . ;'b'/klZrd k|b]zsf] aemfª, afh'/f, 8f]6L tyf c5fd lhNnfsf] ;fFwdf kg]{ dgf]/d ko{6sLo / k|l;4 wfld{s :yn vKt8;Dd lbkfon l;nu9Laf6 k}bn lx8]/ klg Pslbgdf k'Ug ;lsg] / vKt8 /fli6«o lgs'~hdf /x]sf b'n{e / ;'Gb/ km"n, h8La'6L, jGohGt'x¿, tfn / v08–v08 k/]sf /d0fLo kf6g -d}bfg_ x¿sf] cjnf]sg ug]{ cj;/ kfOg] x'gfn] klg lbkfon–l;nu9Lsf] dxŒj a9\g uPsf]5 .

z}n]Zj/L dlGb/, 8f]6L g]kfn kl/ro÷355

;'b/" klZrd k|bz ] 8f]6L lhNnfsf] l;nu9Ldf k|l;4 wfld{s :yn z}nZ] j/L dlGb/ 5  . z}nZ] j/Lsf] pTklQsf ;DaGwdf :yfgLo jfl;Gbfx¿df k|rlnt Pp6f nf]sf]lQmcg';f/ lzj kfj{tL Ps–csf{df xfF;v]n ul//xs ] f] ;dodf a|Dxf cflb b]jtfx¿ lzj kfj{tLsf] vf]hL ubf{ub}{ ToxL cfOk'u5 ] g\  . To;kl5 kfj{tLn] cb[Zo eO{ lznfsf] ¿k lnO5g\  . To;}n] oxfFsf :yfgLo jfl;Gbfx¿ Zf}nZ] j/LnfO{ lznfb]jL klg eGg] ub{5g\  . o;}af6 z}nZ] j/Lsf] cEo'bo ePsf] dflgG5  . z}nZ] j/L dlGb/sf] :yfkgf kfFr kf08jn] u/fPsf] xf] eGg] hgljZjf; ;d]t /xs ] f] 5  . z}nZ] j/LnfO{ cw{gf/LZj/sf ¿kdf ;d]t k"hfcfhf ul/G5  . z}nZ] j/Ldf sflQs k"l0f{dfsf lbg 7'nf]d]nf  nfUb5 . afx| jif{df s'Ded]nf cyf{t ^ aif{df cw{sD' e d]nf;d]t nfUg] ub{5  . z}nZ] j/Ldf k'hfcfhfsf nflu l5d]sL /fi6« ef/taf6 ;d]t bz{gfyL{x¿sf] 3'Or F f] nfUg] ub{5  . bfg;f“u' h'Dnf lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd vnËfb]lv k"jf]{Q/ efudf tLnf gbL / hjf gbLsf] ;Ëd:ynnfO{ bfg;fFu' elgG5  . o; :yfgdf uf]bfg, e"ldbfg, cGgbfg, :j0f{bfg, /Tgbfg, ceobfg cflb ljljw bfg lbOPsfn] of] 7fpFsf] gfd bfg;fFu' /x]sf] xf]  . tLh, dxflzj/fqL, gj/fqL, j}zfv k"l0f{df, uËfb;x/f, r08Lk"l0f{df, u'¿ k"l0f{dfdf oxfF 7'nf]d]nf nfUb5 . bfpGg] u9L bfpGg] b]jL gjnk/f;L lhNnfdf r'/] kxf8sf] sfvdf dx]Gb| /fhdfu{sf] a'6jn gf/fo0fu9 v08df bfpGg] 8fF8fdf bfpGg] b]jLsf] :yfg 5  . o; 7fpFdf k|frLg sfndf k/z'/fdsf] cf>d tyf ;fwgf:yn lyof] eGg] ls+jbGtL 5  . gjnk/f;L lhNnfsf] k|d'v b'O{ If]q gjnk'/ / k/f;Lsf] l7s lardf bfpGg]u9L kb{5  . gjnk'/ a:tL gjnl;+xn] :yfkgf u/]sf] dflgG5 eg] k/z'/fd zAbaf6 k/fz', k/;f] x'Fb} k/f;L ag]sf] / b'j}sf] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf gjnk/f;L ePsf] dflgG5  . b]j3f6 tgx'F lhNnfsf] b]j3f6 ufpFkflnsf cGtu{t kg]{ lxGb"x¿sf] kljq tLy{:yn b]j3f6df ;KTfu08sL gbLsf] ;ª\ud ePsf] x'Fbf of] 7fpFdf :gfg ubf{ ;Dk"0f{ kfkx¿af6 d'lQm kfOg], oxfF k|f0fTofu ubf{ s}jNo d'lQm kfOg] s'/f g]kfn dxfTDodf pNn]v 5  . xl/uª\uf -sfnL u08sL_ / x/uª\uf -lqz"nL_ gbL;d]tsf] ;ª\ud ePsf] ;Ktu08sLsf] gbLsf] t6df cjl:yt cyf{t\ xl/uª\uf / x/uª\uf gbLsf] t6df cjl:yt ePsfn] o;nfO{ xl/x/ If]q klg elgG5  . st}st} o;nfO{ cflbk|ofu;d]t eg]sf] kfOG5  . of] 7fpFdf df3] ;ª\qmflGtsf lbg 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . wfld{s b[li6n] dxŒjk"0f{ of] 7fpFsf] Jojl:yt ljsf;sf nflu 356÷g]kfn

kl/ro

tgx'F, gjnk/f;L / lrtjg lhNnfsf s]xL efu ldnfO{ b]j3f6 If]q ljsf; ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5  . b]jL3f6 g'jfsf]6 lhNnfsf] a6\6f/sf] 5]pdf /;'jf lhNnfsf] uf];fOs'08af6 cfpg] lqz'nL gbL / /;'jfsf] ;"o{s'08af6 cfpg] tfbL vf]nf -;"o{dtL gbL_sf] ;ª\ud:yndf b]jL3f6 tLy{:yn /x]sf] 5  . o;} 7fpFdf k|l;4 hfNkf b]jLsf] dlGb/ 5  . oxfF k|To]s jif{ r}q z'Snk"l0f{df / xl/af]lwgL PsfbzLsf lbg 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . blIf0fsfnL sf7df8f}F kmlk{ª If]qsf] blIf0fsfnLdf dËf]n d'vfs[lt ePsL sflnsf b]jLsf] d"lt{ 5  . of] 7fpF sf7df8f}Fsf] s]Gb|af6 @) ls=ld= blIf0fdf kb{5  . /d0fLo pBfg, jgkfvf ;lxtsf] of] dlGb/df dËnaf/ / zlgaf/sf lbg 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . blIf0fsfnL dlGb/ /fhwfgL sf7df8f}Faf6 blIf0f e]udf sl/a !& lsldsf] b'/Ldf /x]sf] 5  . of] sfnLsfb]jLsf] dlGb/ xf]  . of] dlGb/ k|tfk dNn4f/f lgdf{0f ul/Psf] xf]  . of] kmlk{ªsf] d'6'l:yt P]ltxfl;s dxŒjn] le/k"0f{ dlGb/ xf]  . rf/}lt/ xl/ofnL ;lhPsf] of] dlGb/ b'O{ gbLsf] bf]efgdf 5  . of] dlGb/df sfnLsf b]jLsf] d"l{t{;lxt cGo b]jL b]jtfsf] d"lt{ klg 5g\  . oxfF s]jn dlGb/dfq geO{ jgef]hsf nflu cToGt /d0fLo / dgf]/~hgfTds b[li6n] le/Psf] :yn klg xf]  . o; dlGb/sf] bz{g ubf{ cfkm\gf] dgf]sfª\Iff k'/f x'g] wfld{s ljZjf;sf] sf/0fn] ubf{ a;]{lg xhf/f}+ eQmhgsf] hd36 x'g] ub{5  . wg'iffwfd q]tfo'udf eujfg /fdrGb|n] ;Ltf;Fu :joDa/sf] qmddf /Ëe"lddf lzj wg'if k|of]u ubf{ 6'lqmPsf] wg'ifsf] 6'qmf v;]sf] 7fpFnfO{ wg'iff elgof]  . hgsk'/af6 !$ ls=ld= pQ/ df cjl: yt wfld{s dxŒjsf] tLy{:yn wg'iffwfddf df3 dlxgfsf] k|To]s cfOtaf/sf lbg g]kfn ef/tsf >4fn'x¿sf] 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . wgs'6f wgs'6f gu/kflnsf k|bz ] g+= ! sf]wgs'6f lhNnfdf kb{5 . dgdf]xs  k|fs[lts b[ZofjnL / dgf]/d xfjfkfgL ePsf] x'gfn] wgs'6f ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0fn] ;d]t cToGt dxŒjk"0f{ :yfg xf]  . ;'g;/L lhNnfsf] ;a}eGbf k'/fgf] / g]kfnsf] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ / bz{gLo ;x/sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] w/fgb]lv wgs'6f x'Fb} ;ª\v'jf;ef;Dd k'Ug] sf];L /fhdfu{n] wgs'6fsf] ofqfnfO{ ;xh agfPsf] 5  . w'lnv]n sf7df8f}Fb]lv #) ls=ld= k"j{df sfe|]knf~rf]s lhNnfdf kg]{ k|frLg ;x/ g]kfn kl/ro÷357

w'lnv]n g]jf/ hfltsf] k/Dk/fut k|frLg a:tLsf] ¿kdf k|Voft 5  . oxfFaf6 k"j{ s]l/of]n'ª / klZrddf lxdfnr'nLsf lxdz[ª\vnfsf] dgf]/d b[Zo b]Vg ;lsG5  . ;fy} oxfFaf6 uf}/Lzª\s/ lxdfn / cGo kxf8L z[ª\vnfx¿ ;'gsf];L / /f];L vf]nfsf] ;ª\udsf] ;'Gb/ b[Zo b]lvG5  . oxfF ltdfn gf/fo0fsf] dlGb/ 5, hxfF eujfg lji0f'sf] d"lt{ :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  . g]kfnu~h

afu]Zj/L dlGb/, g]kfnu~h dx]Gb| /fhdfu{df /x]sf] sf]xnk'/ eGg] :yfgaf6 ;fljssf] dWoklZrd If]qsf] 7'nf] ;x/ g]kfnu~h glhs} /x]sf] 5  . g]kfnu~h afFs] lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd xf]  . of] gu/ z}lIfs, cf}Bf]lus / Jofkfl/s s]Gb| klg xf]  . g]kfnu~h ;d'b| ;txaf6 sl/a ^)) lkm6sf]prfOdf cjl:yt 5 . oxfF pmi0f k|bzLo ] xfjfkfgL kfOG5  . ;fljssf s0ff{nL, e]/L / /fKtL c~rn lgjf;Lx¿ cfˆgf] s[lif, ag tyf 3/]n' pTkfbgx¿ laqmL ug{ /cfkm"nfO{ rflxg]nQf sk8f, g'g, t]n tyf cGo pkef]Uo j:t'x¿ vl/b ug{ cfjthfjt ug]{ x'gfn] g]kfnu~h o; If]qs} 7'nf] / dxŒjk"0f{ Jofkfl/s s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf lbgfg'lbg ljsf; x'Fb} uO/x]sf] 5  . wfld{s b[li6sf]0faf6 klg g]kfnu~h dxŒjk"0f{ :yfg xf]  . oxfFsf] >L afu]Zj/L dlGb/ k|l;4 5  . of] dlGb/df /fdgjdL / a8fb;}Fsf] gjdLdf 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . oxfF /x]sf afu]Zj/L kf]v/L / /fgL tnfp klg k|l;4 5g\  . g]kfnu~hdf xjfO{ oftfoft /;8s oftfoftsf];'ljwf 5 . oxfF rfdn, sf7, ;nfO{, sTyf, la:s'6 cflb lgdf{0f ug]{sf/vfgfx¿ ;~rflnt 5g\ . 358÷g]kfn

kl/ro

gf/fo0fu9 gf/fo0fu9 g]kfnsf] k"j{ d]rLb]lv klZrd dxfsfnL;Ddsf /fhwfgL sf7df8f}F / dgf]/d ko{6sLo :yn kf]v/f tyf x]6f}F8f;d]tsf ljleGg :yfgl;t ;8s oftfoftåf/f hf]l8Psf] g]kfnleqsf] cfjfudgsf] k|d'v s]Gb| xf]  . of] g]kfnsf] ;aeGbf ulx/f] gbL gf/fo0fLsf] lsgf/df cjl:yt 5  . k|l;4 wfld{s:yn b]j3f6 klg gf/fo0fu9 ahf/sf] glhs} gf/fo0fL gbLsf] lsgf/fdf /x]sf] 5  . k|l;4 tLy{:yn lqj]0fLsf] klg glhs /x]sf] of] ;x/af6 k|To]s lbg cg]sfF} ;jf/L ;fwgx¿ b]zsf ljleGg efudf k'Ub5g\  . ;'b"/klZrd k|b]zsf] dx]Gb|gu/b]lv sf7df8f}F;Dd cfpg] / k|b]z g+= ! sf]] sfFs8le§fb]lv sf7df8f}F / kf]v/f;Dd cfpg] ;jf/L ;fwgx¿ gf/fo0fu9 eP/ cf]xf]/ bf]xf]/ ug]{ ePsf]n] gf/fo0fu9sf] Jofkfl/s dxŒj cToGt} a9\b} uPsf] 5  . csf{lt/ ljZj;Dkbf ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf] lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h gf/fo0fu9l;t hf]l8Psf] 5  . gf/fo0fu9af6 ;f}/fxf, s;/f, r08Le~Hofª, 6fOu/6K; h:tf ko{6sLo If]q yf]/}dfq b"/Ldf /x]sf 5g\  . Goftkf]n b]jn /fhf e"ktLGb| dNnåf/f lj=;= !&%( df kfFrtn] Kofuf]8f z}nLdf lgld{t of] dlGb/df b]jL nIdLsf] d"lt{ :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  . of] dlGb/sf ljleGg tnfdf ljleGg b]jL b]jtfx¿sf d"lt{x¿ 5g\ eg] dlGb/sf] k|j]zåf/df of]4f, af3, al3gL, l;+xsf d"lt{x¿ /x]sf 5g\ . gS;fn eujtL lnR5ljsfndf knf~rf]s eujtLsf] d"lt{ agfpg]n] g} gS;fn eujtLsf] klg d"lt{ agfO{ :yfkgf u/]sf] hg>'lt 5  . /0faxfb'/ zfxsf 6S;f/L eLd jdf{ vjf;n] lj=;= !*#( df k"hf u/L dlGb/sf] hL0ff]{4f/ u/]sf] / lrtfOPsf] sfd k|]dlu/L v;fOn] u/]sf] s'/f lznfn]vdf pNn]v 5  . gu/sf]6 sf7df8f}F ;x/b]lv #@ ls=ld= sf] b'/Ldf eQmk'/ lhNnfdf kg]{ [email protected])) lkm6 [email protected]!&% dL=_ sf] prfOdf cjl:yt of] 7fpFaf6 ;"of]{bo / ;"of{:tsf] dgf]/d b[Zo b]lvG5  . oxfFaf6 sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] dgf]/d b[Zofjnf]sg, kj{tLo b[Zofjnf]sg x'g'sf] ;fy} ;u/dfyf, s~rghª\3f, cGgk"0f{ cflb lxdlzv/x¿sf] dgf]/d 56f b]lvg] x'Fbf oxfF ko{6sx¿sf] hd36 x'G5  . elgG5, gu/sf]6df Ps} lbgdf rf/cf]6f l;hgsf] cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5  . ;fy}, oxfFaf6 klZrd pQ/df sf7df8f}F / blIf0ftkm{ eQmk'/ ;x/sf] b[Zo b]lvG5  . oxfF ljleGg :t/sf xf]6n / l/;f]6{ 5g\  . g]kfn kl/ro÷359

kz'kltgfy

kz'kltgfy dlGb/, sf7df8f}F afudtL gbL lsgf/df /x]sf] kz'kltgfysf] dlGb/ lxGb"x¿sf] kljq dlGb/ xf]  . of] lzjhLsf] cltk|l;4 dlGb/ xf]  . of] dlGb/ ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLs[t ul/Psf] 5  . oxfF dxflzj/fqLsf] kj{ w'dwfdn] dgfOG5  . of] lxGb' jf:t'snfsf] pRrtd gd"gf xf]  . b'O{ tn] of] eJo dlGb/ tfdfsf] 5fgfnfO{ ;'gsf] d'nDjf ul/Psf] 5  . lzjsf] jfxg -gGbL_ sf] ;'gsf] d"lt{ dlGb/sf] klZrddf /flvPsf] 5  . kz'kltsf]k"j{k6L Ps ;fgf]8fF8f 5 . h;nfO{ d[u:ynL elgG5 . lzjhLn] d[usf] ¿k wf/0f u/L qmL8f u/]sf] dflgg] of] 8fF8f] lgSs} cfsif{s klg 5  . pQm 8f8fsf] tn afudtLsf] lsgf/df g} u'x]Zj/Lsf] dlGb/ 5  . kf]v/f

ljGbjfl;gL dlGb/, kf]v/f u08sL k|b]zsf] sf:sL lhNnfdf kg]{ kf]v/f ;x/nfO{ g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ ko{6g s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf / b]zsf] ko{6g /fhwfgLsf] ¿kdf lng] ul/G5  . km]jftfn 360÷g]kfn

kl/ro

/ a]ugf; tfnh:tf k|l;4 tfnx¿, df5fk'R5|]« lxdfnsf] b[Zo, ljGWojfl;gLsf] dlGb/, ;x/sf] laraf6 ;fFu'/f] / ulx/f] eP/ au]sf] ;]tL gbL, dx]Gb| u'kmf / 8]la8 kmN; -kftn] 5fFuf]_ cflbnfO{ kf]v/fsf dxŒjk"0f{ bz{gLo :ynsf] ¿kdf lng] ul/G5  . a9L kfgL kg]{ ePsf]n] kf]v/fnfO{ g]kfnsf] r]/fk'~hL klg elgG5  . kf]v/fnfO{ l;4fy{ /fhdfu{n] tfg;]g tyf a'6jnl;t / k[YjL /fhdfu{n] d'ulnª tyf sf7df8f}F;Fu hf]8]sf] 5  . d'lUngaf6 gf/fo0fu9 x'Fb} g]kfnsf klZrd Pjd\ k"jL{ t/fO{sf c¿ ;x/x¿;Fusf];8s ;Dks{ klg sfod ePsf]5 . sf:sL lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd /x]sf] kf]v/f g]kfnsf] k|l;4 ko{6sLo If]q ePsfn] g]kfn cfpg] ljb]zL ko{6sx¿n] klg 7'nf] k|fyldstf lbPsf] kfOG5  . kfyLe/f b]jLsf] dlGb/ ;d'b| ;txb]lv #&($ ld6/sf] prfOdf g]kfnsf] k"jL{ kxf8L lhNnf tfKn]h'ªdf kg]{ of] dlGb/ kfyLe/f kxf8sf] lzv/df /x]sf] 5  . kfyLe/fnfO{ b]jLsf] ;fIfft\ :j¿k dfg]/ ;'v ;d[l4sf] sfdgf ub}{ b]jLsf] bz{g, k"hf, cf/fwgf ug]{ rng 5  . dgdf kfk ePsf] dfG5], ue{jtL dlxnfn] b]jLsf] bz{g u/]df clgi6 x'G5 eGg] hgljZjf; 5  . tfKn]h'ª lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfdb]lv !) sf]z k"jf]{Q/ efudf le/Psf] kfyL h:t} r'lnPsf] kxf8df b]jLsf] dlGb/ /x]sf]n] of] dlGb/sf] gfd kfyLe/f /x]sf] xf]  . km"nrf]sL nlntk'/ lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfdb]lv !) ls=ld= blIf0fk"j{df / sf7df8f}Fsf] s]Gb|af6 !% ls=ld= b"/Ldf /x]sf] km"nrf]sL 8fF8fsf] prfO @&^% ld6/ /x]sf] 5  . oxfF ;]tf, /ftf /Ësf u'/fF;sf km"nx¿ 9sdSs eO{ km'Ng] x'Fbf ;+:s[tdf km"nf]Rr lu/L elgPsf]df kl5 cke|+z eO{ km"Nrf]sL x'g uPsf] xf] eGg] kfOG5  . q]tfo'udf cg'kd gfdsf] :yfgaf6 gfubxnfO{ 3]g]{dWo] Ps of] kxf8sf] 6'Kkfdf a;L ToxfF kfOg] Ps nfv km"nx¿n] eujfg :joDe"sf] k"hf cr{gf u/L km"n}km"nsf] 7'nf] /f; agfPsf]n] of] 7fpFsf] gfd km'nf]Rr lu/L x'Fb} km"Nrf]sL aGof]  . o;}sf] 5]pdf uf]bfj/L s'08 /x]sf], oxfF [email protected] jif{df uf]bfj/L d]nf nfUg] u/]sf] / rf/}lt/ uf]bfj/Lsf km"nx¿ km'Ng] u/]sf]n] km"Nrf]sLnfO{ uf]bfjf/Lsf] r'r'/f] klg elgG5  . oxfF sl/a ^) nfv d]l6«s6g l8kf]lh6 ePsf] g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] kmnfd vfgL ePsf]n] o;sf] cfly{s dxŒj klg /x]sf] 5  . afnfh', afO;wf/f sf7df8f}Fsf] klZrdf]Q/ efudf cjl:yt /d0fLo :yfg afnfh' 5  . of] pBfgleq eujfg gf/fo0fsf] a'9f gf/fo0f jf afn gf/fo0fsf] d"lt{ ePsfn] ;f]xL gfdn] g]kfn kl/ro÷361

o; 7fpFsf] gfd /flvPsf]df kl5 of] zAb cke|+z eO{ afnfh' aGof]  . o;} 7fpFdf k|tfk dNnn] @! wf/f / /0faxfb'/n] agfPsf] ;'gsf]] 7'nf] wf/f;lxt @@ wf/f ePsf]n] o;sf] gfd afO;wf/f eGg] /x\of]  . af}4gfy -vf:tL_

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a/fxIf]q dlGb/, ;'g;/L ;ª\uddf a/fx If]q gfdsf] dgf]/d tLy{:yn 5  . ef/tsf] s'?If]q, g]kfnsf xl/x/ If]q -b]j3f6_, d'lQmIf]q -d'lQmgfy d':tfª_, ?? If]q -u'NdL, kfNkf / :ofª\hfsf] ;ª\ud:yn_ h:t} a/fx If]qsf] klg ljlzi6 wfld{s dxŒj /xs ] f] 5  . a/fx If]qsf af/d] f a/fx k'/f0fsf] !!) cf}F / !$) cf}F cWofodf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5  . oxfF u0f]z a/fx, u'? a/fx, ;"o{ a/fx, sf]sf a/fx, OGb| a/fx, ufoqL, ;/:jtL, gf/fo0fsf d"lt{x¿ / dlGb/x¿sf ;fy} u0f]z dlGb/, nIdL dlGb/ / wd{zfnfx¿ /xs ] f 5g\  . aGbLk'/ tgx'F lhNnfdf kg]{ aGbLk'/ wfld{s tyf k|fs[lts b[li6n] /d0fLo :yn dflGfG5  . oxfF l5Ds]Zj/L dlGb/, v8\ub]jL dlGb/, u'kmf 5g\ eg] aGbLk'/sf] ldl>t u|fdL0f ;+:s[lt, pQ/tkm{sf] d:of{ª\bL pkTosf lxdfnL kj{tz[ª\vnf, ;;fgf kj{t r'r'/fx¿, u0f]z lxdfn, df5fk'R5«|] cflb lxdz[ª\vnfsf] dgf]/d b[Zofnf]sg oxfFaf6 ug{ ;lsG5  . aGbLk'/af6 kbofqf ;'? u/L b]j3f6 x'Fb} lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h k'lug]x'Fbf klg o;sf]ko{6sLo dxŒj a9]sf] 5  . a"9f;'Aaf ;'g;/L lhNnfsf] w/fg ahf/af6 k"j{lt/ wld/fn] df6f]dfly p7fO{ d"lt{h:t} ag]sf] :yfgnfO{ a"9f;'Aafsf] :yfg elgG5  . dlGb/sf k'hf/L du/ hfltsf 5g\   . a'9f;'Aaf /fO{ jf du/ hfltsf l;4 k'?if lyP hf] u'n]nLn] lzsf/ u/L lxF8\by]  . lzsf/ v]Ng] qmddf lxF8\b} hfFbf o; 7fpFdf cfO{ u'n]nLnfO{ e'OFdf uf8]/ d6\ofª\u|fnfO{ e'OFdf /fvL ;dflw:y eP eGg] ls+jbGtL 5  . ToxfFsf] afF;sf] emfª a'9f;'Aafn] uf8]sf] u'n]nLaf6 pd|]sf] / u'n]nLsf] 6'Kkf] gx'g] x'Fbf g]kfn kl/ro÷363

oxfFsf] afF;sf] klg 6'Kkf] gePsf] eGg] hgljZjf; 5  . s;}nfO{ k]6 b'v]df lzsf/L -a"9f;'Aaf_ nfu]sf] elgg] / d6\ofª\u|f 3f]6]/ v'jfPdf lgsf] x'G5 eGg] hgljZjf; 5  . j}zfv k"l0f{dfsf lbg 7'nf] d]nf nfUg] of] :yfgdf ;'Fu'/ / af]sfsf] aln lbOG5  . a"9fgLns07

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a8Ldflnsf dlGb/, afh'/f afh'/f lhNnfdf ;d'b|;txb]lv s/La !%,))) lkm6sf] prfOdf cjl:yt a8Ldflnsfsf] dlGb/df efb| z'Sn kIfsf] lbgdf 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . oxfF c5fd, 8f]6L,  aemfªnufot b]zsf  ljleGg efuaf6 bz{gfyL{x¿ cfpg] ub{5g\  . AofpnL, wd{zfnf

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b[li6sf]0fn] dxŒjk'0f{ dflgG5 . 9'Ë9} Ë' faf6 lgld{t of] wd{zfnf kf08jx¿sf] agaf;sf] ;dodf Ps/ftsf] af;sf] lgldTt agfPsf] eGg] ls+jbGtL /xs ] f] 5 . kf}/fl0fs P]ltxfl;s, wfld{s tyf ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0fn] dxŒjk'0f{ dflgg] of] wd{zfnf rf}sg' ] cfsf/df lgdf{0f ul/Psf] 5 . :jR5, ;kmf, PsfGt, xl/ofnL Pa+ /d0fLo :yfgdf /xs ] f] wd{zfnfsf] cf;kf;df, hª\unL hgfj/x¿, hl8a'6L, / dgf]/d  lxdfnL b[Zox¿ x]/L dgnfO cfgGbLt kfg{ ;lsG5 . e}/xjf e}/xjf ¿kGb]xL lhNnfsf] ;b/ds ' fd xf]  . of] gu/ ;'gf}nL eGg] :yfgdf ef/t;Fu hf]l8Psf] 5  . o; If]qsf] dxŒjk"0f{ Jofkfl/s gfsf;d]t ePsf]n] o;sf] dxŒj lgs} a9]sf] 5  . klZrdLIf]qsf] lgsf;L k}7f/L oxL :yfgaf6 ef/ttkm{ x'g] ub{5  . e}/xjfnfO{ l;4fy{ /fhdfu{n] kf]v/fl;t hf]8]sf] 5  . of] ;x/ eujfg uf}tda'4sf] hGd:yfg n'lDagLaf6 glhs /x]sf] 5  . e}/xjfdf uf}tda'4 ljdfg:yn /x]sf] 5  . a'4sf] dfjnL ufpF /fdu|fd klg e}/xjfaf6 glhs} kb{5  . e}/xjfnfO{ l;4fy{gu/ gu/kflnsf gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] 5  . eb|sfnL b]jLsf] dlGb/ sf7df8f}F ;x/sf] lar efudf l;+xb/af/sf] cufl8 k|Voft zlQmkL7 eb|sfnL b]jLsf] dlGb/ /xs ] f] 5  . O;fsf] ;ftf}F ztfAbLlt/ tflGqs ah|frfo{ zfZjt ah|n] j}i0fjL kL7df sflnsf b]jLsf] ;fwgf u/L b]jLsf] :yfkgf u/k] l5 o; :yfgnfO{ eb|sfnL :yfg eGg yflnof]  . g]jf/L efiffdf o;nfO{ n'dwL elgG5  . efiff j+zfjnLdf pNn]v ePcg';f/ /fhf u'0fsfdb]jn] sf7df8fF{} ;x/sf] lgdf{0f u/k] l5 o;sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu ;x/sf] k"jL{ lbzfdf eb|sfnL kL7sf] :yfkgf u/s ] f lyP  . eb|sfnL :yfgdf ljhof bzdL -a8fbz}_F sf] a]nf 7'nf] d]nf nfUg] ub{5  . d'lQmgfy d':tfª lhNnfsf] lxdfnL e"efudf d'lQmgfysf] dlGb/ 5  . d'lQmgfy @*) @$Ú cfIff+z / *#) #)Ú b]zfGt/df cjl:yt 5  . k|fo jif}{el/ lr;f] xfjfkfgL axg] d'lQmgfy If]qnfO{ hf8f] ofddf lxpFn] 9fSg] ub{5  . d'lQmgfy lxGb'x¿sf] kljq wfld{s :ynsf] ¿kdf /x]sf] 5  . a;]{lg c;ª\Vo eQmhgx¿ 6f9f 6f9faf6 d'lQmgfysf]bz{g ug{ cfpF5g\  . ef/tsf s'gfs'gfaf6 klg lxGb' wdf{jnDaLx¿ d'lQmgfysf] bz{g ug{ cfpg] x'gfn] d'lQmgfy g]kfnsf] dfq geP/ ;Dk"0f{ lxGb'x¿sf] tLy{:ynsf] ¿kdf :yflkt ePsf] kfOG5  . k|fs[lts /d0fLotfsf] sf/0fn] klg a;]{lg 7'nf] ;ª\Vofdf kbofqLx¿ o; If]qdf cfpF5g\  . o; If]qdf tk:of u/]sf] v08df d'lQm k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] 366÷g]kfn

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d'lQmgfysf] d"lt{, d':tfª

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b]ptL aHo}, ;'vt{] g]kfn kl/ro÷375

jL/G] b|gu/ gu/kflnsf ;'vt{] lhNnfdf kb{5  . h'g s0ff{nL k|bz ] sf] /fhwfgL xf]  . jL/G] b|gu/ If]qsf a'na'n] tfn, sfFqm]laxf/, b]ptLaHo}, lzj dlGb/ / 306f3/ oxfFsf d'Vo wfld{s tyf ko{6sLo :ynx¿ x'g \ . ;'Gb/ gu/L jL/G] b|gu/ uf]7LsfF8f 8fF8faf6 x]bf{ cfsif{s / dgdf]xs b[Zo b]lvg] ePsfn] o; If]qdf cfpg]ko{6sx¿ lbgfg'lbg a9\b} uPsf 5g\ . ljqmd afaf lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hleq gf/fo0fu9af6 em08} @! lsnf]ld6/ blIf0ftkm{ gbLsf]lsgf/f s;/fdf ljqmd afafsf]yfg 5 . ljqmd afaf yf¿ hfltsf x'g\  . ;f] :yfgdf r}t] bz}Fsf] cj;/df b]jeQm yf¿sf] ;Demgfdf 7'nf] hfqf nfUb5  . hfqfdf ndh'ª, tgx'F, sf:sL, uf]/vf, dsjfgk'/, sf7df8fF}F, gjnk/f;Lnufot b]zsf ljleGg :yfgaf6 >4fn'x¿ cfpg] ub{5g\  . oxfF ljz]if u/L gjljjflxt hf]8Lx¿ cfpg] u5{g\  . lj/f6gu/ oxfF ljleGg lsl;dsf pBf]uwGbfx¿ km:6fPsfn] o;nfO{ cf}Bf]lus ;x/;d]t elgG5  . of] g]kfnsf] Jofkfl/s Pjd\ cf}Bf]lus s]Gb|;d]t xf]  . 3gf cfjfbL / 7'nf] ;x/ ePsfn] o;nfO{ dxfgu/kflnsfsf] ¿kdf juL{s/0f ul/Psf] 5  . k|b]z g+= ! sf] df]/ª lhNnfdf kg]{ o; ;x/df lj/f6gu/ h'6ldnnufotsf g]kfnsf k"/fgf / dxŒjk"0f{ sf/vfgf tyf pBf]ux¿ /x]sf 5g\  . To;}n] lj/f6gu/nfO{ g]kfnsf] cf}Bf]lus /fhwfgL klg eGg] ul/G5  . jL/u~h dw'jgsf] kf/;gfy dlGb/sf] gfdaf6 …kf/;Ú gfd /xg uPsf] k;f{ lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd jL/u~h xf]  . g]kfnsf] d'Vo k|j]zåf/sf] ¿kdf kl/lrt jL/u~h gu/ g]kfnsf] cfly{s /fhwfgLsf] ¿kdf ;d]t :yflkt x'Fb} cfPsf] 5  . cf}Bf]lus tyf Jofkfl/s ;x/ jL/u~hsf] df}lns kl/ro /x]sf] 5  . jL/u~h g]kfnsf] k|hftflGqs cfGbf]ngsf] sfo{:yn klg xf]  . jL/u~hsf] k|l;4 dlGb/ uxjf dfO{yfg d'Vo ahf/;Fu} /x]sf] 5  . jL/u~h gu/sf] lgs6jtL{ l;d/f}gu9, u9LdfO{, ljGWofjfl;gL dlGb/, kf/;gfy d7 cflbn] jL/u~hsf] P]ltxfl;s tyf wfld{s dxŒj :yflkt u/]sf 5g\  . jL/u~h gu/sf] Pp6f cfsif{0f o; gu/sf] s]Gb|df /x]sf] 306f3/ xf]  . xfn o;n] dxfgu/kflnsfsf] ¿kdf cfkm"nfO{ :yflkt u/fPsf] 5  . jL/u~hnfO{ ;aeGbf klxn] lqe'jg /fhkyn] sf7df8f}F;Fu hf]8]sf] lyof]  . g]kfnaf6 lgof{t ul/g] j:t'x¿ / g]kfndf cfoft ul/g] j:t'x¿dWo] w]/} j:t'x¿sf] 9'jfgL jL/u~hsf] af6f]af6 x'g] ePsf]n] jL/u~hnfO{ ;'Svf aGb/ufx -Dry Port_ sf] 376÷g]kfn

kl/ro

¿kdf ljsf; ug]{ cjwf/0ffn] an kfpg yfn]sf] kfOG5  . ;u/dfyf k[YjLsf] ;+/rgfdf ;a}eGbf cUnf] :j¿k lnP/ /x]sf] ;u/dfyf ;Dk"0f{ dfgj hfltsf] cfsif{0f / cToGt} ;fx;L ofqfsf] s]Gb| ePsf] 5  . dxfnª\u'/ lxdfno z[ª\vnfdf cjl:yt o; lxdlzv/sf] prfO ;d'b|;txb]lv *,*$*=^* ld6/ /x]sf] 5  . k|b]z g+= ! sf] ;f]n'v'Da' lhNnfdf /x]sf] of] lxdlzv/ cf/f]x0fsf  nflu ;g\ !($( df v'nf ul/PkZrft\ ;j{k|yd d]@(, !(%# df g]kfnsf t]lGhË gf]u]{ tyf Go"lhNof08sf P8d08 lxnf/Ln] ;kmn cf/f]x0f u/]kl5 ;u/dfyf ljZj rrf{sf] ljifo aGof]  . ;g\ !(%^ df g]kfnsf Oltxf; lz/f]d0fL afa'/fd cfrfo{n] o; lzv/nfO{ g]kfnL gfd ;u/dfyf lbPsf x'g\  . a]nfotsf ;e]{o/ hh{ Pe/]i6n] g]kfnsf lxdlzv/x¿sf] ;j]{If0f u/]sf]n] ;g\ !(^% df pgs} gfddf ;u/dfyfnfO{ cª\u|]hL gfd dfp06 Pe/]:6 k|bfg ul/Psf] / cGt/f{li6«o hutdf o; lzv/nfO{ ;fdfGot oxL gfdaf6 lrGg] ul/Psf] kfOG5  . lrlgofF efiffdf emf]df]nf]Ë\df / ltAatL efiffdf ldl6u'6L rfk'nf]Ë\df elgg] o; lzv/sf] cf/f]x0f ug]{ k|yd dlxnf hfkfgsL >LdtL h'Gsf] tfj]O{ x'g\  . g]kfndf k|yd k6s kf;fª Nxfd' z]kf{n] ;u/dfyfsf] ;kmn cf/f]x0f u/L g]kfn / g]kfnL dlxnfsf] uf}/j a9fPsL lyOg\  . ljZjsf] ;jf]R{ r lzv/ ;u/dfyf jf:tjdf k|sl[ tsf] cg'kd pkxf/ xf] ;Dk"0f{ dfgj ;d'bfosf nflu uf}/j / cfsif{0fsf] k|tLssf] ¿kdf /xs ] f] o; lzv/n] g]kfnnfO{ aflx/L ;+;f/df ;u/dfyfsf] b]zsf] ¿kdf ;d]t lrgfpg of]ubfg lbPsf] 5  . ;u/dfyfsf] åf/ pkgfdn] ;'kl/lrt lxdfnL If]qsf] k|l;4 ahf/ gfDr] eP/ k'Ug'kg]{ ;u/dfyfs} xf/fxf/Ldf Nxf]T;], Nxf]T;];f/, g'K;]h:tf lxdlzv/x¿;d]t /xs ] f 5g\  . ljZjs} ;jf]R{ r :yfgdf /xs ] f] af}4 u'Daf Tofªaf]r] / ljZjs} ;jf]R{ r :yfgdf /xs ] f] ljdfg:yn :ofªaf]r; ] d]t ;u/dfyfsf] sfvdf cjl:yt 5g\  . ;xn]z l;/xf lhNnfsf] nxfg ahf/b]lv # ls=ld= blIf0f klZrddf kg]{ Ps km"naf/Ldf gofF jif{sf] klxnf] lbgdfq} xf/dsf] ¿vdf dfnf cfsf/df km"n km'N5  . km"naf/Lsf] lardf dflngLsf] dlGb/ 5  . h'g ko{6ssf nflu cfsif{s dflgPsf] 5  . of] km"nnfO{ /fhf ;xn]z / bf}gf dflngLsf] rL/ k|]dsf] k|tLs dflgG5  . :ju{åf/L Ko'7fg lhNnfsf];b/d'sfd vnËfaf6 emG8}@^ ls=ld=klZrdtkm{ ^(^) lkm6 prfO ePsf] n]sdf cjl:yt k|l;4 wfld{s :yn g} :ju{4f/L xf]  . k/fk"js { fndf Clifd'lgx¿n] hktk u/L :ju{ k'us ] f] eGg] hg>'ltcg';f/ g} o; :yfgsf] g]kfn kl/ro÷377

:ju{åf/L dlGb/, Ko'7fg gfd :ju{åf/L /xg uPsf] xf] eGg] ljåfgx¿sf] ljZjf; /xs ] f] kfOG5  . wfld{s tyf ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0fn] dxŒjk"0f{ o; :ju{åf/Ldf l;ª\udd{/dfly lzjln+u /fvL lgdf{0f ul/Psf] kSsL dlGb/ /xs ] f] 5 eg] o;sf] j/k/ ;of}s F f] ;ª\Vofdf ufOkfNg] ufO{uf]7, /d0fLo u'kmf, o1zfnf tyf kf]v/Lx¿ /xs ] f 5g\  . x/s ] jif{sf]j}zfv  k"l0f{df /sflQs k"l0f{dfsf lbg oxfF ljzfn wfld{s d]nf  nfUb5 . g]kfnsf ljleGg :yfg tyf ef/taf6 ;d]t xhf/fs F} f] ;ª\Vofdf tLy{ofqLx¿ d]nfdf ;xefuL x'g oxfF cfp5g\  . :ju{åf/Ldf ToxfFsf dxfk|en ' ] sl/a [email protected]) jif{cl3 ;'? u/s ] f] cv08 xf]d clxn] klg hf/L /xs ] f] 5  . :ju{åf/Ldf ;+:st[ kf7zfnf / j]b ljBf>d ;~rfng ePsf] klg kfOG5 / j]b tyf wd{sd{sf] cWoog ug{sf]lglDt 6f9f 6f9faf6 cfpg]ljBfyL{x¿nfO{ vfg kLg /a;fOsf] lgMz'Ns Joj:yf;d]t /xs ] f] kfOG5  . bfª lhNnfdf To; cf>dsf] u'7Lsf] gfddf w]/} hldg /xs ] f] 5  . leªu|L eGg] ahf/sf] glhs}af6 s]xL 306fsf] psfnf] k}bn lxF8/]  :ju{åf/L cf>ddf k'Ug ;lsG5 eg] leª\uL| ahf/bl] v of] cf>d;Dd sRrL ;8s klg lgdf{0f ul/Psf]5 . l;“hf pkTosf h'Dnf lhNnfdf kg]{ l;Fhf pkTosf dWosfndf gfu/fhn] :yfkgf u/s ] f] v; dNn /fHosf] /fhwfgLsf] ¿kdf /xs ] f] lyof]  . To;}n] g]kfnsf] /fi6«efiff g]kfnLsf] pTklt :ynsf] ¿kdf ;d]t kl/lrt /xs ] f] l;Fhf pkTosfnfO{ k|frLg ;+:sl[ t / ;Dkbfsf] s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf ;d]t lng'kg]{ b]lvG5  . s0ff{nL k|bz ] sf] v; dNn /fHon] cfˆgf] ;Ldf sf7df8f}s F f] ;LdfjtL{ If]q;Dd g} lj:tf/ u/s ] f] s'/f P]ltxfl;s 36gfqmdx¿n] k'li6 ug]{ x'bF f l;Fhf pkTosfdf s]Gb| /xs ] f] v; dNn /fHo cToGt zlQmzfnL lyof] eGg] s'/f :ki6 x'G5  . o; pkTosfsf] glhs} d'u' lhNnfdf 378÷g]kfn

kl/ro

l;Fhf pkTosf, h'Dnf g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7'nf] tfn /f/f /xs ] f] of] pkTosfn] g]kfnsf] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{ ko{6g s]Gb|sf] ¿kdf ljsl;t x'g] k|z:t ;Defjgfx¿ af]ss ] f] b]lvG5  . >L:yfg Hjfnf If]q s0ff{nL k|bz ] b}nv ] lhNnfl:yt 5fd3f6 vf]n  f / gfle:yfg vf]nfsf] lsgf/df P]ltxfl;s >L:yfg dlGb/ /xs ] f] 5 . of] P]ltxfl;s, wfld{s tyf ko{6sLo b[li6sf]0fn] dxŒjk"0f{ dflgG5 . lhNnf ;b/ds ' fd b}nv ] / b'Nn' If]qsf] lardf /xs ] f] of] If]q >L:j:yfgL j|t syf cg';f/ ;Tob]jLsf] d[t z/L/nfO{ dxfb]jn] af]sL kl/qmdf ug]{ qmddf ;Tob]j Lsf] zL/ ktg eO{ Hjfnfsf] pTklt ePsf] kf}/f l0fs

>L:yfg dlGb/, b}n]v g]kfn kl/ro÷379

dfGotf /xs ] f] 5 . To;} ;dob]l v oxfF lg/Gt/ Hjfnf aln/xs ] f] 5 . >L:yfg tyf gfle:yfg Hjfnfsf] bz{g ug{ aif]g{ L 7'nf] ;ª\Vofdf ko{6sx¿ cfpg] ub{5g\ . kfgL dfly cfuf] afNg ;lsg] If]q sf] ¿kdf kl/lrt o; :yfgdf xfn g]k fn ;/sf/n] lrlgof laz]i f1sf] ;xof]udf k]6f« l] nod kbfy{sf] cGa]i f0f ul//x s ] f] 5 . ;lxb :df/s jf g]kfn :df/s

;lxb u]6, sf7df8f}F g]kfndf k|hftGq :yfkgfsf nflu ljlzi6 of]ubfg ug]{JolQmx¿ >L % lqe'jg, ;lxb z'qm/fh zf:qL, wd{eQm, uª\ufnfn, bz/y rGbsf] :d[ltdf / cGo 1ft c1ft ;lxbx¿sf] ;Ddfg / ;Demgfdf l;+xb/af/ / w/x/fsf] lardf snfTdsåf/sf] cfsf/df lgdf{0f ul/Psf] of] :df/ssf] jf:tljs gfd g]kfn :df/s xf]  . hldgsf] ;txb]lv $) lkm6 cUnf] g]kfn :df/s -;lxb :df/såf/_ sf] l8hfOg O{=zª\s/gfy l/dfnaf6 ul/Psf] xf] eg] lgdf{0f ;'k/Lj]If0f O{=uf}/Lgfy l/dfnaf6 ePsf] xf]  . of] :df/sdf /x]sf d"lt{ tyf lrqx¿sf] lgdf{0f d"lt{sf/ åo afa'sfhL t'nfw/ / afns[i0f t'nfw/åf/f ePsf] xf]  . l;4sfnL dlGb/ ;ª\v'jf;efsf] r}gk'/ ahf/af6 Pssf]z k/ /x]sf] of] 7fpFdf dxfb]jsL cwf{lËgL ;tLb]jLsf] bflxg] cfFvf ktg ePsf]n] of] 7fpFnfO{ dxŒjk"0f{ zlQmkL7 dfg]/ dlGb/ lgdf{0f u/L b]jLsf] k|ltdf :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  . o;sf] glhs} eujfg\ dxfb]jsf]] dlGb/ klg lgdf{0f ul/Psf] 5  . ;"o{ljgfos eQmk'/ lhNnfl:yt ;"o{ljgfossf] dlGb/df u0f]zsf] d"lt{ :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  . oxL dlGb/sf] cfwf/df of] 7fpFsf] gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] xf]  . ;"o{ ljgfosaf6 eQmk'/ ;x/ / rf/}lt/ ;'Gb/ lxdfnx¿sf] b[Zofjnf]sg ug{ ;lsg] / oxfF 380÷g]kfn

kl/ro

;'Gb/ jgs'~h;d]t ePsf]n] jgef]hsf nflu g]kfnLx¿ / b[Zofjnf]sg ug{ ljb]zLx¿;d]t hfg] x'Fbf of] 7fpFsf] dxŒj a9\g uPsf]5 . ;/fª\sf]6 ko{6sLo b[li6n] sf7df8f}s F f nflu gu/sf]6 dxŒjk"0f{ ePh:t} kf]v/fsf nflu ;/fª\sf]6sf] 7'nf] dxŒj 5  . sf:sL lhNnfdf kg]{ ;/fª\sf]6 kf]v/fsf] klZrdf]Q/ efudf kb{5  . of] 7fpFaf6 cGgk"0f{, df5fk'R5«,] wf}nflul/, kf]v/f pkTosf / kf]v/fsf] km]jftfn nufotsf ljleGg tfnx¿sf] dgf]/d b[Zofjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5  . :joDe' dxfr}To

:joDe' dxfr}To, sf7df8f}F k|l;4 af}4 tLy{:yn :joDe" sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] klZrdL efudf kg]{ kBlu/L -ah|s'6÷uf]z[ª\u÷uf]k'R5lul/_ kj{tdf cjl:yt 5  . :joDe" cyf{t cfkm}F pTklQ ePsf] x'gfn] :joDe" elgPsf] xf]  . :joDe"sf] pTklQ pkTosfsf] sfnLbxdf >L ljkZjL tyfutn] /f]Kg' ePsf] sdnsf] aLhaf6 ! xhf/ kQf ePsf] sdnsf] km"naf6 k~r/ZdLsf] ¿kdf ePsf] xf]  . o; kljq /ZdLsf] b'¿kof]u gxf];\ eGgsf nflu uf}8 b]zaf6 cfPsf /fhf k|r08b]jn] ;f] /lZdnfO{ 5f]k]/ ljlwjt :joDe" dxfr}Tosf] k|lti7f ug'{eof]  . r}To lgdf{0f ul/;s]kl5 o;sf] glhs} zflGtk'/ lgdf{0f u/L Wofgdf tNnLg x'g yfn]  . kl5 logL zflGts/frfo{ gfdn] k|l;4 eP  . :joDe" xfn;Dd klg g]kfn leqsf] af}4 Pjd\ lxGb' ;a} wdf{jnDaLsf nflu kljq b]j:yn /xFb} cfPsf] 5  . j}zfv z'Sn k"l0f{dfsf lbg oxfF 7'nf] dxf]T;j cfof]hgf ul/G5  . :joDe"sf] cfgGbs'6L dxfljxf/df eujfg a'4sf] kljq cl:ywft' -xf8_ ;'/Iff;fy /flvPsf] 5  . klxn]sf] cl:y wft' rf]/L ePkl5 >Ln+sfaf6 lj=;+= @)%! df g]kfn kl/ro÷381

k|fKt cl:y wft' lj=;+= @)%% j}zfv z'Sn k"l0f{dfsf lbg klxnf]k6s gu/ kl/qmdf u/fOPsf] lyof]  . :joDe'af6 sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] /d0fLo b[Zosf] cjnf]sg ug{ ;lsG5 . lxN;f lxN;f x'Dnf lhNnfsf] ;b/ds ' fd l;ldsf]6 hf]8g\ ] g]kfn / rLglarsf] pQ/klZrddf kg]{ gfsf xf]  . of/L eGHofª x'bF } lxN;f k'luG5  . lxN;f x'bF } rLgsf] dfg;/fj] / cfjthfjt ug]{ gfsf xf]  . oxfF ef]6] hfltsf] kftfnf] a:tL /xs ] f] 5  . pQm :yfgdf kfOg] k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{, :yfgLo ;Dkbf If]qnufotsf] ;+/If0f u/L ko{6sLo :ynsf ¿kdf ljsf; ug{ ;lsg] k|r/'  ;Defjgf /xs ] f] 5  . xn];Ldxfb]j dlGb/ jf u'kmf

xn];L dxfb]j, vf]6fª vf]6fª lhNnfsf] ;b/d'sfd lbQm]nb]lv klZrd efudf s}nfz kj{t elgg] y'Dsf] @)) lkm6sf] prfO;Dd k|fs[lts ¿kdf lgld{t lzjlnË cfsf/sf] ;+/rgfnfO{ xn];L dxfb]j elgG5  . aflx/L rf/cf]6f 9f]sf /x]sf] of] u'kmfleq lgik§ cGwsf/ 5  . xn];L u'kmfdf k|fs[lts cfs[ltx¿ / wfld{s cf:yfsf] dgf]/d ;dGJfo ePsf] 5  . oxfF /fdgjdLsf cj;/df !^ lbg;Dd d]nf nfUb5  . ;f] cj;/df oxfF ;a}eGbf a9L dflg;x¿sf] hd36 x'G5  . dxflzj/flqsf lbg ef]6] hfltsf dflg;x¿ oxfF cfP/ ;'lDgdf kf/f]xfª\sfsf] ¿kdf lzj kfj{tLsf] k"hf ub{5g\ eg]afnfrt'b{zLsf lbg oxfF 6f9f6f9faf6 dflg;x¿ cfP/ztaLh 5b{5g\ . 382÷g]kfn

kl/ro

lqj]0fLwfd, jfNdLls cf>d / uh]Gb|df]Ifwfd lrtjg lhNnfsf]blIf0fL k"jL{ efudf tTsflng ubL{ uflj;cGtu{t :j0f{eb|f, td;f / gf/fo0fL gbLsf] lqj]0fLdf gf/fo0fL gbLkf/L jf k"j{t6df dxfd'gL tyf ;+:s[t ;flxTosf cflbslj /fdfo0fsf /rlotf dxli{fsf]cf>d 5 . oxL g} jfNdLlsn] /fdfo0f u|Gysf] /rgf u/]sf lyP  . oxfF k'/ftflŒjs dxŒjsf k|frLg d"lt{, dxlif{ jfNdLlsåf/f :yflkt xl/x/ dlGb/, o1zfnf, njs'z kf7zfnf, ;Ltfs'6L, ;Ltfs'k / cf>dx¿ 5g\  . oxfF df3] cf}F;Lsf] lbg 7'nf] d]nf nfUb5  . kljq tLg gbLx¿sf] ;ª\ud lqj]0fLdf :gfg u/]df kfkdf]rg x'g] / oxfF b]xTofu u/]df df]If k|fKt x'g] wfld{s ljZjf; /x]sf]n] of] :yfg sNkjf;Lx¿sf] cf>d:yn ag]sf] 5  . lqk'/f;'Gb/L b]jL

lqk'/f;'Gb/L, a}t8L a}t8L lhNnfsf] of] k|d'v tLy{:yndf eujtL b]jLsf] d"lt{ :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  . kf}/fl0fssfndf eujtLn] lqk'/f;'/ gfdsf] b}Tosf] jw u/L b]jtf tyf dfgj hfltsf] b'Mv lgjf/0f u/]sf]n] logsf] gfd lqk'/f;'Gb/L b]jL /x]sf] dflgG5  . oL b]jLnfO{ :yfgLo jfl;Gbf /f0ffzogL eujtL klg eGb5g\ . kljq wfld{s :yn a'9LgGbf afh'/f lhNnfdf cjl:yt wfld{s Pjd\ ko{6sLo P]ltxfl;s kfjg If]q a'9LgGbf dlGb/z}kfn lxdfnsf]blIf0fL lxdz[ª\vnf, pQ/df km'n}u'Daf /;}g kf6g, kfb'sf lqj]0fL wfd /sf]N6L ljdfg:ynaf6 pQ/lt/k5{ . k|fs[lts ;'Gb/tfn] e/k"/b}jL If]qdf ;fgf7'nf u/L ;ftcf]6f tfn 5g\ . ;a}tfn r6\6fgd} g]kfn kl/ro÷383

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;Gbe{ ;fdu|L cdfTo, 8f= ;fkmNo, g]kfndf k'/ftŒj  . cof{n, s[i0f/fh, g]kfnL ;+:s[lt ;ª\lIfKt emns  . vqL, 8f= k|]d, g]kfnL ;+:s[lt / ;dtf  . vqL, 8f= k|]d, cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] ;fdflhs Oltxf;  . bfxfn, k]zn / vltj8f, ;f]dk|;fb, g]kfnLsf] snf / jf:T'fsnf  . lg/f}nf, vu]Gb|, g]kfn kl/ro  . g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf ljefu, g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;ª\lIfKt kl/ro  . g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf ljefu, d]rLb]lv dxfsfnL -efu !,@,# / $_  . g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf ljefu, g]kfnsf ;Dkbfx¿  . Gof}kfg], k|f=8f= 6ª\sk|;fbÙ e08f/L, k|f=8f= kf/;dl0fÙ Gof}kfg], bLksÙ l3ld/], t'N;L/fd, ;fdfGo efiff lj1fg . kfF8], /fds'df/, g]kfn kl/ro  . kfF8], /fds'df/, g]kfnsf] dfgj e"uf]n  . kfF8], /fds'df/, g]kfnsf] ef}lts e"uf]n  . kf]v/]n, a'l4k|;fb, g]kfnsf] ef}lts, cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts e"uf]n  . ah|frfo{, wgah|, k"j{dWosfnsf clen]v  . ld>, dgf]hafa', ljZj snfsf]Oltxf; . nfld5fg], 8f= ofbj k|sfz, g]kfnL efiff / ;flxTo  . lji6, 8f]/axfb'/, ;a} hftsf] km"naf/L  . ;'j]bL, vu]Gb|k|;fb, d'b|f, a}ª\lsª, /fhZj / cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/ tyf g]kfnsf] cy{zf:q  . If]qL, 8f=u0f]zÙ /fodfemL, /fdrGb|, g]kfnsf] Oltxf;  . If]qL, 8f= u0f]zÙ /fodfemL, /fdrGb|, g]kfnL snf, jf:t'snf / k|ltdf nIf0f . ah|frfo{, k|sfzÙ af}4 bk{0f, rf}yf] ;+:s/0f . /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u, l;+xb/af/, rf}wf}“ of]hgf, -cfly{s jif{ @)&#÷&$–@)&%÷&^_ . /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u, l;+xb/af/, rf}wf}“ of]hgf [email protected])&#÷&$– @)&%÷&^_, ;+If]kdf  . kGw|f}“ of]hgf [email protected])&^÷&&–@)*)÷$!_ g]kfn kl/ro÷393

• vltj8f, ;f]dk|;fb, g]kfnsf] k'/ftTj, snf, jf:t'snf / ko{6gsf] kl/ro  . • ah|frfo{, ofbL/Tg, g]kfnsf] lzNk ;Dkbf  . • zfSo, x]d/fh, >L:joDe" dxfr}To  . • >]i7, ;'/]z ;'/;, :joDe" dxfr}To  . • n'lDagL ljsf; sf]if, n'lDagL g]kfn, ljZj ;Dkbf :yn . • Chaudhary, Mahesh, 2012; Hidden Treasures of the

Lowland Nepal . • Foreign Policy of Nepal :Challenges and Opportunities, Institute of Foreign Affairs. • National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal. • Nepal Tourism Board

;+ljwfg÷P]g÷lgod÷k|ltj]bg • g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg • e"pkof]u P]g, @)&^ • :yfgLo ;/sf/ ;~rfng P]g, @)&$ • e"ld;DaGwL P]g, @)@! • sfg'g, Gofo tyf ;+;bLo dfdnf dGqfno, ‘e"sDkaf6 k|efljt ;+/rgfsf] k'glg{df{0f;DaGwL P]g, @)[email protected]’  . • cy{ dGqfno, ljleGg cfly{s jif{sf ‘cfly{s ;j]{If0fx¿’  . • pBf]u dGqfno, ‘ljb]zL nufgL gLlt, @)&!’ . • sfg'g, Gofo tyf ;+;bLo dfdnf dGqfno÷sfg'g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt, ’g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfg’nufot ljleGg ;dodf hf/L ul/Psf ;+ljwfgx¿ . • sfg'g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt, lghfdtL ;]jf  P]g,  @)$( /lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL, @)%) . • e"ld;DaGwL lgodfjnL, @)@! • k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf k|ltj]bgx¿ 394÷g]kfn

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• ‘/fli6«o k|ltj]bg @))!’, s]Gb|Lo tYofª\s ljefu . • /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u, ‘ljleGg cfjlws of]hgfx¿’  . • /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u, ‘ljkb\kl5sf]cfjZostf cf“sng (Post Disaster Needs Assessement (PDNA), @)[email protected]’  . • ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, lhNnf, gu/kflnsf tyf ufp“ ljsf; ;ldltx¿sf];ª\lIfKt ljjj/0f k'l:tsf, sflQs @)[email protected] • !%cf}F cfjlws of]hgf @)&%­÷&^–@)*)÷*! • cfly{s ;j]I{ f0f @)&^÷&& j]a;fO6 • u[x dGqfnosf] j]a;fO6df /flvPsf e"sDk;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx¿  . • k//fi6« dGqfnosf] j]a;fO6df /flvPsf bf}To ;DaGw;Fu ;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx¿ . • /fli6«o e"sDkdfkg s]Gb|sf] j]a;fO6df /flvPsf e"sDk;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx¿ . • ljB"t\ ljsf; ljefusf] j]e:ffO6df /flvPsf ;~rfndf /x]sf hnljB"t\ cfof]hgfx¿;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx¿ . • ;8s ljefusf] j]a;fO6df /flvPsf ;8s ;~hfn;DaGwL ;fdu|Lx¿ . • /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] j]a;fO6df /flvPsf ;"rgf tyf ;fdu|Lx¿  . • /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefusf] j]a;fO6df /flvPsf g]kfnsf ;+/lIft If]qx¿;Fu ;DalGwt ;fdu|L  . • ko{6g af]8s { f] j]a;fO6 http://tourismdepartment.gov.np • /fli6«o v]ns'b kl/ifbsf] j]a;fO6 http://n sc.gov.np • dbg k'/:sf/ u'7Lsf] j]a;fO6 http://m  adanpuraskar.org.np • ;femf k|sfzgsf] j]a;fO6 http://s ajha.org.np • g]kfn k|1f–k|lti7fgsf] j]a;fO6 http://nepalacademy.org.np • ;ª\3Lo dfldnf tyf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnosf]j] a;fO6 •

https://mofaga.gov.np gfkL ljefusf] j]a;fO6 http://dos.gov.np

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